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Sample records for air induction system

  1. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section by a fire-resistant diaphragm or if there are means to prevent the emergence of backfire flames... the power loss due to the rise in air temperature. (4) Each automatic alternate air door must have an override means accessible to the flight crew. (5) Each automatic alternate air door must have a means...

  19. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  4. Experimental Research on Induction Systems of an Air-breathing Valveless Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-wu; Chen, Xinggu; Zheng, Long-xi; Peng, Changxin; Yan, Chuan-jun

    2012-06-01

    An air-breathing valveless PDE model was designed and manufactured, which was made up of subsonic inlet, mixing chamber, ignition chamber, detonation chamber. The total pressure recovery coefficient, flux coefficient and intake resistance with six different induction systems were measured by a semi free subsonic flow field. The proof-of-principle experiments of PDE model with different induction systems were all successfully carried out, by using liquid gasoline-air mixture with low-energy system (total stored energy less than 50 mJ). The measured detonation wave pressure ratio was very close to that of C-J detonation. The air-breathing PDE model was easy to initiate and worked in good condition. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) and operation frequency effect on pressure traces were also investigated by experiments. The results indicated the oscillation of pressure peak at P6 enhanced with the operation frequency increased. DDT accomplished before P6 and the DDT distance was about 0.9 m (from the ignitor).

  5. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (c) Each duct connected to components... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (c) Each duct connected to components... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (c) Each duct connected to components... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (c) Each duct connected to components... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (c) Each duct connected to components... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  10. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates. PMID:19044163

  11. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-extinguishing system is required must be at least— (1) Fireproof, if it passes through any firewall; or (2) Fire resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-extinguishing system is required must be at least— (1) Fireproof, if it passes through any firewall; or (2) Fire resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-extinguishing system is required must be at least— (1) Fireproof, if it passes through any firewall; or (2) Fire resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-extinguishing system is required must be at least— (1) Fireproof, if it passes through any firewall; or (2) Fire resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-extinguishing system is required must be at least— (1) Fireproof, if it passes through any firewall; or (2) Fire resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units must be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for...

  16. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  17. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... preheat supplied to the alternate air intake is not less than that provided by the engine cooling air...— (i) 100 degrees F.; or (ii) If a fluid deicing system is used, at least 40 degrees F. (b)...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... preheat supplied to the alternate air intake is not less than that provided by the engine cooling air...— (i) 100 degrees F.; or (ii) If a fluid deicing system is used, at least 40 degrees F. (b)...

  3. An Investigation of the Icing and Heated-air De-icing Characteristics of the R-2600-13 Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Gilbert E.

    1946-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 percent less than the initial value for cold-air conditions.

  4. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  5. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  6. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  7. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  8. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  9. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of

  10. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    PubMed

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data. PMID:22667637

  11. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    PubMed

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  12. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... position. (b) Each reciprocating engine must have an alternate air source that prevents the entry of rain...) The airplane must be designed to prevent water or slush on the runway, taxiway, or other...

  14. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  15. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  5. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  6. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  7. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  8. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  12. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  13. NADP Regulates the Yeast GAL Induction System

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar,P.; Yao, Y.; Sternglanz, R.; Johnston, S.; Joshua-Tor, L.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the galactose-metabolizing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on three core proteins: Gal4p, the transcriptional activator that binds to upstream activating DNA sequences (UASGAL); Gal80p, a repressor that binds to the carboxyl terminus of Gal4p and inhibits transcription; and Gal3p, a cytoplasmic transducer that, upon binding galactose and adenosine 5'-triphosphate, relieves Gal80p repression. The current model of induction relies on Gal3p sequestering Gal80p in the cytoplasm. However, the rapid induction of this system implies that there is a missing factor. Our structure of Gal80p in complex with a peptide from the carboxyl-terminal activation domain of Gal4p reveals the existence of a dinucleotide that mediates the interaction between the two. Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event.

  14. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  15. Implant positioning system using mutual inductance.

    PubMed

    Zou, You; O'Driscoll, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Surgical placement of implantable medical devices (IMDs) has limited precision and post-implantation the device can move over time. Accurate knowledge of the position of IMDs allows better interpretation of data gathered by the devices and may allow wireless power to be focused on the IMD thereby increasing power transfer efficiency. Existing positioning methods require device sizes and/or power consumptions which exceed the limits of in-vivo mm-sized IMDs applications. This paper describes a novel implant positioning system which replaces the external transmitting (TX) coil of a wireless power transfer link by an array of smaller coils, measures the mutual inductance between each coil in the TX array and the implanted receiving (RX) coil, and uses the spatial variation in those mutual inductances to estimate the location of the implanted device. This method does not increase the hardware or power consumption in the IMD. Mathematical analysis and electromagnetic simulations are presented which explain the theory underlying this scheme and show its feasibility. A particle swarm based algorithm is used to estimate the position of the RX coil from the measured mutual inductance values. MATLAB simulations show the positioning estimation accuracy on the order of 1 mm.

  16. Intelligent systems for induction hardening processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J.B.; Adkins, D.R.; Robino, C.V.

    1994-12-31

    Induction hardening is widely used to provide enhanced strength, wear resistance, and toughness in components made from medium and high carbon steels. Current limitations of the process include the lack of closed-loop process control, previously unidentified process and material variations which cause continual adjustment of the process parameters, coil and process development by trial and error, and an instability to monitor coil condition. Improvement of the induction hardening process is limited by an inadequate understanding of process fundamentals and material/process interactions. A multidisciplinary team from Sandia National Laboratories and Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems is investigating the induction hardening process under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The application of intelligent control algorithms has led to the development of a closed-loop process controller for the combination of one material, one geometry, single frequency, single shot, process that controls to {plus_minus} 0.1mm. This controller will be demonstrated on the production floor this year. Our approach and the opportunities for expanding the usefulness of this technology will be described.

  17. Computation of the Mutual Inductance between Air-Cored Coils of Wireless Power Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    Wireless power transfer system is a modern technology which allows the transfer of electric power between the air-cored coils of its transformer via high frequency magnetic fields. However, due to its coil separation distance and misalignment, maximum power transfer is not guaranteed. Based on a more efficient and general model available in the literature, rederived mathematical models for evaluating the mutual inductance between circular coils with and without lateral and angular misalignment are presented. Rather than presenting results numerically, the computed results are graphically implemented using MATLAB codes. The results are compared with the published ones and clarification regarding the errors made are presented. In conclusion, this study shows that power transfer efficiency of the system can be improved if a higher frequency alternating current is supplied to the primary coil, the reactive parts of the coils are compensated with capacitors and ferrite cores are added to the coils.

  18. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  2. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  3. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA). PMID:22505496

  4. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  7. AIRE is not essential for the induction of human tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Katherine L; Abinun, Mario; Arkwright, Peter D; Cheetham, Timothy D; Pearce, Simon H; Hilkens, Catharien M U; Lilic, Desa

    2016-06-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene results in organ-specific autoimmunity and disease Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy type 1 (APS1)/Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED). The AIRE protein is crucial in the induction of central tolerance, promoting ectopic expression of tissue-specific antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells and enabling removal of self-reactive T-cells. AIRE expression has recently been detected in myeloid dendritic cells (DC), suggesting AIRE may have a significant role in peripheral tolerance. DC stimulation of T-cells is critical in determining the initiation or lack of an immune response, depending on the pattern of costimulation and cytokine production by DCs, defining immunogenic/inflammatory (inflDC) and tolerogenic (tolDC) DC. In AIRE-deficient patients and healthy controls, we validated the role of AIRE in the generation and function of monocyte-derived inflDC and tolDCs by determining mRNA and protein expression of AIRE and comparing activation markers (HLA-DR/DP/DQ,CD83,CD86,CD274(PDL-1),TLR-2), cytokine production (IL-12p70,IL-10,IL-6,TNF-α,IFN-γ) and T-cell stimulatory capacity (mixed lymphocyte reaction) of AIRE+ and AIRE- DCs. We show for the first time that: (1) tolDCs from healthy individuals express AIRE; (2) AIRE expression is not significantly higher in tolDC compared to inflDC; (3) tolDC can be generated from APECED patient monocytes and (4) tolDCs lacking AIRE retain the same phenotype and reduced T-cell stimulatory function. Our findings suggest that AIRE does not have a role in the induction and function of monocyte-derived tolerogenic DC in humans, but these findings do not exclude a role for AIRE in peripheral tolerance mediated by other cell types. PMID:26912174

  8. AIRE is not essential for the induction of human tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Katherine L; Abinun, Mario; Arkwright, Peter D; Cheetham, Timothy D; Pearce, Simon H; Hilkens, Catharien M U; Lilic, Desa

    2016-06-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene results in organ-specific autoimmunity and disease Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy type 1 (APS1)/Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED). The AIRE protein is crucial in the induction of central tolerance, promoting ectopic expression of tissue-specific antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells and enabling removal of self-reactive T-cells. AIRE expression has recently been detected in myeloid dendritic cells (DC), suggesting AIRE may have a significant role in peripheral tolerance. DC stimulation of T-cells is critical in determining the initiation or lack of an immune response, depending on the pattern of costimulation and cytokine production by DCs, defining immunogenic/inflammatory (inflDC) and tolerogenic (tolDC) DC. In AIRE-deficient patients and healthy controls, we validated the role of AIRE in the generation and function of monocyte-derived inflDC and tolDCs by determining mRNA and protein expression of AIRE and comparing activation markers (HLA-DR/DP/DQ,CD83,CD86,CD274(PDL-1),TLR-2), cytokine production (IL-12p70,IL-10,IL-6,TNF-α,IFN-γ) and T-cell stimulatory capacity (mixed lymphocyte reaction) of AIRE+ and AIRE- DCs. We show for the first time that: (1) tolDCs from healthy individuals express AIRE; (2) AIRE expression is not significantly higher in tolDC compared to inflDC; (3) tolDC can be generated from APECED patient monocytes and (4) tolDCs lacking AIRE retain the same phenotype and reduced T-cell stimulatory function. Our findings suggest that AIRE does not have a role in the induction and function of monocyte-derived tolerogenic DC in humans, but these findings do not exclude a role for AIRE in peripheral tolerance mediated by other cell types.

  9. INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

  10. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  11. Vacuum-Induction, Vacuum-Arc, and Air-Induction Melting of a Complex Heat-Resistant Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P.; Freeman, J. W.

    1959-01-01

    The relative hot-workability and creep-rupture properties at 1600 F of a complex 55Ni-20Cr-15Co-4Mo-3Ti-3Al alloy were evaluated for vacuum-induction, vacuum-arc, and air-induction melting. A limited study of the role of oxygen and nitrogen and the structural effects in the alloy associated with the melting process was carried out. The results showed that the level of boron and/or zirconium was far more influential on properties than the melting method. Vacuum melting did reduce corner cracking and improve surface during hot-rolling. It also resulted in more uniform properties within heats. The creep-rupture properties were slightly superior in vacuum heats at low boron plus zirconium or in heats with zirconium. There was little advantage at high boron levels and air heats were superior at high levels of boron plus zirconium. Vacuum heats also had fewer oxide and carbonitride inclusions although this was a function of the opportunity for separation of the inclusions from high oxygen plus nitrogen heats. The removal of phosphorous by vacuum melting was not found to be related to properties. Oxygen plus nitrogen appeared to increase ductility in creep-rupture tests suggesting that vacuum melting removes unidentified elements detrimental to ductility. Oxides and carbonitrides in themselves did not initiate microcracks. Carbonitrides in the grain boundaries of air heats did initiate microcracks. The role of microcracking from this source and as a function of oxygen and nitrogen content was not clear. Oxygen and nitrogen did intensify corner cracking during hot-rolling but were not responsible for poor surface which resulted from rolling heats melted in air.

  12. Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave

    2001-07-30

    The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not

  13. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  14. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  15. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  16. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  17. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  18. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  19. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of...

  20. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  1. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  2. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  3. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  4. Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

    2015-02-01

    One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

  5. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  6. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  7. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  8. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  9. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  10. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  11. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  12. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  13. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  14. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  15. A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

  16. Zoned heating and air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Beachboard, S.A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

  17. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  18. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  20. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all icing protection systems operating, must— (a) Operate throughout its flight...

  1. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  2. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  3. Air Force Training for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Ronald R.

    Detailed information is provided about the Air Force Instructional System Development (ISD) Model to supplement the 1979 AECT presentation made in New Orleans. Information of interest to instructional systems designers includes (1) a short overview of the Air Force ISD model, (2) an extended example which demonstrates the Air Training Command…

  4. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  5. The deacetylase Sirt1 is an essential regulator of Aire-mediated induction of central immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chuprin, Anna; Avin, Ayelet; Goldfarb, Yael; Herzig, Yonatan; Levi, Ben; Jacob, Adi; Sela, Asaf; Katz, Shir; Grossman, Moran; Guyon, Clotilde; Rathaus, Moran; Cohen, Haim Y; Sagi, Irit; Giraud, Matthieu; McBurney, Michael W; Husebye, Eystein S; Abramson, Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces the promiscuous expression of thousands of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), a step critical for the induction of immunological self-tolerance. Studies have offered molecular insights into how Aire operates, but more comprehensive understanding of this process still remains elusive. Here we found abundant expression of the protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) in mature Aire(+) mTECs, wherein it was required for the expression of Aire-dependent TRA-encoding genes and the subsequent induction of immunological self-tolerance. Our study elucidates a previously unknown molecular mechanism for Aire-mediated transcriptional regulation and identifies a unique function for Sirt1 in preventing organ-specific autoimmunity.

  6. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  7. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.

    1996-10-07

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the hardware and software that was developed to operate the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture measurement system to be used for in-tank moisture measurements. This document satisfies EP 4.1, ``Design Verification Requirements``.

  8. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  9. A variable inductor circuit design for inductive energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V.V.; Baev, V.P.; Kazantsev, N.A.; Ostashev, V.E.; Parizh, M.B.; Sheinkman, V.S. )

    1990-05-01

    A circuit design for matching an inductive energy storage to a utility grid and a complex load (railgun accelerator) is discussed. A circuit design is suggested for control of the discharge current to provide effective transfer of the energy stored in the inductive storage. It is shown that this circuit design, with a variable winding inductance, provides energy transmission control and allows both a higher efficiency of energy transfer and arrangement of a quick response reserve power source to maintain high-current energy transmission. The arrangement discussed may be used to provide matching of the energy user's load current to the energy storage's initial current which is determined either by the possibility of energy accumulation in the system or by the power supply source's current.

  10. In-duct flue gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    In a system for conditioning flue gas generated by a boiler furnace prior to its emission to the atmosphere, including conduit means for conducting a flow of flue gas from said boiler furnace to the atmosphere and an electrostatic precipitator located in said conduit means for electrostatically removing particulate matter entrained in the flue gas, the improvement is described comprising: an assembly arranged upstream of the electrostatic precipitator for converting a portion of sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas flow to sulfur trioxide, said conversion assembly including catalytic conversion means having an operative position wherein a substantial portion of the flue gas flow passes through said catalytic converter for converting a portion of the sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas flow to sulfur trioxide, and an inoperative position, wherein the flue gas flow does not pass through said catalytic conversion means said catalytic conversion means being movable and said assembly including means to move the catalytic conversion means between said operative and inoperative positions based upon the need for or lack of need for conditioning of the flue gas flow.

