Science.gov

Sample records for air infiltration radiation

  1. Air encapsulation during infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Murphy, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effects of air encapsulation within the soil's transmission zone upon several infiltration properties. In the field, infiltration rates were measured using a double-cap infiltrometer and soil-water contents were measured using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). In the laboratory, infiltration experiments were peformed using repacked soil columns using TDR and CO 2 flooding. Results suggest that a significant portion of the total encapsulated air resided in interconnected pores within the soil's transmission zone. For the time scale considered, this residual air caused the effective hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone to remain at a level no greater than 20% of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. -from Authors

  2. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  7. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) or soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of treated wastewater. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions, air is being entrapped and compressed until it reaches a pressure which will enable the air to escape (unstable air flow). They also found that entrapped air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate, under ponding conditions, the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development (stable air flow); (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape through 20 ports installed along the column perimeter. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular surface (high and low surface zones). Additionally, Helle-show experiments were conducted in order to obtain a visual observation of preferential air flow path development. The measurements were carried out using a tension meter, air pressure transducers, TDR and video cameras. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the

  8. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  9. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  10. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  11. Indoor air quality and infiltration in multifamily naval housing

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Wilfert, G.L.; Dennis, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements of indoor air quality and air infiltration were taken in three units of a multifamily housing complex at the Naval Submarine base in Bangor, Washington, over 5 consecutive days during the heating season of 1983. Three dwelling units of identical size constructed in 1978 were monitored, each in a separate two-story four-unit complex. One unit was a downstairs unit and the other two units were upstairs units. Two of the units were occupied by smokers (one downstairs and one upstairs). None of the units had combustion appliances. Pollutants monitored indoors included radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. Indoor and outdoor temperature and windspeed were also recorded. Outdoor formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide were also measured. Air exchange was measured about three times during each 24-h period, using a perfluorocarbon tracer with automatic tracer sampling. The daily average air exchange rate ranged from 0.22 to 0.91 air changes per hour (ACH). Pollutant concentrations were generally low except for particulate matter in the units with smokers, which were two to four times higher than in the unit with nonsmokers. Levels of carbon monoxide were also slightly elevated in one of the units with a smoker compared to the unit with nonsmokers. 5 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  13. Air radiation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, K.

    1984-06-01

    The experimental data for air radiation from ground-based experiments and from the Fire II and Apollo 4 flights have been reviewed and compared with a single prediction method. The ground-based data agree generally with the trends predicted by the present calculations, but differences of a factor of two are noted. The flight data from Fire II and Apollo 4 are in good agreement with the present calculations with differences of less than 50 percent.

  14. AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING TRACER GASES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review of air filtration measurements using tracer gases, including sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and radioactive argon and krypton. Sulfur hexafluoride is the commonest tracer gas of choice...

  15. Air infiltration and interzonal airflow measurements in research houses: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagda, N.L.

    1988-08-01

    Four different but complementary methods--the tracer gas dilution method, single tracer constant concentration, passive perfluorocarbon tracers (constant release), and constant release of multiple halocarbon tracers with real-time analysis--were used to obtain detailed information on air infiltration and interzonal airflow rates in two bilevel research houses. The study included measurements of seasonal variations and differences between the houses, one of which was retrofitted in a previous EPRI study to reduce the air leakage area. Measurements showed that there had been little change in whole house infiltration rates during the 4 years since the retrofit. Differences between the houses with respect to whole house air infiltration rates were primarily the result of differences in downstairs air infiltration rates between the two houses. Zone-specific measurements indicated that downstairs infiltration rates were three to nine times higher than upstairs; infiltration rates were 30 to 60 percent lower in the downstairs of the retrofitted house than in the other house. The impact of the retrofit was also reflected by lower rates of airflow from the garage into the downstairs and from the upstairs to the attic. Airflows between the upstairs and downstairs of the houses exhibited seasonal variation due to stack effect action and operation of the central heating and cooling systems. Short-term interzonal airflow rates were as much as an order of magnitude higher than week-long average rates. Results of measurements with the different methods are also compared and discussed as they relate to advantages, limitations, and applicability of the methods in utility-sponsored measurement programs. 30 refs., 22 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Experimental investigation of infiltration in soil with occurrence of preferential flow and air trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Cislerova, Milena

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a number of infiltration experiments have not proved the validity of standard Richards' theory of the flow in soils with wide pore size distribution. Water flow in such soils under near-saturated conditions often exhibits preferential flow and temporal instability of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. An intact sample of coarse sandy loam from Cambisol series containing naturally developed vertically connected macropore was investigated during recurrent ponding infiltration (RPI) experiments conducted during period of 30 hours. RPI experiment consisted of two ponded infiltration runs, each followed by free gravitational draining of the sample. Three-dimensional neutron tomography (NT) image of the dry sample was acquired before the infiltration begun. The dynamics of the wetting front advancement was investigated by a sequence of neutron radiography (NR) images. Analysis of NR showed that water front moved preferentially through the macropore at the approximate speed of 2 mm/sec, which was significantly faster pace than the 0.3 mm/sec wetting advancement in the surrounding soil matrix. After the water started to flow out of the sample, changes in the local water content distribution were evaluated quantitatively by subtracting the NT image of the dry sample from subsequent tomography images. As a next stage, the experiment was repeated on a composed sample packed of ceramic and coarse sand. Series of infiltration runs was conducted in the sample with different initial water contents. The neutron tomography data quantitatively showed that both in natural soil sample containing the macropore and in the composed sample air was gradually transported from the region of fine soil matrix to the macropores or to the coarser material. The accumulation of the air bubbles in the large pores affected the hydraulic conductivity of the sample reducing it up to 50% of the initial value. This supports the hypothesis on strong influence of entrapped air amount and

  17. Brookhaven air infiltration measurement system (BNL/AIMS) description and application

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.; Cote, E.A.; Wieser, R.F.

    1983-08-01

    A unique capability to measure part-per-quadrillion concentrations of a family of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) is presented. Together with our unique PFT source and passive sampler, measurement of average air exchange and infiltration rate can be determined for periods as short as 12 hours. A more expensive programmable sampler can provide information on a frequency of as little as once per minute for each of its 23 sampling tubes. The principal of AIMS is based on the applicable steady-state assumption that the average concentration (e.g., in pL/L) of a tracer vapor in a chamber (i.e., a building or room) is equal to the emission rate of the tracer source (e.g., in pL/min) divided by the air leakage or infiltration rate (e.g., in L/min). Knowing the source rate and measuring the average concentration then provides a means to calculate the air leakage rate. Extending this technique to a multichamber concept, in which a different type of PFT source is deployed in each chamber of a building, allows the calculation of not only the infiltration rates in each chamber but also the air exchange rates between chambers as well. Since both the PFT source and the passive sampler, a miniature Capillary Adsorption Tube Sampler (CATS), are about the size of a cigarette, inexpensive, and reusable, the BNL/AIMS is a very cost-effective means (if not the only means) for determining these air exchange rates.

  18. Measuring Infiltration Rates in Homes as a Basis for Understanding Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerz, G. G.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; O'Keeffe, P.; Fuchs, M.; Kirk, M.

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration rates, or the rate of air exchange, of houses are important to understand because ventilation can be a dominate factor in determining indoor air quality. There are chemicals that are emitted from surfaces or point sources inside the home which are harmful to humans; these chemicals come from various objects including furniture, cleaning supplies, building materials, gas stoves, and the surrounding environment. The use of proper ventilation to cycle cleaner outdoor air into the house can be crucial for maintaining healthy living conditions in the home. At the same time, there can also be outdoor pollutants which infiltrate the house and contribute to poor indoor air quality. In either case, it is important to determine infiltration rates as a function of outdoor weather conditions, the house structure properties and indoor heating and cooling systems. In this work, the objective is to measure ventilation rates using periodic releases of a tracer gas and measuring how quickly the tracer concentration decays. CO2 will be used as the tracer gas because it is inert and harmless at low levels. An Arduino timer is connected to a release valve which controls the release of 9.00 SLPM of CO2 into the uptake vent within the test home. CO2 will be released until there is at least a 200 to 300 ppm increase above ambient indoor levels. Computers with CO2 sensors and temperature/pressure sensors attached will be used to record data from different locations within the home which will continuously record data up to a week. The results from these periodic ventilation measurements will be analyzed with respect to outdoor wind and temperature conditions and house structure properties. The data will be used to evaluate an established indoor air quality model.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring the rate at which air infiltrates into and out of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, J. C.

    1985-01-15

    Tracer emission sources which emit tracer gas at a predetermined constant known rate are distributed throughout a building. The preferred source is a small vessel containing a vaporous perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) substance having a very small bore hole in the top through which the PFT vapor can escape. Time is permitted for the tracer gas to mix uniformly throughout the building and for its concentration to equilibrate with infiltrating air. The concentration of the tracer is then measured and compared to the known volume of air in the building to determine the infiltration rate. In the preferred mode, the concentration is integrated and measured by continuously sampling the tracer gas at a constant rate on activated charcoal adsorbent over a period of several weeks. The amount of tracer substance accumulated on the adsorbent at the end of the test is directly related to the average tracer gas concentration which existed in the building during the sampling period and it can therefore be used to calculate an average infiltration rate during that period.

  20. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  1. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Edalat, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-03-22

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  2. Treatment of hemorrhagic radiation-induced proctopathy with a 4% formalin application under perianal anesthetic infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Dulskas, Audrius; Kilius, Alfredas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Norkus, Darius; Burneckis, Arvydas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the results of hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy treatment with a 4% formalin application. METHODS: A prospective study was performed. Over a three-year period, 38 patients underwent 4% formalin application under perianal anesthetic infiltration for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy. All patients included in the study were irradiated for prostate cancer. The patients ranged in age from 56-77 years (average 70 ± 5 years). All of the patients were referred for formalin therapy after noninvasive management had failed. Twenty-four (63.2%) patients underwent a single application, 10 (26.3%) patients underwent 2 applications, and 4 (10.5%) patients underwent 3 applications. RESULTS: Two to 36 mo (average 12 ± 3 mo) following treatment, 34 patients were interviewed (four were lost to follow-up). Twenty (58.8%) subjects reported complete cure, 8 (23.5%) subjects reported significant improvement, and 6 (17.7%) subjects reported no change. One patient (who underwent a colostomy at a regional hospital with no specialized services available for previous bleeding episodes from radiation proctopathy) was cured, and the colostomy was closed. One patient (2.6%) developed rectal mucosal damage after the second application. CONCLUSION: A 4-min application of 4% formalin for hemorrhagic radiation-induced proctopathy under perianal anesthetic infiltration in patients who have received external radial radiation therapy for prostate cancer is simple, reasonably safe, inexpensive, generally well tolerated, and effective. PMID:23946599

  3. Post-radiation retinal infiltrates simulating recurrent retinoblastoma: a clinical and pathologic case report

    SciTech Connect

    Judisch, G.F.; Folberg, R.

    1987-11-01

    An 8-month-old boy was found to have a sporadic unilateral stage IIa retinoblastoma, extending inferiorly and temporally from the right fovea. Within 5 weeks of diagnosis the tumor was treated with 4500 rads fractionated over 20 treatments. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) 1 month later revealed unequivocal clinical and echographic evidence of tumor regression. EUA 3 months after completion of radiation therapy revealed continued tumor regression with no evidence of new tumor formation. The third EUA, performed 6 months after radiation treatment, showed that multiple discreet gray-white retinal infiltrates had developed, predominantly in the area immediately below the regressed tumor. Because of concern that these lesions represented viable retinoblastoma, the eye was enucleated. Pathologic examination of these lesions revealed them to be collections of foamy cells containing melanin granules suggestive of pigment epithelial origin.

  4. Post-radiation retinal infiltrates simulating recurrent retinoblastoma: a clinical and pathologic case report.

    PubMed

    Judisch, G F; Folberg, R

    1987-01-01

    An 8-month-old boy was found to have a sporadic unilateral stage IIa retinoblastoma, extending inferiorly and temporally from the right fovea. Within 5 weeks of diagnosis the tumor was treated with 4500 rads fractionated over 20 treatments. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) 1 month later revealed unequivocal clinical and echographic evidence of tumor regression. EUA 3 months after completion of radiation therapy revealed continued tumor regression with no evidence of new tumor formation. The third EUA, performed 6 months after radiation treatment, showed that multiple discreet gray-white retinal infiltrates had developed, predominantly in the area immediately below the regressed tumor. Because of concern that these lesions represented viable retinoblastoma, the eye was enucleated. Pathologic examination of these lesions revealed them to be collections of foamy cells containing melanin granules suggestive of pigment epithelial origin. PMID:3320327

  5. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  6. Pressure Drop in Radiator Air Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes a method for measuring the drop in static pressure of air flowing through a radiator and shows (1) a reason for the discrepancy noted by various observers between head resistance and drop in pressure; (2) a difference in degree of contraction of the jet in entering a circular cell and a square cell; (3) the ratio of internal frictional resistance to total head resistance for two representative types; (4) the effect of smoothness of surface on pressure gradient; and (5) the effects of supplying heat to the radiator on pressure gradient. The fact that the pressure gradients are found to be approximately proportional to the square of the rate of flow of air appears to indicate turbulent flow, even in the short tubes of the radiator. It was found that the drop in the static pressure in the air stream through a cellular radiator and the pressure gradient in the air tubes are practically proportional to the square of the air flow in a given air density; that the difference between the head resistance per unit area and the fall of static pressure through the air tubes in radiators is apparent rather than real; and that radiators of different types differ widely in the amount of contraction of the jet at entrance. The frictional resistance was found to vary considerably, and in one case to be two-thirds of the head resistance in the type using circular cells and one-half of the head resistance of the radiator type using square cells of approximately the same dimensions.

  7. An iminosugar-based heparanase inhibitor heparastatin (SF4) suppresses infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes into inflamed dorsal air pouches.

    PubMed

    Sue, Mayumi; Higashi, Nobuaki; Shida, Hiroaki; Kogane, Yusuke; Nishimura, Yoshio; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta; Kepka, Magdalena; Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-06-01

    Local infiltration of inflammatory cells is regulated by a number of biological steps during which the cells likely penetrate through subendothelial basement membranes that contain heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In the present study, we examined whether administration of heparastatin (SF4), an iminosugar-based inhibitor of heparanase, could suppress local inflammation and degradation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in basement membranes. In a carrageenan- or formyl peptide-induced dorsal air pouch inflammation model, the number of infiltrated neutrophils and monocytes was significantly lower in mice after topical administration of heparastatin (SF4). The concentration of chemokines MIP-2 and KC in pouch exudates of drug-treated mice was similar to control. In a zymosan-induced peritonitis model, the number of infiltrated cells was not altered in drug-treated mice. To further test how heparastatin (SF4) influences transmigration of inflammatory neutrophils, its suppressive effect on migration and matrix degradation was examined in vitro. In the presence of heparastatin (SF4), the number of neutrophils that infiltrated across a Matrigel-coated polycarbonate membrane was significantly lower, while the number of neutrophils passing through an uncoated membrane was not altered. Lysate of bone marrow-derived neutrophils released sulfate-radiolabeled macromolecules from basement membrane-like extracellular matrix, which was suppressed by heparastatin (SF4). Heparan sulfate degradation activity was almost completely abolished after incubation of lysate with protein G-conjugated anti-heparanase monoclonal antibody, strongly suggesting that the activity was due to heparanase-mediated degradation. Taken together, in a dorsal air pouch inflammation model heparastatin (SF4) potentially suppresses extravasation of inflammatory cells by impairing the degradation of basement membrane heparan sulfate. PMID:27015605

  8. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, C. O.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor Charles H. Kruger, with Dr. Christophe O. Laux as Associate Investigator. The goal of this research was to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this end, spectral measurements and modeling were made of the radiation emitted between 2.4 and 5.5 micrometers by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3000 K. The objective was to examine the spectral emission of air species including nitric oxide, atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines, molecular and atomic continua, as well as secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperatures, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8x10(exp -4).

  9. Application of Modular Modeling System to Predict Evaporation, Infiltration, Air Temperature, and Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Johnny; Birgan, Latricia J.; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Soman, Vishwas

    1997-01-01

    Models are used for numerous application including hydrology. The Modular Modeling System (MMS) is one of the few that can simulate a hydrology process. MMS was tested and used to compare infiltration, soil moisture, daily temperature, and potential and actual evaporation for the Elinsboro sandy loam soil and the Mattapex silty loam soil in the Microwave Radiometer Experiment of Soil Moisture Sensing at Beltsville Agriculture Research Test Site in Maryland. An input file for each location was created to nut the model. Graphs were plotted, and it was observed that the model gave a good representation for evaporation for both plots. In comparing the two plots, it was noted that infiltration and soil moisture tend to peak around the same time, temperature peaks in July and August and the peak evaporation was observed on September 15 and July 4 for the Elinsboro Mattapex plot respectively. MMS can be used successfully to predict hydrological processes as long as the proper input parameters are available.

  10. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  11. 40 CFR 1.41 - Office of Air and Radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Air and Radiation. 1.41 Section 1.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.41 Office of Air and Radiation. The Office of Air and Radiation is under supervision of the...

  12. 40 CFR 1.41 - Office of Air and Radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Air and Radiation. 1.41 Section 1.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.41 Office of Air and Radiation. The Office of Air and Radiation is under supervision of the...

  13. Multizone infiltration monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

    1982-06-01

    A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

  14. Wind-tunnel simulation of infiltration across permeable building envelopes: Energy and air pollution exchange rates

    SciTech Connect

    Meroney, R.N.; Neff, D.E.; Birdsall, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the fluid-modeling techniques used to simulate wind-forced natural ventilation rates of rectangular, single-cell low-rise buildings. A 1:25 scale model of the Texas Tech University Wind Engineering Research Field Laboratory is used in a boundary-layer wind tunnel to evaluate alternative strategies for simulating infiltration into permeable buildings. A new approach is proposed which should permit evaluation of a wide range of leakage situations. In addition data is used to critique standard full-scale tracer gas test methods.

  15. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, C. H.; Laux, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes progress during the second year of our research program on Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasmas at Stanford University. This program is intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. Our previous annual report described spectral measurements and modeling of the radiation emitted between 3.2 and 5.5 microns by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3100 K. One of our goals was to examine the spectral emission of secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million Of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperature, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8 x 10(exp -4). As can be seen from Figure 1, it was found that the measured spectrum exhibited intense spectral features due to the fundamental rovibrational bands of NO at 4.9 - 5.5 microns and the V(3) band of CO2 (antisymmetric stretch) at 4.2-4.8 microns. These observations confirmed the well-known fact that infrared signatures between 4.15 - 5.5 microns can be masked by radiative emission in the interceptor's bow-shock. Figure I also suggested that the range 3.2 - 4.15 microns did not contain any significant emission features (lines or continuum) that could mask IR signatures. However, the signal-to-noise level, close to one in that range, precluded definite conclusions. Thus, in an effort to further investigate the spectral emission in the range of interest to signature masking problem, new measurements were made with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and an extended wavelength range.

  16. Cellular Inflammatory Infiltrate in Pneumonitis Induced by a Single Moderate Dose of Thoracic X Radiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Sara; Ghosh, Swarajit N.; Fish, Brian L.; Bodiga, Sreedhar; Tomic, Rade; Kumar, Gagan; Morrow, Natalya V.; Moulder, John E.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Medhora, Meetha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of these studies was to characterize the infiltrating inflammatory cells during pneumonitis caused by moderate doses of radiation. Two groups of male rats (WAG/RijCmcr, 8 weeks old) were treated with single 10- or 15-Gy doses of thoracic X radiation; a third group of age-matched animals served as controls. Only 25% rats survived the 15-Gy dose. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and whole lung mounts were subjected to cytological and histological evaluation after 8 weeks for distribution of resident macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells. There was a modest increase in airway and airspace-associated neutrophils in lungs from rats receiving 15 Gy. Mast cells (detected by immunohistochemistry for tryptase) increased over 70% with 10 Gy and over 13-fold after 15 Gy, with considerable leakage of tryptase into blood vessels and airways. Circulating levels of eight inflammatory cytokines were not altered after 10 Gy but appeared to decrease after 15 Gy. In summary, there were only modest increases in cellular inflammatory infiltrate during pneumonitis after a non-lethal dose of 10 Gy, but there was a dramatic rise in mast cell infiltration after 15 Gy, suggesting that circulating levels of mast cell products may be useful markers of severe pneumonitis. PMID:20334527

  17. Seasonal effects on multi-zone air infiltration in some typical US homes using a passive perfluorocarbon tracer technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; D'Ottavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    The time-averaged air infiltration (I), exfiltration (E), and between-zone exchange rates in three, similarly sized, 2-story homes with basements were measured biweekly for one year with the passive PFT system. In February, total air changes per hour (ACH) were 0.20, 0.29, and 0.69 h/sup -1/, respectively, for houses D, B, and G, but total air flow in and out of the basements were in the ratio of about 1:4:7, respectively. House D had an average 1st floor ACH/sub I/ of 0.32 and ACH/sub E/ of 0.50 h/sup -1/ and, for the 2nd floor, 0.02 and 0.05 h/sup -1/, respectively; this house only needed slight weatherization on the 1st floor. Floor 1 in and out rates in B were 0.27 and 0.03 h/sup -1/, and for floor 2, 0.07 and 0.45 h/sup -1/, respectively, indicating a slight weatherization need. The house G 1st floor ACH/sub I/ and ACH/sub E/ were 0.72 and 0.35 h/sup -1/ and 2nd floor, 0.00 and 1.21 h/sup -1/, respectively, showing a need for significant weatherizing. Total seasonal ACH was correlated with temperature difference and wind speed within +-12% for all 3.

  18. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, C. H.; Laux, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed measurements and modeling of the spectral emission of an atmospheric pressure air plasma at temperatures up to -3400 K have been made. The cold gas injected in the plasma torch contained an estimated mole fraction of water vapor of approximately 4.5 x 10(exp -3) and an estimated carbon dioxide mole fraction of approximately 3.3 x 10(exp -4). Under these conditions, the minimum level of air plasma emission is found to be between 3.9 and 4.15 microns. Outside this narrow region, significant spectral emission is detected that can be attributed to the fundamental and overtone bands of NO and OH, and to the v(sub 3) and the (v(sub 1)+v(sub 3)) bands Of CO2. Special attention was paid to the effects of ambient air absorption in the optical path between the plasma and the detector. Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between the measured and simulated spectra, which are both on absolute intensity scales, thus lending confidence in the radiation models incorporated into NEQAIR2-IR over the course of this research program.

  19. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  20. An approximate local thermodynamic nonequilibrium radiation model for air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gally, Thomas A.; Carlson, Leland A.

    1992-01-01

    A radiatively coupled viscous shock layer analysis program which includes chemical and thermal nonequilibrium is used to calculate stagnation point flow profiles for typical aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle conditions. Two methods of predicting local thermodynamic nonequilibrium radiation effects are used as a first and second order approximation to this phenomena. Tabulated results for both nitrogen and air freestreams are given with temperature, species, and radiation profiles for some air conditions. Two body solution results are shown for 45 and 60 degree hyperboloid bodies at 12 km/sec and 80 km altitude. The presented results constitute an advancement in the engineering modeling of radiating nonequilibrium reentry flows.

  1. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... air pollution, pollution from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection. ... It runs market based programs such as the Acid Rain Program and public/private partnership programs such as ...

  2. Turbulence in the air tubes of radiators for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the characteristics of flow in the air passages of aircraft radiators. The work was done by the National Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  3. Expression of ICAM-1 and acute inflammatory cell infiltration in the early phase of radiation colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Ito, M; Matsuu, M; Shichijo, K; Fukuda, E; Nakayama, T; Nakashima, M; Naito, S; Sekine, I

    2000-09-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is observed at an early stage of radiation-induced colitis. The emigration of inflammatory cells from the circulation requires interactions between cell adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and molecules on the surface of leukocytes. To elucidate this process, the present work analyzes the kinetics of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the accumulation of inflammatory myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells in relation to the appearance of acute radiation colitis prior to an overt radiation-induced ulcer. Colon tissues were obtained from Wistar Kyoto rats at various times after 22.5 Gy irradiation to the rectum. Histologically, crypt depletion and numerous inflammatory cells were observed 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal ulcer 6 days after irradiation. ICAM-1 immunopositivity was present in the endothelial cells of small vessels in the mucosa of both control and irradiated rats. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was detected in normal colon and irradiated colon by reverse transcription-PCR. In Northern blotting, ICAM-1 mRNA levels were found to increase markedly in the irradiated colon compared to the normal colon. In Western blotting. ICAM-1 protein expression also increased with a peak one day after irradiation, and remained elevated up to 6 days thereafter. The number of MPO-positive cells in lamina propria mucosa increased in a time-dependent fashion from 6 h to 6 days after irradiation. These data suggest that up-regulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and accumulation of MPO positive cells play important roles in the development of radiation-induced colonic ulcer. PMID:11210829

  4. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  5. PTEN deficiency promotes macrophage infiltration and hypersensitivity of prostate cancer to IAP antagonist/radiation combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Chris W D; Maxwell, Pamela J; Ong, Chee Wee; Redmond, Kelly M; McCann, Christopher; Neisen, Jessica; Ward, George A; Chessari, Gianni; Johnson, Christopher; Crawford, Nyree T; LaBonte, Melissa J; Prise, Kevin M; Robson, Tracy; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Longley, Daniel B; Waugh, David J J

    2016-02-16

    PTEN loss is prognostic for patient relapse post-radiotherapy in prostate cancer (CaP). Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is associated with reduced disease-free survival following radical prostatectomy. However, the association between PTEN loss, TAM infiltration and radiotherapy response of CaP cells remains to be evaluated. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of surgically-resected Gleason 7 tumors confirmed that PTEN loss correlated with increased CXCL8 expression and macrophage infiltration. However PTEN status had no discernable correlation with expression of other inflammatory markers by CaP cells, including TNF-α. In vitro, exposure to conditioned media harvested from irradiated PTEN null CaP cells induced chemotaxis of macrophage-like THP-1 cells, a response partially attenuated by CXCL8 inhibition. Co-culture with THP-1 cells resulted in a modest reduction in the radio-sensitivity of DU145 cells. Cytokine profiling revealed constitutive secretion of TNF-α from CaP cells irrespective of PTEN status and IR-induced TNF-α secretion from THP-1 cells. THP-1-derived TNF-α increased NFκB pro-survival activity and elevated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1) in CaP cells, which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Treatment with a novel IAP antagonist, AT-IAP, decreased basal and TNF-α-induced cIAP-1 expression in CaP cells, switched TNF-α signaling from pro-survival to pro-apoptotic and increased radiation sensitivity of CaP cells in co-culture with THP-1 cells. We conclude that targeting cIAP-1 can overcome apoptosis resistance of CaP cells and is an ideal approach to exploit high TNF-α signals within the TAM-rich microenvironment of PTEN-deficient CaP cells to enhance response to radiotherapy. PMID:26799286

  6. PTEN deficiency promotes macrophage infiltration and hypersensitivity of prostate cancer to IAP antagonist/radiation combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Chris W.D.; Maxwell, Pamela J.; Ong, Chee Wee; Redmond, Kelly M.; McCann, Christopher; Neisen, Jessica; Ward, George A.; Chessari, Gianni; Johnson, Christopher; Crawford, Nyree T.; LaBonte, Melissa J.; Prise, Kevin M.; Robson, Tracy; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Longley, Daniel B.; Waugh, David J.J.