  11. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  12. Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaolong; Xu, Haojun; Li, Jianhai; Lin, Min; Su; Chen

    2015-05-01

    An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density ( N e ) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm3 without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N e achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N e of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10-50 Pa, power in 300-700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4-5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.

  13. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  14. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  15. Air ion exposure system for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  16. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  17. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  18. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  19. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  20. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  1. Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaolong, Wei; Haojun, Xu; Min, Lin; Chen, Su; Jianhai, Li

    2015-05-28

    An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density (N{sub e}) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm{sup 3} without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N{sub e} achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N{sub e} of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10–50 Pa, power in 300–700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4–5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.

  2. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  4. Systemic air embolization from penetrating lung injury.

    PubMed

    Meier, G H; Wood, W J; Symbas, P N

    1979-02-01

    This study evaluates the role of increased intratracheal pressure in developing systemic air embolization. Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were monitored for air embolization, both by means of an extracorporeal arteriovenous shunt constructed from transparent plastic tubing for visualization of air emboli and by means of a Doppler flow probe implanted at the root of the aorta. Systemic arterial, left atrial, intratracheal, and intrapleural pressures were recorded. In 10 of the dogs, a penetrating wound of the lung 1 cm wide by 4 cm deep was produced; in 5 the chest was left open and in 5 the chest was closed. The remaining 10 dogs served as controls (with no wound of the lung); in 5 the chest was left open and in the other 5 the chest was closed. No air embolization occurred in any animals at intratracheal pressures less than 65 mm Hg. However, systemic air embolization occurred in every dog in all groups upon hyperinflation of the lung above 65 mm Hg. The control groups differed from the groups with penetrating wound only in the quantity of embolized air. This study suggests that hyperinflation of the lung to an intratracheal pressure above 65 mm Hg results in systemic air embolization and that the presence of a penetrating wound of the lung at such intratracheal pressure predisposes to a greater quantity of air embolization.

  5. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  6. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  7. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  8. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  9. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  10. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  11. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  12. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  13. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  14. The Data Acquisition System for a Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Capasso, L.; Marchetti, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) and the Front-End electronics for an array of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are described. KIDs are superconductive detectors, in which electrons are organized in Cooper pairs. Any incident radiation could break a pair generating a couple of quasi-particles that increase the inductance of the detector. The DAQ system we developed is a hardware/software co-design, based on state machines and on a microprocessor embedded into an FPGA. A commercial DAC/ADC board is used to interface the FPGA to the array of KIDs. The DAQ system generates a Stimulus signal suitable for an array of up to 128 KIDs. Such signal is up-mixed with a 3 GHz carrier wave and it then excites the KIDs array. The read-out signal from the detector is down-mixed with respect to the 3 GHz sine wave and recovered Stimulus is read back by the ADC device. The microprocessor stores read out data via a PCI express bus (PCIe) into an external disk. It also computes the Fast Fourier Transform of the acquired read out signal: this allows extrapolating which KID interacted and the energy of the impinging radiation. Simulations and tests have been performed successfully and experimental results are presented.

  15. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  16. Environmental hypertonicity causes induction of gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Das, Manas; Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2013-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the effect of hyperosmotic stress, due to exposure to hypertonic environment (300 mM mannitol) for 14 days, on gluconeogenesis in this catfish. In situ exposure to hypertonic environment led to significant stimulation of gluconeogenic fluxes from the perfused liver after 7 days of exposure, followed by further increase after 14 days in presence of three different potential gluconeogenic substrates (lactate, pyruvate and glutamate). Environmental hypertonicity also caused a significant increase of activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase by about 2-6 fold in liver, and 3-6 fold in kidney tissues. This was accompanied by more abundance of enzyme proteins by about 1.8-3.7 fold and mRNAs by about 2.2-5.2 fold in both the tissues with a maximum increase after 14 days of exposure. Hence, the increase in activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes under hypertonic stress appeared to be as a result of transcriptional regulation of genes. Immunocytochemical analysis further confirmed the tissue specific localized expression of these enzymes in both the tissues with the possibility of expressing more in the same localized places. The induction of gluconeogenesis during exposure to environmental hypertonicity possibly occurs as a consequence of changes in hydration status/cell volume of different cell types. Thus, these adaptational strategies related to gluconeogenesis that are observed in this catfish under hypertonic stress probably help in maintaining glucose homeostasis and also for a proper energy supply to support metabolic demands mainly for ion transport and other altered metabolic processes under various environmental

  17. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  3. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reading. (2) The air brake system compressor shall increase the air pressure in the reservoir(s) from the... time allowed for air pressure buildup shall not exceed 45 seconds. (3) The warning device (visual or audible) connected to the brake system air pressure source shall be activated when air pressure is...

  4. Aire regulates the transfer of antigen from mTECs to dendritic cells for induction of thymic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hubert, François-Xavier; Kinkel, Sarah A; Davey, Gayle M; Phipson, Belinda; Mueller, Scott N; Liston, Adrian; Proietto, Anna I; Cannon, Ping Z F; Forehan, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Wu, Li; Goodnow, Christopher C; Carbone, Francis R; Scott, Hamish S; Heath, William R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the role of Aire in thymic selection, we examined the cellular requirements for generation of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in mice expressing OVA under the control of the rat insulin promoter. Aire deficiency reduced the number of mature single-positive OVA-specific CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in the thymus, independent of OVA expression. Importantly, it also contributed in 2 ways to OVA-dependent negative selection depending on the T-cell type. Aire-dependent negative selection of OVA-specific CD8 T cells correlated with Aire-regulated expression of OVA. By contrast, for OVA-specific CD4 T cells, Aire affected tolerance induction by a mechanism that operated independent of the level of OVA expression, controlling access of antigen presenting cells to medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC)-expressed OVA. This study supports the view that one mechanism by which Aire controls thymic negative selection is by regulating the indirect presentation of mTEC-derived antigens by thymic dendritic cells. It also indicates that mTECs can mediate tolerance by direct presentation of Aire-regulated antigens to both CD4 and CD8 T cells.

  5. Molecular optical air data system (MOADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Watkins, Christopher B.; Lindemann, Scott K.; Hays, Paul B.; Nardell, Carl A.

    2001-09-01

    The Molecular Optical Air Data System (MOADS) is a compact optical instrument that can directly measure wind speed and direction, density, and temperature of the air surrounding an aircraft. From these measurements, a complete set of air data products can be determined. Single-axis wind tunnel testing of wind speed and density has just been completed for the current prototype. These wind tunnel measurements have shown that the current prototype meets wind speed accuracy predictions and initial results from density testing indicate a high level of correlation with absolute pressure transducer measurements. A preliminary design for the next generation instrument, the Joint Optical Air Data System (JOADS), has been completed and is intended to meet Joint Striker Fighter (JSF) requirements. Work is also underway to evaluate the application of MOADS to Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs), helicopters and weapon systems. Extensions of MOADS technology to wind shear, gust alleviation, and clear air turbulence detection for commercial aircraft are also being pursued. The basic instrument operation, preliminary ground testing (wind tunnel) results, comparison of these results to simulations, next generation instrument capabilities, and plans for a flight demonstration are discussed.

  6. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  7. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  8. Engine powered auxiliary air supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Lean, J.R.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an auxiliary air supply system comprising: an engine; at least one exhaust driven turbocharger including a turbine and a compressor associated therewith for supply of compressed air to the engine; a low pressure compressor including means for powering the low pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive a portion of the compressed air exiting the engine turbocharger compressor; a high pressure compressor including means for powering the high pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive the compressed air exiting the low pressure compressor; and means for directing engine exhaust gases between at least one engine turbocharger and the means for powering the low and high pressure compressors.

  9. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  10. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  11. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  12. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries. PMID:24111159

  13. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  14. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  15. Analysis and optimization of spiral circular inductive coupling link for bio-implanted applications on air and within human tissue.

    PubMed

    Mutashar, Saad; Hannan, Mahammad A; Samad, Salina A; Hussain, Aini

    2014-01-01

    The use of wireless communication using inductive links to transfer data and power to implantable microsystems to stimulate and monitor nerves and muscles is increasing. This paper deals with the development of the theoretical analysis and optimization of an inductive link based on coupling and on spiral circular coil geometry. The coil dimensions offer 22 mm of mutual distance in air. However, at 6 mm of distance, the coils offer a power transmission efficiency of 80% in the optimum case and 73% in the worst case via low input impedance, whereas, transmission efficiency is 45% and 32%, respectively, via high input impedance. The simulations were performed in air and with two types of simulated human biological tissues such as dry and wet-skin using a depth of 6 mm. The performance results expound that the combined magnitude of the electric field components surrounding the external coil is approximately 98% of that in air, and for an internal coil, it is approximately 50%, respectively. It can be seen that the gain surrounding coils is almost constant and confirms the omnidirectional pattern associated with such loop antennas which reduces the effect of non-alignment between the two coils. The results also show that the specific absorption rate (SAR) and power loss within the tissue are lower than that of the standard level. Thus, the tissue will not be damaged anymore. PMID:24984057

  16. Analysis and Optimization of Spiral Circular Inductive Coupling Link for Bio-Implanted Applications on Air and within Human Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mutashar, Saad; Hannan, Mahammad A.; Samad, Salina A.; Hussain, Aini

    2014-01-01

    The use of wireless communication using inductive links to transfer data and power to implantable microsystems to stimulate and monitor nerves and muscles is increasing. This paper deals with the development of the theoretical analysis and optimization of an inductive link based on coupling and on spiral circular coil geometry. The coil dimensions offer 22 mm of mutual distance in air. However, at 6 mm of distance, the coils offer a power transmission efficiency of 80% in the optimum case and 73% in the worst case via low input impedance, whereas, transmission efficiency is 45% and 32%, respectively, via high input impedance. The simulations were performed in air and with two types of simulated human biological tissues such as dry and wet-skin using a depth of 6 mm. The performance results expound that the combined magnitude of the electric field components surrounding the external coil is approximately 98% of that in air, and for an internal coil, it is approximately 50%, respectively. It can be seen that the gain surrounding coils is almost constant and confirms the omnidirectional pattern associated with such loop antennas which reduces the effect of non-alignment between the two coils. The results also show that the specific absorption rate (SAR) and power loss within the tissue are lower than that of the standard level. Thus, the tissue will not be damaged anymore. PMID:24984057

  17. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  18. Intronic regulation of Aire expression by Jmjd6 for self-tolerance induction in the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Uruno, Takehito; Duan, Xuefeng; Tomino, Takahiro; Harada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Mayuki; Wang, Yuqing; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Suyama, Mikita; Yoshinori, Fukui

    2015-01-01

    The thymus has spatially distinct microenvironments, the cortex and the medulla, where the developing T-cells are selected to mature or die through the interaction with thymic stromal cells. To establish the immunological self in the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express diverse sets of tissue-specific self-antigens (TSAs). This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on the transcriptional regulator Aire, yet the mechanism controlling Aire expression itself remains unknown. Here, we show that Jmjd6, a dioxygenase that catalyses lysyl hydroxylation of splicing regulatory proteins, is critical for Aire expression. Although Jmjd6 deficiency does not affect abundance of Aire transcript, the intron 2 of Aire gene is not effectively spliced out in the absence of Jmjd6, resulting in marked reduction of mature Aire protein in mTECs and spontaneous development of multi-organ autoimmunity in mice. These results highlight the importance of intronic regulation in controlling Aire protein expression. PMID:26531897

  19. Intronic regulation of Aire expression by Jmjd6 for self-tolerance induction in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Uruno, Takehito; Duan, Xuefeng; Tomino, Takahiro; Harada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Mayuki; Wang, Yuqing; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Suyama, Mikita; Yoshinori, Fukui

    2015-11-04

    The thymus has spatially distinct microenvironments, the cortex and the medulla, where the developing T-cells are selected to mature or die through the interaction with thymic stromal cells. To establish the immunological self in the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express diverse sets of tissue-specific self-antigens (TSAs). This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on the transcriptional regulator Aire, yet the mechanism controlling Aire expression itself remains unknown. Here, we show that Jmjd6, a dioxygenase that catalyses lysyl hydroxylation of splicing regulatory proteins, is critical for Aire expression. Although Jmjd6 deficiency does not affect abundance of Aire transcript, the intron 2 of Aire gene is not effectively spliced out in the absence of Jmjd6, resulting in marked reduction of mature Aire protein in mTECs and spontaneous development of multi-organ autoimmunity in mice. These results highlight the importance of intronic regulation in controlling Aire protein expression.

  20. Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  1. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  2. Towards a Formalised Teacher Induction System: The Macau Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of teacher induction not only for sustaining teacher retention and reducing attrition, but also for supporting beginning teachers, helping them develop professionally as they progress within the profession and enhancing effective teaching and learning. While acknowledging the importance of teacher induction,…

  3. Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colis, William D

    1947-01-01

    The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

  4. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  5. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  9. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  10. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  12. A warm air poultry brooding system

    SciTech Connect

    Nulte, W.H.

    1980-12-01

    As the energy crisis escalated during the mid-70's, it became apparent that energy intensive industries must seek alternate fuel sources. Georgia Tech realized that one of these industries was the poultry industry. Consequently, a demonstration project of a wood-fired, warm air poultry brooding system was designed and built. Since its completion in mid-1978, the system has demonstrated considerable cost savings as well as being a very functional and reliable system. The system consists of 3 main components--a wood burning furnace, a supply distribution and return duct, and 20 flexible ducts which simulate the function of the propane brooders by providing warm air close to the ground. A separate structure houses the furnace and wood supply. This house is located at the midpoint of the growout house to allow symmetrical and naturally balanced air distribution. Since the system became operational, 16 flocks of birds have been brooded. During this time, wood usage has averaged approximately 30 cords per year while in a neighboring house, that is used as a control house, the propane usage has averaged 3,800 gallons per year. In the area of Georgia where the demonstration project is located, the cost of fuelwood has remained stable over the last 2 years, whereas the price of propane has continually increased. Thus the grower has the benefit of constantly increasing cost savings while utilizing a renewable resource as fuel.

  13. Real-time analysis of metals in stack gas using argon/air inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gerhard; Seltzer, Michael D.

    1999-02-01

    The design and operation of an instrument capable of continuous, real-time detection of hazardous air pollutant metals in the effluent of boilers, incinerators, and furnaces is reported. A commercially available inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer, modified for introduction of sample air, provides sensitivity for several metals comparable to that of EPA-approved manual methods, with an analysis result reported every 1 to 2 minutes. Achievable detection limits for the present list of hazardous air pollutant metals range from 0.1 to 20 (mu) g/dry standard cubic meter. Air is isokinetically extracted from a stack or duct and introduced into the argon plasma through an innovative sample transport interface. Data is reported after every measurement cycle and immediately archived to a control computer, where the information is available to a local area network. The entire instrument is automated, and is enclosed in a shelter that can be placed as near as possible to the stack. The measurement of sample losses in the transport line is also discussed.

  14. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  15. Modeling of an Inductive Adder Kicker Pulser for a Proton Radiography System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Cook, E G

    2001-06-12

    An all solid-state kicker pulser for a proton radiography system has been designed. Multiple solid-state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration are utilized in this kicker pulser design. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss. Voltage from each modulator is inductively added by a voltage summing stalk. A circuit model of a prototype inductive adder kicker pulser modulator has been developed to predict the performance of the pulser modulator. The modeling results are compared with experimental data.

  16. A two-stage approach to induction and intubation of two infants with Pierre Robin Sequence using a LMA Classic™ and Air-Q®: two cases report.

    PubMed

    Templeton, T Wesley; Bryan, Yvon F

    2016-08-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic™ and Air-Q® are supralaryngeal devices used for airway management in routine and difficult pediatric airways. We describe a novel two-stage technique of insertion of the LMA Classic™ awake prior to induction of anesthesia, to assure oxygenation and ventilation, and after induction removal and placement of the Air-Q® for intubation using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The LMA Classic's™ pliable design and relatively small size allow it to be easily placed in awake infants. In contrast, the Air-Q® is an excellent device for intubation because of its larger internal diameter and removable 9 mm adapter. Our goal was to reduce unpredictability and potentially increase the safety of induction of anesthesia and intubation in infants with Pierre Robin sequence. By using these devices in a two-stage approach we created a technique for consistent oxygenation, ventilation, and intubation in these infants.

  17. A two-stage approach to induction and intubation of two infants with Pierre Robin Sequence using a LMA Classic™ and Air-Q®: two cases report

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, T. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic™ and Air-Q® are supralaryngeal devices used for airway management in routine and difficult pediatric airways. We describe a novel two-stage technique of insertion of the LMA Classic™ awake prior to induction of anesthesia, to assure oxygenation and ventilation, and after induction removal and placement of the Air-Q® for intubation using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The LMA Classic's™ pliable design and relatively small size allow it to be easily placed in awake infants. In contrast, the Air-Q® is an excellent device for intubation because of its larger internal diameter and removable 9 mm adapter. Our goal was to reduce unpredictability and potentially increase the safety of induction of anesthesia and intubation in infants with Pierre Robin sequence. By using these devices in a two-stage approach we created a technique for consistent oxygenation, ventilation, and intubation in these infants. PMID:27482318

  18. The Thymic Orchestration Involving Aire, miRNAs, and Cell-Cell Interactions during the Induction of Central Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Passos, Geraldo Aleixo; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas; Oliveira, Ernna Hérida

    2015-01-01

    Developing thymocytes interact sequentially with two distinct structures within the thymus: the cortex and medulla. Surviving single-positive and double-positive thymocytes from the cortex migrate into the medulla, where they interact with medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). These cells ectopically express a vast set of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs), a property termed promiscuous gene expression that is associated with the presentation of PTAs by mTECs to thymocytes. Thymocyte clones that have a high affinity for PTAs are eliminated by apoptosis in a process termed negative selection, which is essential for tolerance induction. The Aire gene is an important factor that controls the expression of a large set of PTAs. In addition to PTAs, Aire also controls the expression of miRNAs in mTECs. These miRNAs are important in the organization of the thymic architecture and act as posttranscriptional controllers of PTAs. Herein, we discuss recent discoveries and highlight open questions regarding the migration and interaction of developing thymocytes with thymic stroma, the ectopic expression of PTAs by mTECs, the association between Aire and miRNAs and its effects on central tolerance.

  19. NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

  20. Wood stove with safety forced air system

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.J.; Thulman, R.D.

    1982-08-03

    A high efficiency, air-tight wood stove has a firebox with front, side, rear, top and bottom walls, primary air introducing means for admitting combustion air into the firebox, air flow means adjacent the bottom of the firebox for directing a flow of air upwardly across at least one firebox wall, at least one supplemental air inlet for diverting a portion of the air from the air flow means into the firebox, fan means for forcing air through the air flow means and through the supplemental air inlet, the size of the primary air introducing means being chosen to automatically restrict the combustion in the firebox if the fan means stops to maintain the temperature of the stove and surroundings at safe levels.

  1. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  2. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application

  3. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  4. Power factor control system for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

  5. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  6. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-12-17

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and

  8. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  9. System analysis and design for the resonant inductive nearfield generation system (RINGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinger, Dustin James

    The Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System (RINGS) is a technology demonstrator experiment which will allow for the first ever testing of electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) algorithms in a full six degree of freedom environment on board the International Space Station (ISS). RINGS is a hybrid design, which, in addition to providing EMFF capabilities, also allows for wireless power transfer (WPT) via resonant inductive coupling. This thesis presents an overview of the mechanical and electrical design of the RINGS experiment, as well as simulation techniques used to model various system parameters in both EMFF and WPT operational modes. Also presented is an analytical and experimental investigation of the influence of the proximity effect on a multi-layer flat spiral coil made from ribbon wire.

  10. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  11. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  12. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  13. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... using— (1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with... before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any...

  17. System and method of adjusting the equilibrium temperature of an inductively-heated susceptor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsen, Marc R; Negley, Mark A; Geren, William Preston

    2015-02-24

    A system for inductively heating a workpiece may include an induction coil, at least one susceptor face sheet, and a current controller coupled. The induction coil may be configured to conduct an alternating current and generate a magnetic field in response to the alternating current. The susceptor face sheet may be configured to have a workpiece positioned therewith. The susceptor face sheet may be formed of a ferromagnetic alloy having a Curie temperature and being inductively heatable to an equilibrium temperature approaching the Curie temperature in response to the magnetic field. The current controller may be coupled to the induction coil and may be configured to adjust the alternating current in a manner causing a change in at least one heating parameter of the susceptor face sheet.

  18. Cognitive Apprenticeship in Military Teacher Induction: Facilitating the Transition from War Fighter to Educator at the United States Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Thomas T.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined teacher induction in the military undergraduate education context. The U.S. Air Force Academy relies on approximately 520 military and civilian instructors to educate nearly 4000 future military officers each year. It is imperative to our nation's security that these educators be highly skilled and…

  19. Three-phase inductive-coupled structures for contactless PHEV charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jia-You; Shen, Hung-Yu; Li, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, a new-type three-phase inductive-coupled structure is proposed for the contactless plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging system regarding with SAE J-1773. Four possible three-phase core structures are presented and subsequently investigated by the finite element analysis. To study the correlation between the core geometric parameter and the coupling coefficient, the magnetic equivalent circuit model of each structure is also established. In accordance with the simulation results, the low reluctance and the sharing of flux path in the core material are achieved by the proposed inductive-coupled structure with an arc-shape and three-phase symmetrical core material. It results in a compensation of the magnetic flux between each phase and a continuous flow of the output power in the inductive-coupled structure. Higher coupling coefficient between inductive-coupled structures is achieved. A comparison of coupling coefficient, mutual inductance, and self-inductance between theoretical and measured results is also performed to verify the proposed model. A 1 kW laboratory scale prototype of the contactless PHEV charging system with the proposed arc-shape three-phase inductive-coupled structure is implemented and tested. An overall system efficiency of 88% is measured when two series lithium iron phosphate battery packs of 25.6 V/8.4 Ah are charged.

  20. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  1. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  3. Uncertain induction of knowledge based on cloud model in complex system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongli

    2011-10-01

    On the key problem of ineffective representation of uncertain variables in complex system simulation, the semi-quantitative method of uncertain variable based on group decision and cloud model is proposed to process the uncertain data. Then the uncertain knowledge induction based on cloud model is proposed. The induction process and method is given in the paper. This method is combined with the merit of conversion and fusion quantitative and qualitative of cloud model in induction. Lastly the summary and future research is given at the end of study.

  4. Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

  5. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a temperature... that, in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of 30 F., each airplane with altitude engines... probability of ice formation has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100 °F. with the engine at...

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  8. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  9. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  10. Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

  11. Inductance effects in the high-power transmitter crowbar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effective protection of a klystron in a high-power transmitter requires the diversion of all stored energy in the protected circuit through an alternate low-impedance path, the crowbar, such that less than 1 joule of energy is dumped into the klystron during an internal arc. A scheme of adding a bypass inductor in the crowbar-protected circuit of the high-power transmitter was tested using computer simulations and actual measurements under a test load. Although this scheme has several benefits, including less power dissipation in the resistor, the tests show that the presence of inductance in the portion of the circuit to be protected severely hampers effective crowbar operation.

  12. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  13. Compressed Air System Improvements at an Automotive Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-01

    In 1998, the Ford Motor Company implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Woodhaven Stamping plant in Woodhaven, Michigan. As a result of the system approach that it took towards improving the plant's compressed air system, the plant was able to take an 800-hp air compressor offline, shut down several high pressure satellite compressors, and operate the remaining compressors more efficiently.

  14. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  15. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  16. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  17. The Escherichia coli CRISPR system protects from λ lysogenization, lysogens, and prophage induction.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2010-12-01

    We show that phage lysogenization, lysogens, and prophage induction are all targeted by CRISPR. The results demonstrate that genomic DNA is not immune to the CRISPR system, that the CRISPR system does not require noncytoplasmic elements, and that the system protects from phages entering and exiting the lysogenic cycle. PMID:20889749

  18. [Research on integrated application of tumor magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning system and modern medical information systems].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zihan; Zhai, Weiming; Cai, Dongyang; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic induction hyperthermia becomes a very important tumor treatment method at present. In order to ensure a successful operation, doctors should make hyperthermia treatment planning before surgery. Based on Integration Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medcine (DICOM) standard, we proposed and carried out a network workflow integrated with modern medical information systems for the dissemination of information in magnetic induction hyperthermia like accurate accessing patient information and radiology image data, storing processed images, sharing and verifying hyperthermia reports. The results proved that our system could not only improve the efficiency of magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning, but also save medical resources and reduce labor costs.

  19. [Research on integrated application of tumor magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning system and modern medical information systems].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zihan; Zhai, Weiming; Cai, Dongyang; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic induction hyperthermia becomes a very important tumor treatment method at present. In order to ensure a successful operation, doctors should make hyperthermia treatment planning before surgery. Based on Integration Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medcine (DICOM) standard, we proposed and carried out a network workflow integrated with modern medical information systems for the dissemination of information in magnetic induction hyperthermia like accurate accessing patient information and radiology image data, storing processed images, sharing and verifying hyperthermia reports. The results proved that our system could not only improve the efficiency of magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning, but also save medical resources and reduce labor costs. PMID:24804509

  20. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  1. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  2. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  3. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  4. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  5. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  6. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  7. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  8. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  9. The reciprocal relation of mutual inductance in a coupled circuit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dake

    2012-09-01

    The reciprocal relation of mutual inductance in a coupled circuit system is demonstrated theoretically. An alternating-current (AC) analysis is employed to investigate energy conservation in the system, with the only assumption being the steady-state operation of the circuit. This method can be adopted for teaching electromagnetism at the introductory level, provided the students have an adequate background in calculus.

  10. Magnetic induction system for two-stage gun projectile velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, R L; Konrad, C H

    1984-05-01

    A magnetic induction technique for measuring projectile velocities has been implemented on Sandia's two-stage light gas gun. The system has been designed to allow for projectile velocity measurements to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 percent. The velocity system has been successfully tested in a velocity range of 3.5 km/s to 6.5 km/s.

  11. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  12. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  13. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  14. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  15. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  16. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  17. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  18. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  19. Secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.

    1981-11-10

    This application discloses a secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine. The system comprises: an exhaust gas purifying device mounted on an exhaust pipe; a secondary air control valve which comprises a diaphragm actuated by vacuum pressure for controlling secondary supply air to said exhaust gas purifying device; a solenoid valve for controlling said vacuum pressure which acts upon said secondary air control valve; a vacuum sensor which detects the vacuum pressure at a small venturi of a carburetor; a thermo-sensor for detecting the intake air temperature; an air flow meter mounted on a secondary air supply pipe; a thermo-sensor for detecting the secondary air temperature mounted on said secondary air supply pipe, and; a computer to which said valuum sensor, said thermo-sensors, and said air flow meter are connected so as to feed input signals thereto, said solenoid valve being connected to the output of said computer so as to control the secondary air quantity in response to said input signals.

  20. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  1. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  2. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  3. Transient Current Analysis of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki

    In recent year, non-conventional energy generation is coming up for effective use of natural energy, such as wind energy. Induction generators consisting squirrel-cage rotors are widly used as wind generators because of their salient features like robust rotor design, simple in the construction, maintenance free operation, etc. However these induction generators will draw large transient inrush current, several times as large as the machine rated current, the instant when they are connected to utility grid or restored after the fault clearance. Under such situations, there will be a severe voltage fluctuations in the power system. In this paper, we present transient analysis of induction generators before and after a three-phase fault conditions. Theoretical discission is developed to determine the initial phase angle and the time at which maximum transient currents flow in the system.

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  5. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  6. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  7. Added value of stress related gene inductions in HepG2 cells as effect measurement in monitoring of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobels, Ingrid; Vanparys, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Rosette; Vercauteren, Jordy; Blust, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    In this study we studied the effects of particulate matter samples (PM) through gene expression analysis in a routine air quality monitoring campaign by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM, Belgium). We selected a human hepatoma (HepG2) multiple endpoint reporter assay for targeted stress related endpoint screening. Organic extracts of air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) were collected during one year in an industrial, urban and background location in Flanders, Belgium. Simultaneously, meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and precipitation) and particulate matter size ≤ 10 μM (PM10), organic (OC), elemental (EC) and total (TC) carbon were monitored and air samples were collected for chemical analysis (11 PAHs). Correlations between the induction of the different stress genes and the chemical pollutants were analysed. Exposure of HepG2 cells to daily air equivalents (20 m3) of organic TSP extracts revealed the dominant induction of the xenobiotic response element (Xre) and phase I (Cyp1A1) and phase II (GstYa) biotransformation enzymes. Additional effects were the induction of c-Fos, a proto-oncogen and Gadd45, a marker for cell cycle disturbance and responsive to genotoxic compounds. Inductions of other relevant pathways, such as sequestration of heavy metals, retinoids response, protein misfolding and increased cAMP levels were measured occasionally. A significant correlation was found between the genes Cyp1A1 (a typical marker for presence of PAHs and dioxin like compounds), c-Fos, Gadd45, (responsive to DNA damaging compounds) and the amount of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) whereas no correlation was found between these genes and total PAHs content. This may suggest that the observed induction of Cyp1A1 and DNA damage related genes was provoked (partially) by other particle bound compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, …), than PAHs. The contribution of particle bound compounds, other than PAHs might

  8. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  9. A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Fang; Chao, Hsuan-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Lin, Xi-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42 °C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified.