    2016-01-01

    PTEN loss is prognostic for patient relapse post-radiotherapy in prostate cancer (CaP). Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is associated with reduced disease-free survival following radical prostatectomy. However, the association between PTEN loss, TAM infiltration and radiotherapy response of CaP cells remains to be evaluated. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of surgically-resected Gleason 7 tumors confirmed that PTEN loss correlated with increased CXCL8 expression and macrophage infiltration. However PTEN status had no discernable correlation with expression of other inflammatory markers by CaP cells, including TNF-α. In vitro, exposure to conditioned media harvested from irradiated PTEN null CaP cells induced chemotaxis of macrophage-like THP-1 cells, a response partially attenuated by CXCL8 inhibition. Co-culture with THP-1 cells resulted in a modest reduction in the radio-sensitivity of DU145 cells. Cytokine profiling revealed constitutive secretion of TNF-α from CaP cells irrespective of PTEN status and IR-induced TNF-α secretion from THP-1 cells. THP-1-derived TNF-α increased NFκB pro-survival activity and elevated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1) in CaP cells, which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Treatment with a novel IAP antagonist, AT-IAP, decreased basal and TNF-α-induced cIAP-1 expression in CaP cells, switched TNF-α signaling from pro-survival to pro-apoptotic and increased radiation sensitivity of CaP cells in co-culture with THP-1 cells. We conclude that targeting cIAP-1 can overcome apoptosis resistance of CaP cells and is an ideal approach to exploit high TNF-α signals within the TAM-rich microenvironment of PTEN-deficient CaP cells to enhance response to radiotherapy. PMID:26799286

  7. World-wide radiation dosage calculations for air crew members.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; Smart, D F; Shea, M A; Felsberger, E; Schrewe, U; Friedberg, W; Copeland, K

    2003-01-01

    A greatly improved version of the computer program to calculate radiation dosage to air crew members is now available. Designated CARI-6, this program incorporates an updated geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model and a revision of the primary cosmic ray spectrum based on recent work by Gaisser and Stanev (1998). We believe CARI-6 provides the most accurate available method for calculating the radiation dosage to air crew members. The program is now utilized by airline companies around the world and provides unification for subsequent world-wide studies on the effects of natural radiation on aircrew members. PMID:14503487

  8. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501

  9. Radiative Structures of Lycopodium-Air Flames in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

    1989-01-01

    Initially uniform clouds of fuel particulates in air sustain processes which may lead to particle cloud nonuniformities. In low gravity, flame-induced Kundt's Tube phenomena are observed to form regular patterns of nonuniform particle concentrations. Irregular patterns of particle concentrations also are observed to result from selected nonuniform mixing processes. Low gravity flame propagation for each of these classes of particle cloud flames has been found to depend importantly on the flame-generated infrared radiative fields. The spatial structures of these radiative fields are described. Application is made for the observed clases of lycopodium-air flames.

  10. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  11. Sensitivity of contrail cirrus radiative forcing to air traffic scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newinger, Christina; Burkhardt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    Air traffic effects high cloudiness and therefore the Earth's radiation budget by producing contrail cirrus. Contrail cirrus comprise of line-shaped contrails and irregularly shaped ice clouds that originate from them. The warming effect of contrail cirrus is disproportionally large at night, since at daytime the cooling due to the short wave cloud albedo effect acts toward compensating the long wave warming effect. Therefore it has been suggested to restrict air traffic to daytime in order to reduce its climate impact. The potential for reducing the contrail cirrus radiative forcing by shifting air traffic to daytime depends on the diurnal cycle of contrail cirrus coverage which is in turn determined by the diurnal cycle of air traffic and the contrail cirrus lifetimes. Simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model indicate that the annual mean contrail cirrus coverage may be almost constant over the day even in areas where air traffic is close to zero at night. A conceptual model describing the temporal evolution of contrail cirrus coverage reveals that this is due to the large variability in contrail cirrus lifetimes in combination with the spreading of contrail cirrus. This large variability of lifetimes is consistent with observational evidence but more observations are needed to constrain the contrail lifetime distribution. An idealized mitigation experiment, shifting nighttime flights to daytime, indicates that contrail cirrus radiative forcing is not significantly changed.

  12. Water, Air, Earth and Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc, which

  13. Water, air, Earth and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc

  14. Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Bejar, David; Colombo, Paolo C; Latif, Farhana; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies can result from a wide spectrum of both inherited and acquired conditions with varying systemic manifestations. They portend an adverse prognosis, with only a few exceptions (ie, glycogen storage disease), where early diagnosis can result in potentially curative treatment. The extent of cardiac abnormalities varies based on the degree of infiltration and results in increased ventricular wall thickness, chamber dilatation, and disruption of the conduction system. These changes often lead to the development of heart failure, atrioventricular (AV) block, and ventricular arrhythmia. Because these diseases are relatively rare, a high degree of clinical suspicion is important for diagnosis. Electrocardiography and echocardiography are helpful, but advanced techniques including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear imaging are increasingly preferred. Treatment is dependent on the etiology and extent of the disease and involves medications, device therapy, and, in some cases, organ transplantation. Cardiac amyloid is the archetype of the infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is discussed in great detail in this review. PMID:26244036

  15. Investigation of Infra-red and Nonequilibrium Air Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, Christophe O.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This program was intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. Prior to this work, the radiative emission of air plasmas in the infrared had been the object of few experimental investigations, and although several infrared systems were already modeled in radiation codes such as NEQAIR, measurements were required to validate numerical predictions and indicate whether all transitions of importance were accounted for in the model. The program was further motivated by the fact that 9 excited states (A, B, C, D, B', F, H, and H') of NO radiate in the infrared, especially between 1 and 1.5 microns where at least 9 transitions involving can be observed. Because these IR transitions are relatively well separated from each other, excited NO states concentrations can be easily measured, thus providing essential information on excited-state chemistry for use in optical diagnostics or in electronic excitation model validation. Detailed comparisons between measured and simulated spectra are presented.

  16. [Radiation exposure and air quality aboard commercial airplanes].

    PubMed

    Bergau, L

    1999-10-01

    The amount of exposure to cosmic radiation during air travel is next to a number of additional factors mainly dependent on the flight level of the aircraft. Flying in an altitude of 41,000 feet equaling 12,800 meters the amount of radiation exposure is of course considerable higher than on the ground. The overall exposure of flying personnel to cosmic radiation flying about 600-700 hours per year can be estimated between 3 and 6 mSv (300-600 mrem). According to the flight hours of passengers, the radiation exposure is much lower and can be neglected for most of the travelers final judgement about the possible risks for flying personnel as far as a higher incident of malignant tumors is concerned has not jet been finally made. Talking of cabin air quality compromises have to be made and thus the well-being of the passengers can be negatively influenced. Air pressure and oxygen partial pressure correspond to an altitude of 2400 meters (8,000 feet) above sea level with possible consequences to the cardiopulmonary system. Increased level of ozone can lead to respiratory problems of the upper airways, increased carbon dioxide may cause hyperventilation. The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract are dried out due to the extremely low humidity of the cabin air. Smoking during flight results in an increase of the nicotine blood levels even in passengers sitting in the non-smoking areas. In modern aircraft the fresh-air flow cannot be regulated individually any more, this may lead to an insufficient circulation of used air in relation to fresh air and could cause the phenomena of hanging smoke. There has always been the idea that there is an increased risk for passengers for acquiring infectious diseases. However this is not the case. Modern HEPA-filter prevent an accumulation even of the smallest particles including bacteria and viruses within the recirculation flow in the cabin air. The overall risk of getting an infectious disease is significantly lower than in other

  17. Investigation of infra-red and nonequilibrium air radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes progress on the first year of a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This program is intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this date, the radiative emission of air plasmas in the infrared has been the object of few experimental investigations, and although several infrared systems are already modeled in radiation codes such as NEQAIR, measurements are required to validate numerical predictions and indicate whether all transitions of importance are accounted for. The present program is motivated by the fact that 9 excited states (A, B, C, D, B', F, H, and H') of NO radiate in the infrared, especially between 1 and 1.5 microns where at least 9 transitions involving can be observed. Because these IR transitions are relatively well separated from each other, excited NO states concentrations can be easily measured, thus providing essential information on excited-state chemistry for use in optical diagnostics or in electronic excitation model validation. Developing accurate collisional-radiative models for these excited NO states is of importance as the UV-VUV transitions of NO (beta, gamma, epsilon, beta prime, gamma prime) produce a major, if not dominant, fraction of the radiation emitted by air plasmas. During the first year of the program, research has focused on the spectral range 1.0 to 1.5 microns, as detailed in Section 2 of this report. The measurements, conducted in a 50 kW radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma torch operating on air at atmospheric pressure, extend previous shock tube investigations by Wray to a wider spectral range (1.0 to 1.5 microns vs 0.9 to 1.2 microns) and higher temperatures (7600 K in the plasma torch versus 6700 K in the shock-tube). These higher temperatures in the present experiment have made it possible to

  18. Response of air stagnation frequency to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Horton, Daniel E; Harshvardhan; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2012-01-01

    Stagnant atmospheric conditions can lead to hazardous air quality by allowing ozone and particulate matter to accumulate and persist in the near-surface environment. By changing atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns, global warming could alter the meteorological factors that regulate air stagnation frequency. We analyze the response of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) Air Stagnation Index (ASI) to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing using global climate model projections of late-21(st) century climate change (SRES A1B scenario). Our results indicate that the atmospheric conditions over the highly populated, highly industrialized regions of the eastern United States, Mediterranean Europe, and eastern China are particularly sensitive to global warming, with the occurrence of stagnant conditions projected to increase 12-to-25% relative to late-20(th) century stagnation frequencies (3-18+ days/year). Changes in the position/strength of the polar jet, in the occurrence of light surface winds, and in the number of precipitation-free days all contribute to more frequent late-21(st) century air mass stagnation over these high-population regions. In addition, we find substantial inter-model spread in the simulated response of stagnation conditions over some regions using either native or bias corrected global climate model simulations, suggesting that changes in the atmospheric circulation and/or the distribution of precipitation represent important sources of uncertainty in the response of air quality to global warming. PMID:23284587

  19. Distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air in cold zone.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Wen-Long; Li, Yi-Fan; Wang, Feng-Yan; Qi, Mei-Yun; Lv, Na; Wang, Ding-Zhen; Khan, Afed Ulla

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air done in Harbin city, northeastern China. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor sampling was done to collect 264 PM2.5 samples from four sites during winter, summer, and spring. Infiltration of PAHs into indoors was estimated using Retene, Benzo [ghi]perylene and Chrysene as reference compounds, where the latter compound was suggested to be a good estimator and subsequently used for further calculation of infiltration factors (IFs). Modeling with positive matrix factorization (PMF5) and estimation of diagnostic isomeric ratios were applied for identifying sources, where coal combustion, crop residues burning and traffic being the major contributors, particularly during winter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been utilized to show the distribution patterns of individual PAH congeners. LDA showed that, the greatest seasonal variability was attributed to high molecular weight compounds (HMW PAHs). Potential health risk of PAHs exposure was assessed through relative potency factor approach (RPF). The levels of the sum of 16 US EPA priority PAHs during colder months were very high, with average values of 377 ± 228 ng m(-)(3) and 102 ± 75.8 ng m(-)(3), for the outdoors and indoors, respectively. The outdoor levels reported to be 19 times higher than the outdoor concentrations during warmer months (summer + spring), while the indoor concentrations were suggested to be 9 times and 10 times higher than that for indoor summer (average 11.73 ± 4 ng m(-3)) and indoor spring (9.5 ± 3.3 ng m(-3)). During nighttime, outdoor PAHs revealed wider range of values compared to datytime which was likely due to outdoor temperature, a weather parameter with the strongest negative influence on ∑16PAHs compared to low impact of relative humidity and wind speed. PMID:27108365

  20. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen at 1.25 Atmospheres Absolute with Normal Air on Macrophage Number and Infiltration during Rat Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Naoto; Ono, Miharu; Tomioka, Tomoka; Deie, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Use of mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute (2026.54 hPa) with normal air is emerging as a common complementary treatment for severe muscle injury. Although hyperbaric oxygen at over 2 atmospheres absolute with 100% O2 promotes healing of skeletal muscle injury, it is not clear whether mild hyperbaric oxygen is equally effective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute (1266.59 hPa) with normal air on muscle regeneration. The tibialis anterior muscle of male Wistar rats was injured by injection of bupivacaine hydrochloride, and rats were randomly assigned to a hyperbaric oxygen experimental group or to a non-hyperbaric oxygen control group. Immediately after the injection, rats were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen, and the treatment was continued for 28 days. The cross-sectional area of centrally nucleated muscle fibers was significantly larger in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 and 7 days after injury. The number of CD68- or CD68- and CD206-positive cells was significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. The number of Pax7- and MyoD- or MyoD- and myogenin-positive nuclei per mm2 and the expression levels of these proteins were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 days after injury. These results suggest that mild hyperbaric oxygen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration in the early phase after injury, possibly due to reduced hypoxic conditions leading to accelerated macrophage infiltration and phenotype transition. In conclusion, mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute with normal air is an appropriate support therapy for severe muscle injuries. PMID:25531909

  1. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, A.F.; Burnazyan, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  2. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  3. Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Streets, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of short-lived air pollutants can contribute to mitigate global warming in the near-term with ancillary benefits to human health. However, the radiative forcings of short-lived air pollutants depend on the location and source type of the precursor emissions. We apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify near-future (2030 A1B) global annual mean radiative forcing by ozone (O3) and sulfate from six emissions sectors in seven geographic regions. At 2030 the net forcings from O3, sulfate, black and organic carbon, and indirect CH4 effects for each emission sector are (in mWm-2) biomass burning, +95; domestic, +68; transportation, +67; industry, -131; and power, -224. Biomass burning emissions in East Asia and central and southern Africa, domestic biofuel emissions in East Asia, south Asia, and central and southern Africa, and transportation emissions in Europe and North America have large net positive forcings and are therefore attractive targets to counter global warming. Power and industry emissions from East Asia, south Asia, and north Africa and the Middle East have large net negative forcings. Therefore air quality control measures that affect these regional sectors require offsetting climate measures to avoid a warming impact. Linear relationships exist between O3 forcing and biomass burning and domestic biofuel CO precursor emissions independent of region with sensitivity of +0.2 mWm-2/TgCO. Similarly, linear relationships exist between sulfate forcing and SO2 precursor emissions that depend upon region but are independent of sector with sensitivities ranging from -3 to -12 mWm-2/TgS.

  4. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  5. Molecular bremsstrahlung radiation at GHz frequencies in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Samarai, Imen; Bérat, Corinne; Deligny, Olivier; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Montanet, François; Settimo, Mariangela; Stassi, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    A detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, complementary to the fluorescence technique, would be the use of the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by low-energy ionization electrons left after the passage of the showers in the atmosphere. In this article, a detailed estimate of the spectral intensity of photons at ground level originating from this radiation is presented. The spectral intensity expected from the passage of the high-energy electrons of the cascade is also estimated. The absorption of the photons in the plasma of electrons and neutral molecules is shown to be negligible. The obtained spectral intensity is shown to be 2 ×1 0-21 W cm-2 GHz-1 at 10 km from the shower core for a vertical shower induced by a proton of 1 017.5 eV . In addition, a recent measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation in air at gigahertz frequencies from a beam of electrons produced at 95 keV by an electron gun is also discussed and reasonably reproduced by the model.

  6. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  7. Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air

    SciTech Connect

    Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2010-09-15

    A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.

  8. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nina A.; Allen, Ryan W.; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D.; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration. PMID:20948956

  9. The importance of the diurnal and annual cycle of air traffic for contrail radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuber, Nicola; Forster, Piers; Rädel, Gaby; Shine, Keith

    2006-06-01

    Air traffic condensation trails, or contrails, are believed to have a net atmospheric warming effect, although one that is currently small compared to that induced by other sources of human emissions. However, the comparably large growth rate of air traffic requires an improved understanding of the resulting impact of aircraft radiative forcing on climate. Contrails have an effect on the Earth's energy balance similar to that of high thin ice clouds. Their trapping of outgoing longwave radiation emitted by the Earth and atmosphere (positive radiative forcing) is partly compensated by their reflection of incoming solar radiation (negative radiative forcing). On average, the longwave effect dominates and the net contrail radiative forcing is believed to be positive. Over daily and annual timescales, varying levels of air traffic, meteorological conditions, and solar insolation influence the net forcing effect of contrails. Here we determine the factors most important for contrail climate forcing using a sophisticated radiative transfer model for a site in southeast England, located in the entrance to the North Atlantic flight corridor. We find that night-time flights during winter (December to February) are responsible for most of the contrail radiative forcing. Night flights account for only 25 per cent of daily air traffic, but contribute 60 to 80 per cent of the contrail forcing. Further, winter flights account for only 22 per cent of annual air traffic, but contribute half of the annual mean forcing. These results suggest that flight rescheduling could help to minimize the climate impact of aviation.

  10. The importance of the diurnal and annual cycle of air traffic for contrail radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Nicola; Forster, Piers; Rädel, Gaby; Shine, Keith

    2006-06-15

    Air traffic condensation trails, or contrails, are believed to have a net atmospheric warming effect, although one that is currently small compared to that induced by other sources of human emissions. However, the comparably large growth rate of air traffic requires an improved understanding of the resulting impact of aircraft radiative forcing on climate. Contrails have an effect on the Earth's energy balance similar to that of high thin ice clouds. Their trapping of outgoing longwave radiation emitted by the Earth and atmosphere (positive radiative forcing) is partly compensated by their reflection of incoming solar radiation (negative radiative forcing). On average, the longwave effect dominates and the net contrail radiative forcing is believed to be positive. Over daily and annual timescales, varying levels of air traffic, meteorological conditions, and solar insolation influence the net forcing effect of contrails. Here we determine the factors most important for contrail climate forcing using a sophisticated radiative transfer model for a site in southeast England, located in the entrance to the North Atlantic flight corridor. We find that night-time flights during winter (December to February) are responsible for most of the contrail radiative forcing. Night flights account for only 25 per cent of daily air traffic, but contribute 60 to 80 per cent of the contrail forcing. Further, winter flights account for only 22 per cent of annual air traffic, but contribute half of the annual mean forcing. These results suggest that flight rescheduling could help to minimize the climate impact of aviation. PMID:16778887

  11. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  12. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation on hydrated and air dried rye grass seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, M.

    1988-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of hydrated and air dried seeds during the first weeks of primary growth. Four groups of seeds were used in the study: 1) hydrated sweet corn, 2) air dried sweet corn, 3) hydrated rye grass, and 4) air dried rye grass. Each group was then further subdivided and exposed to various levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 irradiator, except for the control samples of the four groups which received no radiation above background level. All seeds samples were then planted, allowed to grow for approximately 12 days, and harvested. Growth of both shoot and root of each seed was recorded for data analysis according to specific groups. Analyses of data from this study shows that the mean growth of air dried seeds when exposed to gamma radiation prior to planting.

  13. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Radiative Heat Transfer in Laser Induced Air Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Y. S.; Wang, T. S.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer is one of the most important phenomena in the laser induced plasmas. This study is intended to develop accurate and efficient methods for predicting laser radiation absorption and plasma radiative heat transfer, and investigate the plasma radiation effects in laser propelled vehicles. To model laser radiation absorption, a ray tracing method along with the Beer's law is adopted. To solve the radiative transfer equation in the air plasmas, the discrete transfer method (DTM) is selected and explained. The air plasma radiative properties are predicted by the LORAN code. To validate the present nonequilibrium radiation model, several benchmark problems are examined and the present results are found to match the available solutions. To investigate the effects of plasma radiation in laser propelled vehicles, the present radiation code is coupled into a plasma aerodynamics code and a selected problem is considered. Comparisons of results at different cases show that plasma radiation plays a role of cooling plasma and it lowers the plasma temperature by about 10%. This change in temperature also results in a reduction of the coupling coefficient by about 10-20%. The present study indicates that plasma radiation modeling is very important for accurate modeling of aerodynamics in a laser propelled vehicle.

  15. Cerenkov radiation generated by periodic electron bunches in a finite air path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    Microwave Cerenkov radiation is measured for the case of bunched electron beams which exceed the velocity of light in a finite air path. The theoretical equation for prediction of the form of the power for Cerenkov radiation is tested experimentally for this case. Initial verification of the theory is observed.

  16. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  17. Modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to seasonal snow using air and tree trunk temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Zahner, Franziska; Jonas, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Data collected at three Swiss alpine forested sites over a combined 11 year period were used to evaluate the role of air temperature in modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface. Simulated subcanopy incoming longwave radiation is traditionally partitioned into that from the sky and that from the canopy, i.e., a two-part model. Initial uncertainties in predicting longwave radiation using the two-part model resulted from vertical differences in measured air temperature. Above-canopy (35 m) air temperatures were higher than those within (10 m) and below (2 m) canopy throughout four snow seasons (December-April), demonstrating how the forest canopy can act as a cold sink for air. Lowest model root-mean-square error (RMSE) was using above-canopy air temperature. Further investigation of modeling subcanopy longwave radiation using above-canopy air temperature showed underestimations, particularly during periods of high insolation. In order to explicitly account for canopy temperatures in modeling longwave radiation, the two-part model was improved by incorporating a measured trunk view component and trunk temperature. Trunk temperature measurements were up to 25°C higher than locally measured air temperatures. This three-part model reduced the RMSE by up to 7.7 W m-2 from the two-part air temperature model at all sensor positions across the 2014 snowmelt season and performed particularly well during periods of high insolation when errors from the two-part model were up to 40 W m-2. A parameterization predicting tree trunk temperatures using measured air temperature and incoming shortwave radiation demonstrate a simple method that can be applied to provide input to the three-part model across midlatitude coniferous forests.

  18. Radiation exposure of air-carrier crew members. 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, W.; Snyder, L.; Faulkner, D.N.; Darden, E.B.; O Brien, K.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmic radiation environment at air carrier flight altitudes is described and estimates given of the amounts of galactic cosmic radiation received on a wide variety of routes to and from, and within the contiguous United States. Radiation exposure from radioactive air cargo is also considered. Methods are provided to assess health risks from exposure to galactic radiation. On the flights studied, the highest dose of galactic radiation received annually by a crewmember who worked as many as 1,000 block hours a year would be less than half the annual limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for a nonpregnant occupationally exposed adult. The radiation exposure of a pregnant crewmember who worked 70 block hours a month for 5 months would exceed the recommended 2-millisievert pregnancy limit on about one-third of the flights.

  19. Illumination of the Air Environment Using Radiation of HF Broadcast Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, V. I.; Lutsenko, I. V.; Popov, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the possibility of using illumination of the HF broadcast stations for location of air objects. The relationships for estimation of the detection range are obtained and requirements for the degree of suppression of a direct signal from the broadcast station are determined. Spectral characteristics of the signals from HF broadcast stations are studied experimentally for different polarizations of the received radiation. The possibility of air object detection using the Doppler effect is shown. Theoretical estimates of the radar cross section of air objects for different polarizations of the incident radiation are given. It is found experimentally that the radar cross section is about the same for the vertical and horizontal polarizations.

  20. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jim T

    2007-01-01

    Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the) major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident) with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks. PMID:17407581

  1. THE STATUS AND QUALITY OF RADIATION MEASUREMENTS FOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the radiation quality assurance program conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, calibrated radionuclide solutions are distributed to participating laboratories for instrument calibration and yield determinations. Laboratory performance studies involving ...

  2. Air Temperature estimation from Land Surface temperature and solar Radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, Michele; Eissa, Yehia; Marpu, Prashanth; Ghedira, Hosni

    2013-04-01

    Air Temperature (AirT) is a fundamental parameter in a wide range of applications such as climate change studies, weather forecast, energy balance modeling, efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, etc. Air temperature data are generally obtained through regular measurements from meteorological stations. The distribution of these stations is normally sparse, so the spatial pattern of this parameter cannot be accurately estimated by interpolation methods. This work investigated the relationship between Air Temperature measured at meteorological stations and spatially contiguous measurements derived from Remote Sensing techniques, such as Land Surface Temperature (LST) maps, emissivity maps and shortwave radiation maps with the aim of creating a continuous map of AirT. For LST and emissivity, MSG-SEVIRI LST product from Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA-SAF) has been used. For shortwave radiation maps, an Artificial Neural Networks ensemble model has been developed and previously tested to create continuous maps from Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) point measurements, utilizing six thermal channels of MSG-SEVIRI. The testing sites corresponded to three meteorological stations located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where in situ measurements of Air Temperature were available. From the starting parameters, energy fluxes and net radiation have been calculated, in order to have information on the incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation and the incoming short-wave radiation. The preliminary analysis (day and Night measurements, cloud free) showed a strong negative correlation (0.92) between Outgoing long-wave radiation - GHI and LST- AirT, with a RMSE of 1.84 K in the AirT estimation from the initial parameters. Regression coefficients have been determined and tested on all the ground stations. The analysis also demonstrated the predominant impact of the incoming short-wave radiation in the AirT hourly variation, while the incoming

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities A Appendix A to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. A Appendix A to Part 835—Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at...

  4. Seeing the invisible: Direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Türkcan, Silvan; Kapp, Daniel S.; Pratx, Guillem; Ceballos, Andrew

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To assess whether air scintillation produced during standard radiation treatments can be visualized and used to monitor a beam in a nonperturbing manner. Methods: Air scintillation is caused by the excitation of nitrogen gas by ionizing radiation. This weak emission occurs predominantly in the 300–430 nm range. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera, outfitted with an f/0.95 lens, was used to capture air scintillation produced by kilovoltage photon beams and megavoltage electron beams used in radiation therapy. The treatment rooms were prepared to block background light and a short-pass filter was utilized to block light above 440 nm. Results: Air scintillation from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) was visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s) and showed an inverse falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89). Electron beams were also imaged. For a fixed exposure time (100 s), air scintillation was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As energy increased, the divergence of the electron beam decreased and the penumbra improved. By irradiating a transparent phantom, the authors also showed that Cherenkov luminescence did not interfere with the detection of air scintillation. In a final illustration of the capabilities of this new technique, the authors visualized air scintillation produced during a total skin irradiation treatment. Conclusions: Air scintillation can be measured to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and nonperturbing manner. This physical phenomenon could be useful for dosimetry of therapeutic radiation beams or for online detection of gross errors during fractionated treatments.