  10. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  11. Induction of cachexia in mice by systemically administered myostatin.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, Teresa A; Davies, Monique V; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Haynes, Paul; Esquela, Aurora F; Tomkinson, Kathy N; McPherron, Alexandra C; Wolfman, Neil M; Lee, Se-Jin

    2002-05-24

    Mice and cattle with genetic deficiencies in myostatin exhibit dramatic increases in skeletal muscle mass, suggesting that myostatin normally suppresses muscle growth. Whether this increased muscling results from prenatal or postnatal lack of myostatin activity is unknown. Here we show that myostatin circulates in the blood of adult mice in a latent form that can be activated by acid treatment. Systemic overexpression of myostatin in adult mice was found to induce profound muscle and fat loss analogous to that seen in human cachexia syndromes. These data indicate that myostatin acts systemically in adult animals and may be a useful pharmacologic target in clinical settings such as cachexia, where muscle growth is desired.

  12. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  17. A closed-loop inductive power control system for an instrumented strain sensing tibial implant.

    PubMed

    Shiying Hao; Taylor, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Inductively-powered implantable biomedical devices are widely used nowadays, however the power variations due to the coil misalignment can significantly affect the device performance. A closed-loop power control system is proposed in this paper, which is implemented in a Subject-Carried Implant Monitoring Inductive Telemetric Ambulatory Reader (SCIMITAR) for remote strain data acquisition from an instrumented ovine tibia implant. The output power of the energizer is adaptively adjusted via a feedback circuitry connected the demodulator with the power energizer. Lab results showed that feedback suppressed variations in induced power caused by coil misalignment and extended the functional range of the device in axial and planar directions. PMID:25571497

  18. The design of low inductance electrical circuits for slapper detonator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Don D.; Kummer, Ross

    1989-04-01

    Flying plate generators (FPG) are used to study the shock properties of various materials. This report investigates the theoretical electrical properties of the flat, parallel conductors that are currently used in the construction of FPGs. The design of these conductors can greatly effect the efficiency of FPGs by varying the high frequency capacitance and inductance of the electrical circuit, and the induced current in the surrounding system. The report derives rules governing the geometry of the conductors to minimize the inductance and capacitance of high frequency for such circuits.

  19. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or...

  1. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  2. Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

  3. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  4. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  5. CFAVC scheme for high frequency series resonant inverter-fed domestic induction heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Booma; Reddy Sathi, Rama

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the investigations on the constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation control in the AC-AC resonant converter-fed domestic induction heating system. Conventional fixed frequency control techniques used in the high frequency converters lead to non-zero voltage switching operation and reduced output power. The proposed control technique produces higher output power than the conventional fixed-frequency control strategies. In this control technique, zero-voltage-switching operation is maintained during different duty cycle operation for reduction in the switching losses. Complete analysis of the induction heating power supply system with asymmetric voltage cancellation control is discussed in this article. Simulation and experimental study on constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation (CFAVC)-controlled full bridge series resonant inverter is performed. Time domain simulation results for the open and closed loop of the system are obtained using MATLAB simulation tool. The simulation results prove the control of voltage and power in a wide range. PID controller-based closed loop control system achieves the voltage regulation of the proposed system for the step change in load. Hardware implementation of the system under CFAVC control is done using the embedded controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the performance of the CFAVC control technique for series resonant-based induction cooking system.

  6. Systemic induction of monoterpene biosynthesis in Origanumxmajoricum by soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Banchio, Erika; Bogino, Pablo C; Santoro, Maricel; Torres, Lorena; Zygadlo, Julio; Giordano, Walter

    2010-01-13

    Italian oregano (Origanumxmajoricum) was subjected to root system inoculation with three species of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Azospirillum brasilense), and essential oil (EO) content and plant growth were measured. Composition of monoterpenes, a major EO component, was analyzed qualitative and quantitatively by gas chromatography. Total EO yield for plants inoculated with P. fluorescens or A. brasilense was 3.57 and 3.41 microg/mg fresh weight, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold higher than controls, without change of quantitative oil composition. The major EO compounds, cis- and trans-sabinene hydrate, gamma-terpinene, carvacrol, and thymol, showed increased biosynthesis. Carvacrol was the only terpene showing significant increase of R% in plants inoculated with A. brasilense. Plant growth parameters (shoot and root fresh and dry weights, numbers of leaves and nodes) were evaluated. Shoot fresh weight was significantly increased by all three PGPR species, but only P. fluorescens and A. brasilense increased root dry weight. These two species have clear commercial potential for economic cultivation of O.xmajoricum. Knowledge of the factors affecting yield and accumulation of monoterpenes is essential for improving production of these economically important plant compounds. PMID:20000572

  7. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  8. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  9. Technology options for an enhanced air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    A view of potential enhancements to the air cargo system through technology application is provided. NASA's role in addressing deficiencies of the current civil and military air cargo systems is outlined. The evolution of conventional airfreighter design is traced and projected through the 1990's. Also, several advanced airfreighter concepts incorporating unconventional design features are described to show their potentials benefits. A number of ongoing NASA technology programs are discussed to indicate the wide range of advanced technologies offering potential benefits to the air cargo system. The promise of advanced airfreighters is then viewed in light of the future air cargo infrastructure predicted by extensive systems studies. The derived outlook concludes that the aircraft technology benefits may be offset somewhat by adverse economic, environmental, and institutional constraints.

  10. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  11. Air cushion landing system stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, T. D.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of an inelastic ACLS plunge mode dynamic model is presented. The ACLS has unrestrained side elements and frozen end elements. The model exhibits unstable behavior at certain operating conditions for which the side elements are in contact with the ground. A linear analysis showed this instability to be due mainly to the altitude sensitivities of the cushion to atmosphere airflows and the attendant influence on the dynamic pressure forces on the vehicle. The model instability can be alleviated by isolating side and end elements so that they are all unrestrained and by simultaneously venting the air cushion directly to atmosphere.

  12. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system. PMID:25960635

  13. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system.

  14. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  15. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  16. Air data system optimization using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Samir M.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    An optimization method for flush-orifice air data system design has been developed using the Genetic Algorithm approach. The optimization of the orifice array minimizes the effect of normally distributed random noise in the pressure readings on the calculation of air data parameters, namely, angle of attack, sideslip angle and freestream dynamic pressure. The optimization method is applied to the design of Pressure Distribution/Air Data System experiment (PD/ADS) proposed for inclusion in the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). Results obtained by the Genetic Algorithm method are compared to the results obtained by conventional gradient search method.

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  19. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  20. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  1. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  2. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  3. Electronic control system for air fuel ratio compensation in highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, J.; Noji, A.

    1981-12-29

    An electronic control system which electronically controls the air fuel ratio of a mixture being supplied to a gasoline engine in highlands is described. An orifice device is provided in a passage through which secondary air is supplied to the venturi section of the engine carburetor. An electronic control unit carries out programmed control of the orifice opening of the orifice device in response to the atmospheric pressure and the engine temperature to create a reference pressure. A further electronic control unit drives a second air control valve provided in the secondary air supply passage along a predetermined operating characteristic pattern in response to the difference between the reference pressure and an actual pressure present in the venturi section of the carburetor. A mixture having an optimum air fuel ratio corresponding to the atmospheric pressure can thus be supplied to the engine from the carburetor.

  4. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  5. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  6. Development of a respiratory inductive plethysmography module supporting multiple sensors for wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

    2012-09-27

    In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring.

  7. Multi-hole pressure probes to air data system for subsonic small-scale air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. M.; Berezin, D. R.; Puzirev, L. N.; Tarasov, A. Z.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Shmakov, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A brief review of research performed to develop multi-hole probes to measure of aerodynamic angles, dynamic head, and static pressure of a flying vehicle. The basis of these works is the application a well-known classical multi-hole pressure probe technique of measuring of a 3D flow to use in the air data system. Two multi-hole pressure probes with spherical and hemispherical head to air-data system for subsonic small-scale vehicles have been developed. A simple analytical probe model with separation of variables is proposed. The probes were calibrated in the wind tunnel, one of them is in-flight tested.

  8. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  9. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  10. Improvement of low speed induction generator performances and reducing the power of excitation and voltage control system

    SciTech Connect

    Budisan, N.; Hentea, T.; Mahil, S.; Madescu, G.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present the results of our investigations concerning the utilization of induction generators at very low speed. It is shown that, by proper design, it is possible to obtain high efficiency and high power factor values. The optimized induction generators require lower reactive power resulting in lower size and price of the excitation control system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  12. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  13. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  14. Performance of air sparging systems: a review of case studies.

    PubMed

    Bass, D H; Hastings, N A; Brown, R A

    2000-02-25

    Fluor Daniel GTI (now IT Corporation) has compiled a database of 49 completed in-situ air sparging case studies. Air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in groundwater and saturated zone soil. The air sparging database was compiled to address questions regarding the effectiveness and permanence of air sparging, and to provide predictive indicators of air sparging success to aid in optimization of existing and future air sparging systems. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In many cases, air sparging achieved a substantial and permanent decrease in groundwater concentrations. Successful systems were achieved with both chlorinated and petroleum contamination, both sandy and silty soils, and both continuous and pulsed flow sparging. In other cases, however, a significant rebound of groundwater concentrations was observed after sparging was terminated. Rebound sometimes required 6 to 12 months to develop fully. Rebound was more frequently observed at sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons than with chlorinated solvents. Petroleum-contaminated sites were more likely to rebound when initial groundwater contamination levels were high enough to suggest the presence of LNAPL or a smear zone of residual LNAPL. Rebound at petroleum sites appeared to be minimized by a high density of sparge wells addressing the entire source area and a high sparge air injection rate. In some cases, rebound appeared to be related to a rising water table.

  15. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  16. Induction of c-Jun by air particulate matter (PM₁₀) of Mexico city: Participation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Salcido-Neyoy, Martha Estela; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Román; Gonsebatt, María Eugenia; Meléndez-Zajgla, Jorge; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Petrosyan, Pavel; Molina-Servin, Edith Danny; Vega, Elizabeth; Manzano-León, Natalia; García-Cuellar, Claudia M

    2015-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential of urban particulate matter (PM) has been partly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content, which activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here we report the effect of PM with an aerodynamic size of 10 μm (PM10) on the induction of AhR pathway in A549 cells, evaluating its downstream targets CYP1B1, IL-6, IL-8 and c-Jun. Significant increases in CYP1B1 protein and enzyme activity; IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and c-Jun protein were found in response to PM10. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts was also detected. The involvement of AhR pathway was confirmed with Resveratrol as AhR antagonist, which reversed CYP1B1 and c-Jun induction. Nevertheless, in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, the Resveratrol was ineffective, suggesting an effect independent of this pathway. Considering the role of c-Jun in oncogenesis, its induction by PM may be contributing to its carcinogenic potential through induction of AhR pathway by PAHs present in PM10. PMID:25909326

  17. Induction of c-Jun by air particulate matter (PM₁₀) of Mexico city: Participation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Salcido-Neyoy, Martha Estela; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Román; Gonsebatt, María Eugenia; Meléndez-Zajgla, Jorge; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Petrosyan, Pavel; Molina-Servin, Edith Danny; Vega, Elizabeth; Manzano-León, Natalia; García-Cuellar, Claudia M

    2015-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential of urban particulate matter (PM) has been partly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content, which activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here we report the effect of PM with an aerodynamic size of 10 μm (PM10) on the induction of AhR pathway in A549 cells, evaluating its downstream targets CYP1B1, IL-6, IL-8 and c-Jun. Significant increases in CYP1B1 protein and enzyme activity; IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and c-Jun protein were found in response to PM10. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts was also detected. The involvement of AhR pathway was confirmed with Resveratrol as AhR antagonist, which reversed CYP1B1 and c-Jun induction. Nevertheless, in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, the Resveratrol was ineffective, suggesting an effect independent of this pathway. Considering the role of c-Jun in oncogenesis, its induction by PM may be contributing to its carcinogenic potential through induction of AhR pathway by PAHs present in PM10.

  18. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  19. A radome for air traffic control SSR radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new generation of monopulse and discrete interrogation systems has evolved for air traffic control applications that presents significant challenges to total system design and performance. Reliable operation of the antenna system is essential in today's ever increasing air traffic congestion. An important component of the total system is a radome to protect the antenna from the environment and to enable consistent, reliable electromagnetic performance. The various types of radomes that have been employed over the years to protect antennas are discussed and evaluated relative to the air traffic control radar application. The sandwich radome is selected as the best option and a detailed design analysis is presented which considers the vital characteristics of transmissivity, boresight error, and sidelobe perturbations.

  20. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  1. One-man electrochemical air revitalization system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schbert, F. H.; Marshall, R. D.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A program to evaluate the performance of a one man capacity, self contained electrochemical air revitalization system was successfully completed. The technology readiness of this concept was demonstrated by characterizing the performance of this one man system over wide ranges in cabin atmospheric conditions. The electrochemical air revitalization system consists of a water vapor electrolysis module to generate oxygen from water vapor in the cabin air, and an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air. A control/monitor instrumentation package that uses the electrochemical depolarized concentrator module power generated to partially offset the water vapor electrolysis module power requirements and various structural fluid routing components are also part of the system. The system was designed to meet the one man metabolic oxygen generation and carbon dioxide removal requirements, thereby controlling cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kN/sq m and cabin pressure of carbon dioxide at 400 N/sq m over a wide range in cabin air relative humidity conditions.

  2. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of R-4360-18 Power-Plant Installation for XR60 Airplane. 3; Performance of Induction and Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, David T.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the performance of the induction and the exhaust systems on the XR60 power-plant installation as part of an investigation conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Altitude flight conditions from 5000 to 30,000 feet were simulated for a range of engine powers from 750 to 3000 brake horsepower. Slipstream rotation prevented normal pressure recoveries in the right side of the main duct in the region of the right intercooler cooling-air duct inlet. Total-pressure losses in the charge-air flow between the turbosupercharger and the intercoolers were as high as 2.1 inches of mercury. The total-pressure distribution of the charge air at the intercooler inlets was irregular and varied as much as 1.0 inch of mercury from the average value at extreme conditions, Total-pressure surveys at the carburetor top deck showed a variation from the average value of 0.3 inch of mercury at take-off power and 0.05 inch of mercury at maximum cruising power, The carburetor preheater system increased the temperature of the engine charge air a maximum of about 82 F at an average cowl-inlet air temperature of 9 F, a pressure altitude of 5000 feet, and a brake horsepower of 1240.