  5. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-03-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. PMID:24892564

  6. Infiltration into soils: Conceptual approaches and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process in aspects of hydrology, agricultural and civil engineering, irrigation design, and soil and water conservation. It is complex, depending on soil and rainfall properties and initial and boundary conditions within the flow domain. During the last century, a great deal of effort has been invested to understand the physics of infiltration and to develop quantitative predictors of infiltration dynamics. Jean-Yves Parlange and Wilfried Brutsaert have made seminal contributions, especially in the area of infiltration theory and related analytical solutions to the flow equations. This review retraces the landmark discoveries and the evolution of the conceptual approaches and the mathematical solutions applied to the problem of infiltration into porous media, highlighting the pivotal contributions of Parlange and Brutsaert. A historical retrospective of physical models of infiltration is followed by the presentation of mathematical methods leading to analytical solutions of the flow equations. This review then addresses the time compression approximation developed to estimate infiltration at the transition between preponding and postponding conditions. Finally, the effects of special conditions, such as the presence of air and heterogeneity in soil properties, on infiltration are considered.

  7. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  8. Solar radiation: absence of air pollution trends at Mauna Loa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H T; Pueschel, R F

    1971-05-21

    Measurements of solar radiation made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, over a period of 13 years give no evidence that human activities affect atmospheric turbidity on a global scale. Short-term fluctuations in insolation appear to be associated with naturally produced tropospheric aerosols. The intrusion of volcanic dust into the stratosphere results in prolonged increases in atmospheric opacity due to the extended residence times of aerosols in the stratosphere. PMID:5572907

  9. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  10. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-01

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl2 deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl2 in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of Air Radiation for Lunar Return Shock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    By leveraging a new uncertainty markup technique, two risk analysis methods are used to compute the uncertainty of lunar-return shock layer radiation predicted by the High temperature Aerothermodynamic Radiation Algorithm (HARA). The effects of epistemic uncertainty, or uncertainty due to a lack of knowledge, is considered for the following modeling parameters: atomic line oscillator strengths, atomic line Stark broadening widths, atomic photoionization cross sections, negative ion photodetachment cross sections, molecular bands oscillator strengths, and electron impact excitation rates. First, a simplified shock layer problem consisting of two constant-property equilibrium layers is considered. The results of this simplified problem show that the atomic nitrogen oscillator strengths and Stark broadening widths in both the vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectral regions, along with the negative ion continuum, are the dominant uncertainty contributors. Next, three variable property stagnation-line shock layer cases are analyzed: a typical lunar return case and two Fire II cases. For the near-equilibrium lunar return and Fire 1643-second cases, the resulting uncertainties are very similar to the simplified case. Conversely, the relatively nonequilibrium 1636-second case shows significantly larger influence from electron impact excitation rates of both atoms and molecules. For all cases, the total uncertainty in radiative heat flux to the wall due to epistemic uncertainty in modeling parameters is 30% as opposed to the erroneously-small uncertainty levels (plus or minus 6%) found when treating model parameter uncertainties as aleatory (due to chance) instead of epistemic (due to lack of knowledge).

  12. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  14. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  15. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  18. ATTENUATION OF SOLAR UV RADIATION BY AEROSOLS DURING AIR POLLUTION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in the amount of solar UV radiation reaching the surface due to decrease in stratospheric ozone continues to be a major concern (WMO, 1998). However, recent studies show that absorption and smattering by aerosols during air pollution episode decreases the amount of radi...

  19. The Veriability of Radiative Balance Elements and Air Temperature on the Asian Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharyutkina, E. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.; Loginov, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and radiative and heat balances components is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45 - 80oN, 60-180oE) using JRA-25 reanalysis data for the period of current global warming 1979-2008 It is shown that since the beginning of 90th of XX century the increase of back earth-atmosphere short-wave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover dynamics and downward short-wave radiation at the surface. Annual averaged radiative balance values at the top are negative; it is consistent with negative annual averaged air temperature, averaged over territory. The downward trend of radiative balance is the most obvious after the beginning of 90th of XX century.

  20. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  1. Impact of Asian Dust on Global Surface Air Quality and Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Dust originating from Asian deserts and desertification areas can be transported regionally and globally to affect surface air quality, visibility, and radiation budget not only at immediate downwind locations (e.g., eastern Asia) but also regions far away from the sources (e.g., North America). Deposition of Asian dust to the North Pacific Ocean basin influences the ocean productivity. In this study, we will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, remote sensing data form satellite and from the ground-based network, and in-situ data from aircraft and surface observations to address the following questions: - What are the effects of Asian dust on the surface air quality and visibility over Asia and North America? - What are the seasonal and spatial variations of dust deposition to the North Pacific Ocean? How does the Asian dust affect surface radiation budget?

  2. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  3. Correlation between indoor radon concentration and dose rate in air from terrestrial gamma radiation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, K

    1998-09-01

    A correlation between the indoor radon concentration and dose rate in air from terrestrial gamma radiation is studied using the results of nationwide indoor radon and external exposure surveys, although the surveys were not conducted at the same time nor at the same location. The radon concentration shows a log-normal-like distribution, whereas the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in air shows a normal-like distribution. A log-linear scatterplot for each pair of the indoor radon concentration and gamma-ray dose rate in air in each city reveals a clear relationship. The average, maximum, and minimum as well as regression line of radon concentration were found to increase with the gamma-ray dose rate in air. The group in higher quantile of radon concentration shows larger dependence on the gamma-ray dose rate. The rate of increase of radon concentration with the gamma-ray dose rate in air depends on the house structure. The wooden house has a larger rate of increase than the concrete house, and the regression lines cross at high air dose rate. Based on the finding in the present study a certain criterion level of air dose rate could be established and used for an effective survey to find out which houses might require a remedial action in conjunction with other screening tools. The criterion level of air dose rate might be more effective if the level is set for each house structure since the rate of increase of radon concentration depends on house structure. PMID:9721838

  4. Multi-Group Reductions of LTE Air Plasma Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, James; Magin, Thierry Edouard Bertran; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2013-01-01

    Air plasma radiation in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) within cylindrical geometries is studied with an application towards modeling the radiative transfer inside arc-constrictors, a central component of constricted-arc arc jets. A detailed database of spectral absorption coefficients for LTE air is formulated using the NEQAIR code developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The database stores calculated absorption coefficients for 1,051,755 wavelengths between 0.04 µm and 200 µm over a wide temperature (500K to 15 000K) and pressure (0.1 atm to 10.0 atm) range. The multi-group method for spectral reduction is studied by generating a range of reductions including pure binning and banding reductions from the detailed absorption coefficient database. The accuracy of each reduction is compared to line-by-line calculations for cylindrical temperature profiles resembling typical profiles found in arc-constrictors. It is found that a reduction of only 1000 groups is sufficient to accurately model the LTE air radiation over a large temperature and pressure range. In addition to the reduction comparison, the cylindrical-slab formulation is compared with the finite-volume method for the numerical integration of the radiative flux inside cylinders with varying length. It is determined that cylindrical-slabs can be used to accurately model most arc-constrictors due to their high length to radius ratios.

  5. An improved method for correction of air temperature measured using different radiation shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing

    2014-11-01

    The variation of air temperature measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most air temperature values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the air temperature errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the temperature error is considered and extreme errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.

  6. Radiation impact caused by activation of air from the future GSI accelerator facility fair.

    PubMed

    Gutermuth, F; Wildermuth, H; Radon, T; Fehrenbacher, G

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is planning a new accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Two future experimental areas are regarded to be the most decisive points concerning the activation of air. One is the area for the production of antiprotons. A second crucial experimental area is the so-called Super Fragment Separator. The production of radioactive isotopes in air is calculated using the residual nuclei option of the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The results are compared with the data for the activation of air given by Sullivan and in IAEA report 283. The resulting effective dose is calculated using a program package from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, the Bundesamt für Stranlenschutz. The results demonstrate that a direct emission of the total radioactivity produced into the air will probably conflict with the limits of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Special measures have to be planned in order to reduce the amount of radioactivity released into the air. PMID:16381762

  7. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  8. A Comparison of EAST Shock-Tube Radiation Measurements with a New Air Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the recent EAST shock tube radiation measurements (Grinstead et al., AIAA 2008-1244) and the HARA radiation model. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation measurements are studied for conditions relevant to lunar-return shock-layers; specifically shock velocities ranging from 9 to 11 kilometers per second at initial pressures of 0.1 and 0.3 Torr. The simulated shock-tube flow is assumed one-dimensional and is calculated using the LAURA code, while a detailed nonequilibrium radiation prediction is obtained in an uncoupled manner from the HARA code. The measured and predicted intensities are separated into several spectral ranges to isolate significant spectral features, mainly strong atomic line multiplets. The equations and physical data required for the prediction of these strong atomic lines are reviewed and their uncertainties identified. The 700-1020 nm wavelength range, which accounts for roughly 30% of the radiative flux to a peak-heating lunar return shock-layer, is studied in detail and the measurements and predictions are shown to agree within 15% in equilibrium. The plus or minus 1.5% uncertainty on the measured shock velocity is shown to cause up to a plus or minus 30% difference in the predicted radiation. This band of predictions contains the measured values in almost all cases. For the highly nonequilibrium 0.1 Torr cases, the nonequilibrium radiation peaks are under-predicted by about half. This under-prediction is considered acceptable when compared to the order-of-magnitude over-prediction obtained using a Boltzmann population of electronic states. The reasonable comparison in the nonequilibrium regions provides validation for both the non-Boltzmann modeling in HARA and the thermochemical nonequilibrium modeling in LAURA. The N2 (+)(1-) and N2(2+) molecular band systems are studied in the 290 480 nm wavelength range for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The non-Boltzmann rate models for these

  9. A field method for measurement of infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.

  10. Quantitative assessment of radiation force effect at the dielectric air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Capeloto, Otávio Augusto; Zanuto, Vitor Santaella; Malacarne, Luis Carlos; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Lukasievicz, Gustavo Vinicius Bassi; Bialkowski, Stephen Edward; Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli

    2016-01-01

    We induce nanometer-scale surface deformation by exploiting momentum conservation of the interaction between laser light and dielectric liquids. The effect of radiation force at the air-liquid interface is quantitatively assessed for fluids with different density, viscosity and surface tension. The imparted pressure on the liquids by continuous or pulsed laser light excitation is fully described by the Helmholtz electromagnetic force density. PMID:26856622

  11. Air blast and heat radiation from fuel-rich mixture detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeev, S. B.; Sidorov, V. P.; Kuznetsov, M. S.; Dvoinishnikov, A. E.; Alekseev, V. I.; Efimenko, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    Large scale experiments were carried out to study the effect fuel concentration on air blast parameters and heart radiation from gaseous detonations. Hemispheric plastic envelope (4 meters in radius) was used with propane-air mixtures containing from 4 to 7 vol. % of fuel. The expressions for overpressures and impulses were determined in Sachs variables. The effect of fuel concentration on blast parameters is shown to be insignificant for the same amount of oxygen in the mixture volume. Thus the blast wave parameters can be described as for stoichiometric mixtures using additional scaling for the explosion energy according to oxygen content (cloud volume). The results of large scale experiments with fuel spray clouds containing 0.16-100 tons of fuel with mean concentration from stoichiometric ( C 0) up to 3 C 0 are reconsidered. These results confirm the proposed scaling of air blast parameters for a wide range of fuel types, cloud volumes and fuel concentrations. Detonations of fuel rich gaseous mixtures result in a strong heat radiation. Heat radiation energy, time and size of the fireball formed are studied as a function of fuel concentration.

  12. Analysis of Infiltration Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    R. McCurley

    2003-10-27

    The primary objectives of this uncertainty analysis are: (1) to develop and justify a set of uncertain parameters along with associated distributions; and (2) to use the developed uncertain parameter distributions and the results from selected analog site calculations done in ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]) to obtain the net infiltration weighting factors for the glacial transition climate. These weighting factors are applied to unsaturated zone (UZ) flow fields in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), as outlined in the ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach'' (BSC 2002 [160146], Section 3.1) as a method for the treatment of uncertainty. This report is a scientific analysis because no new and mathematical physical models are developed herein, and it is based on the use of the models developed in or for ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). Any use of the term model refers to those developed in the infiltration numerical model report. TSPA License Application (LA) has included three distinct climate regimes in the comprehensive repository performance analysis for Yucca Mountain: present-day, monsoon, and glacial transition. Each climate regime was characterized using three infiltration-rate maps, including a lower- and upper-bound and a mean value (equal to the average of the two boundary values). For each of these maps, which were obtained based on analog site climate data, a spatially averaged value was also calculated by the USGS. For a more detailed discussion of these infiltration-rate maps, see ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). For this Scientific Analysis Report, spatially averaged values were calculated for the lower-bound, mean, and upper-bound climate analogs only for the glacial transition climate regime, within the

  13. Response of air-filled ion chambers to high-intensity radiation pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.; Brown, D.

    1993-01-01

    Ion chambers are one of the most popular types of detectors used for beam loss-monitor systems. To provide a foundation for the development of future loss-monitor systems, and to fully characterize the ion chambers in use at LAMPF, we have studied the response of air-filled cylindrical ion chambers to high-intensity, short-duration radiation pulses. The most intense pulses were about 180 rad in 250 ns (the equivalent steady-state dose rate was about 700 Mrad/h). We filled our chambers with nitrogen gas at 760 Torr and air at 600 Torr. The ion chambers were driven into extreme nonlinear response. We hope these data will be used to design loss-monitor systems based on air-filled ion chambers, thus eliminating the need for gas-flow systems and/or airtight ion chambers.

  14. Response of air-filled ion chambers to high-intensity radiation pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.; Brown, D.

    1993-06-01

    Ion chambers are one of the most popular types of detectors used for beam loss-monitor systems. To provide a foundation for the development of future loss-monitor systems, and to fully characterize the ion chambers in use at LAMPF, we have studied the response of air-filled cylindrical ion chambers to high-intensity, short-duration radiation pulses. The most intense pulses were about 180 rad in 250 ns (the equivalent steady-state dose rate was about 700 Mrad/h). We filled our chambers with nitrogen gas at 760 Torr and air at 600 Torr. The ion chambers were driven into extreme nonlinear response. We hope these data will be used to design loss-monitor systems based on air-filled ion chambers, thus eliminating the need for gas-flow systems and/or airtight ion chambers.

  15. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-05-06

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.

  16. Cerenkov radiation from periodic bunches for a finite path in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, R. G.

    1985-06-01

    The equation as derived by F.R. Buskirk and J.R. Neighbours for the power in the diffraction pattern of Cerenkov radiation from periodic bunches in air is experimentally tested at the Naval Postgraduate School Accelerator Laboratory (NPSAL). Previous experiments done at NPSAL are briefly reviewed. The experiment focuses on reducing RF noise and introduces a method for recording experimental data. RF noise is divided into two categories: (1) Noise received directly at the antenna; and (2) noise picked up by the cabling. Category 1 is divided into two subcategories: (a) Cerenkov radiation received by the antenna after being reflected off secondary objects; and (b) residual klystron radiation. Experimental data curves from the third harmonic are compared to theoretical patterns for various finite emission lengths and angle shifts. The data demonstrates tha noise-generated fine structure which appeared in a previous experiment at NPSAL can be eliminated with increased shielding.

  17. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  18. Reconfigurable photonic crystal waveguides created by selective liquid infiltration.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, A Casas; Domachuk, P; Grillet, C; Monat, C; Mägi, E C; Li, E; Eggleton, B J

    2012-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate reconfigurable photonic crystal waveguides created directly by infiltrating high refractive index (n≈2.01) liquids into selected air holes of a two-dimensional hexagonal periodic lattice in silicon. The resulting effective index contrast is large enough that a single row of infiltrated holes enables light propagation at near-infrared wavelengths. We include a detailed comparison between modeling and experimental results of single line defect waveguides and show how our infiltration procedure is reversible and repeatable. We achieve infiltration accuracy down to the single air hole level and demonstrate control on the volume of liquid infused into the holes by simply changing the infiltration velocity. This method is promising for achieving a wide range of targeted optical functionalities on a "blank" photonic crystal membrane that can be reconfigured on demand. PMID:22565727

  19. Air cooling of a vented enclosure by combined conduction, natural convection and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, E.; Joshi, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    A three-dimensional investigation of combined conduction, natural convection and radiation in vented enclosures is carried out. A discrete flush type heat source mounted on a vertical substrate is used to simulate an electronic component. A uniform volumetric generation rate is assumed within the heat source. Combined natural convection in the air, conduction in the heat source, the substrate and the enclosure walls, and surface radiation are solved for Rayleigh numbers at 2.6 {times} 10{sup 6} and 2.0 {times} 10{sup 7}. Radiation is incorporated based on the radiosity/irradiation approach. The resulting flow and temperature patterns are discussed, focusing on radiation and three-dimensional effects. The relative contributions of natural convection and radiation are investigated for different emissivities of internal surface of the substrate. Heat transfer rates from the substrate and other internal walls are presented to illustrate conjugate heat transfer due to combined modes. The numerical solutions are found in reasonably good agreement with the data.

  20. Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Donghoon; Yoo, Yungjun; Rosenthal, Eric; Jhajj, Nihal; Milchberg, Howard; Kim, Ki-Yong

    We have demonstrated scalable terahertz (THz) generation via cylindrical focusing of two-color laser pulses in air. In this experiment, we have used a terawatt (TW) laser system which can deliver >50 mJ, 800 nm, 50 fs pulses at a 10 Hz repetition rate. A 800 nm pulse passing through a nonlinear crystal (BBO) generates its second harmonic pulse (400 nm). Both pulses pass through a cylindrical lens and are focused together to generate a 2-dimensional plasma sheet in air. This yields two diverging THz lobes, characterized by an uncooled microbolometer. This observed radiation angle and pattern is explained by the optical-Cherenkov radiation theory. The diverging THz radiation is re-focused to yield strong THz field strengths (>20 MV/cm) at the focus. At laser energy of 40 mJ, cylindrical focusing provides THz energy of >30 microjoules, far exceeding the output produced by spherical focusing. This shows that cylindrical focusing can effectively minimize ionization-induced defocusing, previously observed in spherical focusing, and can allow scalable THz generation with relatively high laser energies (>20 mJ). Work supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. 014216-001.

  1. Air pollution and climate response to aerosol direct radiative effects: A modeling study of decadal trends across the northern hemisphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decadal hemispheric Weather Research and Forecast-Community Multiscale Air Quality simulations from 1990 to 2010 were conducted to examine the meteorology and air quality responses to the aerosol direct radiative effects. The model's performance for the simulation of hourly surfa...

  2. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  3. Radiation Effects Investigations Based on Atmospheric Radiation Model (ATMORAD) Considering GEANT4 Simulations of Extensive Air Showers and Solar Modulation Potential.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Guillaume; Cheminet, Adrien

    2015-07-01

    The natural radiative atmospheric environment is composed of secondary cosmic rays produced when primary cosmic rays hit the atmosphere. Understanding atmospheric radiations and their dynamics is essential for evaluating single event effects, so that radiation risks in aviation and the space environment (space weather) can be assessed. In this article, we present an atmospheric radiation model, named ATMORAD (Atmospheric Radiation), which is based on GEANT4 simulations of extensive air showers according to primary spectra that depend only on the solar modulation potential (force-field approximation). Based on neutron spectrometry, solar modulation potential can be deduced using neutron spectrometer measurements and ATMORAD. Some comparisons between our methodology and standard approaches or measurements are also discussed. This work demonstrates the potential for using simulations of extensive air showers and neutron spectroscopy to monitor solar activity. PMID:26151172

  4. Thermophysics Characterization of Multiply Ionized Air Plasma Absorption of Laser Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Rhodes, Robert; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The impact of multiple ionization of air plasma on the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of laser radiation is investigated for air breathing laser propulsion. Thermochemical properties of multiply ionized air plasma species are computed for temperatures up to 200,000 deg K, using hydrogenic approximation of the electronic partition function; And those for neutral air molecules are also updated for temperatures up to 50,000 deg K, using available literature data. Three formulas for absorption are calculated and a general formula is recommended for multiple ionization absorption calculation. The plasma composition required for absorption calculation is obtained by increasing the degree of ionization sequentially, up to quadruple ionization, with a series of thermal equilibrium computations. The calculated second ionization absorption coefficient agrees reasonably well with that of available data. The importance of multiple ionization modeling is demonstrated with the finding that area under the quadruple ionization curve of absorption is found to be twice that of single ionization. The effort of this work is beneficial to the computational plasma aerodynamics modeling of laser lightcraft performance.

  5. Radiative and turbulent heating rates in the clear-air boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savijärvi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The diurnal evolution of a clear-sky midlatitude summertime boundary layer (BL) was studied using a column model over smooth and homogeneous land, subject to weak, moderate, and strong winds. The high-resolution BL model (lowest point at 30 cm) was equipped with an adequate turbulence scheme and a narrow-band long-wave (LW) radiation scheme, the latter validated using data from the International Comparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM).In off-line ICRCCM experiments, ground emissivity ɛ < 1 led to extra LW cooling of air near the surface compared to ɛ = 1. However, much stronger LW cooling at heights of 1 3 m, and warming below 1 m, was obtained by setting the ground colder than air at screen height, a typical condition during clear nights. Conversely, a warm surface anomaly typical of sunny days leads to strong LW warming at 1 3 m, with LW cooling just above the ground. These ground temperature anomalies dominated the LW heating/cooling patterns at heights of up to 3 4 m, perhaps explaining controversies in the observed LW flux divergences close to the ground.Interactive model results indicate that the middle part of a windy clear-air nocturnal BL (NBL) is dominated by turbulent cooling, while the upper and lower NBL is dominated by LW cooling. Below about 1 m, a fourth layer is formed with LW warming and turbulent cooling, in agreement with the off-line experiments. When the surface winds fall below about 1 1.5 m s -1 LW cooling dominates in the whole NBL, except very near the surface. In these light wind conditions the Monin Obukhov theory should be revised to include radiative effects.In clear-air daytime conditions strong convective BL heating dominates over weak LW cooling except at 1 3 m heights where the cooler air absorbs the thermal emission of the hot ground. The subsequent LW warming of the superadiabatic surface layer appears to be strong enough to induce local turbulent cooling (despite the hot surface) in an 'hour glass' pattern

  6. Specific features of modeling of nonequilibrium radiation behind the shock wave in air in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, V. A.; Kireev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    A physical-chemical model of generation of nonequilibrium molecular radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range behind the shock wave in air for shock wave velocities from 4.5 to 9.5 km/s is developed. Experimental results obtained in a shock tube in investigations of photoionization of air ahead of the shock wave front are used for verification of the numerical model of VUV radiation in the wavelength range from 85 to 105 nm. Model calculations show that nonequilibrium VUV radiation arises in a very thin high-temperature layer behind the shock wave front and is affected by heavy particles and electrons.

  7. A neural network based intelligent predictive sensor for cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro M; Gomes, João M; Martins, Igor A C; Ruano, António E

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature,as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  8. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  9. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders. PMID:27044363

  10. Infiltration rate measurement by active perfluorocarbon monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, K.T.; Pong, C.M.; Randel, M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The rate of air infiltration in homes and buildings is a significant factor affecting the magnitude of human exposure to air pollutants in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been utilized for the determination of air infiltration. These include building pressurization and tracer analysis, e.g., SF/sub 6/. Dietz and Cote at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have developed a simple, steady-state tracer kit that can be utilized by homeowners. This kit includes a source(s) of perfluorocarbon, i.e., perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) or perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (PDCH), and a passive sampling tube containing Ambersorb XE-347. Typically, the sampling tube is deployed for several days and then returned to a laboratory for analysis by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The authors developed an alternative sampling and analysis technique for PMCH/PDCH in homes. In order to facilitate monitoring of short-term infiltration rates (i.e., less than one day) they developed an active sorbent sampling method and solvent desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection analytical method. The method is based on the collection of PMCH on charcoal. The method validation, which is discussed in this article, includes analytical method development, selection of a solid sorbent, determination of desorption efficiency, analysis of breakthrough, testing of storage stability, and assessment of precision and accuracy in both the laboratory and field environment.

  11. An improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity to minimise radiation levels in underground uranium mines.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Ventilation is the primary means of controlling radon and its daughter concentrations in an underground uranium mine environment. Therefore, prediction of air quantity is the vital component for planning and designing of ventilation systems to minimise the radiation exposure of miners in underground uranium mines. This paper comprehensively describes the derivation and verification of an improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity, based on the growth of radon daughters in terms of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), to reduce the radiation levels in uranium mines. The model also explains the prediction of air quantity depending upon the quality of intake air to the stopes. This model can be used to evaluate the contribution of different sources to radon concentration in mine atmosphere based on the measurements of radon emanation and exhalation. Moreover, a mathematical relationship has been established for quick prediction of air quantity to achieve the desired radon daughter concentration in the mines. PMID:25461521

  12. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  13. Investigation of low frequency molecular Bremsstrahlung radiation from laser induced breakdown of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; Lakshminarayanan, Vinoth Kumar; Elle, Manikanta; Chelikani, Leela; Acrhem Team

    2015-05-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (30-1000 MHz), due to molecular Bremsstrahlung, from ns and ps laser induced breakdown (LIB) of atmospheric air is studied. In the plasma formed by the LIB of atmospheric air, interaction of charged particles with neutral clusters of atoms and molecules result in the emission of low frequency radiation. With increasing laser intensity, the plasma frequency (ωP) comes closer to the laser frequency (ωL) , leading to higher degree of ionization. This is observed to reduce the electron-neutral interactions decreasing the low frequency emissions. Thus the emissions from ps LIB are 2-3 orders smaller than those from ns LIB. While traversing from the loose to tight focusing conditions, the emissions from ns LIB and ps LIB were observed to be increasing and decreasing, respectively. This confirms the role of the number of seed electrons and their interaction with neutrals on the low frequency emissions. The emissions were observed to be spectral selective, dependent on the polarization state of the input laser pulses and the detecting antenna. The work is supported by Defence Research and Developement Organization, India through Grants-in-Aid Program.