  3. Detection of air-gap eccentricity and broken-rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor using the radial flux sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Don-Ha; Woo, Byung-Chul; Sun, Jong-Ho; Kang, Dong-Sik; Han, Sang-Bo; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Cho, Youn-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    A new method for detecting eccentricity and broken rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed. Air-gap flux variation analysis is done using search coils, which are inserted at stator slots. Using this method, the leakage flux in radial direction can be directly detected. Using finite element method, the air-gap flux variation is accurately modeled and analyzed. From the results of the simulation, a motor under normal condition shows maximum magnetic flux density of 1.3 T. On the other hand, the eccentric air-gap condition displays about 1.1 T at 60 deg. and 1.6 T at 240 deg. A difference of flux density is 0.5 T in the abnormal condition, whereas no difference is detected in the normal motor. In the broken rotor bar conditions, the flux densities at 65 deg. and 155 deg. are about 0.4 T and 0.8 T, respectively. These simulation results are coincided with those of experiment. Consequently, the measurement of the magnetic flux at air gap is one of effective ways to discriminate the faulted conditions of the eccentricity and broken rotor bars.

  4. Detection of air-gap eccentricity and broken-rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor using the radial flux sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Don-Ha; Han, Sang-Bo; Woo, Byung-Chul; Sun, Jong-Ho; Kang, Dong-Sik; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Cho, Youn-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    A new method for detecting eccentricity and broken rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed. Air-gap flux variation analysis is done using search coils, which are inserted at stator slots. Using this method, the leakage flux in radial direction can be directly detected. Using finite element method, the air-gap flux variation is accurately modeled and analyzed. From the results of the simulation, a motor under normal condition shows maximum magnetic flux density of 1.3T. On the other hand, the eccentric air-gap condition displays about 1.1T at 60° and 1.6T at 240°. A difference of flux density is 0.5T in the abnormal condition, whereas no difference is detected in the normal motor. In the broken rotor bar conditions, the flux densities at 65° and 155° are about 0.4 T and 0.8T, respectively. These simulation results are coincided with those of experiment. Consequently, the measurement of the magnetic flux at air gap is one of effective ways to discriminate the faulted conditions of the eccentricity and broken rotor bars.

  5. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  6. A transcription activator-like effector (TALE) induction system mediated by proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Johnson, Charles B; Markley, Andrew L; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications owing to their customizable DNA-binding specificity. In this work we expanded the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded after induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator-agnostic.

  7. A transcription activator-like effector (TALE) induction system mediated by proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Johnson, Charles B; Markley, Andrew L; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications owing to their customizable DNA-binding specificity. In this work we expanded the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded after induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator-agnostic. PMID:26854666

  8. Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-15

    A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

  9. The electron-optical system of the LIU-2 induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    The electron-optical system (EOS) of an induction accelerator for generation of an electron beam with an energy of 2 MeV, a current of 2 kA, an impulse duration of 2 × 10-7 s, and a geometric output emittance not exceeding the thermal value of it is described. The EOS consists of two parts. The first part is a diode gun with a perveance of 2 × 10-6 A/B3/2 and a cathode-anode voltage of 1 MeV. The second part is an accelerating tube with uniform distribution of the same accelerating voltage. A beam is transported at a distance of about 4 m from the cathode and focused on a spot with a diameter of about 1 mm. The compliance tests results of the linear-induction accelerator precisely conform to the calculated design parameters.

  10. A transcription activator-like effector induction system mediated by proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Matthew F.; Politz, Mark C.; Johnson, Charles B.; Markley, Andrew L.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications due to their customizable DNA binding specificity. In this work we expand the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded following the induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator agnostic. PMID:26854666

  11. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  12. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  13. System Design for Ocean Sensor Data Transmission Based on Inductive Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Zong, Yuan; Hong, Feng

    Ocean observation is the precondition to explore and utilize ocean. How to acquire ocean data in a precise, efficient and real-time way is the key question of ocean surveillance. Traditionally, there are three types of methods for ocean data transmission: underwater acoustic, GPRS via mobile network and satellite communication. However, none of them can meet the requirements of efficiency, accuracy, real-time and low cost at the same time. In this paper, we propose a new wireless transmission system for underwater sensors, which established on FGR wireless modules, combined with inductive coupling lab and offshore experiments confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed wireless transmission system.

  14. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  15. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microwatt of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  16. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  17. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  18. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  19. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  20. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  1. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  2. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  3. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  4. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  5. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  6. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  7. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  8. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  9. Systemic signalling in photosynthetic induction of Rumex K-1 (Rumex patientia × Rumex tianschaious) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fei; Jin, Li-Qiao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The rapid induction of photosynthesis is critical for plants under light-fleck environment. Most previous studies about photosynthetic induction focused upon single leaf, but they did not consider the systemic integrity of plant. Here, we verified whether systemic signalling is involved in photosynthetic induction. Rumex K-1 (Rumex patientia × Rumex tianschaious) plants were grown under light-fleck condition. After whole night dark adaptation, different numbers of leaves (system leaf or SL) were pre-illuminated with light, and then the photosynthetic induction of other leaves (target leaf or TL) was investigated. This study showed that the pre-illumination of SL promoted photosynthetic induction in TL. This promotion was independent of the number of SL, the light intensity on SL and the distance between SL and TL, indicating that this systemic signalling is non-dose-dependent. More interestingly, the photosynthetic induction was promoted by only the pre-illumination of morphological upper leaf rather than the pre-illumination of morphological lower leaf, indicating that the transfer of this signal is directional. The results showed that the transfer of this systemic signalling depends upon the phloem. This systemic signalling helps plants to use light energy more efficiently under light flecks.

  10. Novel air-based system transfers large salmon during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, near the end of our last harvest of 4-6 kg Atlantic salmon, we evaluated an exciting new fish transport technology from Whooshh Innovations (Bellevue, WA) that uses air to move live Atlantic salmon from our growout tank to a finishing/purging tank. The Whooshh system uses a combina...

  11. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  12. Air Revitalization System Enables Excursions to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Paragon Space Development Corporation, based in Tucson, Arizona has had a long history of collaboration with NASA, including developing a modular air purification system under the Commercial Crew Development Program, designed to support the commercial space sector. Using that device and other NASA technology, startup company World View is now gearing up to take customers on helium balloon rides to the stratosphere.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.

    PubMed

    Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J

    2007-10-15

    Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.

  14. 15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM USED IN BERYLLIUM PRODUCTION. (3/30/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  16. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  17. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. PMID:24209303

  18. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  19. Air Quality Model System For The Vienna/bratislava Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, B. C.; Schmittner, W.; Kromp-Kolb, H.

    A model system has been build up, consisting of the mesoscale meteorological fore- cast model MM5 and the chemical air-quality model CAMx. The coarse grid covers central Europe. By nesting, a spatial resolution of 3 km is reached for the core area, which includes the cities of Vienna (Austria) and Bratislava (Slovakia). In a first approach, the model system has been applied to a 6-day period in Febru- ary 1997, which was characterized by stagnant meteorological conditions. During this episode, primary pollutants like CO and NO2 have been compared with ambient mea- surements for the validation of the new model system. In the future it is foreseen to improve the spatial resolution, to apply the model system also for ozone and particulates, and to utilize it for a short-time forecast of air-quality parameters.

  20. Reduction of sound in ventilation and similar air distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    This Data Item is available as part of the ESDU Sub-series on Fluid Mechanics Internal Flow. A means of estimating the attenuation of sound in lined plenum chambers and ducts, and through silencers of the types used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems is given. Data are provided in graphical or tabular form for the estimation of typical silencer insertion loss, airflow generated noise and pressure loss. Both rectangular splitter silencers and cylindrical silencers are considered. The data may be used in the initial design of a system or to investigate the appropriate remedial action for an installed air distribution system that is found to be too noisy. The location of silencers in the duct system is considered, and an example is given to illustrate the use of the data provided in the selection and sizing of a silencer for a particular application.

  1. Mathematical model of one-man air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for simulating the steady state performance in electrochemical CO2 concentrators which utilize (NMe4)2 CO3 (aq.) electrolyte. This electrolyte, which accommodates a wide range of air relative humidity, is most suitable for one-man air revitalization systems. The model is based on the solution of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from mass transport and rate equations for the processes which take place in the cell. The boundary conditions are obtained by solving the mass and energy transport equations. A shooting method is used to solve the differential equations.

  2. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  3. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  4. Developments in skirt systems for air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inch, Peter; Prentice, Mark E.; Lewis, Carol Jean

    The present evaluation of the development status of air-cushion vehicle (ACV) skirts emphasizes the materials employed, with a view to the formulation of materials-performance requirements for next-generation AVCs and, in particular, an 'air-cushion catamaran' surface-effect ship (SES). Attention is given to novel skirt-design features which furnish substantial savings in maintenance costs. The employment of extant test rig data and the use of CAD methods are discussed, and the features of a novel system for the direct fixing of a bow finger onto an SES structure are noted.

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. A comparison of and the compensation for magnetostrictive core inductances in magnetic transducer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, P. A.; Meydan, T.; Lea, S. C.; Moses, A. J.; Williams, P. I.; Landini, G.; Walmsley, A. D.

    Magnetostrictive materials have been utilized for the production of ultrasonic frequency vibrations for a number of years. This has particularly been the case in laminated nickel-based ultrasonic dental-scaler cleaning systems. In this study, a comparison has been made between the impedances of a number of magnetostrictive stacks of 50 mm×4 mmט0.3 mm strips at frequencies in the range of 10-50 kHz in a coil used for the excitation of a stack in a dental-scaler system. The magnetostrictive stacks tested comprised of potential replacement materials for standard nickel ones. The study showed that it was possible to compensate for the inductive 'imaginary' components of the impedance through the use of a tuned, series capacitance so that only the 'real' resistive component of the impedance remained. This reduced the electrical losses associated with the excitation of the magnetostrictive stacks as a result of the frequency-dependent inductance of the coil system. Consequently, the maximum power transfer from an amplifier to the transducer was increased. Also, the investigation showed how the 'real' component of impedance of the different stacks varied with frequency. In a tuned resonant electrical circuit, the resistive component of the impedance, if considered as a loss, would be the lowest that could be achieved with such a magnetic circuit. Consequently, the losses associated with resonant magnetostrictive devices, like dental scalers, can be reduced.

  8. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm(2) of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  9. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm(2) of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%.

  10. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  11. Evolution of regulatory networks: nematode vulva induction as an example of developmental systems drift.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the developmental processes and developmental mechanisms can result in the modification of morphological structures and in the evolution of phenotypic novelty. But how do developmental processes evolve? One striking finding in modern biology is the confrontation of morphological diversity in multicellular organisms with the conserved blueprint of life-the small number of conserved signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators. Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) tries to explain this discrepancy between macroscopic diversity and molecular uniformity. Selected case studies in evo-devo models allowed detailed insight into the mechanisms of evolutionary changes and might help solving this problem. Here, I compare the formation of vulva development between Caenorhabditis elegans and the evo-devo model Pristionchus pacificus. More than 3 decades of work in C. elegans and 15 years in P. pacificus provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms of developmental change during vulva evolution. C. elegans and P. pacificus differ first, in the type of the signaling system used for vulva induction; second, the cells required for the inductive interactions; third, the logic of the signal system, and finally, the sequence and structure of peptide domains in otherwise conserved proteins. Nonetheless, the vulva is formed from the same three cells in both nematodes. I discuss redundancy as an evolutionary mechanism to explain developmental systems drift, a theory predicting conserved morphological structures to be generated by diverse molecular regulatory networks.

  12. Fluid-dynamic characterization of a radio-frequency induction thermal plasma system for nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, V.; Deschenaux, C.; Ghedini, E.; Gherardi, M.; Jaeggi, C.; Leparoux, M.; Mani, V.; Sanibondi, P.

    2012-08-01

    The fluid flow in a radio-frequency induction thermal plasma (RF-ITP) system for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been characterized using three- and two-dimensional modelling supported by enthalpy probe and calorimetric measurements in order to provide insights for the improvement of the process. The RF-ITP system is composed of a commercial inductively coupled plasma torch mounted on a reaction chamber that is equipped with viewports for diagnostics. The three-dimensional model predicted an almost axisymmetric temperature field in the reaction chamber in agreement with enthalpy probe measurements performed along two perpendicular scan axes, whereas recirculating flow patterns resulted in being strongly non-axisymmetric. Temperature profiles at two distances (60 mm and 100 mm) from the torch outlet have been calculated using two-dimensional modelling and compared with enthalpy probe measurements for different operating conditions with the aim of validating the predictive ability of the modelling tool. Calorimetric measurements have been performed in order to estimate the power coupled to the torch, which is usually an arbitrary input parameter for the models. Poor agreement was obtained between energy balances from modelling and from calorimetric measurements and, starting from this, a discussion on the uncertainties in the calculation of the radiative losses has been proposed. Finally, new insights for the improvement of the process of nanoparticle synthesis in the RF-ITP system are suggested.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  14. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  15. An integrated regenerative air revitalization system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, G. P.; Heppner, D. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Progress towards development of an air revitalization system (ARS) for spacecraft breathable atmosphere regeneration is assessed, and a preliminary design for a one-person ARS is described. The ARS is considered a necessary component of any permanently manned orbital station, and studies have demonstrated that penalties for expendable air supplies justify an ARS for missions longer than 40 days. CO2 must be removed and O2 returned along with N2, which can be extracted from hydrazine, with the H2 component returning to the operation of the CO2 reduction subsystem. An experimental ARS (ARX-1) features a cabin humidity control unit, a CO2 concentrator, an air-cooled CO2 reduction reactor, an oxygen generator (electrolysis), the hydrazine N2 generator, and a water handling unit. A 120-day test demonstrated one-button startup and 480 hr operation in a normal mode.

  16. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  17. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  18. Calibration of NASA Turbulent Air Motion Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, John D. W.; Ritter, John A.; Watson, Catherine E.; Wynkoop, Mark W.; Quinn, John K.; Norfolk, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    A turbulent air motion measurement system (TAMMS) was integrated onboard the Lockheed 188 Electra airplane (designated NASA 429) based at the Wallops Flight Facility in support of the NASA role in global tropospheric research. The system provides air motion and turbulence measurements from an airborne platform which is capable of sampling tropospheric and planetary boundary-layer conditions. TAMMS consists of a gust probe with free-rotating vanes mounted on a 3.7-m epoxy-graphite composite nose boom, a high-resolution inertial navigation system (INS), and data acquisition system. A variation of the tower flyby method augmented with radar tracking was implemented for the calibration of static pressure position error and air temperature probe. Additional flight calibration maneuvers were performed remote from the tower in homogeneous atmospheric conditions. System hardware and instrumentation are described and the calibration procedures discussed. Calibration and flight results are presented to illustrate the overall ability of the system to determine the three-component ambient wind fields during straight and level flight conditions.