  14. A new dynamical atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for epidemiological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Goldhagen, P. E.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    A new Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) model is currently being developed for use in radiation dose evaluation in epidemiological studies targeted to atmospheric flight personnel such as civilian airlines crewmembers. The model will allow computing values for biologically relevant parameters, e.g. dose equivalent and effective dose, for individual flights from 1945. Each flight is described by its actual three dimensional flight profile, i.e. geographic coordinates and altitudes varying with time. Solar modulated primary particles are filtered with a new analytical fully angular dependent geomagnetic cut off rigidity model, as a function of latitude, longitude, arrival direction, altitude and time. The particle transport results have been obtained with a technique based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA, with a special procedure to deal with HZE particles. Particle fluxes are transformed into dose-related quantities and then integrated all along the flight path to obtain the overall flight dose. Preliminary validations of the particle transport technique using data from the AIR Project ER-2 flight campaign of measurements are encouraging. Future efforts will deal with modeling of the effects of the aircraft structure as well as inclusion of solar particle events. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    Polymer infiltration investigations were directed toward development of methods by which to produce advanced composite material for automated part fabrication utilizing textile and robotic technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Significant progress was made during the project on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The findings and results of the project are summarized in the attached paper entitled 'Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composite.' Also attached to this report is the second of two patent applications submitted as a result of these studies.

  16. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  17. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Progress was made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Processes reported include powder towpreg process, weaving towpreg made from dry powder prepreg, composite from powder coated towpreg, and toughening of polyimide resin (PMR) composites by semi-interpenetrating networks. Several important areas of polymer infiltration into fiber bundles will be researched. Preparation to towpreg for textile preform weaving and braiding and for automated tow placement is a major goal, as are the continued development of prepregging technology and the various aspects of composite part fabrication.

  18. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  19. The impact of micromachined ultrasonic radiators on the efficiency of transducers in air.

    PubMed

    Je, Yub; Lee, Haksue; Moon, Wonkyu

    2013-08-01

    The use of micromachined thin-film ultrasonic radiators to improve the efficiency of conventional in-air acoustic transducers is investigated. We conduct a theoretical investigation of the parameters that determine the efficiency of thin-film transducers, using a lumped parameter model, and show that the efficiency can be improved by choosing a radiating plate thickness that can be realized by micromachining. We also identified the problems that should be overcome to design and fabricate a micromachined ultrasonic transducer with the theoretically predicted efficiency. Based on the lumped parameter model, we showed that the problems can be resolved via an appropriate design scheme. A piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer is designed and fabricated to demonstrate the impact of the proposed design method. Test results for the fabricated radiator indicated that it provided an electroacoustic efficiency of 58.4%, up to 300% greater than either the unit previously fabricated by the authors or conventional unimorph ultrasonic transducers. An array of the proposed transducers was also designed, fabricated, and tested as a source transducer for a parametric array, since transducer efficiency is important for practical applications of a parametric array. The test results for the proposed transducer demonstrate its potential for improving the practicality of parametric array sources, such as parametric loudspeakers and directional ultrasonic ranging sensors. PMID:23541961

  20. Thermochemical nonequilibrium and radiative interactions in supersonic hydrogen-air combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekhar, R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    The two-dimensional, elliptic Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate supersonic flows with nonequilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics, coupled with radiation, for hydrogen-air systems. The chemistry source term in the species equation is treated implicitly to alleviate the stiffness associated with fast reactions. The explicit, unsplit MacCormack finite-difference scheme is used to advance the governing equations in time, until convergence is achieved. The specific problem considered is the premixed, expanding flow in a supersonic nozzle. The reacting flow consists of seven species, one of which is the inert N2 molecule. The thermal state of the gas is modeled with one translational-rotational temperature and five vibrational temperatures. The harmonic oscillator model is used in the formulation for vibrational relaxation. The tangent slab approximation is used in the radiative flux formulation. A pseudo-gray model is used to represent the absorption-emission characteristics of the participating species. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate the presence of nonequilibrium in the expansion region. This reduces the radiative interactions and can have a significant influence on the flowfield.

  1. Optical acoustic experimental investigation of propagation femtosecond laser radiation in air and biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, N. N.; Kabanov, A. M.; Protasevich, E. S.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Using two optical acoustic approaches we experimentally investigated spatial location of filament zone of propagation channel of focused laser radiation. For femtosecond pulses passing in air it was shown that nonlinear focus length had spatial scale of 1/P at initial power P moderate for self-focusing and at optical system focus distance significantly lower than Rayleigh beam length. The results of experimental optical acoustic investigation of femto- and nanosecond pulses attenuation by some biological tissues (muscular tissue, adipose tissue, cutaneous covering, and milk) and optical breakdown thresholds on these one are presented. It was shown that penetration depth of short laser pulse radiation into biological tissues is the same as for longer one. However, amplitude of acoustic response to a process of interaction of femtosecond laser pulse with biological tissue is larger in several times than that to interaction with nanosecond pulses of the same power and spectral distribution. The obtained threshold values can be interesting for tabulation of limit allowable levels of irradiation at work with laser radiation. Such values are unknown for femtosecond laser pulses today.

  2. Infiltration kinetics of fibrous preform

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Toshio; Nishida, Yoshinori

    1994-12-31

    The infiltration kinetics of fibrous preform was investigated in the case of aluminum matrix composites by pressure infiltration method. Pressure was applied mechanically by a punch, and the pressure change and the punch speed were measured during the infiltration of molten aluminum into SiC whisker preforms. To analyze the correlation between applied pressure and infiltration front in the preform, the distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the composites was measured and the distribution of volume fraction was calculated from the hardness. A theoretical expression is derived to describe fluid flow in the preform during the infiltration, on the condition that the pressure on the preform surface starts to rise from zero and when the applied pressure exceeds the compressive strength of preform, deformation starts. The starting point of deformation and the distribution of volume fraction in the composites can be calculated by the theory and proved by experiments.

  3. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress was made in several areas on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Polymer infiltration studies dealt with ways of preparing composite materials from advanced polymer resins and carbon fibers. This effort is comprised of an integrated approach to the process of composite part fabrication. The goal is to produce advanced composite materials for automated part fabrication using textile and robotics technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The object is achieved through investigations at the NASA Langley Research Center and by stimulating technology transfer between contract researchers and the aircraft industry. Covered here are literature reviews, a status report on individual projects, current and planned research, publications, and scheduled technical presentations.

  4. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel. PMID:22128353

  5. Spectroscopic Challenges in the Modelling and Diagnostics of High Temperature Air Plasma Radiation for Aerospace Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, Christophe O.

    2007-04-06

    State-of-the-art spectroscopic models of the radiative transitions of interest for Earth re-entry and ground-based diagnostic facilities for aerospace applications are reviewed. The spectral range considered extends from the vacuum ultraviolet to the mid-infrared range (80 nm to 5.5 {mu}m). The modeling results are compared with absolute intensity measurements of the ultraviolet-visible-infrared emission of a well-characterized high-temperature air plasma produced with a 50 kW inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma torch, and with high-resolution absorption spectra from the Center for Astrophysics in the vacuum ultraviolet. The Spectroscopic data required to better model the spectral features of interest for aerospace applications are discussed.

  6. Experimental characterization of ultraviolet radiation of air in a high enthalpy plasma torch facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casses, C. J.; Bertrand, P. J.; Jacobs, C. M.; Mac Donald, M. E.; Laux, Ch. O.

    2015-06-01

    During atmospheric reentry, a plasma is formed ahead of the surface of the vehicle and the excited particle present in the plasma produces radiative heating fluxes to the surface of the vehicle. A high-temperature air plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was used to experimentally reproduce atmospheric reentry conditions. A high-resolution and absolute intensity emission spectrum (full width at half maximum (FWHM) = 0.064 nm) was obtained from 200 to 450 nm and then compared with computational results provided by the SPECAIR code [1]. This paper discusses the comparison of the two spectra over this wavelength range in order to confirm the validity of the calculation and provide direction to improve the calculated spectrum.

  7. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  8. Infiltration in heterogeneous soil monitored by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Cislerova, Milena

    2014-05-01

    The process of infiltration in near-saturated soil and fate of residual air bubbles was studied using neutron imaging. It is the continuation of previous study on flow instability. Ponding infiltration-outflow experiment conducted at NEUTRA beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut aimed at i) characterizing the types of structures susceptible to air trapping, ii) monitoring of entrapped air and water redistribution during steady state flow iii) imaging the process of entrapped air dissolution. Experiments were conducted on series of undisturbed samples of soil from the Cambisol series and on an artificially prepared sample. The latter was composed of coarse sand (representing pathways of fast preferential flow), which surrounded blocks of fine ceramic. Cumulative infiltration and outflow fluxes of water were measured gravimetrically by two precision digital scales thus the full water balance data were obtained. Small samples (30 mm in diameter) were used to achieve good spatial resolution of neutron images. Degassed water was used to dissolve bubbles of entrapped air at the end of infiltration experiments. The neutron radiography and tomography data show quantitatively exchange of water and air between domains of fine and coarse materials during quasi-steady state flow in the sample. The redistribution of the entrapped air directly affected the hydraulic conductivity. On neutron tomography images the gradual dissolving of trapped air bubbles was clearly detected. The effect also led to significant increase of hydraulic conductivity. The obtained data show clearly that air as a non-wetting phase should not be overlooked in case of near-saturated infiltration in soil with preferential flow. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

  9. X-ray radiation from the volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratchikov, V. B.; Gagarinov, K. A.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Tkachev, A. N.; Yakovlenko, S. I.

    2007-07-01

    X-ray radiation from the volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air is studied under the conditions when the voltage pulse rise time varies from 0.5 to 100 ns and the open-circuit voltage amplitude of the generator varies from 20 to 750 kV. It is shown that a volume discharge from a needle-like cathode forms at a relatively wide voltage pulse (to ≈60 ns in this work). The volume character of the discharge is due to preionization by fast electrons, which arise when the electric field concentrates at the cathode and in the discharge gap. As the voltage pulse rise time grows, X-ray radiation comes largely from the discharge gap in accordance with previous experiments. Propagation of fast avalanche electrons in nitrogen subjected to a nonuniform unsteady electric field is simulated. It is demonstrated that the amount of hard X-ray photons grows not only with increasing voltage amplitude but also with shortening pulse rise time.

  10. Aerosol-Radiation Feedback and PM10 Air Concentrations Over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Wałaszek, Kinga; Dore, Anthony J.; Ojrzyńska, Hanna; Kapłon, Jan

    2016-03-01

    We have implemented the WRF-Chem model version 3.5 over Poland to quantify the direct and indirect feedback effects of aerosols on simulated meteorology and aerosol concentrations. Observations were compared with results from three simulations at high spatial resolutions of 5 × 5 km: (1) BASE—without any aerosol feedback effects; (2) DIR—with direct aerosol-radiative effects (3) INDIR—with direct and indirect aerosol-radiative effects. We study the overall effect during January 2011 as well as selected episodes of the highest differences in PM10 concentrations between the three simulations. For the DIR simulation, the decrease in monthly mean incoming solar radiation (SWDOWN) appears for the entire study area. It changes geographically, from about -8.0 to -2.0 W m-2, respectively for the southern and northern parts of the country. The highest changes do not correspond to the highest PM10 concentration. Due to the solar radiation changes, the surface mean monthly temperature (T2) decreases for 96 % of the area of Poland, but not more than 1.0 °C. Monthly mean PBLH changes by more than ±5 m for 53 % of the domain. Locally the differences in PBLH between the DIR and BASE are higher than ± 20 m. Due to the direct effect, for 84 % of the domain, the mean monthly PM10 concentrations increase by up to 1.9 µg m-3. For the INDIR simulation the spatial distribution of changes in incoming solar radiation as well as air temperature is similar to the DIR simulation. The decrease of SWDOWN is noticed for the entire domain and for 23 % of the domain is higher than -5.0 W m-2. The absolute differences of PBLH are slightly higher for INDIR than DIR but similarly distributed spatially. For daily episodes, the differences between the simulations are higher, both for meteorology and PM10 concentrations, and the pattern of changes is usually more complex. The results indicate the potential importance of the aerosol feedback effects on modelled meteorology and PM10

  11. Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Wilson; Macedo, Nicolás; Montoya, Nilton; Arias, Sandro; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Condom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Peruvian Andes host about 71% of all tropical glaciers. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range (Cordillera Blanca), other regions have received little attention to date. In 2011, a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru. The monitoring program is managed by the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI) and it is a joint project together with the Universidad San Antonio Abad de Cusco (UNSAAC) and the Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately 279 km2 in 2009. Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year. Using Landsat 5 images, we could estimate that the area of Quisoquipina glacier has decreased by approximately 11% from 3.66 km2 in 1990 to 3.26 km2 in 2010. This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers. In 2011, a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at 5180 m asl., measuring air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, net short and longwave radiation and atmospheric pressure. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. Additionally, we compare the results from Quisoquipina glacier to results obtained by the Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) for Zongo glacier (Bolivia) and Antizana glacier (Ecuador). For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier

  12. Infiltrating angiolipoma with phlebolith formation.

    PubMed

    De Orchis, D; Ozonoff, M B

    1986-01-01

    Angiolipomas are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with both fatty and vascular components; they may be encapsulated or locally invasive. Three cases are reported in which phleboliths were present within infiltrating angiolipomas. The demonstration of phleboliths in a lipoma suggests the diagnosis of infiltrating angiolipoma rather than the usual encapsulated lipoma. PMID:3764475

  13. Some critical remarks about the radiative heat transfer in air frame cavities according to EN ISO 10077-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal performances of windows frames are established, in Europe, by the international standard UNI EN ISO 10077-2:2012. The standard introduces an equivalent thermal conductivity for air frame cavities thus simplifying the original combined heat transfer problem to a merely two-dimensional conductive one. The equivalence is referred to a rectangular cavity and is not able to fully recover the same radiative heat flux involved in the original problem. In view of that, the paper is focused on the radiative heat transfer taking place in the air cavities and aims to check if different equivalence criteria could lead to improved results. Thus, numerical tests involving an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in air cavities are compared to the simplified fully-conductive one provided by the standard. Results show that different criteria lead to quite different results. The optimal criterion turns out to depend on both geometrical and surface radiative parameters. It is also shown that, in any case, a proper radiative resistance but not the one suggested by the ISO 10077 should be adopted.

  14. A fitting formula for radiative cooling based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium population from weakly-ionized air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Yousuke; Nagano, Atsushi; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2013-08-01

    A fitting formula for radiative cooling with collisional-radiative population for air plasma flowfield has been developed. Population number densities are calculated from rate equations in order to evaluate the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes. Many elementary processes are integrated to be applied to optically-thin plasmas in the number density range of 1012/cm3 <= N <= 1019/cm3 and the temperature range of 300 K <= T <= 40,000 K. Our results of the total radiative emissivity calculated from the collisional-radiative population are fitted in terms of temperature and total number density. To validate the analytic fitting formula, numerical simulation of a laser-induced blast wave propagation with the nonequilibrium radiative cooling is conducted and successfully reproduces the shock and plasma wave front time history observed by experiments. In addition, from the comparison between numerical simulations with the radiation cooling effect based on the fitting formula and those with a gray gas radiation model that assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium, we find that the displacement of the plasma front is slightly different due to the deviation of population probabilities. By using the fitting formula, we can easily and more accurately evaluate the radiative cooling effect without solving detailed collisional-radiative rate equations.

  15. Infiltrative Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Fu, Xu; Deng, Min; Chen, Jun; He, Jian; Shi, Jiong; Qiu, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (iHCC) receiving hepatectomy are unclear. Our study assessed the outcomes, effects of anatomical resection, and prognostic factors in a cohort of Chinese patients with iHCC undergoing hepatectomy. Data from 47 patients with iHCC undergoing hepatectomy were analyzed in a retrospective study. Independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Correlations between microvascular invasion (MVI) and clinicopathological features were assessed using the χ2 test, Student t test, or the Mann–Whitney U test. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median OS was 27.37 months and the 1-year RFS rate were 61.7%. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was not a specific parameter in iHCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. Anatomic resection was significantly associated with increased RFS (P = 0.007). Patients showing MVI were observed with decreased RFS (P < 0.001). A high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly associated with decreased OS and RFS (P = 0.003 and P = 0.020, respectively). MVI was shown correlated with the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and LDH. Subgroup analysis indicated that in mild MVI group, survival outcome was significantly more favorable in patients with high LDH level (P = 0.019). iHCC patients are related with higher MVI rate and patients may still derive survival benefit from anatomic resection at early and intermediate stages. MVI classification could be used to identify iHCC patients with a poorer survival, especially those with a high preoperative LDH level. PMID:27175659

  16. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Experimental Validation and Applications of a Fluid Infiltration Model

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Cindy S.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal infiltration experiments were performed to validate a plug flow model that minimizes the number of parameters that must be measured. Water and silicone oil at three different viscosities were infiltrated into glass beads, desert alluvium, and silica powder. Experiments were also performed with negative inlet heads on air-dried silica powder, and with water and oil infiltrating into initially water moist silica powder. Comparisons between the data and model were favorable in most cases, with predictions usually within 40% of the measured data. The model is extended to a line source and small areal source at the ground surface to analytically predict the shape of two-dimensional wetting fronts. Furthermore, a plug flow model for constant flux infiltration agrees well with field data and suggests that the proposed model for a constant-head boundary condition can be effectively used to predict wetting front movement at heterogeneous field sites if averaged parameter values are used. PMID:20428480

  18. Vibrational and electronic collisional-radiative model in air for Earth entry problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaloro, Julien; Bultel, Arnaud

    2014-12-01

    The two-temperature collisional-radiative model CoRaM-AIR, working over a wide range for pressure and temperatures, has been developed for the flow conditions around a space vehicle entering the Earth's atmosphere. The species N2, O2, NO, N, O, Ar, N2 + , O2 + , NO+, N+, O+, Ar+, and free electrons are taken into account. The model is vibrationally specific on the ground electronic state of N2, O2, and NO, and electronically specific for all species, with a total of 169 vibrational states and 829 electronic states, respectively. A wide set of elementary processes is considered under electron and heavy particle impact given the temperatures involved (up to 30 000 K). This set corresponds to almost 700 000 forward and backward elementary processes. The relaxation from initial thermal or chemical nonequilibrium is studied for dissociation-ionization situations in conditions related to the FIRE II flight experiment. Boltzmann plots clearly prove that the vibrational and electronic excitation distributions are far from being Boltzmanian. In particular, high-lying vibrational levels remain underpopulated for most of the duration of the relaxation. This relaxation can be separated in a first phase characterized by the dissociation and the excitation of the molecular species, and a second phase leading to the excitation and the ionization of the dissociation products. Owing to the vibrational relaxation, the time scales are slightly higher than the ones predicted by former kinetic mechanisms usually used in flow simulations. In the present FIRE II conditions, radiation does not play a significant role.

  19. Vibrational and electronic collisional-radiative model in air for Earth entry problems

    SciTech Connect

    Annaloro, Julien; Bultel, Arnaud

    2014-12-15

    The two-temperature collisional-radiative model CoRaM-AIR, working over a wide range for pressure and temperatures, has been developed for the flow conditions around a space vehicle entering the Earth's atmosphere. The species N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO, N, O, Ar, N{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, NO{sup +}, N{sup +}, O{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and free electrons are taken into account. The model is vibrationally specific on the ground electronic state of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NO, and electronically specific for all species, with a total of 169 vibrational states and 829 electronic states, respectively. A wide set of elementary processes is considered under electron and heavy particle impact given the temperatures involved (up to 30 000 K). This set corresponds to almost 700 000 forward and backward elementary processes. The relaxation from initial thermal or chemical nonequilibrium is studied for dissociation-ionization situations in conditions related to the FIRE II flight experiment. Boltzmann plots clearly prove that the vibrational and electronic excitation distributions are far from being Boltzmanian. In particular, high-lying vibrational levels remain underpopulated for most of the duration of the relaxation. This relaxation can be separated in a first phase characterized by the dissociation and the excitation of the molecular species, and a second phase leading to the excitation and the ionization of the dissociation products. Owing to the vibrational relaxation, the time scales are slightly higher than the ones predicted by former kinetic mechanisms usually used in flow simulations. In the present FIRE II conditions, radiation does not play a significant role.

  20. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Optical, radio and x-ray radiation of red sprites produced by runaway air breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Taranenko, Y.

    1997-04-01

    The authors use the runaway air breakdown model of upward discharges to calculate optical, radio, and X-ray radiation generated by red sprites. Red sprites are high altitude (up to 90 km) lightning discharges. Aircraft based observations show that sprites are predominantly red in color at altitudes above {approximately}55 km with faint blue tendrils, which extend downward to an altitude of 40 km; the duration of a single sprite is less than 17 ms, their maximum brightness is about 600 kR, and estimated total optical energy is about 1--5 kJ per event. The ground based observations show similar results, and provide some additional information on spatial and temporal structure of sprites, and on sprite locations. One difference between aircraft and ground-based observations is that blue tendrils are rarely observed from the ground. Sprites usually occur above the anvils of large mesoscale convective systems and correlate with strong positive cloud to ground discharge. Upward discharges are the most probable source of X-ray emission observed above large thunderstorm complexes by the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. To escape the atmosphere these {gamma}-rays must originate above 25 km altitude. Red sprites are usually observed at altitudes higher than 50 km, and are therefore a likely source of this x-ray emission.

  2. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  3. Air pollution and climate response to aerosol direct radiative effects: A modeling study of decadal trends across the northern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jia; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Hogrefe, Christian; Gan, Chuen-Meei; Wong, David C.; Wei, Chao; Wang, Jiandong

    2015-12-01

    Decadal hemispheric Weather Research and Forecast-Community Multiscale Air Quality simulations from 1990 to 2010 were conducted to examine the meteorology and air quality responses to the aerosol direct radiative effects. The model's performance for the simulation of hourly surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and direction was evaluated through comparison with observations from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center Integrated Surface Data. The inclusion of aerosol direct radiative effects improves the model's ability to reproduce the trend in daytime temperature range which over the past two decades was increasing in eastern China but decreasing in eastern U.S. and Europe. Trends and spatial and diurnal variations of the surface-level gaseous and particle concentrations to the aerosol direct effect were analyzed. The inclusion of aerosol direct radiative effects was found to increase the surface-level concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, SO42-, NO3-, and particulate matter 2.5 in eastern China, eastern U.S., and Europe by 1.5-2.1%, 1-1.5%, 0.1-0.3%, 1.6-2.3%, 3.5-10.0%, and 2.2-3.2%, respectively, on average over the entire 21 year period. However, greater impacts are noted during polluted days with increases of 7.6-10.6%, 6.2-6.7%, 2.0-3.0%, 7.8-9.5%, 11.1-18.6%, and 7.2-10.1%, respectively. Due to the aerosol direct radiative effects, stabilizing of the atmosphere associated with reduced planetary boundary layer height and ventilation leads to an enhancement of pollution. Consequently, the continual increase of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in eastern China leads to an increasing trend in the air quality feedback which exacerbates air pollution, while emission reductions in eastern U.S. and Europe result in a declining trend in both AODs and feedback which make the air pollution control strategies more effective.

  4. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:25187115

  5. Radiolytic yield of ozone in air for low dose neutron and x-ray/gamma-ray radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J.; Su, S.; Blakeley, R. E.; Koonath, P.; Hecht, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation ionizes surrounding air and produces molecular species, and these localized effects may be used as a signature of, and for quantification of, radiation. Low-level ozone production measurements from radioactive sources have been performed in this work to understand radiation chemical yields at low doses. The University of New Mexico AGN-201 M reactor was used as a tunable radiation source. Ozone levels were compared between reactor-on and reactor-off conditions, and differences (0.61 to 0.73 ppb) well below background levels were measured. Simulations were performed to determine the dose rate distribution and average dose rate to the air sample within the reactor, giving 35 mGy of mixed photon and neutron dose. A radiation chemical yield for ozone of 6.5±0.8 molecules/100 eV was found by a variance weighted average of the data. The different contributions of photons and neutrons to radiolytic ozone production are discussed.

  6. The effects of electron thermal radiation on laser ablative shock waves from aluminum plasma into ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Shiva, S.; Leela, Ch.; Prem Kiran, P.; Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of electron thermal radiation on 7 ns laser ablative shock waves from aluminum (Al) plasma into an ambient atmospheric air has been numerically investigated using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion, and radiation) radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI. The governing equations in Lagrangian form are solved using an implicit scheme for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The shockwave velocities (Vsw) obtained numerically are compared with our experimental values obtained over the intensity range of 2.0 × 1010 to 1.4 × 1011 W/cm2. It is observed that the numerically obtained Vsw is significantly influenced by the thermal radiation effects which are found to be dominant in the initial stage up to 2 μs depending on the input laser energy. Also, the results are found to be sensitive to the co-ordinate geometry used in the simulation (planar, cylindrical, and spherical). Moreover, it is revealed that shock wave undergoes geometrical transitions from planar to cylindrical nature and from cylindrical to spherical nature with time during its propagation into an ambient atmospheric air. It is also observed that the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma electron and ion parameters such as temperature, specific energy, pressure, electron number density, and mass density were found to be modified significantly due to the effects of electron thermal radiation.

  7. Comparison of measured and calculated air-transported radiation from a fast unshielded nuclear reactor. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robitaille, H.A.; Hoffarth, B.E.

    1980-12-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra have been measured at various distances up to 1100 metres from the fast-neutron reactor of the U.S. Army Pulse Radiation Division (Materiel Testing Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.) The spectra were obtained at a height of two metres above the air-ground interface and are compared to previous measurements performed by two other research laboratories, and also to the results of theoretical predictions based on two-dimensional discrete-ordinates transport theory. Integral quantities such as partial and total radiation kermas are generally in good agreement, however the theoretical calculations tend to predict somewhat softer neutron spectra than are observed experimentally.

  8. Air kerma to Hp(3) conversion coefficients for a new cylinder phantom for photon reference radiation qualities.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R

    2012-09-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has issued a standard series on photon reference radiation qualities (ISO 4037). In this series, no conversion coefficients are contained for the quantity personal dose equivalent at a 3 mm depth, H(p)(3). In the past, for this quantity, a slab phantom was recommended as a calibration phantom; however, a cylinder phantom much better approximates the shape of a human head than a slab phantom. Therefore, in this work, the conversion coefficients from air kerma to H(p)(3) for the cylinder phantom are supplied for X- and gamma radiation qualities defined in ISO 4037. PMID:22434922

  9. Radiation Detection Field Test at the Federal Express (FedEx) Air Cargo Facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirup, D; Waters, A; Hall, H; Dougan, A; Trombino, D; Mattesich, G; Hull, E; Bahowick, S; Loshak, A; Gruidl, J

    2004-02-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: {sm_bullet} Quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility. {sm_bullet} Quantify and identify ''nuisance'' alarms. {sm_bullet} Evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment (in this case, the operational environment included the biggest blizzard in over 90 years!).