  19. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  20. Numerical characterization of the hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of air flow in flexible air distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharehdaghi, Samad; Moujaes, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Flexible duct air distribution systems are used in a large percentage of residential and small commercial buildings in the United States . Very few empirical or predictive data are available though to help provide the HVAC design engineer with reliable information . Moreover, because of the ducts flexibility, the shapes of these ducts offer a different set of operating fluid flow and thermal conditions from traditional smooth metal ducts. Hence, both the flow field and heat transfer through this kind of ducts are much more complex and merit to be analyzed from a numerical predictive approach. The aim of this research paper is to compute some of the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the air flow inside these ducts over a range of Re numbers commonly used in the flow conditions of these air distribution systems. The information resulting from this CFD simulation, where a κ-ɛ turbulent model is used to predict the flow conditions, provide pressure drop and average convective heat transfer coefficients that exist in these ducts and was compared to previously found data. Circulation zones in the depressions of these ducts are found to exist which are suspected of influencing the pressured drop and heat transfer coefficients as compared to smooth ducts. The results show that fully developed conditions exist much earlier with regard to the inlet for both hydrodynamic and thermal entrance regions than what would be expected in smooth ducts under the same turbulent conditions.

  1. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  2. Design of an Inductive Power Transfer System with Flexible Coils for Body-worn Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, L. R.; Burrow, S. G.; Stark, B. H.; Grabham, N. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an IPT (Inductive Power Transfer) system for body worn electronics, and investigates the challenges for an IPT system that arise specifically in this scenario. Principally, these are: highly variable coil coupling through time-varying miss-alignment and coil separation; a requirement that one or both of the coils must be wearable and thus flexible; and proximity to the human body introducing limits on the maximum EM field. The highly variable coupling results in a system that must operate effectively with a large range of received powers, whilst the constraints on the realisation of the coils typically reduce the Q-factor; the human exposure considerations limit both the maximum field strengths that the wearer of a receiver coil might experience, and also the field strengths that a 3rd party might be exposed to, for instance when approaching the transmit coil.

  3. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  4. Hybrid membrane contactor system for creating semi-breathing air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, D. V.

    2012-02-01

    Typically, the equipment to create an artificial climate does not involve changing the composition of the respiratory air. In particular in medical institutions assumes the existence of plant of artificial climate and disinfection in operating rooms and intensive care wards. The use of a hybrid membrane-absorption systems for the generation of artificial atmospheres are improving the respiratory system, blood is enriched or depleted of various gases, resulting in increased stamina, there is a better, faster or slower metabolism, improves concentration and memory. Application of the system contributes to easy and rapid recovery after the operation. By adding a special component, with drug activity, air ionization, and adjust its composition, you can create a special, more favorable for patients with the atmosphere. These factors allow for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients and reduce mortality of heavy patients.

  5. Development of a Fieldable Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a non-mechanically encoded, simple, field-worthy air-coupled ultrasonic scanning system that gives quantitative information about the size of damage and underlying structure in composite and aluminum aerospace structures. The system consists of the AIRSCAN® air-coupled ultrasonic testing system, the Flock of Birds® real-time motion tracking equipment, a lightweight composite yoke, and laptop PC with data acquisition and processing software. Through transmission C-scan images are generated manually by moving transducers attached to a yoke across the part's surface. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Field tests on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades have begun. Initial test results are shown.

  6. T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are resistant to induction of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Cristiano; Barbati, Cristiana; Vacirca, Davide; Piscopo, Paola; Confaloni, Annamaria; Sanchez, Massimo; Maselli, Angela; Colasanti, Tania; Conti, Fabrizio; Truglia, Simona; Perl, Andras; Valesini, Guido; Malorni, Walter; Ortona, Elena; Pierdominici, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, the cytoprotection mechanism that takes place under metabolic impairment, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Here, we investigated the spontaneous and induced autophagic behavior of T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with that of T lymphocytes from healthy donors by measuring the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. No significant differences in spontaneous autophagy were found between T lymphocytes from patients with SLE and from healthy donors, apart from CD4+ naive T cells from patients with SLE in which constitutively higher levels of autophagy (P<0.001) were detected. At variance, whereas treatment of T lymphocytes from healthy donors with serum IgG from patients with SLE resulted in a 2-fold increase in LC3-II levels (P<0.001), T lymphocytes from SLE patients were resistant to autophagic induction and also displayed an up-regulation of genes negatively regulating autophagy, e.g., α-synuclein. These findings could open new perspectives in the search for pathogenetic determinants of SLE progression and in the development of therapeutic strategies aimed to recover T-cell compartment homeostasis by restoring autophagic susceptibility.—Alessandri, C., Barbati, C., Vacirca, D., Piscopo, P., Confaloni, A., Sanchez, M., Maselli, A., Colasanti, T., Conti, F., Truglia, S., Perl, A., Valesini, G., Malorni, W., Ortona, E., Pierdominici, M. T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are resistant to induction of autophagy. PMID:22835828

  7. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  8. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  9. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  10. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2015-05-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract - ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  11. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F

    2011-01-01

    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  12. Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

  13. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  14. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  15. Operational air quality forecasting system for Spain: CALIOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Piot, M.; Jorba, O.; Goncalves, M.; Pay, M.; Pirez, C.; Lopez, E.; Gasso, S.; Martin, F.; García-Vivanco, M.; Palomino, I.; Querol, X.; Pandolfi, M.; Dieguez, J. J.; Padilla, L.

    2009-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) have shown great concerns to understand the transport and dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere. According to the European directives (1996/62/EC, 2002/3/EC, 2008/50/EC), air quality modeling, if accurately applied, is a useful tool to understand the dynamics of air pollutants, to analyze and forecast the air quality, and to develop programs reducing emissions and alert the population when health-related issues occur. The CALIOPE project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, has the main objective to establish an air quality forecasting system for Spain. A partnership of four research institutions composes the CALIOPE project: the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), the center of investigation CIEMAT, the Earth Sciences Institute ‘Jaume Almera’ (IJA-CSIC) and the CEAM Foundation. CALIOPE will become the official Spanish air quality operational system. This contribution focuses on the recent developments and implementation of the integrated modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and Canary Islands (CI) with a high spatial and temporal resolution (4x4 sq. km for IP and 2x2 sq. km for CI, 1 hour), namely WRF-ARW/HERMES04/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM. The HERMES04 emission model has been specifically developed as a high-resolution (1x1 sq. km, 1 hour) emission model for Spain. It includes biogenic and anthropogenic emissions such as on-road and paved-road resuspension production, power plant generation, ship and plane traffic, airports and ports activities, industrial and agricultural sectors as well as domestic and commercial emissions. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the model was performed for a reference year (2004) using data from ground-based measurement networks. The products of the CALIOPE system will provide 24h and 48h forecasts for O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10 and PM2.5 at surface level. An operational evaluation system has been developed

  16. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  17. D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-15

    This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.

  18. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Qi, Nan; LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, Cory K.; Finn, John E.; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an. adsorbent column into a closed oxidation loop is under development through cooperative R&D between Vanderbilt University and NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. Recent work has focused on fabrication and operation of a RAPS breadboard at NASA Ames, and on measurement of adsorption isotherm data for several important organic compounds at Vanderbilt. These activities support the use and validation of RAPS modeling software also under development at Vanderbilt, which will in turn be used to construct a prototype system later in the project.

  19. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  20. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  1. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  2. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  3. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  4. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  5. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  6. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  7. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  8. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  9. Modeling urban air pollution with optimized hierarchical fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Tashayo, Behnam; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Environmental exposure assessments (EEA) and epidemiological studies require urban air pollution models with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Uncertain available data and inflexible models can limit air pollution modeling techniques, particularly in under developing countries. This paper develops a hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS) to model air pollution under different land use, transportation, and meteorological conditions. To improve performance, the system treats the issue as a large-scale and high-dimensional problem and develops the proposed model using a three-step approach. In the first step, a geospatial information system (GIS) and probabilistic methods are used to preprocess the data. In the second step, a hierarchical structure is generated based on the problem. In the third step, the accuracy and complexity of the model are simultaneously optimized with a multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. We examine the capabilities of the proposed model for predicting daily and annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 and compare the accuracy of the results with representative models from existing literature. The benefits provided by the model features, including probabilistic preprocessing, multi-objective optimization, and hierarchical structure, are precisely evaluated by comparing five different consecutive models in terms of accuracy and complexity criteria. Fivefold cross validation is used to assess the performance of the generated models. The respective average RMSEs and coefficients of determination (R (2)) for the test datasets using proposed model are as follows: daily PM2.5 = (8.13, 0.78), annual mean PM2.5 = (4.96, 0.80), daily NO2 = (5.63, 0.79), and annual mean NO2 = (2.89, 0.83). The obtained results demonstrate that the developed hierarchical fuzzy inference system can be utilized for modeling air pollution in EEA and epidemiological studies.

  10. Energy Efficiency of Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator Using Fast Recovery Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Tomio; Kanesawa, Kyousuke; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Characteristics of inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator with semiconductor opening switch (SOS) diodes are investigated with focusing on an energy transfer efficiency from the generator to the resistive load. Fast recovery diodes VMI K100UF were used as SOS and were connected in series and/or in parallel to realize a large current and a high output voltage. The output voltage increases with increasing circuit inductance L and/or primary capacitor capacitance C. The reverse pumping time also increases with LC value and is saturated to 100 ns at LC=50×10-15 HF. The pulse width of the output voltage increases gradually with increasing value of the LC multiplication. The energy transfer efficiency of the generator to the resistive load has a maximum value of 71% at C=4nF and L=12.6μH when the load resistance is 122 Ω. This value is almost two times larger than 56 Ω of the surge impedance Zs=√L/C and much smaller than impedance of the SOS diodes after interrupting the circuit current. The maximum energy transfer efficiency decreases from 71 to 32% with decreasing LC value from 50×10-15 to 1.2×10-15 HF.

  11. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  12. Nozzle for discharging ventilation air from a ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Elfverson, S.E.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a nozzle for discharging ventilation air from a ventilation system, preferably arranged in a vehicle, including at least one outlet housing with a through-flow duct for ventilation air, a fixed plate transverse to the flow duct and rigidly attached to the outlet housing, and a plurality of plates parallel to the fixed plate. These plates are mutually displaceable in a direction transverse to the flow duct under the action of a control lever passing through the plates, the plates being formed with perforation patterns, which in coaction form ventilation ducts through which the ventilation air can flow and in response to the setting of the control lever cause deviation of the flow direction of the ventilation air. Each displaceable plate is formed with a grid cross comprising at least two intersecting bars, of which one bar has a substantially circular cross section, while the other bar has a substantially elliptical cross section and wherein the control lever is adapted to grip round a grid cross, the control lever having two pairs of longitudinal slots. One pair of the slots is adapted to grip without play one of the intersecting bars in each respective grid cross. The other pair of slots comprises a first slot adapted to grip without play the other of the intersecting bars, and a second slot formed with a width disabling engagement with the other of the intersecting bars.

  13. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  14. Air to fuel ratio control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Y.; Oyama, Y.

    1980-05-06

    An air to fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine having a fixed venturi type carburetor is disclosed. The air to fuel ratio control system comprises a device for extracting an atmospheric pressure within a venturi or a pressure corresponding to a relieved venturi vacuum, a device for extracting a static fuel pressure downstream of a main jet provided in a fuel path, a device for comparing those pressures directly or indirectly and a device for controlling the static fuel pressure in accordance with an output of the detecting device. Control is made such that the difference between those pressures is always maintained substantially constant. The air to fuel ratio control system may further comprise a device for detecting composition of exhaust gas of the engine. An output of the composition detecting device is applied to a control device which controls the static fuel pressure based on the output of the differential pressure detecting device and the output of the composition detecting device.

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on moist air systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1987-12-31

    The radiation chemistry of nitrogen/oxygen/water systems is reviewed. General radiolytic effects in dry nitrogen/oxygen systems are relatively well characterized. Irradiation results in the formation of steady state concentrations of ozone, nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide. In closed systems, the concentration observed depends on the total dose, temperature and initial gas composition. Only three studies have been published that focus on the radiation chemistry of nitrogen/oxygen/water homogeneous gas systems. Mixed phase work that is relevant to the gaseous system is also summarized. The presence of water vapor results in the formation of nitric acid and significantly changes the chemistry observed in dry air systems. Mechanistic evidence from the studies reviewed are summarized and discussed in relation to characterizing the gas phase during the containment period of a repository in tuff.

  16. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  17. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  18. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  19. Effect of air pollutants on the pulmonary surfactant system.

    PubMed

    Müller, B; Seifart, C; Barth, P J

    1998-09-01

    Air pollutants have been recognized to influence the structure and function of the surfactant system. Agents that have received the most attention include ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hyperoxia, diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, silica and fibrous materials such as asbestos. The deleterious effects of air pollutants on the surfactant system depend on the size of the agent, on its solubility in aqueous solutions and chemical reactivity and on its concentration and the duration of exposure. Hereby the following general rules apply: the smaller the agent's size and the less water soluble the pollutant is, the greater the tendency to reach the alveoli during breathing. In addition, the reactivity also determines the depth of penetration into alveoli. Compounds with high reactivity such as O3, which also fulfil the earlier rules, will react with the upper respiratory tract compared with compounds with slightly reduced reactivity, such as NO2, which will penetrate the alveoli. The common consequence of exposure to air pollutants is an accumulation of surfactant phospholipids and surfactant-specific proteins in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These components also are structurally altered, mainly by oxidant gases, resulting in impairment of their biological activity. Thus, for surfactant phospholipids, there is impaired adsorption to the air-liquid interface due to oxidation of their fatty acids. Also, surfactant protein A, regarded as a modulator of the surfactant system, shows impaired functions after exposure to oxidants. It is likely that in addition to the effects described in this review not all effects are known because the molecular effects of several key components (e.g. SP-B and C) have not been well studied.

  20. Advanced bio-energy systems for Air Force installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, W. J.; Bond, D. H.

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface with in place energy generating hardware to sustain total annual facility energy requirements on a forested airbase. The investigation found that Eglin AFB, FL, has high potential for such a system, but that certain components and subsystems require test, evaluation and demonstration in an Air Force base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a centralized biomass gasification/combined cycle system to produce 135,000 1b/hr 150 psig steam (saturated) and 27 Mwh/hr electrical power from 1480 green tons of wood chips daily. A phased implementation system is recommended, consisting of separate integrable test and evaluation modules for combined cycle wood gasification and for cogeneration, which would dovetail into an expanded basewide energy self sufficient system. The investigation did not consider harvestation of base woodlands, which is the subject of a separate effort to define the wood resource aspects of a total biomass self-sufficient system.

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Externally Air-Cooled Low-Flow torch and the Attenuation of Space Charge and Matrix Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Praphairaksit, N.

    2000-09-12

    An externally air-cooled low-flow torch has been constructed and successfully demonstrated for applications in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The torch is cooled by pressurized air flowing at {approximately}70 L/min through a quartz air jacket onto the exterior of the outer tube. The outer gas flow rate and operating RF forward power are reduced considerably. Although plasmas can be sustained at the operating power as low as 400 W with a 2 L/min of outer gas flow, somewhat higher power and outer gas flows are advisable. A stable and analytical useful plasma can be obtained at 850 W with an outer gas flow rate of {approximately}4 L/min. Under these conditions, the air-cooled plasma produces comparable sensitivities, doubly charged ion ratios, matrix effects and other analytical merits as those produced by a conventional torch while using significantly less argon and power requirements. Metal oxide ion ratios are slightly higher with the air-cooled plasma but can be mitigated by reducing the aerosol gas flow rate slightly with only minor sacrifice in analyte sensitivity. A methodology to alleviate the space charge and matrix effects in ICP-MS has been developed. A supplemental electron source adapted from a conventional electron impact ionizer is added to the base of the skimmer. Electrons supplied from this source downstream of the skimmer with suitable amount and energy can neutralize the positive ions in the beam extracted from the plasma and diminish the space charge repulsion between them. As a result, the overall ion transmission efficiency and consequent analyte ion sensitivities are significantly improved while other important analytical aspects, such as metal oxide ion ratio, doubly charged ion ratio and background ions remain relatively unchanged with the operation of this electron source. This technique not only improves the ion transmission efficiency but also minimizes the matrix effects drastically. The matrix-induced suppression

  2. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry (< 80% R. H.) and warm (> 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  3. Integrated Evaluation of Closed Loop Air Revitalization System Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s vision and mission statements include an emphasis on human exploration of space, which requires environmental control and life support technologies. This Contractor Report (CR) describes the development and evaluation of an Air Revitalization System, modeling and simulation of the components, and integrated hardware testing with the goal of better understanding the inherent capabilities and limitations of this closed loop system. Major components integrated and tested included a 4-Bed Modular Sieve, Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit, Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and a Sabatier Engineering and Development Unit. The requisite methodolgy and technical results are contained in this CR.

  4. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  5. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  6. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  7. The Air Force Air Program and Information Management System (APIMS): A flexible tool for managing your Title V Operating Permits

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.A.; Gordon, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Air Force Command Core System (CCS) is an integrated, activity-based risk management system designed to support the information needs of Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) professionals. These professionals are responsible for managing a complex and often dynamic set of requirements, and therefore, have a need for an information system that can readily be customized to meet their specific needs. This dynamic environment also drives the need for flexibility in the system. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) is a module within CCS designed to not only manage permit compliance and emission inventories, but also support the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements related to air quality issues. This paper will describe the underlying foundation of CCS, the information linkages within the database, and then summarize the functionality available within the APIMS module to support the Air Quality Managers' information needs, placing emphasis on the flexibility the system provides to manage Title V Operating Permits.

  8. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  9. An augmented reality binocular system (ARBS) for air traffic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbrook, Jim E.; Ruffner, John W.; Labbe, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The primary means by which air traffic tower controllers obtain information is through direct out-thewindow viewing, although a considerable amount of time is spent looking at electronic displays and other information sources inside the tower cab. The Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored the development of a prototype Augmented Reality Binocular System (ARBS) that enhances tower controller performance, situation awareness, and safety. The ARBS is composed of a virtual binocular (VB) that displays real-time imagery from high resolution telephoto cameras and sensors mounted on pan/tilt units (PTUs). The selected PTU tracks to the movement of the VB, which has an inertial heading and elevation sensor. Relevant airfield situation text and graphic depictions that identify airfield features are overlaid on the imagery. In addition, the display is capable of labeling and tracking vehicles on which an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system has been installed. The ARBS provides air traffic controllers and airfield security forces with the capability to orient toward, observe, and conduct continuous airfield operations and surveillance/security missions from any number of viewing aspects in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we describe the ARBS in detail, discuss the results of a Usability Test of the prototype ARBS, and discuss ideas for follow-on efforts to develop the ARBS to a fieldable level.

  10. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    SciTech Connect

    Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.

    2014-10-15

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 μC. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  11. Photon echo without a free induction decay in a double-Λ system.

    PubMed

    Beavan, Sarah E; Ledingham, Patrick M; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J

    2011-04-01

    We have characterized a novel photon-echo pulse sequence for a double-Λ-type energy level system where the input and rephasing transitions are different from the applied π pulses. We show that, despite having imperfect π-pulses associated with large coherent emission due to free induction decay (FID), the noise added in the echo mode is only 0.2 ± 0.1 photons per shot, compared to 4 × 10⁴ photons in the FID modes. Using this echo pulse sequence in the "rephased amplified spontaneous emission" (RASE) scheme [Phys. Rev. A 81, 012301 (2010)] will allow for generation of entangled photon pairs that are in different frequency, temporal, and potentially spatial modes to any bright driving fields. The coherence and efficiency properties of this sequence were characterized in a Pr(3+):Y₂SiO₅ crystal.

  12. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  13. Numerical Study of a System of Long Josephson Junctions with Inductive and Capacitive Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Plecenik, A.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Bashashin, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    The phase dynamics of the stacked long Josephson junctions is investigated taking into account the inductive and capacitive couplings between junctions and the diffusion current. The simulation of the current-voltage characteristics is based on the numerical solution of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method and finite-difference approximation. A parallel implementation is based on the MPI technique. The effectiveness of the MPI/C++ code is confirmed by calculations on the multi-processor cluster CICC (LIT JINR, Dubna). We demonstrate the appearance of the charge traveling wave (CTW) at the boundary of the zero field step. Based on this fact, we conclude that the CTW and the fluxons coexist.

  14. Spatial variation of plasma parameters and ion acceleration in an inductive plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Volynets, V.N.; Park, Wontaek; Tolmachev, Yu.N.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Yoo, Jinwoo

    2006-02-15

    Plasma parameters of inductively coupled plasma system with an annular plasma source have been studied experimentally. At low pressures (about 1 mTorr), electron temperature inside the plasma source is rather high (8-13 eV) and is much greater than in the diffusion (main) chamber (4-5 eV). The plasma potential inside the source is also much higher than in the main chamber. There is a rapid drop of the electron temperature and plasma potential at the boundary between the plasma source and the main chamber. The drop of the plasma potential at the boundary (about 20 V) means the existence of a strong axial electric field, which retards the electrons inside the plasma source and accelerates the ions from the source into the main chamber. Measurements of ion energy distributions in the main chamber volume reveal the existence of ions with kinetic energies about 15 eV.

  15. Electrical engineering and nontechnical design variables of multiple inductive loop systems for auditoriums.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Gil

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal configuration is different from those proposed for classroom use (Ross, 1969; Hodgson, 1986; Clevenger, 1992). Experimental results were obtained for a double-loop configuration in such a setting (a university gymnasium/auditorium in this case). The results demonstrate that a double-loop configuration is a viable possibility for auditorium use. Several variables using this configuration were examined, and experimentation was done. Various implications, including consequent nontechnical issues specific to this application, are discussed as well. Technical and nontechnical aspects of the ILA configuration need to be examined together when designing an optimal system.

  16. Raytheon: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    In 2003, Raytheon Company upgraded the efficiency of the compressed air system at its Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Massachusetts, to save energy and reduce costs. Worn compressors and dryers were replaced, a more sophisticated control strategy was installed, and an aggressive leak detection and repair effort was carried out. The total cost of these improvements was $342,000; however, National Grid, a utility service provider, contributed a $174,000 incentive payment. Total annual energy and maintenance cost savings are estimated at $141,500, and energy savings are nearly 1.6 million kWh. This case study was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program.

  17. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Advanced Air Cargo Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The current air cargo environment and the relevance of advanced technology aircraft in enhancing the efficiency of the 1990 air cargo system are discussed. NASA preliminary design studies are shown to indicate significant potential gains in aircraft efficiency and operational economics for future freighter concepts. Required research and technology elements are outlined to develop a better base for evaluating advanced design concepts. Current studies of the market operation are reviewed which will develop design criteria for a future dedicated cargo transport. Design features desirable in an all-freighter design are reviewed. NASA-sponsored studies of large, distributed-load freighters are reviewed and these designs are compared to current wide-body aircraft. These concepts vary in gross takeoff weight from 0.5 Gg (one million lbs.) to 1.5 Gg (three million lbs.) and are found to exhibit economic advantages over conventional design concepts.

  18. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  19. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Oshkour, Azim Ataollahi; Ali, Sadeeq; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Wan Abas, Wan A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded. PMID:25207872

  20. Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:25288963

  1. Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

  2. Influence of environmental hypertonicity on the induction of ureogenesis and amino acid metabolism in air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus, Bloch).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Bhuyan, Gitalee; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2014-07-01

    Effect of environmental hypertonicity, due to exposure to 300 mM mannitol solution for 7 days, on the induction of ureogenesis and also on amino acid metabolism was studied in the air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus, which is already known to have the capacity to face the problem of osmolarity stress in addition to other environmental stresses in its natural habitats. Exposure to hypertonic mannitol solution led to reduction of ammonia excretion rate by about 2-fold with a concomitant increase of urea-N excretion rate by about 2-fold. This was accompanied by significant increase in the levels of both ammonia and urea in different tissues and also in plasma. Further, the environmental hypertonicity also led to significant accumulation of different non-essential free amino acids (FAAs) and to some extent the essential FAAs, thereby causing a total increase of non-essential FAA pool by 2-3-fold and essential FAA pool by 1.5-2.0-fold in most of the tissues studied including the plasma. The activities of three ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase in liver and kidney tissues, and four key amino acid metabolism-related enzymes such as glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase (reductive amination), alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase were also significantly up-regulated in different tissues of the fish while exposing to hypertonic environment. Thus, more accumulation and excretion of urea-N observed during hypertonic exposure were probably associated with the induction of ureogenesis through the induced OUC, and the increase of amino acid pool was probably mainly associated with the up-regulation of amino acid synthesizing machineries in this catfish in hypertonic environment. These might have helped the walking catfish in defending the osmotic stress and to acclimatize better under hypertonic environment, which is very much uncommon among

  3. Compressed Air System Optimization Improves Production and saves energy at a Satellite Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    In 2001, a compressed air improvement project was implemented following an audit on the compressed air system at Boeing Satellite Systems (formerly Hughes Space & Communications Company) in Los Angeles, California.

  4. The design of an air filtration system to clean high temperature/high humidity radioactive air streams

    SciTech Connect

    Proffitt, T.H.; Burket, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    During normal operating processes or waste remediation efforts high efficiency (HEPA) filtration systems are used to remove particulate contamination from air streams. These HEPA filtration systems can accommodate a range of air humidities and temperatures and still retain their effectiveness. However, when the combination of high humidity and high temperature are present the effect of these highly saturated air streams can be detrimental to a HEPA filtration system. Couple this highly saturated air stream with the effect of radioactivity and a case for a {open_quotes}specialized{close_quotes} HEPA filter system can be made. However, using fundamental laws of heat transfer it is possible to design a a HEPA a filter system that can operate in a high temperature/high humidity radioactive environment.

  5. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOEpatents

    Staiger, Chad L.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Miller, A. Keith; Cornelius, Christopher J.

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  6. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  7. Development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors and their readout system for LiteBIRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Mima, S.; Okamura, T.; Sato, N.; Tomaru, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yuasa, T.; Watanabe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation have produced an odd-parity pattern B-mode in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. LiteBIRD (Light satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) aims at detecting this B-mode polarization precisely. It requires about 2000 detectors capable of detecting a frequency range from 50 GHz to 250 GHz with ultra low noise. Superconducting detectors are suitable for this requirement. We have fabricated and tested microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) and developed a new readout system. We have designed antenna-coupled MKIDs. Quasi-particles are created by incident radiation and are detected as a change of the surface impedance of a superconductor strip. This change of the surface impedance is translated into the change of the resonant frequency of a microwave signal transmitted through the resonator. We also have developed a new readout system for MKIDs. The newly developed readout system is not only able to read out the amplitude and the phase data with the homodyne detection for multi-channels, but also provides a unique feature of tracking the resonant frequency of the target resonator. This mechanism enables us to detect signals with a large dynamic range. We report on the recent R&D status of the developing MKIDs and on the read-out system for LiteBIRD.

  8. Induction kinetics of a conditional pH stress response system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Georg; Koller, Christiane; Burdack, Korinna; Tetsch, Larissa; Haneburger, Ina; Jung, Kirsten; Gerland, Ulrich

    2009-10-23

    The analysis of stress response systems in microorganisms can reveal molecular strategies for regulatory control and adaptation. In this study, we focused on the Cad module, a subsystem of Escherichia coli's response to acidic stress that is conditionally activated at low pH only when lysine is available. When expressed, the Cad system counteracts the elevated H(+) concentration by converting lysine to cadaverine under the consumption of H(+) and exporting cadaverine in exchange for external lysine. Surprisingly, the cad operon displays a transient response, even when the conditions for its induction persist. To quantitatively characterize the regulation of the Cad module, we experimentally recorded and theoretically modeled the dynamics of important system variables. We established a quantitative model that adequately describes and predicts the transient expression behavior for various initial conditions. Our quantitative analysis of the Cad system supports negative feedback by external cadaverine as the origin of the transient response. Furthermore, the analysis puts causal constraints on the precise mechanism of signal transduction via the regulatory protein CadC. PMID:19703467

  9. The civil air patrol ARCHER hyperspectral sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Brian; O'Connor, Rory; Kendall, William; Stocker, Alan; Schaff, William; Holasek, Rick; Even, Detlev; Alexa, Drew; Salvador, John; Eismann, Michael; Mack, Robert; Kee, Pat; Harris, Steve; Karch, Barry; Kershenstein, John

    2005-05-01

    The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is procuring Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) systems to increase their search-and-rescue mission capability. These systems are being installed on a fleet of Gippsland GA-8 aircraft, and will position CAP to gain realworld mission experience with the application of hyperspectral sensor and processing technology to search and rescue. The ARCHER system design, data processing, and operational concept leverage several years of investment in hyperspectral technology research and airborne system demonstration programs by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Each ARCHER system consists of a NovaSol-designed, pushbroom, visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor, a co-boresighted visible panchromatic high-resolution imaging (HRI) sensor, and a CMIGITS-III GPS/INS unit in an integrated sensor assembly mounted inside the GA-8 cabin. ARCHER incorporates an on-board data processing system developed by Space Computer Corporation (SCC) to perform numerous real-time processing functions including data acquisition and recording, raw data correction, target detection, cueing and chipping, precision image geo-registration, and display and dissemination of image products and target cue information. A ground processing station is provided for post-flight data playback and analysis. This paper describes the requirements and architecture of the ARCHER system, including design, components, software, interfaces, and displays. Key sensor performance characteristics and real-time data processing features are discussed in detail. The use of the system for detecting and geo-locating ground targets in real-time is demonstrated using test data collected in Southern California in the fall of 2004.

  10. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections.