  10. Depicting the Dependency of Isoprene in Ambient Air and from Plants on Temperature and Solar Radiation by Using Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2016-07-01

    Among all sources of volatile organic compounds, isoprene emission from plants is an important part of the atmospheric hydrocarbon budget. In the present study, isoprene emission capacity at the bottom of the canopies of plant species viz. Dalbergia sissoo and Nerium oleander and in ambient air at different sites selected on the basis of land use pattern viz. near to traffic intersection with dense vegetation, away from traffic intersection with dense vegetation under floodplain area (Site I) and away from traffic intersection with dense vegetation under hilly ridge area (Site II) during three different seasons (monsoon, winter and summer) in Delhi were measured. In order to find out the dependence of isoprene emission rate on temperature and solar radiation, regression analysis has been performed. In case of dependency of isoprene in ambient air on temperature and solar radiation in selected seasons it has been found that high isoprene was found during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon seasons. Thus, positive linear relationship gives the best fit between temperature, solar rdaiation and isoprene during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon season. On the other hand, in case of isoprene emission from selected plant species, it has been found that high temperature and solar radiation promotes high isoprene emission rates during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon seasons in D. sissoo. Thus, positive linear relationship gives the best fit between temperature, solar radiation and isoprene emission rate during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon season. In contrast, in case of Nerium oleander, no such appropriate relationship was obtained. The study concludes that in ambient air, isoprene concentration was found to be high during summer season as compared to other seasons and gives best fit between temperature, solar radiation and isoprene. In case of plants, Dalbergia sissoo comes under high isoprene emission category

  11. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  12. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  13. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to monitor and describe irregularities of moisture propagation and to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (Distric Cambisol, Korkusova Hut, Sumava). On these soils the preferential pathways have been observed in several scales with the use of dye tracers, MRI and CT imaging. Preferential behavior was detected also during laboratory infiltration experiments. The flow irregularities are credited to variable air entrapment at the beginning of infiltrations. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. The propagation of saline solution front during ponded infiltration was visualized with high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Infiltration experiments were monitored with TDR probes, tensiometers and ERT. Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al., 2000) were employed. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The

  14. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditionsin winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, Y.; Hao, J.

    2015-03-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions in January 2013 are simulated using the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the aerosol's radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg m-3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W m-2, 3.2°C, 0.8 m s-1, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and stabilizing lower atmosphere, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2). Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb (parts per billion) due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature, while the aerosol feedbacks on PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model performance in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River delta, and central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real-time air quality forecasting under haze conditions.

  15. Influence of surface crusting on infiltration of a loess plateau soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface sealing and crusting are common widespread processes that occur in many cultivated soils worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. Soil crusting negatively affects water infiltration, increases surface runoff, reduces seedling emergence, restricts air exchange between the soil and ...

  16. Comparison of air kerma area product and air kerma meter calibrations for X-ray radiation qualities used in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourdakis, C. J.; Csete, I.; Daures, J.; Jarvinen, H.; Mihailescu, L.-C.; Sochor, V.; Novak, L.; Pedersen, M.; Kosunen, A.; Toroi, P.; Denoziere, M.; Büermann, L.; Megzifene, A.; Einarsson, G.; Ferrari, P.; dePooter, J.; Bjerke, H.; Brodecki, M.; Cardoso, J.; Bercea, S.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Compel, J.; Glavič-Cindro, D.; Ginjaume, M.; Persson, L.; Grindborg, J.-E.

    2015-01-01

    The EURAMET #1177 project, identified as EURAMET RI(I) - S9 comparison, was the first EURAMET wide scale supplementary comparison in the field of diagnostic radiology for air kerma area product, PKA, and air kerma, K. It was conducted with the goal of testing the measurement and calibration capabilities for PKA and K, as well as of supporting the relevant CMCs of the participating laboratories. Two commercial KAP meters and an ionization chamber were selected as transfer instruments and circulated between the 22 European participants. The measurements were performed from April 2011 until July 2012. The stability and the performance of the transfer instruments were tested by the pilot laboratory (IRCL/GAEC-EIM) and few other laboratories as well. The test results revealed that the energy (radiation quality), Q, irradiation area, A, and air kerma rate, dot K dependences of response of the transfer KAP meters influence the comparison of the results when different measurement conditions were pertained and therefore, appropriate correction factors were obtained and applied to the reported calibration results of the laboratories, when necessary. The comparison reference values (CRVs) for each instrument were determined as the weighted mean of the calibration coefficients of the three participating primary laboratories. The relative standard uncertainty of the CRVs were in the range of (0.4 - 1.6)% depending on the transfer instruments and beam qualities. The comparison result as the ratio of the corrected calibration coefficient of participant and the respective CRV, and its uncertainty were calculated for all beam qualities and transfer instruments. The informative degrees of equivalence (DoE) were calculated for the refrence RQR 5 beam quality. In case of air kema area product measurements the results for the RADCAL PDC KAP meter were used. The 216 KAP meter calibration results of the two different transfer instruments in terms of air kerma area product were consistent

  17. Modification of Saharan air layer and environmental shear over the eastern Atlantic Ocean by dust-radiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Waylonis, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates the influence of dust-radiation effects on the modification of the Saharan air layer (SAL) and environmental shear. A tracer model based on the Weather Research and Forecast model was developed to examine the influence using a dust outbreak event. Two numerical experiments were conducted with (ON) and without (OFF) the dust-radiation effects. Both simulations reasonably reproduced SAL's features. However, the 700 hPa maximum temperature within SAL was slightly underestimated and shifted northwestward from OFF. These were improved from ON, but the maximum temperature became slightly overestimated, which might be due to inaccurate optical properties. The dust-radiation interactions mainly warmed the dusty air between 750 and 550 hPa because dust shortwave absorption dominated dust longwave cooling. Another major warming area was found near the surface over the ocean due to longwave radiative heating by dust aloft. The modification of temperature resulted in an adjustment of the vertical wind shear. To the south of SAL, where easterly wave disturbances and tropical storms usually occur, the vertical zonal wind shear increased by about 1˜2.5 m s-1 km-1 from 750 to 550 hPa, resulting in a maximum wind change of 3˜5 m s-1, a 30˜40% increase, around the top of this layer. The enhancement of the vertical shear in this layer could potentially have an impact on TC genesis and development. The dust-radiation effects also modified the moisture and dust distribution, which can have a feedback (i.e., a secondary effect) on the heating profile and the vertical shear.

  18. How air influences radiation dose deposition in multiwell culture plates: a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation geometry

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, Sebastia; Berenguer, Roberto; Honrubia-Gomez, Paloma; Rivera, Miguel; Nuñez, Ana; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Martos, Ana; Ramirez-Castillejo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Radiation of experimental culture cells on plates with various wells can cause a risk of underdosage as a result of the existence of multiple air–water interfaces. The objective of our study was to quantify this error in culture plates with multiple wells. Radiation conditions were simulated with the GAMOS code, based on the GEANT4 code, and this was compared with a simulation performed with PENELOPE and measured data. We observed a slight underdosage of ∼4% on the most superficial half of the culture medium. We believe that this underdosage does not have a significant effect on the dose received by culture cells deposited in a monolayer and adhered to the base of the wells. PMID:24722683

  19. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditions in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, Y. X.; Hao, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions during January~2013 are simulated using the fully coupled on-line Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the impact of aerosol radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects on meteorological variables and air quality. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg m-3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W m-2, 3.2 °C, 0.8 m s-1, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and wind speeds, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2) and PM2.5. The aerosol feedbacks on secondary pollutants such as surface ozone and PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model's performances in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real

  20. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditions in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yuxuan; Hao, Jiming

    2015-04-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions during January 2013 are simulated using the fully coupled on-line Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the impact of aerosol radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects on meteorological variables and air quality. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg/m3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W/m2, 3.2 oC, 0.8 m/s, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and wind speeds, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2) and PM2.5. The aerosol feedbacks on secondary pollutants such as surface ozone and PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model performance in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real-time air

  1. Simplified modeling for infiltration and radon entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Air leakage in the envelopes of residential buildings is the primary mechanism for provided ventilation to those buildings. For radon the same mechanisms that drive the ventilation, drive the radon entry This paper attempts to provide a simplified physical model that can be used to understand the interactions between the building leakage distribution, the forces that drive infiltration and ventilation, and indoor radon concentrations, Combining both ventilation and entry modeling together allows an estimation of Radon concentration and exposure to be made and demonstrates how changes in the envelope or ventilation system would affect it. This paper will develop simplified modeling approaches for estimating both ventilation rate and radon entry rate based on the air tightness of the envelope and the driving forces. These approaches will use conventional leakage values (i.e. effective leakage area ) to quantify the air tightness and include natural and mechanical driving forces. This paper will introduce a simplified parameter, the Radon Leakage Area, that quantifies the resistance to radon entry. To be practical for dwellings, modeling of the occupant exposures to indoor pollutants must be simple to use and not require unreasonable input data. This paper presents the derivation of the simplified physical model, and applies that model to representative situations to explore the tendencies to be expected under different circumstances.

  2. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR): Analysis, Results, and Lessons Learned From the June 1997 ER-2 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W. (Editor); Jones, I. W. (Editor); Maiden, D. L. (Editor); Goldhagen, P. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The United States initiated a program to assess the technology required for an environmentally safe and operationally efficient High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) for entrance on the world market after the turn of the century. Due to the changing regulations on radiation exposures and the growing concerns over uncertainty in our knowledge of atmospheric radiations, the NASA High Speed Research Project Office (HSRPO) commissioned a review of "Radiation Exposure and High-Altitude Flight" by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). On the basis of the NCRP recommendations, the HSRPO funded a flight experiment to resolve the environmental uncertainty in the atmospheric ionizing radiation levels as a step in developing an approach to minimize the radiation impact on HSCT operations. To minimize costs in this project, an international investigator approach was taken to assure coverage with instrument sensitivity across the range of particle types and energies to allow unique characterization of the diverse radiation components. The present workshop is a result of the flight measurements made at the maximum intensity of the solar cycle modulated background radiation levels during the month of June 1997.

  3. Application of a Reynolds stress turbulence model to a supersonic radiating hydrogen-air diffusion flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekhar, R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    A second-order differential Reynolds Stress turbulence model has been applied to the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for the study of supersonic flows with finite-rate chemistry and radiation. An assumed Beta Probability Density Function is applied to account for the chemical source terms and the radiative flux terms in the conservation equations. A seven-species, seven-reaction finite rate chemistry mechanism is used to simulate the combustion process. The tangent slab approximation is used in radiative flux formulation. A pseudo-gray gas model is used to represent the absorption-emission characteristics of the participating species. The turbulence/radiation interaction is achieved via a new formulation. The resulting formulation is validated by comparison with experimental data on reacting supersonic axisymmetric jets. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the effect of chemical reaction on the turbulence is significant. Also, the radiative heat transfer is enhanced by the turbulence.

  4. Assessment of the effect of air pollution controls on trends in shortwave radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from multiple observation networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term data sets of all-sky and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed together with surface concentrations from several networks (e.g., Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), Clean Air Status an...

  5. Inverse modelling of multiple infiltration-outflow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotková, M.; Snehota, M.; Dohnal, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Changes of (quasi)steady state water flow rates were observed in laboratory infiltration experiments done on columns of compacted sand and on two undisturbed soil columns of sandy loam and loamy sand cambisol soil. Infiltration-outflow experiments consisted of series of ponded infiltration runs with seepage face boundary condition at the lower end of columns. The initial water contents were different for each run. The results of the experiment done on an undisturbed soil column showed that the flux rates and water contents measured during quasi-steady state differ between infiltration runs. This finding contradicts the standard theory. The fluctuations of the water content during the steady state flow can be ascribed to the variations in volume of the entrapped air. The same behaviour was not observed in the sample of homogeneous sand. Computer tomography was used to characterize the structure of the undisturbed soil sample with focus on potential preferential flow pathways. In order to asses the changes between runs quantitatively, hydraulic characteristics were estimated for each infiltration run separately by inverse modelling. Experimental outflow data and tensiometric pressure head data were used as an input for inverse modelling. Numerical code based on dual permeability approach was coupled with parameter estimator. Result of the inverse modelling for each column is specific set of hydraulic properties for each infiltration run of particular soil column. Since we hypothesise that the steady state flow is affected by soil water content at the beginning of the infiltration run, we will study the relationships between initial moistures and hydraulic parameters values. Furthermore we will test if the above phenomena can be ascribed to hysteresis of hydraulic functions.

  6. Radiative Processes In Air Excited By An ArF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.; Huo, Winifred; Laufer, Gabriel

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental and theoretical studies of emission spectrum of air excited by light from ArF laser. Purpose of studies to determine conditions under which fluorescence from O2 used to measure temperatures in aerodynamic flows.

  7. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  8. Search for tachyons associated with extensive air showers in the ground level cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masjed, H. F.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Events detected in a shielded plastic scintillation counter occurring in the 26 microsec preceding the arrival of an extensive air shower at ground level with local electron density or = 20 m to the -2 power and the 240 microsec after its arrival have been studied. No significant excess of events (tachyons) arriving in the early time domain have been observed in a sample of 11,585 air shower triggers.

  9. Calorimetric detection of the conical terahertz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houard, Aurélien; Liu, Yi; Mysyrowicz, André; Leriche, Bernadette

    2007-12-01

    The spectral distribution of the conical terahertz emission from a femtosecond laser filament in air is measured with a bolometric detector and a set of filters, confirming that the main part of the emission lies between 0.5 and 3THz. The efficiency of this terahertz emission is compared with that obtained in air via four wave mixing of femtosecond laser pulses at ω and 2ω in the presence of a plasma.

  10. A conversion method of air kerma from the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations to effective dose for calculating x-ray shielding barriers in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Kharrati, Hedi

    2005-05-01

    In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation.

  11. The optical breakdown threshold of air on a polished metal surface for radiation at lambda=10.6 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Iu. V.; Belashkov, I. N.; Datskevich, N. P.; Egorov, V. N.; Iziumov, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    Threshold conditions for the formation of a plasma due to optical breakdown of air on the polished surfaces of Al, Co, Mi, and W samples have been investigated experimentally. The optical breakdown was initiated by pulsed radiation from two CO2 lasers having pulse powers 0.5 and 1.0 kJ, respectively. The thresholds for the formation of the plasma were determined for two exposure spots of o/14 sq mm and 46 sq cm, respectively. A metallographic study was carried out in order to identify the specific types of defects corresponding to the lowest optical breakdown thresholds. Before-and-after photographs of the metal surfaces are provided.

  12. Effects of radiational heating at low air temperature on water balance, cold tolerance, and visible injury of red spruce foliage.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J L; Amundson, R G

    1992-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that winter needle mortality in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is increased by exposure to direct solar radiation, possibly as a result of photo-oxidative damage, accelerated winter desiccation, or reduced cold tolerance due to heating of sun-exposed needles. In an experiment at controlled subfreezing air temperatures of -10 to -20 degrees C, visible radiation was less effective than infrared radiation in producing needle desiccation and visible injury during freeze-thaw cycles. However, visible radiation produced a red-brown color in injured needles, similar to natural winter injury, whereas injured needles exposed to infrared radiation were yellow and injured needles kept in darkness were dark brown. Thus, visible radiation was necessary to produce the red-brown color of damaged needles, but not the injury itself. Needle desiccation was not strongly correlated with visible injury, but the pattern of variation in visible injury among trees and the positive correlation between electrolyte leakage and visible injury suggested that freezing damage following freeze-thaw cycles might cause the visible injury. This was confirmed by a second experiment that showed loss of cold hardiness in needles thawed by radiational heating for six consecutive days. Even with a constant nighttime temperature of -10 degrees C, six days of radiational heating of needles to above freezing caused a small (2.8 degrees C) mean decrease in needle cold tolerance, as measured by electrolyte leakage. Continuous darkness at -10 degrees C for six days resulted in an estimated 5.6 degrees C mean increase in needle cold tolerance. Freezing injury stimulated desiccation: cooling at 4 degrees C h(-1) to -43 or -48 degrees C increased the dehydration rate of isolated shoots by a factor of two to three during the first day after thawing. Within three days at 15 to 22 degrees C and 50% relative humidity, the mean water content of these shoots fell to 60% or lower, compared to

  13. Radiation Control Coatings Installed on Federal Buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Kaba, R.L.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-03-16

    The technical objectives of this CRADA comprise technology deployment and energy conservation efforts with the radiation control coatings industry and the utility sector. The results of this collaboration include a high-level data reporting, analysis and management system to support the deployment efforts. The technical objectives include successfully install, commission, operate, maintain and document the performance of radiation control coatings on roofs at Tyndall AFB and the Buildings Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; determine the life cycle savings that can be achieved by using radiation control coatings on entire roofs at Tyndall AFB, based on documented installed cost and operating maintenance costs with and without the coatings; determine if any specific improvements are required in the coatings before they can be successfully deployed in the federal sector; determine the most effective way to facilitate the widespread and rapid deployment of radiation control coatings in the federal sector; and clearly define any barriers to deployment.

  14. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  15. RAPID INFILTRATION WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid infiltration treatment performance of three infiltration basins receiving primary treated municipal wastewater is evaluated for optimum total nitrogen control using a series of manual operational techniques and by remote control computer operation of a sprinkler system. Thr...

  16. Characterization of liquid metal infiltration of a chopped fiber preform aided by external pressure. 2: Modeling of liquid metal infiltration process

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.; Zhang, Z.; Flower, H.M.

    1995-09-01

    Based on the visualized flow behavior of Al10SiMg alloy melt in Saffil chopped fiber preforms, unidirectional infiltration of a chopped fiber preform aided by squeeze pressure has been analyzed. The relationships between melt flow and process parameters have been statistically established by the hydrodynamic analysis. The stress distribution, the variation of saturation degree and the formation of cavities due to air entrapment in the preform during infiltration have been discussed together with the analysis results.

  17. Impact of transpacific aerosol on air quality over the United States: A perspective from aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhining; Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Observations have well established that aerosols from various sources in Asia, Europe, and Africa can travel across the Pacific and reach the contiguous United States (U.S.) at least on episodic bases throughout a year, with a maximum import in spring. The imported aerosol not only can serve as an additional source to regional air pollution (e.g., direct input), but also can influence regional air quality through the aerosol-cloud-radiation (ACR) interactions that change local and regional meteorology. This study assessed impacts of the transpacific aerosol on air quality, focusing on surface ozone and PM2.5, over the U.S. using the NASA Unified Weather Research Forecast model. Based on the results of 3-month (April to June of 2010) simulations, the impact of direct input (as an additional source) of transpacific aerosol caused an increase of surface PM2.5 concentration by approximately 1.5 μg m-3 over the west coast and about 0.5 μg m-3 over the east coast of the U.S. By influencing key meteorological processes through the ACR interactions, the transpacific aerosol exerted a significant effect on both surface PM2.5 (±6 μg m-3) and ozone (±12 ppbv) over the central and eastern U.S. This suggests that the transpacific transport of aerosol could either improve or deteriorate local air quality and complicate local effort toward the compliance with the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

  18. Residential infiltration of fine and ultrafine particles in Edmonton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Jill; Wallace, Lance; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Kindzierski, Warren; Wheeler, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    air cleaner was associated with reduced UFP infiltration factors in summer, suggesting a potential method of reducing infiltrated UFPs. Various cooking activities and smoking were associated with the non-ambient component of indoor FP and UFP concentrations. On average, the majority of indoor FPs were of ambient origin while the majority of UFPs were of indoor origin. In summer, more of the indoor FP and UFP concentrations were from ambient origin, compared to winter, due to the higher infiltration factors. The variability in FP and UFP Finf within and between homes may cause substantial exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies using only ambient measurements.

  19. Modeled and measured infiltration: Phase II. A detailed case study of three homes; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, L.; Bond, T.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate the impacts of wind, temperature and mechanical systems on infiltration in real homes, with a view toward resolving infiltration modeling problems raised in recent studies. This report contains results from the second phase of an ongoing project. In Phase I, detailed infiltration and pressure measurements were made by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on four homes in the Pacific Northwest. In this phase, similar measurements were made on an additional three homes, chosen for maximal wind exposure. For the reader`s convenience the summary tables in this report contain data from all seven homes in a uniform format. The predictions of two natural infiltration models (LBL and AIM-2) were compared in detail with one another and the measured data. An improved method of calculating the height parameter for both models is proposed. A modification of the LBL wind model is also proposed. A simple model is presented to incorporate the infiltration effects of exhaust and supply ventilation systems and unbalanced flows due to duct leakage. An unbalanced flow to the conditioned space induces approximately one-half of its magnitude in additional infiltration when it is small relative to natural infiltration. Forced-air distribution systems were investigated in detail. Air handlers and associated duct leakage can have large effects on living-zone infiltration rates; for these homes the median increase in overall infiltration was 21%, based on a runtime of six hours per day. Closing even a single bedroom door can cause a major increase in infiltration when the air handler runs. The bias due to use of a time-averaged concentration tracer technique (i.e., the perfluorocarbon (PFT) method) was assessed and found to be small for the living zones, and large for the wind-dominated, ventilated crawl space and attic zones.

  20. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs.

    PubMed

    Faybishenko, B; Bodvarsson, G S; Salve, R

    2003-01-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  1. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Salve, R.

    2002-04-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Tonopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility, using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  2. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Salve, R.

    2003-05-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  3. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate radiative forcing to DMS concentration and air-sea flux formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesdal, J.-E.; Christian, J. R.; Monahan, A. H.; von Salzen, K.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we use an atmospheric general circulation model with explicit aerosol chemistry (CanAM4.1) and several climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration to assess uncertainties about the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux. Despite substantial variation in the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of simulated DMS fluxes, the global mean radiative forcing is approximately linearly proportional to the global mean surface flux of DMS; the spatial and temporal distribution of ocean DMS efflux has only a minor effect on the global radiation balance. The effect of the spatial structure, however, generates statistically significant changes in the global mean concentrations of some aerosol species. The effect of seasonality on net radiative forcing is larger than that of spatial distribution, and is significant at global scale.

  4. Chemical compositions and radiative properties of dust and anthropogenic air masses study in Taipei Basin, Taiwan, during spring of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Chen, Wei-Nai

    Asia is one of the major sources of not only mineral dust but also anthropogenic aerosols. Continental air masses associated with the East Asian winter monsoon always contain high contents of mineral dust and anthropogenic species and transported southeastward to Taiwan, which have significant influences on global atmospheric radiation transfer directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation in each spring. However, few measurements for the long-range transported aerosol and its optical properties were announced in this area, between the Western Pacific and the southeastern coast of Mainland China. The overall objective of this work is to quantify the optical characteristics of different aerosol types in the Eastern Asian. In order to achieve this objective, meteorological parameters, concentrations of PM 10 and its soluble species, and optical property of atmospheric scattering coefficients were measured continuously with 1 h time-resolved from 11 February to 7 April 2004 in Taipei Basin (25°00'N, 121°32'E). In this work, the dramatic changes of meteorological parameters such as temperature and winds were used to determine the influenced period of each air mass. Continental, strong continental, marine, and stagnant air masses defined by the back-trajectory analysis and local meteorology were further characterized as long-range transport pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols, respectively, according to the diagnostic ratios. The aerosol mass scattering efficiency of continental pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols were ranged from 1.3 to 1.6, 0.7 to 1.0, 1.4 and 1.4 to 2.3 m 2 g -1, respectively. Overall, there are two distinct populations of aerosol mass scattering efficiencies, one for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by dust (<1.0 m 2 g -1) and the other for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by anthropogenic pollutants (1.3-2.3 m 2 g -1), which were similar to the previous measurements with

  5. Air-coupled acoustic radiation force for non-contact generation of broadband mechanical waves in soft media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz; Pelivanov, Ivan; Song, Shaozhen; Yoon, Soon Joon; Li, David; Gao, Liang; Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact method for efficient, non-invasive excitation of mechanical waves in soft media is proposed, in which we focus an ultrasound (US) signal through air onto the surface of a medium under study. The US wave reflected from the air/medium interface provides radiation force to the medium surface that launches a transient mechanical wave in the transverse (lateral) direction. The type of mechanical wave is determined by boundary conditions. To prove this concept, a home-made 1 MHz piezo-ceramic transducer with a matching layer to air sends a chirped US signal centered at 1 MHz to a 1.6 mm thick gelatin phantom mimicking soft biological tissue. A phase-sensitive (PhS)-optical coherence tomography system is used to track/image the mechanical wave. The reconstructed transient displacement of the mechanical wave in space and time demonstrates highly efficient generation, thus offering great promise for non-contact, non-invasive characterization of soft media, in general, and for elasticity measurements in delicate soft tissues and organs in bio-medicine, in particular.

  6. Air and silica core Bragg fibers for radiation delivery in the wavelength range 0.6-1.5 μ m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Milan; Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Matějec, Vlastimil

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents fundamental characteristics of laboratory designed and fabricated Bragg fibers with air and silica cores at wavelengths of 632, 975, 1064 and 1550 nm. Fibers with the 26- μ m-silica core and 5- or 73- μ m-air cores in diameters and claddings of 3 pairs of Bragg layers were prepared from one preform. The overall transmittance, attenuation coefficients, coupling losses, bending losses, and damage-intensity thresholds were determined using four continuous-wave laser sources with the maximum output power of 300 mW and a pulsed 9 ns laser with the maximum output energy up to 1 mJ. The lowest attenuation coefficient of about 70 dB/km was determined at 1064 nm with the 73- μ m-air-core Bragg fiber. All fibers have been found to exhibit negligible bending losses down to the bending diameters of 5 cm. In comparison with the conventional gradient optical fiber, all the prepared Bragg fibers have approximately six times higher damage intensity threshold of about 30 GWcm-2 and therefore they are very suitable for high power laser radiation delivery.

  7. Multizone infiltration measurements in homes and buildings using a passive perfluorocarbon tracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; D'Offavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    A miniature passive perfluorocarbon tracer system was successfully applied to the determination of air infiltration and exfiltration rates from each zone of a multizoned structure, as well as the air exchange rates between zones in homes, multiple unit condominiums, naturally ventilated apartment buildings, and large commercial buildings with multiple air-handling systems. Use of the multizone technique in indoor quality assessments and air-handling system stratification studies appears to be quite feasible with the availability of this measuring system.

  8. Radiation safety in commercial air traffic - A need for further study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of radiation exposure of crewmembers in high altitude supersonic commercial aircraft is addressed. As a result of recent changes in the quality factors for radiological protection, it is found that worst case estimates of radiation exposure are now well above the exposure limits of the general population, and a reassessment of radiation impact on commercial aviation is needed, if the proposed quality factors are adopted. Calculations are presented from a study on neutron dosage equivalent rates. It is shown that a crew flying at altitudes near 13 km (43,000 ft) for 40 hr/mo would receive exposure levels of 47-75 Sv/yr, and it is suggested that such crewmembers be considered as radiation workers, rather than general population members. However, since present exposure estimates need to be improved, and the maximum permissible dose limits are currently under revision, the final exposure limits are, as yet, unclear, suggesting the need for further study to clarify the work status of commercial aircrews.

  9. Non-Boltzmann Modeling for Air Shock-Layer Radiation at Lunar-Return Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Hollis, Brian R.; Sutton, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the non-Boltzmann modeling of the radiating atomic and molecular electronic states present in lunar-return shock-layers. The Master Equation is derived for a general atom or molecule while accounting for a variety of excitation and de-excitation mechanisms. A new set of electronic-impact excitation rates is compiled for N, O, and N2+, which are the main radiating species for most lunar-return shock-layers. Based on these new rates, a novel approach of curve-fitting the non-Boltzmann populations of the radiating atomic and molecular states is developed. This new approach provides a simple and accurate method for calculating the atomic and molecular non-Boltzmann populations while avoiding the matrix inversion procedure required for the detailed solution of the Master Equation. The radiative flux values predicted by the present detailed non-Boltzmann model and the approximate curve-fitting approach are shown to agree within 5% for the Fire 1634 s case.

  10. CLOUDS, AEROSOLS, RADIATION AND THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN: ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Bretherton, Chris; McFarquhar, Greg; Protat, Alain; Quinn, Patricia; Siems, Steven; Jakob, Christian; Alexander, Simon; Weller, Bob

    2014-09-29

    A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy was convened at the University of Washington to discuss the state of knowledge of clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction over the Southern Ocean and to identify strategies for reducing uncertainties in their representation in global and regional models. The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system and is a unique pristine environment, yet other than from satellite, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, radiation and the air-sea interface in this region. Consequently, much is unknown about atmospheric and oceanographic processes and their linkage in this region. Approximately 60 scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior researchers working in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at U.S. and foreign universities and government laboratories, attended the Southern Ocean Workshop. It began with a day of scientific talks, partly in plenary and partly in two parallel sessions, discussing the current state of the science for clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean. After the talks, attendees broke into two working groups; one focused on clouds and meteorology, and one focused on aerosols and their interactions with clouds. This was followed by more plenary discussion to synthesize the two working group discussions and to consider possible plans for organized activities to study clouds, aerosols and the air-sea interface in the Southern Ocean. The agenda and talk slides, including short summaries of the highlights of the parallel session talks developed by the session chars, are available at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/socrates/presentations/SouthernOceanPresentations/.

  11. Infiltrative lung diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Freymond, N; Cottin, V; Cordier, J F

    2011-03-01

    Pregnancy may affect the diagnosis, management, and outcome of infiltrative lung disease (ILD). Conversely, ILD may affect pregnancy. ILD may occur as a result of drugs administered commonly or specifically during pregnancy. Most ILDs predominate in patients older than 40 years and are thus rare in pregnant women. During pregnancy ILD may arise de novo and preexisting ILD may be exacerbated or significantly worsened. Some ILDs generally do not alter the management of pregnancy, labor, or delivery. Preexisting ILD no longer contraindicates pregnancy systematically, but thorough evaluation of ILD before pregnancy is required to identify potential contraindications and adapt monitoring. PMID:21277455

  12. Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, D.; Yoo, Y. J.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Jhajj, N.; Milchberg, H. M.; Kim, K. Y.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate scalable terahertz (THz) generation by focusing terawatt, two-color laser pulses in air with a cylindrical lens. This focusing geometry creates a two-dimensional air plasma sheet, which yields two diverging THz lobe profiles in the far field. This setup can avoid plasma-induced laser defocusing and subsequent THz saturation, previously observed with spherical lens focusing of high-power laser pulses. By expanding the plasma source into a two-dimensional sheet, cylindrical focusing can lead to scalable THz generation. This scheme provides an energy conversion efficiency of 7 × 10-4, ˜7 times better than spherical lens focusing. The diverging THz lobes are refocused with a combination of cylindrical and parabolic mirrors to produce strong THz fields (>21 MV/cm) at the focal point.

  13. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs.

  14. Effect of Aerosols on Surface Radiation and Air Quality in the Central American Region Estimated Using Satellite UV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is reduced by both aerosol scattering and aerosol absorption. Over many parts of the world the latter effect can be as large or larger than the former effect, and small changes in the aerosol single scattering albedo can either cancel the former effect or enhance it. In addition, absorbing aerosols embedded in clouds can greatly reduce the amount of radiation reaching the surface by multiple scattering. Though the potential climatic effects of absorbing aerosols have received considerable attention lately, their effect on surface UV, photosynthesis, and photochemistry can be equally important for our environment and may affect human health and agricultural productivity. Absorption of all aerosols commonly found in the Earth's atmosphere becomes larger in the UV and blue wavelengths and has a relatively strong wavelength dependence. This is particularly true of mineral dust and organic aerosols. However, these effects have been very difficult to estimate on a global basis since the satellite instruments that operate in the visible are primarily sensitive to aerosol scattering. A notable exception is the UV Aerosol Index (AI), first produced using NASA's Nimbus-7 TOMS data. AI provides a direct measure of the effect of aerosol absorption on the backscattered UV radiation in both clear and cloudy conditions, as well as over snow/ice. Although many types of aerosols produce a distinct color cast in the visible images, and aerosols absorption over clouds and snow/ice could, in principle be detected from their color, so far this technique has worked well only in the UV. In this talk we will discuss what we have learned from the long-term record of AI produced from TOMS and Aura/OMI about the possible role of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality in the Central American region.

  15. Radiation pressure and air drag effects on the orbit of the balloon satellite 1963 30D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slowey, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Computed orbits of the balloon satellite 1963 30D are given every 2 days over an interval of 456 days near the beginning of the satellite's lifetime and an interval of 824 days near the end of its lifetime. The effects of radiation pressure on the satellite are examined in some detail. It is found that the variations in all the elements can be represented by use of a single parameter to specify the effect of diffuse reflection from the satellite's surface, and that this parameter remains constant, or nearly so, during the entire 7-year lifetime. Success in obtaining a consistent representation of the radiation-pressure effects is ascribed to the inclusion of the effects of terrestrial radiation pressure, using a model for the earth's albedo that includes seasonal and latitudinal variations. Anomalous effects in the orbital acceleration, as well as in the other elements, are represented quite well by including a small force at right angle to the solar direction and by allowing this to rotate about the solar direction. This implies that the satellite is aspherical, that it is rotating, and that the axis of rotation precesses.

  16. Theoretical study of the radiative and kinetic properties of selected metal oxides and air molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, H. H.; Hobbs, R. H.

    1985-05-01

    A theoretical research program directed toward the study of the energetics and LWIR radiative properties of selected uranium/oxygen band systems has been undertaken. Included in this research program was the investigation of the strongest electronic and vibrational bands in the LWIR region for the species UO, UO(+), UO2, UO(++). The program for accomplishing this research effort was formulated into three separate tasks: a) adaption of our electronic structure codes to the DNA CYBER 176 System, b) calculation of pertinent electronic wavefunctions and energies, as a function of internuclear separation within a relativistic framework, for selected species of the uranium/oxygen system which may be important in the LWIR region, and c) calculation of electronic transition moments and transition probabilities between specific vibrational levels of the electronic states corresponding to the strongest radiating band systems belonging to the uranium/oxygen system and prediction of IR and possible optical oscillator strengths. Our calculations indicated that the species UO(+) will be efficiently solar pumped and will exhibit strong absorption/radiation. Further, we predict efficient conversion of solar photons to IR photons for this species.

  17. Acoustic radiation force on an air bubble and soft fluid spheres in ideal liquids: Example of a high-order Bessel beam of quasi-standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2009-04-01

    The partial wave series for the scattering of a high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) of acoustic quasi-standing waves by an air bubble and fluid spheres immersed in water and centered on the axis of the beam is applied to the calculation of the acoustic radiation force. A HOBB refers to a type of beam having an axial amplitude null and an azimuthal phase gradient. Radiation force examples obtained through numerical evaluation of the radiation force function are computed for an air bubble, a hexane, a red blood and mercury fluid spheres in water. The examples were selected to illustrate conditions having progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves with appropriate selection of the waves’ amplitude ratio. An especially noteworthy result is the lack of a specific vibrational mode contribution to the radiation force determined by appropriate selection of the HOBB parameters.

  18. A 2-Liter, 2000 MPa Air Source for the Radiatively Driven Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, M; Lofftus, D

    2002-05-30

    The A2 LITE is a 2 liter, 2000 MPa, 750 K ultra-high pressure (UHP) vessel used to demonstrate UHP technology and to provide an air flow for wind tunnel nozzle development. It is the largest volume UHP vessel in the world. The design is based on a 100:1 pressure intensification using a hydraulic ram as a low pressure driver and a three-layer compound cylinder UHP section. Active control of the 900 mm piston stroke in the 63.5 mm bore permits pressure-time profiles ranging from static to constant pressure during flow through a 1 mm throat diameter nozzle for 1 second.

  19. Monte Carlo based calibration of an air monitoring system for gamma and beta+ radiation.

    PubMed

    Sarnelli, A; Negrini, M; D'Errico, V; Bianchini, D; Strigari, L; Mezzenga, E; Menghi, E; Marcocci, F; Benassi, M

    2015-11-01

    Marinelli beaker systems are used to monitor the activity of radioactive samples. These systems are usually calibrated with water solutions and the determination of the activity in gases requires correction coefficients accounting for the different mass-thickness of the sample. For beta+ radionuclides the different distribution of the positrons annihilation points should be also considered. In this work a Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4 is used to compute correction coefficients for the measurement of the activity of air samples. PMID:26356044

  20. Suppression of Arctic Air Formation by Cloud Radiative Effects in a Two-Dimensional Cloud Resolving Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, T.; Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand equable paleoclimates, Arctic amplification of winter warming, and the high-latitude lapse-rate feedback, we investigate the process of Arctic air formation, wherein a high latitude maritime air mass is advected over land during polar night and strongly cooled from the surface up. We extend previous work done using a single-column model (Cronin and Tziperman, PNAS, in press) by performing two-dimensional idealized cloud-resolving simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Quantitatively consistent with previous results, we find that as the initial atmospheric state is warmed, increases in low cloud amount reduce the average surface cooling over a 14-day period by roughly a degree for each degree of warming of the initial atmospheric state, with the feedback strength increasing with warming. This is primarily attributed to a monotonic increase in surface cloud radiative forcing of approximately 2 W m-2 for each degree that the initial atmospheric sounding is warmed. The use of a two-dimensional model as opposed to a single-column model shows that the lower-tropospheric cloud layer becomes more turbulent and dominated by cumulus clouds as the climate is warmed, yet the cloud fraction remains high owing to the continued prevalence of stratus and fog layers. These results are robust across a variety of cloud microphysics schemes and are not sensitive to the horizontal or vertical resolution of the model. We also explore the vertical structure and horizontal variability of the bulk horizontal flow, the sensitivity of the results to subsidence and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and the contrasting roles of top-of-atmosphere and surface cloud radiative effects.

  1. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. PMID:25528270

  2. Light propagation mechanism switching in a liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, K. A.; Milenko, K.; Chojnowska, O.; Dąbrowski, R.; Woliński, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work studies on propagation properties of a microstructured polymer optical fibre infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal are presented. Specifically, the influence of an infiltration method on the LC molecular alignment inside fibre air-channels and, thus, on light guidance is discussed. Switching between propagation mechanisms, namely the transition from modified total internal reflection (mTIR) to the photonic bandgap effect obtained by varying external temperature is also demonstrated.

  3. Infiltration of reaction-bonded silicon nitride with equilibrium Y-Si-O-N melt

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, T.S. . Dept. of Biologic and Materials Science)

    1994-02-01

    An equilibrium Y-Si-O-N melt was infiltrated to eliminate the open porosity of reaction-bonded silicon nitride at 1600--1800 C. This oxynitride melt contained two equilibrium phases, a [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] solid phase and a liquid phase at high temperatures. Before infiltration, porous reaction-bonded silicon nitride compacts were heat-treated to completely transform to the [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] phase. After infiltration, the flexural strength of the reaction-bonded silicon nitride material increased from 200 to 600 MPa at 25 C, from 200 to 300 MPa at 1400 C in air.

  4. Modelling multiphase dynamics during infiltration using a pore network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzavaras, Jannis; Arns, Ji-Youns; Max, Koehne; Hans-Joerg, Vogel

    2013-04-01

    We present an implementation of water infiltration into a pore network model where the local water pressures is continuously updated during the transient process. The network geometry is designed to represent structured soil which is different from simple granular porous media in some respect: Pores are more elongated and less isometric and the pore size distribution is much wider and structured hierarchically. To reproduce these properties, the classical concept of pore-bodies and throats is replaced by direct measurements of pore topology and the pores below the minimal pore size of the network model are represented by a continuous network of water saturated micro pores. The latter ensures that the water phase is always continuous which affects the propagation of the water potential during infiltration. The network model is based on cylindrical pores and considers capillary and gravitational forces. The propagation of interfaces is calculated for each time step by repeatedly solving the complete set of linear equation arising from Kirchhoff's law based on mass balance at each node of the network. This is done using the public domain package ITPack. The successive overrelaxation (SOR) and the Jacobi conjugate gradient (JCG) method proved to be more robust and faster than other solvers tested for the complex topology. The model accounts for entrapped air which is assumed to be incompressible. We present first results demonstrating the impact of external forcing (i.e infiltration rate) and pore topology on the dynamics of water-gas interfaces, the volume of entrapped air and hysteresis.

  5. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  6. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Infiltration in soils with a saturated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, W. L.; Lockington, D. A.; Barry, D. A.; Parlange, M. B.; Haverkamp, R.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2013-05-01

    An earlier infiltration equation relied on curve fitting of infiltration data for the determination of one of the parameters, which limits its usefulness in practice. This handicap is removed here, and the parameter is now evaluated by linking it directly to soil-water properties. The new predictions of infiltration using this evaluation are quite accurate. Positions and shapes of soil-water profiles are also examined in detail and found to be predicted analytically with great precision.

  8. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

  9. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  10. Soil properties controlling infiltration in volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neris, Jonay; Tejedor, Marisa; Jiménez, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is an important process whose behaviour depends on external factors and soil properties that vary depending on the type of soil. The soil parameters affecting the infiltration capacity of six soil orders all formed on volcanic materials (andisols, vertisols, alfisols, aridisols, inceptisols, and entisols) and contribute to the differences between them were studied in this paper. A total of 108 sites were selected on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The main soil properties were analysed and the steady-state infiltration rate measured using a double-ring infiltrometer. The relationship between the soil properties and infiltration was modelled using statistical Principal Components Analysis and regressions. The research concludes that the relation between structural development and texture play a decisive role. The high structural development of non-vitric andisols, due to the high organic matter and short-range-order mineral content, leads to an extremely fast infiltration rate. The structural instability and fine texture of aridisols produce low infiltration. In less developed soils (entisols and vitric andisols) where aggregate formation is minimal or non-existent, the coarse grain size is the relevant factor determining their very fast and extremely fast infiltration. In vertisols and alfisols, which have strong aggregation but low stability, clay type and content play an important role and lead to a moderate and moderately fast steady-state infiltration rate, respectively. In the most typic inceptisols, with moderate structural development and stability, the balance of the properties is largely responsible for the intermediate infiltration rate observed.

  11. The direct and inverse problems of an air-saturated porous cylinder submitted to acoustic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogam, Erick; Depollier, Claude; Fellah, Z. E. A.

    2010-09-01

    Gas-saturated porous skeleton materials such as geomaterials, polymeric and metallic foams, or biomaterials are fundamental in a diverse range of applications, from structural materials to energy technologies. Most polymeric foams are used for noise control applications and knowledge of the manner in which the energy of sound waves is dissipated with respect to the intrinsic acoustic properties is important for the design of sound packages. Foams are often employed in the audible, low frequency range where modeling and measurement techniques for the recovery of physical parameters responsible for energy loss are still few. Accurate acoustic methods of characterization of porous media are based on the measurement of the transmitted and/or reflected acoustic waves by platelike specimens at ultrasonic frequencies. In this study we develop an acoustic method for the recovery of the material parameters of a rigid-frame, air-saturated polymeric foam cylinder. A dispersion relation for sound wave propagation in the porous medium is derived from the propagation equations and a model solution is sought based on plane-wave decomposition using orthogonal cylindrical functions. The explicit analytical solution equation of the scattered field shows that it is also dependent on the intrinsic acoustic parameters of the porous cylinder, namely, porosity, tortuosity, and flow resistivity (permeability). The inverse problem of the recovery of the flow resistivity and porosity is solved by seeking the minima of the objective functions consisting of the sum of squared residuals of the differences between the experimental and theoretical scattered field data.

  12. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  13. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  14. CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in relation to HPV status and clinical outcome in patients with head and neck cancer after postoperative chemoradiotherapy: A multicentre study of the German cancer consortium radiation oncology group (DKTK-ROG).

    PubMed

    Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Franz; Rödel, Claus; Krause, Mechthild; Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Baumann, Michael; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Gkika, Eleni; Stuschke, Martin; Avlar, Melanie; Grosu, Anca-Lidia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Bayer, Christine; Stangl, Stefan; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Multhoff, Gabriele; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) after surgery and postoperative cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy. FFPE-tissue originating from the surgery of 161 patients treated in 8 DKTK partner sites was immunohistochemically stained for CD3 and CD8. Their expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics as well as overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS), also in the context of the HPV16-DNA/p16 status. After a median follow-up of 48 months (range: 4100 months), OS at 4 years was 46.5% for the entire cohort. In multivariate analysis, high CD8 expression was confirmed as an independent prognostic parameter for OS (p = 0.002), LPFS (p = 0.004) and DMFS (p = 0.006), while CD3 expression lacked significance. In multivariate analysis HPV16 DNA positivity was associated with improved OS (p = 0.025) and LPFS (p = 0.013) and p16-positive patients showed improved DMFS (p = 0.008). Interestingly, high CD8 expression was a prognostic parameter for the clinical outcome in both HPV16 DNA-positive and HPV16 DNA-negative patients. Similar findings were observed in the multivariate analysis for the combined HPV16 DNA/p16 status. Altogether, CD8+ TILs constitute an independent prognostic marker in SCCHN patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. These data indicate that CD8-positive TILs have antitumour activity and could be used for treatment stratification. Further validation of the prognostic value of CD8+ TILs as a biomarker and its role in the immune response in SCCHN patients after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is warranted and will be performed in the prospective DKTK-ROG study. PMID:26178914

  15. Measured Infiltration and Ventilation in Manufactured Homes : Residential Construction Demonstration Project, Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, Larry S.; Ecotope, Inc.

    1992-04-28

    Air infiltration is an important factor in heat loss and indoor air quality; in modern well-insulated homes, it may account for as much as half of the total heat loss. Due to the recent emphasis by home buyers and manufacturers on energy efficiency, tighter homes are being constructed. In the past, it was assumed that natural infiltration would provide adequate ventilation to maintain acceptable indoor air quality, but this is no longer the case in modern energy-efficient homes. This report summarizes the results of infiltration measurements made on two groups of manufactured homes in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area: 131 energy-efficient homes constructed under RCDP, and a control group of 29 homes not participating in energy-efficiency programs.

  16. Dispersion engineering in nonlinear soft glass photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids.

    PubMed

    Pniewski, Jacek; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Van, Hieu Le; Long, Van Cao; Van, Lanh Chu; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Stępniewski, Grzegorz; Ramaniuk, Aleksandr; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2016-07-01

    We present a numerical study of the dispersion characteristic modification of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids. A photonic crystal fiber based on the soft glass PBG-08, infiltrated with 17 different organic solvents, is proposed. The glass has a light transmission window in the visible-mid-IR range of 0.4-5 μm and has a higher refractive index than fused silica, which provides high contrast between the fiber structure and the liquids. A fiber with air holes is designed and then developed in the stack-and-draw process. Analyzing SEM images of the real fiber, we calculate numerically the refractive index, effective mode area, and dispersion of the fundamental mode for the case when the air holes are filled with liquids. The influence of the liquids on the fiber properties is discussed. Numerical simulations of supercontinuum generation for the fiber with air holes only and infiltrated with toluene are presented. PMID:27409187

  17. Comparison of Grab, Air, and Surface Results for Radiation Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassford, Eric Keith

    2011-12-01

    The use of proper sampling methods and sample types for evaluating sites believed to be contaminated with radioactive materials is necessary to avoid misrepresenting conditions at the site. This study was designed to investigate if the site characterization, based upon uranium contamination measured in different types of samples, is dependent upon the mass of the sample collected. A bulk sample of potentially contaminated interior dirt was collected from an abandoned metal processing mill that rolled uranium between 1948 and 1956. The original mill dates from 1910 and has a dirt floor. The bulk sample was a mixture of dirt, black and yellow particles of metal dust, and small fragments of natural debris. Small mass (approximately 0.75 grams (g)) and large mass (approximately 70g) grab samples were prepared from the bulk sample material to simulate collection of a "grab" type sample. Air sampling was performed by re-suspending a portion of the bulk sample material using a vibration table to simulate airborne contamination that might be present during site remediation. Additionally, samples of removable contaminated surface dust were collected on 47 mm diameter filter paper by wiping the surfaces of the exposure chamber used to resuspend the bulk material. Certified reference materials, one containing a precisely known quantity of U 3O8 and one containing a known quantity of natural uranium, were utilized to calibrate the gamma spectrometry measurement system. Non-destructive gamma spectrometry measurements were used to determine the content of uranium-235 (235U) at 185 keV and 143 keV, thorium-234 (234Th) at 63 keV, and protactinium-234m (234mPa) at 1001 keV in each sample. Measurement of natural uranium in small, 1 g samples is usually accomplished by radiochemical analysis in order to measure alpha particles emitted by 238U, 235U, and 234U. However, uranium in larger bulk samples can also be measured non-destructively using gamma spectrometry to detect the low

  18. Infiltration Model for Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infil...

  19. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  20. Impact of California's Air Pollution Laws on Black Carbon and their Implications for Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, R.; Feng, Y.; Russell, L. M.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the temporal and the spatial trends in the concentrations of black carbon (BC) - recorded by the IMPROVE monitoring network for the past 20 years - in California. Annual average BC concentrations in California have decreased by about 50% from 0.46 μg m-3 in 1989 to 0.24 μgm-3 in 2008 compared to a corresponding reductions in diesel BC emissions (also about 50%) from a peak of 0.013 Tg Yr-1 in 1990 to 0.006 Tg Yr-1 by 2008. We attribute the observed negative trends to the deployment of diesel particulate filters. Our conclusion that the reduction in diesel emissions is the primary cause of the observed BC reduction is also substantiated by a significant decrease in the ratio of BC to non-BC aerosols. The absorption efficiency of aerosols at visible wavelengths - determined from the observed scattering coefficient and the observed BC - also decreased by about 50% leading to a model-inferred negative direct radiative forcing (a cooling effect) of -1.4 Wm-2 (±60%) over California. Figure 1 (a) Annual means of measured Black Carbon (left axis) and BC fossil fuel emissions (right axis) in California from 1985 to 2008. Error bars correspond to standard deviation between measurements at each station. Dashed lines indicate a linear fit. Aerosol measurements from the IMPROVE network, emission inventories from (1) CARB, (2) [Ito and Penner, 2005] (b) Annual means of BC measured in Southern (South of 35 N), Northern (North of 38 N), and Central California (c) Annual means of measured Sulfate, Nitrate, and OC from IMPROVE network.

  1. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites by chemical vapor infiltration. This period has been devoted in part to the exploration of material systems suitable for MACVI processing. A number of potential processing schemes are possible using combinations of absorbing and transparent material as composite components. This includes the use of an absorbing preform (nicalon fiber) combined with a transparent matrix (silicon nitride). Composites 5 cm in diameter by 1 cm. thick have been fabricated to densities of 65% theoretical. Processing times for these materials are under 20 hours. Higher densities will require additional microwave power now possible with the new reactor. The most effective MACVI scheme will involve the use of a transparent fiber with an absorbing matrix. The hot spot will be initiated by appropriate treatment of the central region of the preform. To this end alumna fibers with pretreatments to control thermal gradients has been explored. Nextel 610 fibers have been effectively pretreated carbon coating resulting in preferential heating in the interior of the preform. Possible matrix materials include siliconized silicon carbide, doped silicon carbide, alumna and zirconia. A patent for MACVI has been issued 10/19/93.

  2. The Impact of a Laki-style Eruption on Cloud Drops, Indirect Radiative Forcing and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, K.; Schmidt, A.; Mann, G.; Pringle, K. J.; Forster, P.; Wilson, M.; Thordarson, T.

    2010-12-01

    We assess the impact of 1783-1784 Laki eruption on changes in cloud drop number concentrations and the aerosol indirect (cloud) radiative forcing using an advanced global aerosol microphysics model. We further extend these simulations to quantify the impact of a modern-day Laki on air quality. Our results suggest that the first aerosol indirect effect is of similar magnitude as the direct forcing calculated in previous assessments of the Laki eruption, but has a different spatial pattern. We estimate that northern hemisphere mean cloud drop concentrations in low-level clouds increased by a factor 2.7 in the 3 months after the onset of the eruption, with peak changes exceeding a factor 10. The calculated northern hemisphere mean aerosol indirect effect peaks at -5.2 W/m2 in the month after the eruption and remains larger than -2 W/m2 for 6 months. From our understanding of anthropogenic aerosol effects on modern-day clouds, the calculated changes in cloud drop concentrations after Laki are likely to have caused substantial changes in pecipitation and cloud dynamics. Our results also show that a modern-day Laki-style volcanic air pollution event would be a severe health hazard, increasing excess mortality in Europe on a scale that is at least comparable with excess mortality due to seasonal flu. Investigating the potential impact of such an eruption is crucial in order to inform policy makers and society about the potential impact of such an event so that precautionary measures can be taken.

  3. Case studies of aerosol and ocean color retrieval using a Markov chain radiative transfer model and AirMSPI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seidel, F. C.; Dubovik, O.; Zhai, P.