  11. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. PMID:26717078

  12. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  13. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  14. Systemic release of osteoprotegerin during oxaliplatin-containing induction chemotherapy and favorable systemic outcome of sequential radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Sebastian; Kalanxhi, Erta; Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Dueland, Svein; Flatmark, Kjersti; Redalen, Kathrine Røe; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2016-01-01

    In colorectal cancer, immune effectors may be determinative for disease outcome. Following curatively intended combined-modality therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer metastatic disease still remains a dominant cause of failure. Here, we investigated whether circulating immune factors might correlate with outcome. An antibody array was applied to assay changes of approximately 500 proteins in serial serum samples collected from patients during oxaliplatin-containing induction chemotherapy and sequential chemoradiotherapy before final pelvic surgery. Array data was analyzed by the Significance Analysis of Microarrays software and indicated significant alterations in serum osteoprotegerin (TNFRSF11B) during the treatment course, which were confirmed by osteoprotegerin measures using a single-parameter immunoassay. Patients experiencing increase in circulating osteoprotegerin during the chemotherapy had significantly better 5-year progression-free survival than those without increase (78% versus 48%; P = 0.009 by log-rank test). Hence, systemic release of this soluble tumor necrosis factor decoy receptor following the induction phase of neoadjuvant therapy was associated with favorable long-term outcome in patients given curatively intended chemoradiotherapy and surgery but with metastatic disease as the main adverse event. This finding suggests that osteoprotegerin may mediate or reflect systemic anti-tumor immunity invoked by combined-modality therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:27145458

  15. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.H.; Yi, A.C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize `waverider` aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight. 5 refs.

  16. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conduction Hearing Aid System (TACHAS); Guidance for Industry and FDA.” See § 874.1 for the availability of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing...

  17. 49 CFR 229.29 - Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and... Inspections and Tests § 229.29 Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing. (a) A locomotive's air brake system shall receive the calibration, maintenance, and testing as prescribed in this section....

  18. 49 CFR 229.29 - Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and... Inspections and Tests § 229.29 Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing. (a) A locomotive's air brake system shall receive the calibration, maintenance, and testing as prescribed in this section....

  19. 49 CFR 229.29 - Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and... Inspections and Tests § 229.29 Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing. (a) A locomotive's air brake system shall receive the calibration, maintenance, and testing as prescribed in this section....

  20. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  1. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  2. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  3. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  4. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  5. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  6. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with air system under different operational strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Yasin; Khare, Vaibhav Rai; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2015-03-26

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building using a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. Lastly, the energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.

  7. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with air system under different operational strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Yasin; Khare, Vaibhav Rai; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2015-03-26

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building usingmore » a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. Lastly, the energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.« less

  8. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system has been developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air-traffic-control schedule advisor are as follows: (1) for each new arrival, it develops an admisible flight plan for that aircraft; (2) as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the aircraft's flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule; and (3) if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programmed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and Fortran.

  9. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  10. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  11. Fluid dynamic problems associated with air-breathing propulsive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of research activities on problems related to air-breathing propulsion is made in this final report for the step funded research grant NASA NGL 14-005-140. Problems include the aircraft ejector-nozzle propulsive system, nonconstant pressure jet mixing process, recompression and reattachment of turbulent free shear layer, supersonic turbulent base pressure, low speed separated flows, transonic boattail flow with and without small angle of attack, transonic base pressures, Mach reflection of shocks, and numerical solution of potential equation through hodograph transformation.

  12. Air-Cored Linear Induction Motor for Earth-to-Orbit Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabar, Zivan; Levi, Enrico; Birenbaum, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The need for lowering the cost of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) launches has prompted consideration of electromagnetic launchers. A preliminary design based on the experience gained in an advanced type of coilgun and on innovative ideas shows that such a launcher is technically feasible with almost off-the-shelf components.

  13. 1999 NASA Seal/secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn hosted the Seals/Secondary Air System Workshop on October 28-29, 1999. Each year NASA and our industry and university partners share their respective seal technology development. We use these workshops as a technical forum to exchange recent advancements and "lessons-leamed" in advancing seal technology and solving problems of common interest. As in the past we are publishing two volumes. Volume 1 will be publicly available and volume 2 will be restricted under International Traffic and Arms Regulations (I.T.A.R.). The 1999 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop was divided into four areas; (i) overviews of the government-sponsored gas turbine programs (NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology program and DOE Advanced Turbine System program) and the general aviation program (GAP) with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (ii) turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of an airline customer (i.e., United Airlines), (iii) sealing concepts, methods and results including experimental facilities and numerical predictions; and (iv) reviews of seal requirements for next generation aerospace vehicles (Trailblazer, Bantam and X-38).

  14. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  15. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  16. Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

  17. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  18. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  19. Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

  20. 14 CFR 29.1109 - Carburetor air cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air cooling. 29.1109 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1109 Carburetor air... to maintain the air temperature, at the carburetor inlet, at or below the maximum established...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1109 - Carburetor air cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air cooling. 29.1109 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1109 Carburetor air... to maintain the air temperature, at the carburetor inlet, at or below the maximum established...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1109 - Carburetor air cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air cooling. 29.1109 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1109 Carburetor air... to maintain the air temperature, at the carburetor inlet, at or below the maximum established...

  3. System for feedback control of air-fuel ratio in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, K.; Kunome, Y.

    1984-05-08

    A system for feedback control of the air-fuel ratio in a carburetor for an automotive internal combustion engine. The control system includes an auxiliary air bleed passage in the main air bleed of a fuel passage, an electromagnetic valve to periodically open and close the auxiliary air bleed passage, an exhaust sensor to detect a specific component of the exhaust gas as an indication of actual air-fuel ratio, and a control circuit to control the electromagnetic valve based on the output of the exhaust sensor. A vacuum passage connects the auxiliary air bleed passage at a section upstream of the electromagnetic valve to a venturi of the intake passage. A vacuum-responsive valve in the vacuum passage dilutes air admitted through the auxiliary air bleed passage with the venturi vacuum during higher speed operation of the engine to compensate for a tendency of the air through the auxiliary air bleed passage to be augmented.

  4. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  6. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx. PMID:25667358

  7. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  8. Proteoglycan and collagen expression during human air conducting system development

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Guzmán, C.; San Martin, S.; Pereda, J.

    2012-01-01

    The lung is formed from a bud that grows and divides in a dichotomous way. A bud is a new growth center which is determined by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions where proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) might be involved. To understand this protein participation during human lung development, we examined the expression and distribution of proteoglycans in relation to the different types of collagens during the period in which the air conducting system is installed. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry we evaluate the expression of collagens (I, III and VI) and proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan and lumican) between 8 to 10 weeks post fertilization and 11 to 14 weeks of gestational age of human embryo and fetus lungs. We show that decorin, lumican and all the collagen types investigated were expressed at the epithelium-mesenchymal interface, forming a sleeve around the bronchiolar ducts. In addition, biglycan was expressed in both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle of the blood vessels. Thus, the similar distribution pattern of collagen and proteoglycans in the early developmental stages of the human lung may be closely related to the process of dichotomous division of the bronchial tree. This study provides a new insight concerning the participation of collagens and proteoglycans in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface during the period in which the air conducting system is installed in the human fetal lung. PMID:23027345

  9. A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 μm, 850 μm, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

  10. Induction in a Modular Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a theory of inductive learning--Autonomous Induction Theory--a form of induction that takes place within the autonomous and modular representational systems of the language faculty. Argues that Autonomous Induction Theory is constrained enough to be taken seriously as a plausible approach to explaining second language acquisition.…

  11. Thermodynamic Vent System Applied as Propellant Delivery System for Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Responding to a request from the Air Force, NASA Lewis Research Center engineers designed a combination pressure control and propellant delivery system based on thermodynamic vent system (TVS) technology. The Air Force is designing a new type of orbit transfer vehicle that uses energy from sunlight to both propel and power the vehicle. Because this vehicle uses propellant at a substantially slower rate than higher-energy rockets, it needed the Lewis-developed TVS technology for long-duration storage of cryogen propellants. Lewis engineers, in conjunction with industry partners, showed how this TVS technology could also be used to deliver propellant to the thruster. The Air Force has now begun the ground test demonstration phase. After successful completion of ground testing, the Air Force plans to use this technology in a space flight as early as 1999.

  12. A two-dimensional air-to-air combat game - Toward an air-combat advisory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Air-to-air combat is modeled as a discrete differential game, and by constraining the game to searching for the best guidance laws from the sets of those considered for each opponent, feedback and outcome charts are obtained which can be used to turn one of the automatic opponents into an intelligent opponent against a human pilot. A one-on-one two-dimensional fully automatic, or manned versus automatic, air-to-air combat game has been designed which includes both attack and evasion alternatives for both aircraft. Guidance law selection occurs by flooding the initial-condition space with four simulated fights for each initial condition, depicting the various attack/evasion strategies for the two opponents, and recording the outcomes. For each initial condition, the minimax method from differential games is employed to determine the best choice from the available strategies.

  13. Testing an Algae-Based Air-Regeneration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nienow, James

    1998-01-01

    The potential of an air-regeneration system based on the growth of unicellular algae on the surface of porous ceramic tubes was evaluated. The system is fairly robust with respect to environmental conditions and is capable of maintaining algal cultures for up to 365 days. Under standard conditions (50-66 micro mol/sq mm s (PPF), 450 micro mol mol of CO2), mature tubes can remove CO2 at a rate of up to 90 micro mol/sq m min. Under these conditions, approximately 200 square meters of area would be required for each member of the crew. However, the rate of uptake increases with both photon flux and CO2 concentration in accordance with Michaelis-Menton dynamics. An extrapolation to conditions of saturating light and carbon dioxide indicates that the area required can be reduced by a factor of at least 2.5.

  14. Development Induction Mechanism In Novolak Based Resist Systems For Submicron Optical Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukhy, Medhat A.

    1987-08-01

    Novolaks are phenolic polymers prepared by the condensation of phenols or substituted phenols with aldehydes in acidic reaction medium. Because of their many favorable characteristics, novolaks are the polymer most widely used in commercial positive photoresists. The non-swelling aqueous alkali solubility behavior of novolaks is a key property required to produce high resolution resist images. Novolak dissolution rates and development induction can be altered by changes made in their chemical composition, structure and molecular weight. The relationship of some novolak chemical compositions and their aqueous alkali solubility behavior is discussed in this paper. Positive photoresist solutions formulated with relatively high dissolution rate novolaks resolved submicron images with unique profiles, provided higher photosensitivities and plasma etch resistance than lower dissolution rate systems. Although this conclusion was confined to specific cresol novolaks investigated in this work, it is believed that many other novolak compositions show similar correlations. This behavior was attributed to the presence of a protective surface layer or "skin" on top of the resist film. This "skin" was formed during the softbaking of the resist coating and has a sufficiently different dissolution rate than the resist bulk. Detailed DRM studies provided evidence of development induction on the resist surface caused by the "skin". This effect may also be viewed as a surface contrast enhancement effect during the development. Resist systems requiring more aggressive developers due to their lower dissolution rates exhibited total or partial removal of the "skin" or micro peeling in some cases as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The resist thickness and softbaking conditions were found to affect the thickness of the "skin". On the other hand, the removal or preservation of that layer depended largely on the resist composition and the developing process. The exact chemical

  15. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 1: Analysis of current air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The material presented in this volume is classified into the following sections; (1) analysis of current routes; (2) air eligibility criteria; (3) current direct support infrastructure; (4) comparative mode analysis; (5) political and economic factors; and (6) future potential market areas. An effort was made to keep the observations and findings relating to the current systems as objective as possible in order not to bias the analysis of future air cargo operations reported in Volume 3 of the CLASS final report.

  16. An optimization model for the US Air-Traffic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulvey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic approach for monitoring U.S. air traffic was developed in the context of system-wide planning and control. Towards this end, a network optimization model with nonlinear objectives was chosen as the central element in the planning/control system. The network representation was selected because: (1) it provides a comprehensive structure for depicting essential aspects of the air traffic system, (2) it can be solved efficiently for large scale problems, and (3) the design can be easily communicated to non-technical users through computer graphics. Briefly, the network planning models consider the flow of traffic through a graph as the basic structure. Nodes depict locations and time periods for either individual planes or for aggregated groups of airplanes. Arcs define variables as actual airplanes flying through space or as delays across time periods. As such, a special case of the network can be used to model the so called flow control problem. Due to the large number of interacting variables and the difficulty in subdividing the problem into relatively independent subproblems, an integrated model was designed which will depict the entire high level (above 29000 feet) jet route system for the 48 contiguous states in the U.S. As a first step in demonstrating the concept's feasibility a nonlinear risk/cost model was developed for the Indianapolis Airspace. The nonlinear network program --NLPNETG-- was employed in solving the resulting test cases. This optimization program uses the Truncated-Newton method (quadratic approximation) for determining the search direction at each iteration in the nonlinear algorithm. It was shown that aircraft could be re-routed in an optimal fashion whenever traffic congestion increased beyond an acceptable level, as measured by the nonlinear risk function.

  17. Integrated Training System for Air Force On-the-Job Training: Specification Development. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Stuart B.; And Others.

    The Air Force conducted this study for two purposes: (1) to define the system of Air Force On-the-Job Training (OJT); and (2) to prepare a set of functional specifications for an integrated, base-level OJT evaluation and management system with linkages to the Major Commands and Air Staff. The study was conducted in four phases. During the first…

  18. 77 FR 59023 - Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Control Air Systems.'' This regulatory guide is being revised to address new issues that have been raised since RG 1.68.3 was first issued. These include vibration testing of instrument and control air...

  19. Overview of NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Included is a review of the current air transportation system and the challenges of air transportation research. Also included is a review of the current research highlights and significant accomplishments.

  20. Efficient Gene Induction and Endogenous Gene Repression Systems for the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Higo, Akiyoshi; Isu, Atsuko; Fukaya, Yuki; Hisabori, Toru

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, many studies have been conducted to employ genetically engineered cyanobacteria in the production of various metabolites. However, the lack of a strict gene regulation system in cyanobacteria has hampered these attempts. The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 performs both nitrogen and carbon fixation and is, therefore, a good candidate organism for such production. To employ Anabaena cells for this purpose, we intended to develop artificial gene regulation systems to alter the cell metabolic pathways efficiently. We introduced into Anabaena a transcriptional repressor TetR, widely used in diverse organisms, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. We found that anhydrotetracycline (aTc) substantially induced GFP fluorescence in a concentration-dependent manner. By expressing tetR under the nitrate-specific promoter nirA, we successfully reduced the concentration of aTc required for the induction of gfp under nitrogen fixation conditions (to 10% of the concentration needed under nitrate-replete conditions). Further, we succeeded in the overexpression of GFP by depletion of nitrate without the inducer by means of promoter engineering of the nirA promoter. Moreover, we applied these gene regulation systems to a metabolic enzyme in Anabaena and successfully repressed glnA, the gene encoding glutamine synthetase that is essential for nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria, by expressing the small antisense RNA for glnA. Consequently, the ammonium production of an ammonium-excreting Anabaena mutant was significantly enhanced. We therefore conclude that the gene regulation systems developed in this study are useful tools for the regulation of metabolic enzymes and will help to increase the production of desired substances in Anabaena. PMID:26684202