    2014-12-01

    A vector Markov chain radiative transfer method was developed for forward modeling of radiance and polarization fields in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The method was benchmarked against an independent Successive Orders of Scattering code and linearized through the use of Jacobians. Incorporated with the multi-patch optimization algorithm and look-up-table method, simultaneous aerosol and ocean color retrievals were performed using imagery acquired by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) when it was operated in step-and-stare mode with 9 viewing angles ranging between ±67°. Data from channels near 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, and 865* nm were used in the retrievals, where the asterisk denotes the polarimetric bands. Retrievals were run for AirMSPI overflights over Southern California and Monterey Bay, CA. For the relatively high aerosol optical depth (AOD) case (~0.28 at 550 nm), the retrieved aerosol concentration, size distribution, water-leaving radiance, and chlorophyll concentration were compared to those reported by the USC SeaPRISM AERONET-OC site off the coast of Southern California on 6 February 2013. For the relatively low AOD case (~0.08 at 550 nm), the retrieved aerosol concentration and size distribution were compared to those reported by the Monterey Bay AERONET site on 28 April 2014. Further, we evaluate the benefits of multi-angle and polarimetric observations by performing the retrievals using (a) all view angles and channels; (b) all view angles but radiances only (no polarization); (c) the nadir view angle only with both radiance and polarization; and (d) the nadir view angle without polarization. Optimized retrievals using different initial guesses were performed to provide a measure of retrieval uncertainty. Removal of multi-angular or polarimetric information resulted in increases in both parameter uncertainty and systematic bias. Potential accuracy improvements afforded by applying constraints on the surface

  4. Multizone infiltration measurements in homes and buildings determined with a passive perfluorocarbon tracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; D'Ottavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    A miniature passive perfluorocarbon tracer system was successfully applied to the determination of air infiltration and exfiltration rates from each zone of a multizoned structure as well as the air exchange rates between zones in homes, multiple unit condominiums, naturally ventilated apartment buildings, and large commercial buildings with multiple air handling systems. Use of the multizone technique in indoor air quality assessments and air handling system stratification studies appears to be quite feasible with the availability of this measurement system. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Melt infiltration of silicon carbide compacts. I - Study of infiltration dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, Rajiv; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Countergravity, pressure-assisted infiltration with a 2014 Al alloy of suitably tamped porous compacts of platelet shaped single crystals of alpha (hexagonal) silicon carbide was used to measure particulate wettability and infiltration kinetics under dynamic conditions relevant to pressure casting of composites. A threshold pressure P(th) for ingression of the infiltrant was identified based on the experimental penetration length versus pressure profiles for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, SiC size and SiC surface chemistry. The results showed that P(th) decreased whereas the penetration length increased with increasing SiC size and infiltration time. Cu-coated SiC led to lower P(th) and larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical conditions. These observations have been discussed in the light of theoretical models of infiltration and the kinetics of wetting.

  6. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  7. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  8. Markov Chain Method for Radiative Transfer Modeling: A Case Study of Aerosol/Surface Retrieval using AirMSPI Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Diner, D. J.; Davis, A. B.; Latyshev, S.; Garay, M. J.; Kalashnikova, O.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    A vector Markov chain (MarCh) radiative transfer (RT) code developed at JPL that includes forward modeling of radiance and polarization fields and linearization (analytical estimation of Jacobians) was incorporated into an aerosol and surface retrieval package for a plane-parallel atmosphere/surface system. The RT computation by MarCh is based on matrix operations. To improve the code's computational efficiency, the forward model is currently undergoing acceleration through the exploration of different strategies for matrix operation and inversion, including numerical optimization, multi-threading/multi-processing techniques on a CPU. Implementation on a graphics processing unit (GPU) is also planned. Following a benchmarking study of the forward model, the performance of MarCh in aerosol and surface retrieval is being tested. With an optimized algorithm, we started from aerosol optical depth and surface retrieval using imagery acquired by Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) over Fresno, CA. Aerosol properties including concentration and size distribution of different species provided by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem model were used to constrain the retrieval and reduce the parameter space. The assumptions of spectral invariance in the angular shape of surface bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) and the magnitude of polarized surface BRFs were tested. The aerosol and surface properties are then relaxed in a stepwise way to refine the aerosol retrieval results and enable comparison with independent retrievals obtained from a collocated AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) station.

  9. COOMET regional comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 137Cs γ radiation at protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, L.; Oborin, A. V.; Milevsky, V. S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Sukhishvili, S.; Ginga, I.; Ivanov, R.; Gudelis, A.; Gomola, I.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET supplementary comparison of the national measurement standards for air kerma in 137Cs γ radiation at protection level (~10 mGy/h). Ten National Metrology Institutes from the COOMET organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency participated in this COOMET project no. 445. The PTB acted as pilot laboratory. Two of the participants, the SMU (Slovakia) and the NSC-'IM' (Ukraine) participated in the measurements but did not submit a valid report of results. The comparison reference value (CRV) was obtained as the mean result of the PTB and the VNIIM, both of which had previously taken part in the key comparison BIPM-RI(I)-K5. The degree of equivalence with the CRV was evaluated. The results were consistent within the relative standard uncertainties of the comparison ranging from 0.28% to 1.3% and deviated from the CRV by less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Daily global solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petković, Dalibor; Ma, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the daily horizontal global solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.

  11. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, Daniel G.; Kwicklis, Edward M.

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  12. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  13. Chemical vapor infiltration of carbon fiber bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.

    1992-12-31

    Chemical vapor infiltration in carbon fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions over the temperature range 1000--1090 C at a nominal pressure of 300 Torr. Pyrolytic decomposition of methane is used in the infiltration experiments with carbon weight gain data obtained continuously from thermogravimetric analysis. The sensitivity of the infiltration dynamics to initial yarn porosity and to spatial variations in fiber positioning are explored. Results indicate that small changes in initial porosity can have significant impact on the weight gain above the solid phase percolation threshold.

  14. Chemical vapor infiltration of carbon fiber bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration in carbon fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions over the temperature range 1000--1090 C at a nominal pressure of 300 Torr. Pyrolytic decomposition of methane is used in the infiltration experiments with carbon weight gain data obtained continuously from thermogravimetric analysis. The sensitivity of the infiltration dynamics to initial yarn porosity and to spatial variations in fiber positioning are explored. Results indicate that small changes in initial porosity can have significant impact on the weight gain above the solid phase percolation threshold.

  15. Sensitivity of long-term bare soil infiltration simulations to hydraulic properties in an arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, Stuart A.

    1997-04-01

    The suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste geologic repository is currently being evaluated. Assessments of the repository performance suggest that the uncertainty in infiltration rates strongly affects predicted repository performance. Most of the ground surface over the potential repository footprint is characterized by shallow to deep colluvium/alluvium overlying densely fractured, welded tuffs. In order to identify characteristic behavior of infiltration that might be expected at the site, two idealizations of this situation are examined: an effectively semi-infinite column of alluvium and a two-layer column of alluvium over a fractured impermeable matrix. For each idealization the impact of hydraulic properties is assessed. Examining the sensitivity of bare soil simulator predictions for an effectively semi-infinite column, it is found that decreasing the air entry pressure while holding all other parameters at a fixed level tends to increase both the long-term average moisture content and the long-term average net infiltration flux for homogeneous media. In contrast, increasing the van Genuchten scale parameter (m=1 - 17sol;n) or decreasing the porosity tends to decrease the average soil moisture but increase the infiltration. Most interestingly, three regimes are found for permeability. For relatively high permeabilities, there is a trend toward increasing average infiltration and increasing average moisture content with decreasing permeability. For relatively low permeabilities, vapor transport dominates over liquid transport, runoff and evaporation overwhelm infiltration, and the soil becomes very dry with essentially no infiltration flux. Between the extreme cases of high and low permeability, there is a zone where decreasing permeability results in decreased infiltration but increased moisture content, which is explained by the capacity of more permeable media to maintain surface wetness for longer periods of

  16. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  17. Mixed artificial grasslands with more roots improved mine soil infiltration capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Yang, Zheng; Cui, Zeng; Liu, Yu; Fang, Nu-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Soil water is one of the critical limiting factors in achieving sustainable revegetation. Soil infiltration capacity plays a vital role in determining the inputs from precipitation and enhancing water storage, which are important for the maintenance and survival of vegetation patches in arid and semi-arid areas. Our study investigated the effects of different artificial grasslands on soil physical properties and soil infiltration capacity. The artificial grasslands were Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Agropyron mongolicum, Lespedeza davurica, Bromus inermis, Hedysarum scoparium, A. mongolicum + Artemisia desertorum, A. adsurgens + A. desertorum and M. sativa + B. inermis. The soil infiltration capacity index (SICI), which was based on the average infiltration rate of stage I (AIRSI) and the average infiltration rate of stage III (AIRS III), was higher (indicating that the infiltration capacity was greater) under the artificial grasslands than that of the bare soil. The SICI of the A. adsurgens + A. desertorum grassland had the highest value (1.48) and bare soil (-0.59) had the lowest value. It was evident that artificial grassland could improve soil infiltration capacity. We also used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine that the main factors that affected SICI were the soil water content at a depth of 20 cm (SWC20), the below-ground root biomasses at depths of 10 and 30 cm (BGB10, BGB30), the capillary porosity at a depth of 10 cm (CP10) and the non-capillary porosity at a depth of 20 cm (NCP20). Our study suggests that the use of Legume-poaceae mixtures and Legume-shrub mixtures to create grasslands provided an effective ecological restoration approach to improve soil infiltration properties due to their greater root biomasses. Furthermore, soil water content, below-ground root biomass, soil capillary porosity and soil non-capillary porosity were the main factors that affect the soil infiltration capacity.

  18. Infiltration formulas by curve number procedure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume is examined in terms of the validity and applicability of the derived infiltration equations. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  19. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  20. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  1. Interactions between landscape types and infiltration fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurinova, N.

    2014-12-01

    Type of landscape is a complex characteristic include several factors which has strong influence on volume of infiltration flux. These factors are geomorphogy characteristics, soil type of vadozone, deep of ground water level, type of plants and meteorological conditions. This research are presented results of simulating water movement in one-dimensional variably saturated media for different types of landscape nearby Zvenigorod town (Moscow Region, Russia) in reserve part of Moscow River Valley. There was taking into account 11 different type of landscape. On basis of this 11 model were simulated. Examined models shown the high influence of plants type and ground water levels on infiltration recharge. The most high infiltration recharge was received for second fluvial terrace with forest, sandy soil and ground water level at 10 m deep. For a flood plain was receive the lowest value of infiltration recharge and the highest value of evaporation.

  2. Measurement of the Radiation Energy in the Radio Signal of Extensive Air Showers as a Universal Estimator of Cosmic-Ray Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A. W.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 ±0.7 (stat)±6.7 (syst) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principles calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascade of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Measurement of the Radiation Energy in the Radio Signal of Extensive Air Showers as a Universal Estimator of Cosmic-Ray Energy.

    PubMed

    Aab, A; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Al Samarai, I; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Alvarez Castillo, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Alves Batista, R; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Díaz Castro, M L; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q; Dos Anjos, R C; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; García, B; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Vitale, P F; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Kukec Mezek, G; Kunka, N; Kuotb Awad, A W; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Le Coz, S; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; López Casado, A; Louedec, K; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Martínez Bravo, O; Martraire, D; Masías Meza, J J; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Müller, S; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Salesa Greus, F; Salina, G; Sanabria Gomez, J D; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suarez Durán, M; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Todero Peixoto, C J; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torralba Elipe, G; Torres Machado, D; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; van den Berg, A M; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Vargas Cárdenas, B; Varner, G; Vasquez, R; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Welling, C; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zuccarello, F

    2016-06-17

    We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8±0.7(stat)±6.7(syst)  MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principles calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascade of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory. PMID:27367377

  4. Measurement of the radiation energy in the radio signal of extensive air showers as a universal estimator of cosmic-ray energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-06-14

    Here, we measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 ± 0.7 (stat) ± 6.7 (sys) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principle calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascademore » of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory.« less

  5. Two-phase flow numerical simulation of infiltration and groundwater drainage in a rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugomela, G. V.

    Farming of rice normally uses a substantially larger amount of water than other cereal grain crops mainly due to the traditional flooding of rice fields. Flooding of the fields result in a seepage flow condition whereby infiltration occurs at a potential rate. The potential infiltration rate obstructs the free movement of pore-air through the ground surface and gradually compresses the pore-air between the infiltrating wetting front and the groundwater table under which subsurface drains are installed. The Galerkin finite element method (FEM) simulation of two-phase flow of air and water in the porous media of the rice field shows that the subsequent increase in the pore-air pressure makes the pore-air act as a link phase which transfers the effects of the processes taking place in the wetting front above and the saturated zone below the groundwater table. This phenomenon is clearly demonstrated when the results of the two-phase flow simulation are compared to the corresponding single-phase flow simulation which neglects the effect of the pore-air. It is concluded that the ‘ponding’ which appears in rice fields can partly be explained by the resistance offered by the pore-air to the percolation process. The study demonstrates that flooding of rice fields during most of its growth time is not necessary rather it is enough to keep the ground surface just saturated and the rest of the water can be saved.

  6. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures. PMID:19587416

  7. Lorentz force infiltration of fibrous preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Richard M.; Mortensen, Andreas

    1991-12-01

    A new process for the production of metal matrix composites, whereby molten metal is forced into the interstices of a fibrous preform using electromagnetic body forces, is presented. These forces are created by subjecting the molten matrix to a concentrated transient magnetic field which, in turn, induces intense eddy currents in the melt. This gives rise to Lorentz forces which propel the metal into the preform. Equations governing the mechanics of Lorentz force infiltration of an axisymmetric preform surrounded by molten metal are solved numerically. A finite difference algorithm is applied to solve Maxwell's equation of electromagnetic field propagation and to determine the flux density as a function of radial position. The resulting Lorentz force is then calculated and balanced with the inertial, fluid friction and capillary forces, taking preform compression into account, to predict infiltration velocity and cumulative infiltration distance. Apparatuses were designed and constructed to infiltrate cylindrical preforms of 24 vol pct 3-μm-diameter chopped alumina fiber preforms with commercial purity aluminum. Two capacitor banks were charged from 1 to 4 kV and rapidly discharged to produce magnetic pulses of up to 4 tesla peak, at frequencies of 2 to 3 kHz in the infiltrating furnace. A commercial MAGNEFORM unit was also used to produce fields of up to 5 tesla at 5.6 kHz.-Sound composite samples were produced, to a depth of 1.8 mm into the preforms, with little or no breakage of fibers. Good agreement between theoretical model predictions and experimentally measured infiltration depths was demonstrated. Primary process variables for a given matrix-preform system, were the number of discharges, the magnetic pulse intensity and frequency, and the melt ring thickness. The model predicts a pulse frequency below which infiltration does not occur and an optimum frequency for maximum infiltration depth. Successive pulses are predicted to produce only slightly

  8. Factors affecting pressure infiltration of packed SiC particulates by liquid aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Narciso, J.; Alonso, A.; Pamies, A.; Garcia-Cordovilla, C.; Louis, E.

    1995-04-01

    Pressure infiltration is being currently used to evaluate the wettability of ceramic particles and fibers by liquid metals. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of type and surface condition of the particulates and infiltration atmosphere on pressure infiltration of packed SiC particulates by pure liquid aluminum, Fourteen SiC particulates from five different suppliers, of green (high purity) and black (low purity) types, were used. Two of the particulates were subjected to either low or high-temperature heat treatments in order to either bum organic residues or promote oxidation. Infiltrations were carried out in air, argon, argon/hydrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results indicate that the threshold pressure does not depend appreciably on the type of particulate. A heat treatment at 600 C improves the infiltration performance of particulates having a large amount of organic residues, whereas oxidation at 1,000 C decreases the threshold pressure. The results also illustrate the effects of the infiltration atmosphere; in particular, it is shown that inert or reducing atmospheres improve wettability.

  9. Spatiotemporally‐Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution‐Related Morbidity in AtlantaMorbidity in Atlanta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies frequently use central site concentrations as surrogates of exposure to air pollutants. Variability in air pollutant infiltration due to differential air exchange rates (AERs) is potentially a major factor affecting the relationship between central site c...

  10. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  12. Greatly increased toughness of infiltrated spider silk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Gösele, Ulrich; Dresbach, Christian; Qin, Yong; Chandran, C Vinod; Bräuniger, Thomas; Hause, Gerd; Knez, Mato

    2009-04-24

    In nature, tiny amounts of inorganic impurities, such as metals, are incorporated in the protein structures of some biomaterials and lead to unusual mechanical properties of those materials. A desire to produce these biomimicking new materials has stimulated materials scientists, and diverse approaches have been attempted. In contrast, research to improve the mechanical properties of biomaterials themselves by direct metal incorporation into inner protein structures has rarely been tried because of the difficulty of developing a method that can infiltrate metals into biomaterials, resulting in a metal-incorporated protein matrix. We demonstrated that metals can be intentionally infiltrated into inner protein structures of biomaterials through multiple pulsed vapor-phase infiltration performed with equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). We infiltrated zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), or aluminum (Al), combined with water from corresponding ALD precursors, into spider dragline silks and observed greatly improved toughness of the resulting silks. The presence of the infiltrated metals such as Al or Ti was verified by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra measured inside the treated silks. This result of enhanced toughness of spider silk could potentially serve as a model for a more general approach to enhance the strength and toughness of other biomaterials. PMID:19390040

  13. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  14. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  15. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  16. On the measurement of dose in-air for small radiation fields: choice of mini-phantom material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, Benjamin; Warrener, Kirbie; Liu, Paul; Ralston, Anna; Suchowerska, Natalka; McKenzie, David; Ebert, Martin A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of choice of mini-phantom material on the measurement and calculation of in-air output factors (Sc) in small fields. Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with a theoretical determination of Sc were used to validate previously reported measurements. Options for alternative mini-phantom materials were compared. A 6 MV beam from a Varian Novalis linear accelerator operating in stereotactic (SRS) mode was modelled. Phase-space data were used to determine the theoretical value of Sc. To validate previously reported Sc measurements the data were used to model the fibre-optic detector and brass mini-phantom. The impact of mini-phantom material was investigated by comparing the energy spectra of electrons entering the detector volume as a function of field size, and comparing the simulated Sc-measurement to the theoretical calculation. In order to determine factors leading to changes in Sc with field size, the origins of particles in the beam as incident on the mini-phantom were determined. Sc values derived from simulated measurements using a brass mini-phantom on a fibre-optic detector agreed with the measured Sc to within 0.7%. For simulation of measurement for all other mini-phantom materials, Sc values agreed with the theoretically calculated values to within 0.6%. The dominant processes responsible for a decrease in Sc with field size is occlusion of the focal and primary collimator contributions, while the secondary scatter, from the flattening filter and cone collimators, has minimal effect. The secondary electron spectrum is affected by the choice of mini-phantom material, but is almost independent of field size. For cone-collimated small fields in the Novalis beam (<30 mm), the decrease in Sc with field size is primarily due to collimation of the focal radiation beam and scatter from the primary collimator. A fibre optic detector with either a brass, gold or lead mini-phantom with at least dmax equivalent

  17. On the measurement of dose in-air for small radiation fields: choice of mini-phantom material.

    PubMed

    Hug, Benjamin; Warrener, Kirbie; Liu, Paul; Ralston, Anna; Suchowerska, Natalka; McKenzie, David; Ebert, Martin A

    2015-03-21

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of choice of mini-phantom material on the measurement and calculation of in-air output factors (Sc) in small fields. Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with a theoretical determination of Sc were used to validate previously reported measurements. Options for alternative mini-phantom materials were compared. A 6 MV beam from a Varian Novalis linear accelerator operating in stereotactic (SRS) mode was modelled. Phase-space data were used to determine the theoretical value of Sc. To validate previously reported Sc measurements the data were used to model the fibre-optic detector and brass mini-phantom. The impact of mini-phantom material was investigated by comparing the energy spectra of electrons entering the detector volume as a function of field size, and comparing the simulated Sc-measurement to the theoretical calculation. In order to determine factors leading to changes in Sc with field size, the origins of particles in the beam as incident on the mini-phantom were determined. Sc values derived from simulated measurements using a brass mini-phantom on a fibre-optic detector agreed with the measured Sc to within 0.7%. For simulation of measurement for all other mini-phantom materials, Sc values agreed with the theoretically calculated values to within 0.6%. The dominant processes responsible for a decrease in Sc with field size is occlusion of the focal and primary collimator contributions, while the secondary scatter, from the flattening filter and cone collimators, has minimal effect. The secondary electron spectrum is affected by the choice of mini-phantom material, but is almost independent of field size. For cone-collimated small fields in the Novalis beam (<30 mm), the decrease in Sc with field size is primarily due to collimation of the focal radiation beam and scatter from the primary collimator. A fibre optic detector with either a brass, gold or lead mini-phantom with at least d

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  19. Single-zone stack-dominated infiltration modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1991-09-01

    Simplified, physical models for calculating infiltration in a single zone, usually calculate the air flows from the natural driving forces separately and then combine them. For most purposes -- especially minimum ventilation or energy considerations -- the stack effect dominates and total ventilation can be calculated by treating other effects (i.e., wind and small fans) as perturbations, using superposition techniques. The stack effect is caused by differences in density between indoor and outdoor air, normally attributable to the indoor-outdoor temperature difference. This report derives an exact, but practical, expression for calculating the stack effect from the air densities and leakage distribution using the power law formulation of envelope leakage. The neutral height -- the height at which there is no stack-related indoor-outdoor pressure difference -- is a key intermediate in stack modeling. This report defines a computable parameter called stack height, which contains all of the leakage distribution information necessary for estimating stack flows, thus freeing the model from specific assumptions (e.g., that the leakage is separable into evenly distributed floor, wall, and ceiling components). Example calculations including comparisons with other models, as well as validations using measured data from dwellings, are also presented. The dimensionless neutral level, which is related to the neutral height, is often used as an indicator of leakage distribution and in superposition. Its definition and role in these regards are discussed in detail. The more exact formulation is then used to analyze the simple box cases normally assumed in infiltration modeling and other approximations. Measured ventilation data will be used to infer leakage distributions and neutral levels as well as for example calculations.

  20. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Parametric Study of Reactive Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Colella, Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Reactive melt infiltration is viewed as a promising means of achieving near-net shape manufacturing with quick processing time and at low cost. Since the reactants and products are, in general, of varying density, overall conservation of mass dictates that there is a force related to chemical conversion which can directly influence infiltration behavior. In effect, the driving pressure forces may compete with the forces from chemical conversion, affecting the advancement of the front. We have developed a two-dimensional numerical code to examine these effects, using reaction-formed silicon carbide as a model system for this process. We have examined a range of initial porosities, pore radii, and reaction rates in order to investigate their effects on infiltration dynamics.

  2. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  3. Primary cardiac lymphoma mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Kim, Won Seog; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare malignancy which has been described as thickened myocardium due to the infiltration of atypical lymphocytes and accompanying intracardiac masses. Here, we report a case of a primary cardiac lymphoma without demonstrable intracardiac masses, mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy. A 40-year-old male presented with exertional dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LV systolic function. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma was confirmed. After appropriate chemotherapy, he recovered his systolic function fully. PMID:23248217

  4. Pressureless infiltration of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nukami, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Pressureless infiltration of ceramic preforms by molten aluminum is described. The preforms are SiC with varying amounts of particulate Al, Ti, and Ni. Infiltrants employed are pure Al and Al-12.5 wt pct Si. It is shown that a pressure differential within the preform is required for infiltration, and measurements are made of pressure changes in the preforms during infiltration. Results indicate that atmospheric pressure is essential for infiltration but that capillarity may play a role as well.

  5. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  6. Simulation of net infiltration and potential recharge using a distributed-parameter watershed model of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2003-01-01

    (as either rain or snow), snow accumulation, sublimation, snowmelt, infiltration into the root zone, evapotranspiration, drainage, water content change throughout the root-zone profile (represented as a 6-layered system), runoff (defined as excess rainfall and snowmelt) and surface water run-on (defined as runoff that is routed downstream), and net infiltration (simulated as drainage from the bottom root-zone layer). Potential evapotranspiration is simulated using an hourly solar radiation model to simulate daily net radiation, and daily evapotranspiration is simulated as an empirical function of root zone water content and potential evapotranspiration. The model uses daily climate records of precipitation and air temperature from a regionally distributed network of 132 climate stations and a spatially distributed representation of drainage basin characteristics defined by topography, geology, soils, and vegetation to simulate daily net infiltration at all locations, including stream channels with intermittent streamflow in response to runoff from rain and snowmelt. The temporal distribution of daily, monthly, and annual net infiltration can be used to evaluate the potential effect of future climatic conditions on potential recharge. The INFILv3 model inputs representing drainage basin characteristics were developed using a geographic information system (GIS) to define a set of spatially distributed input parameters uniquely assigned to each grid cell of the INFILv3 model grid. The model grid, which was defined by a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Death Valley region, consists of 1,252,418 model grid cells with a uniform grid cell dimension of 278.5 meters in the north-south and east-west directions. The elevation values from the DEM were used with monthly regression models developed from the daily climate data to estimate the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and air temperature. The elevation values were also used to simulate atmosp

  7. Postmenopausal Bleeding Resulting from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Infiltration of the Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Megan; Hochman, Moses; Cadungog, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding can be the result of numerous etiologies including endometrial carcinoma, vaginal atrophy, and endometrial polyps. Manifestation of a hematologic disease, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is a rare occurrence. A 65-year-old woman with pancytopenia and postmenopausal bleeding was diagnosed with AML. Endometrial biopsy following dilation and curettage of the uterus revealed extensive mononuclear cell infiltrate consistent with AML. The patient was a poor surgical candidate and subsequently underwent treatment with chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, pelvic radiation, and uterine artery embolization to control her vaginal bleeding. A multi-disciplinary approach is necessary for treatment of post-menopausal bleeding resulting from AML infiltration of the endometrium. PMID:26285320

  8. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K5 of the air kerma standards of the ININ, Mexico and the BIPM in 137Cs gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Alvarez Romero, J. T.; De la Cruz Hernández, D.; Cabrera Vertti, M. R.; Tovar-Muñoz, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    A direct comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 137Cs radiation beam of the BIPM in February 2015. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the ININ and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 1.0048 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.0 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K1 of the air-kerma standards of the NIM, China and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D.; Wang, K.; Fan, Y.; Jin, S.; Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for air kerma of the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in November 2015. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the NIM and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 0.9997 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.7 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  11. A method of exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. [hot air balloon heated by solar radiation or planetary thermal flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J.

    1978-01-01

    A hot-air balloon, with the air heated by natural sources, is described. Buoyancy is accomplished by either solar heating or by utilizing the IR thermal flux of the planet to heat the gas in the balloon. Altitude control is provided by a valve which is opened and closed by a barometer. The balloon is made of an organic material which has to absorb radiant energy and to emit as little as possible.

  12. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2007-01-01

    More than 75 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban communities where people are exposed to levels of smog or pollution that exceed the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) safety standards. Urban air quality presents a unique problem because of a number of complex variables, including traffic congestion, energy production, and energy consumption activities, all of which can contribute to and affect air pollution and air quality in this environment. In environmental engineering, photocatalysis is an area of research whose potential for environmental clean-up is rapidly developing popularity and success. Photocatalysis, a natural chemical process, is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. Photocatalytic agents are activated when exposed to near UV (ultraviolet) light (320-400 nm) and water. In recent years, surfaces coated with photocatalytic materials have been extensively studied because pollutants on these surfaces will degrade when the surfaces are exposed to near UV light. Building materials, such as tiles, cement, glass, and aluminum sidings, can be coated with a thin film of a photocatalyst. These coated materials can then break down organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, into environmentally friendly compounds. These surfaces also exhibit a high affinity for water when exposed to UV light. Therefore, not only are the pollutants decomposed, but this superhydrophilic nature makes the surface self-cleaning, which helps to further increase the degradation rate by allowing rain and/or water to wash byproducts away. According to the Clean Air Act, each individual state is responsible for implementing prevention and regulatory programs to control air pollution. To operate an air quality program, states must adopt and/or develop a plan and obtain approval from the EPA. Federal approval provides a means for the EPA to maintain consistency among different state programs and ensures that they comply with the

  13. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  14. A computational study of radiation and gravity effect on temperature and soot formation in a methane air co-flow diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowal, Arup Jyoti; Mandal, Bijan Kumar

    2016-07-01

    An effort has been made for a quantitative assessment of the soot formed under steady state in a methane air co flow diffusion flame by a numerical simulation at normal gravity and at lower gravity levels of 0.5 G, 0.1 G and 0.0001 G (microgravity). The peak temperature at microgravity is reduced by about 50 K than that at normal gravity level. There is an augmentation of soot formation at lower gravity levels. Peak value at microgravity multiplies by a factor of ˜7 of that at normal gravity. However, if radiation is not considered, soot formation is found to be much more.

  15. Pulmonary migratory infiltrates due to mycoplasma infection: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    You, Wenjie; Chen, Bi; Li, Jing; Shou, Juan; Xue, Shan; Liu, Xueqing

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary migratory infiltrates (PMI) are observed in a few diseases. We report here a case of PMI attributed to Mycoplasma pneumonia (Mp) infection. The patient’s past medical history was characterized by fleeting and/or relapses of patchy opacification or infiltrates of parenchyma throughout the whole lung field except for left lower lobe radiographically. Serological assays revealed an elevation of IgG antibody specific to Mp and its fourfold increase in convalescent serum. Histopathological findings showed polypoid plugs of fibroblastic tissue filling and obliterating small air ways and interstitial infiltrates of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the vicinal alveolar septa. The patient was treated with azithromycin which resulted in a dramatic improvement clinically and imageologically. In spite of the increasing incidence of Mp, the possible unusual imaging manifestation and underlying mechanism haven’t attracted enough attention. To our knowledge, there are rare reports of such cases. PMID:27293865

  16. Pulmonary migratory infiltrates due to mycoplasma infection: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    You, Wenjie; Chen, Bi; Li, Jing; Shou, Juan; Xue, Shan; Liu, Xueqing; Jiang, Handong

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary migratory infiltrates (PMI) are observed in a few diseases. We report here a case of PMI attributed to Mycoplasma pneumonia (Mp) infection. The patient's past medical history was characterized by fleeting and/or relapses of patchy opacification or infiltrates of parenchyma throughout the whole lung field except for left lower lobe radiographically. Serological assays revealed an elevation of IgG antibody specific to Mp and its fourfold increase in convalescent serum. Histopathological findings showed polypoid plugs of fibroblastic tissue filling and obliterating small air ways and interstitial infiltrates of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the vicinal alveolar septa. The patient was treated with azithromycin which resulted in a dramatic improvement clinically and imageologically. In spite of the increasing incidence of Mp, the possible unusual imaging manifestation and underlying mechanism haven't attracted enough attention. To our knowledge, there are rare reports of such cases. PMID:27293865

  17. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  18. Temperature sensitivity of photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu Van, Lanh; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Cao Long, Van; Klimczak, Mariusz; Le Van, Hieu; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study on the optimization of dispersion of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with water-ethanol mixtures. The advantage of such an approach stems from the fact that the dependence of the refractive index on temperature is larger in liquids than in solid materials. Here, we examine photonic crystal fibers with a regular, hexagonal lattice and with various geometrical and material parameters, such as different number of rings of holes, various lattice constants and the size of core and air-holes. Additionally, for the optimized structure with flat dispersion characteristics, we analyze the influence of temperature and concentration of the ethanol solution on the dispersion characteristic and the zero dispersion wavelength shift of the fundamental mode.

  19. Chronic Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Infiltrates During Military Deployment.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, John C; Skabelund, Andrew J; Morris, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Deployment to Southwest Asia is associated with increased airborne hazards such as geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust, or air pollution. There are numerous ongoing studies to evaluate the potential effects of inhaled particulate matter on reported increases in acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. Providers need to be aware of potential causes of pulmonary disease such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, and vocal cord dysfunction that have been associated with deployment. Other pulmonary disorders such as interstitial lung disease are infrequently reported. Not all deployment-related respiratory complaints may result from deployment airborne hazards and a broad differential should be considered. We present the case of a military member with a prolonged deployment found to have lobar infiltrates secondary to pulmonary vein stenosis from treatment for atrial fibrillation. PMID:27483542

  20. A female pelvic bone shape model for air/bone separation in support of synthetic CT generation for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianli; Cao, Yue; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Separating bone from air in MR data is one of the major challenges in using MR images to derive synthetic CT. The problem is further complicated when the anatomic regions filled with air are altered across scans due to air mobility, for instance, in pelvic regions, thereby the air regions estimated using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are invalid in other image series acquired for multispectral classification. This study aims to develop and investigate a female pelvic bone shape model to identify low intensity regions in MRI where air is unlikely to be present in support of synthetic CT generation without UTE imaging. CT scans of 30 patients were collected for the study, 17 of them also have corresponding MR scans. The shape model was built from the CT dataset, where the reference image was aligned to each of the training images using B-spline deformable registration. Principal component analysis was performed on B-spline coefficients for a compact model where shape variance was described by linear combination of principal modes. The model was applied to identify pelvic bone in MR images by deforming the corresponding MR data of the reference image to target MR images, where the search space of the deformation process was constrained within the subspace spanned by principal modes. The local minima in the search space were removed effectively by the shape model, thus supporting an efficient binary search for the optimal solution. We evaluated the model by its efficacy in identifying bone voxels and excluding air regions. The model was tested across the 17 patients that have corresponding MR scans using a leave-one-out cross validation. A simple model using the first leading principal mode only was found to achieve reasonable accuracy, where an averaged 87% of bone voxels were correctly identified. Finally dilation of the optimally fit bone mask by 5 mm was found to cover 96% of bone voxels while minimally impacting the overlap with air (below 0.4%).

  1. Clouds and Water Vapor in the Climate System and Radiative Transfer in Clear Air and Cirrus Clouds in the Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Strow, L. Larrabee

    2002-01-01

    Research supported under this grant was aimed at attacking unanswered scientific questions that lie at the intersection of radiation, dynamics, chemistry, and climate. Considerable emphasis was placed on scientific collaboration and the innovative development of instruments required to address these issues. Specific questions include water vapor distribution in the tropical troposphere, atmospheric radiation, thin cirrus clouds, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and correlative science with satellite observations.

  2. Micro-CT application for infiltration technology in paedodontics and orthodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogodescu, Alexandru; Manescu, Adrian; Ogodescu, Ana Emilia; Giuliani, Alessandra; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    White spot lesions are an early evidence of the demineralization of the enamel surface and are the first step of future caries that will develop on those spots. Recently, a new and innovative biotechnology was developed - Icon, a caries infiltrant to be introduced in early tooth lesions, able to achieve a very good preservation of dental structures. In order to assess the infiltrant penetration level inside the white spot lesions, a non-destructive 3D visualization method is needed. Phase-contrast micro computed tomography using synchrotron radiation proved to be a powerful technique, allowing a 3D morphological investigation of all the components of interest: tooth structure, white spot lesions extension, infiltrant penetration inside the lesions, without the need of slicing the specimens. From our clinical experience and the conducted research we can conclude that this technology is effective and useful in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry.

  3. Optimization of bundle infiltration in the forced chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    A two-step forced-flow, thermal-gradient, chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) was proposed to reduced processing time while maintaining uniformly high densities. GTCVI, a finite-volume computer code developed specifically for the FCVI process was used to model thermal gradient effects on processing time and density. An optimum thermal gradient was determined and used to process material with uniformly infiltrated bundles.

  4. Three-dimensional visualization of morphology and ventilation procedure (air flow and diffusion) of a subdivision of the acinus using synchrotron radiation microtomography of the human lung specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kenji; Ikura, Hirohiko; Ikezoe, Junpei; Nagareda, Tomofumi; Yagi, Naoto; Umetani, Keiji; Imai, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    We have previously reported a synchrotron radiation (SR) microtomography system constructed at the bending magnet beamline at the SPring-8. This system has been applied to the lungs obtained at autopsy and inflated and fixed by Heitzman"s method. Normal lung and lung specimens with two different types of pathologic processes (fibrosis and emphysema) were included. Serial SR microtomographic images were stacked to yield the isotropic volumetric data with high-resolution (12 μm3 in voxel size). Within the air spaces of a subdivision of the acinus, each voxel is segmented three-dimensionally using a region growing algorithm ("rolling ball algorithm"). For each voxel within the segmented air spaces, two types of voxel coding have been performed: single-seeded (SS) coding and boundary-seeded (BS) coding, in which the minimum distance from an initial point as the only seed point and all object boundary voxels as a seed set were calculated and assigned as the code values to each voxel, respectively. With these two codes, combinations of surface rendering and volume rendering techniques were applied to visualize three-dimensional morphology of a subdivision of the acinus. Furthermore, sequentially filling process of air into a subdivision of the acinus was simulated under several conditions to visualize the ventilation procedure (air flow and diffusion). A subdivision of the acinus was reconstructed three-dimensionally, demonstrating the normal architecture of the human lung. Significant differences in appearance of ventilation procedure were observed between normal and two pathologic processes due to the alteration of the lung architecture. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure of a subdivision of the acinus and visualization of the ventilation procedure (air flow and diffusion) with SR microtomography would offer a new approach to study the morphology, physiology, and pathophysiology of the human respiratory system.

  5. The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990-2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentener, F.; Stevenson, D.; Cofala, J.; Mechler, R.; Amann, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Raes, F.; Derwent, R.

    2004-12-01

    To explore the relationship between tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing with changing emissions, we compiled two sets of global scenarios for the emissions of the ozone precursors methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) up to the year 2030 and implemented them in two global Chemistry Transport Models. The "Current Legislation" (CLE) scenario reflects the current perspectives of individual countries on future economic development and takes the anticipated effects of presently decided emission control legislation in the individual countries into account. In addition, we developed a "Maximum technically Feasible Reduction" (MFR) scenario that outlines the scope for emission reductions offered by full implementation of the presently available emission control technologies, while maintaining the projected levels of anthropogenic activities. Whereas the resulting projections of methane emissions lie within the range suggested by other greenhouse gas projections, the recent pollution control legislation of many Asian countries, requiring introduction of catalytic converters for vehicles, leads to significantly lower growth in emissions of the air pollutants NOx, NMVOC and CO than was suggested by the widely used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) scenarios (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). With the TM3 and STOCHEM models we performed several long-term integrations (1990-2030) to assess global, hemispheric and regional changes in CH4, CO, hydroxyl radicals, ozone and the radiative climate forcings resulting from these two emission scenarios. Both models reproduce realistically the observed trends in background ozone, CO, and CH4 concentrations from 1990 to 2002. For the "current legislation" case, both models indicate an increase of the annual average ozone levels in the Northern hemisphere by 5 ppbv, and up to 15 ppbv over the Indian sub

  6. Modeling the MJO rain rates using parameterized large scale dynamics: vertical structure, radiation, and horizontal advection of dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Sobel, A. H.; Nie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Two Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events were observed during October and November 2011 in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the DYNAMO field campaign. Precipitation rates and large-scale vertical motion profiles derived from the DYNAMO northern sounding array are simulated in a small-domain cloud-resolving model using parameterized large-scale dynamics. Three parameterizations of large-scale dynamics --- the conventional weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation, vertical mode based spectral WTG (SWTG), and damped gravity wave coupling (DGW) --- are employed. The target temperature profiles and radiative heating rates are taken from a control simulation in which the large-scale vertical motion is imposed (rather than directly from observations), and the model itself is significantly modified from that used in previous work. These methodological changes lead to significant improvement in the results.Simulations using all three methods, with imposed time -dependent radiation and horizontal moisture advection, capture the time variations in precipitation associated with the two MJO events well. The three methods produce significant differences in the large-scale vertical motion profile, however. WTG produces the most top-heavy and noisy profiles, while DGW's is smoother with a peak in midlevels. SWTG produces a smooth profile, somewhere between WTG and DGW, and in better agreement with observations than either of the others. Numerical experiments without horizontal advection of moisture suggest that that process significantly reduces the precipitation and suppresses the top-heaviness of large-scale vertical motion during the MJO active phases, while experiments in which the effect of cloud on radiation are disabled indicate that cloud-radiative interaction significantly amplifies the MJO. Experiments in which interactive radiation is used produce poorer agreement with observation than those with imposed time-varying radiative heating. Our results highlight the

  7. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  8. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  9. Radiative-dynamical and microphysical processes of thin cirrus clouds controlling humidity of air entering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Tra; Fueglistaler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are of great interest due to their role in the control of water vapor and temperature in the TTL. Previous research on TTL cirrus clouds has focussed mainly on microphysical processes, specifically the ice nucleation mechanism and dehydration efficiency. Here, we use a cloud resolving model to analyse the sensitivity of TTL cirrus characteristics and impacts with respect to microphysical and radiative processes. A steady-state TTL cirrus cloud field is obtained in the model forced with dynamical conditions typical for the TTL (2-dimensional setup with a Kelvin-wave temperature perturbation). Our model results show that the dehydration efficiency (as given by the domain average relative humidity in the layer of cloud occurrence) is relatively insensitive to the ice nucleation mechanism, i.e. homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation. Rather, TTL cirrus affect the water vapor entering the stratosphere via an indirect effect associated with the cloud radiative heating and dynamics. Resolving the cloud radiative heating and the radiatively induced circulations approximately doubles the domain average ice mass. The cloud radiative heating is proportional to the domain average ice mass, and the observed increase in domain average ice mass induces a domain average temperature increase of a few Kelvin. The corresponding increase in water vapor entering the stratosphere is estimated to be about 30 to 40%.

  10. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  11. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Initial Results from the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, B.; Sherman, J.; Sheridan, P. J.; Perry, L. B.; Neufeld, H.; Emanuel, R. E.; Tashakkori, R.; Bowman, D.; Long, C.

    2009-12-01

    AppalAIR (Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research, http://appalair.appstate.edu/) is a new interdisciplinary, atmospheric research facility located on the campus of Appalachian State University (1076 m; 36.2° N, 81.7° W) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The facility was designed to investigate air pollution formation and transport, the relationships among biogenic and anthropogenic inputs to a changing climate, and the effects of these factors on regional ecosystems. AppalAIR is a collaborating member of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL GMD) Collaborative Global Aerosol Network (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/net/app/index.html). Measurements are made from a 34 m tower and include aerosol light scattering (3-λ nephelometer) and absorption (3-λ PSAP, 7-λ aethalometer, 6-λ UV aethalometer), particle number concentration (CPC), and aerosol chemistry, size, and morphology using SPME/GC-MS and SEM analyses on 24 h filter samples. Initial results indicate alternating periods of small, highly absorptive (ssa < 0.90) fractal agglomerates and large, highly scattering (ssa > 0.95) spherical particles that are strongly dependent upon the highly variably meteorological patterns that have occurred over the summertime (JJA) in the southeastern U.S. By quantifying the aerosol direct radiative forcing during discrete meteorological patterns as defined by statistical cluster analysis as well as from specific aerosol chemical sources, we are able to extrapolate the results beyond the immediate region.

  12. A female pelvic bone shape model for air/bone separation in support of synthetic CT generation for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianli; Cao, Yue; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M

    2016-01-01

    Separating bone from air in MR data is one of the major challenges in using MR images to derive synthetic CT. The problem is further complicated when the anatomic regions filled with air are altered across scans due to air mobility, for instance, in pelvic regions, thereby the air regions estimated using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are invalid in other image series acquired for multispectral classification. This study aims to develop and investigate a female pelvic bone shape model to identify low intensity regions in MRI where air is unlikely to be present in support of synthetic CT generation without UTE imaging. CT scans of 30 patients were collected for the study, 17 of them also have corresponding MR scans. The shape model was built from the CT dataset, where the reference image was aligned to each of the training images using B-spline deformable registration. Principal component analysis was performed on B-spline coefficients for a compact model where shape variance was described by linear combination of principal modes. The model was applied to identify pelvic bone in MR images by deforming the corresponding MR data of the reference image to target MR images, where the search space of the deformation process was constrained within the subspace spanned by principal modes. The local minima in the search space were removed effectively by the shape model, thus supporting an efficient binary search for the optimal solution. We evaluated the model by its efficacy in identifying bone voxels and excluding air regions. The model was tested across the 17 patients that have corresponding MR scans using a leave-one-out cross validation. A simple model using the first leading principal mode only was found to achieve reasonable accuracy, where an averaged 87% of bone voxels were correctly identified. Finally dilation of the optimally fit bone mask by 5 mm was found to cover 96% of bone voxels while minimally impacting the overlap with air (below 0.4%). PMID

  13. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  14. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  15. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Oppelt, Peter; Enzelsberger, Simon H; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  16. Study and parametrization of the night sky background radiation spectrum in the range 3000-6000 Å, for use with air fluorescence detectors of UHECR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyssides, P. G.; Maltezos, S.; Fokitis, E.

    2005-01-01

    The fluorescence light, induced by showers of the extremely high energy cosmic rays, is produced through the excitation of, mainly, nitrogen molecules, atoms, and ions, in the atmosphere. The fluorescence telescopes of the Auger Project record this nitrogen radiation under the variable night sky optical noise (background radiation) and, therefore, the study of the latter is crucial. In this paper we present a parametrization of an experimental night sky background radiation spectrum that, to our knowledge, is being carried out for the first time, recorded in the range 3000-6000 Å. Although the parametrization described here refers to a particular spectrum, our results are generally applicable, and could be adapted to those prevailing in particular locations, where EAS fluorescence telescopes are operating if, in addition, the gradual time variations of the spectrum are taken into account. They could be useful in data analysis for the event reconstruction, during the operation of the fluorescence detector of the Auger Observatory, since they could be used for the experimental emulation of the optical noise. In addition, they could be used in the designing of air fluorescence observatory components, such as photomultipliers and their spectral sensitivity, as well as in the corresponding optical filters.

  17. Sensitive hydrogen sensor based on selectively infiltrated photonic crystal fiber with Pt-loaded WO₃ coating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, D N; Yang, Fan; Li, Zhi; Yang, Minghong

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen sensing device based on a selectively infiltrated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) coated with Pt-loaded WO₃ is demonstrated. With Pt-loaded WO₃ coating acting as the catalytic layer, hydrogen undergoes an exothermic reaction with oxygen and releases heat when the device is exposed to gas mixtures of air and hydrogen, which induces local temperature change in the PCF and hence leads to the resonant wavelength shift of the proposed device. The maximum wavelength shift of 98.5 nm is obtained with a 10-mm-long infiltrated PCF for 4% (v/v) H₂ concentration, and a hydrogen sensitivity of 32.3 nm/% (v/v) H₂ is achieved within the range of 1%-4% (v/v) H₂ in air. PMID:24978759

  18. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  19. Toward physically based estimation of surface irrigation infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation practitioners continue to use empirical infiltration equations. Theoretical infiltration equations are currently not capable of capturing surface irrigation infiltration behaviour, particularly at short times. An example is shown where the Green-Ampt equation can be adjusted to match fiel...

  20. Infiltration characteristics of bare soil under sequential water application events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal is a well known phenomenon but often ignored in infiltration models. The effect sequential water application events have on infiltration rate and soil surface seal formation has rarely been investigated. The objecti...

  1. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  2. Features of the electron density dynamics in the filamentation of femtosecond laser radiation in air at elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, P. A.; Bukin, V. V.; Ushakov, A. A.; Garnov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The electron density in the plasma channel of a femtosecond filament in air at pressures from 1 to 7 atm is measured at different instants, starting from the ionisation onset and up to several hundreds of picoseconds after it. The initial electron density is found to increase sharply in the pressure range of 3 – 4 atm. The plasma channel diameter is found to decrease with an increase in pressure from 3 to 7 atm.

  3. CONCRETE BLOCKS' ADVERSE EFFECTS ON INDOOR AIR AND RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air infiltration through highly permeable concrete blocks can allow entry of various serious indoor air pollutants. An easy approach to avoiding these pollutants is to select a less–air-permeable concrete block. Tests show that air permeability of concrete blocks can vary by a fa...

  4. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  5. Substantiation of 25 kGy radiation sterilization dose for banked air dried amniotic membrane and evaluation of personnel skill in influencing finished product bioburden.

    PubMed

    Marsit, Nagi; Dwejen, Samira; Saad, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Sedigh; Shaab, Arej; Salem, Salma; Khanfas, Enas; Hasan, Anas; Mansur, Mohamed; Abdul Sammad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of amniotic membrane (AM) by air drying method followed by radiation sterilization is simple and valuable approach; sterility and quality of the final AM product are depending on the quality management system at the tissue bank. Validation and substantiation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) for tissue allografts is an essential step for the development and validation of the standard operating procedures (SOP). Application of SOP is perfectly relying on trained staff. Skills differences among personnel involved in AM preparation could have an effect on microbiological quality of the finished product and subsequently on the RSD required. AM were processed by four different couples of the tissue bank technicians. The AM grafts were randomly selected and subjected to bioburden test to validate and substantiate the 25 kGy RSD. Bioburden test for AM grafts were also useful to evaluate the skill of the tissue bank technicians and thus, to validate the current SOP for air dried AM. Moreover, the effect of placental source on bioburden counts on AM grafts was assessed. Substantiation of the 25 kGy RSD at a sterility assurance level of 10(-1), and sample item portion = 1, was carried out using Method VD max (25) of the International Organization for Standardization, document no. 11137-2 (ISO in Sterilization of healthcare products-radiation-part 2: establishing the sterilization dose, Method VDmax-substantiation of 25 kGy or 15 kGy as the sterilization dose, International Standard Organization, 2006). The results showed that there were no significant differences in the bioburdens of the four batches (α = 1 %), this means no significant differences in the skill of the four couples of the tissue bank technicians in terms of their ability to process AM according to the air dried AM SOP. The 25 kGy RSD was validated and substantiated as a valid sterilization dose for the AM prepared with the current established SOP at the Biotechnology Research Center

  6. On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be

  7. Infiltration kinetics of fibrous preforms by aluminum with solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, T.; Nishida, Y.

    1995-04-01

    The infiltration mechanism of molten aluminum in a fibrous preform was investigated both experimentally and theoretically by using SiC whisker preforms which were deformed during infiltration. To analyze the correlation between applied pressure and infiltration front in the preform, the distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the deformed preform were measured and the distribution of volume fraction was calculated. There was a limit in the infiltration distance when pre-heat temperature of the preform was lower than the melting point of aluminum. A theoretical expression was derived to describe fluid flow including solidification in the preform and good agreement with experimental results was obtained.

  8. Modeling Hydrologic and Geochemical Aspects of Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, S.; Finsterle, S.; Gu, C.; Maggi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Land-based wastewater treatment is the controlled application of wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents. A Rapid Infiltration Basin (RIB) is a major land treatment technique where treated wastewater is infiltrated at high rates in shallow basins, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen compounds, there is particular concern that a RIB may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. RIBs are operated in repetitive cycles of flooding, infiltration, and drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect pollutant residence time and water table rise in shallow groundwater systems. They also alter water saturation and air content in the vadose zone, which have an impact on denitrification. Optimum values of the wetting-drying cycle ratio and the hydraulic loading rate are expected to vary with the quality of applied wastewater, soil type, treatment objective, and climate. Soil development within the basins may have an important effect on RIB performance. In this study, numerical modeling is used to obtain optimum values for the wetting-drying cycle ratio and hydraulic loading rate for different soil types and environmental conditions. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Overland flow within RIBs is coupled with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on hydraulic performance. TOUGHREACT v1.1 is used for modeling nitrogen fate and transport. Flow simulations indicate that using a long flooding cycle results in more water spreading over the basin and higher vadose zone water saturations than more frequent short-duration flooding events. Results of modeling fate and

  9. Building characterization and aerosol infiltration into a naturally ventilated three-story apartment building.

    PubMed

    Rodes, Charles E; Vanosdell, Douglas W; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Seagraves, Jeremy; Hahn, Intaek; Henkle, Stacy W; Wiener, Russell W

    2009-12-01

    Understanding infiltration of outdoor pollutants was an integral part of the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. For this reason, the structural and air exchange properties of the three-story row house in Brooklyn, NY, USA, that was used in the B-TRAPPED experiments were fully characterized. Factors investigated included representativeness of the construction and impact of building design features on the natural ventilation and infiltration of outdoor aerosol. Both blower door and perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) air exchange rate (AER) experiments showed that the ventilation rates of the building were quite typical of similar structures in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) aerosol count ratios by particle size were comparable to a similar vintage naturally ventilated building in Boston, MA, USA. I/O ratio analyses were consistent with literature findings and showed I/O ratios ranging from 0.310 to 0.601, varying across particle sizes (from 0.3 to 5.0 [corrected] mum) and between first and second floor apartments. An effort to apply the rebound method of Thatcher et al. (Aerosol Sci. Technol., 2003, 37, 847-864) in determining aerosol infiltration rates proved unsuccessful due to unexpectedly long (>60 min) equilibration times after the filtration period. Uninsulated interior wall renovations in the study house created a cavity that resulted in a large intermediate dead volume (for infiltration) that apparently could not be accommodated by a simple infiltration model. Simple two-compartment models evidently have finite application limitations for even modestly complex settings. PMID:20024015

  10. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  11. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  13. The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990-2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentener, F.; Stevenson, D.; Cofala, J.; Mechler, R.; Amann, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Raes, F.; Derwent, R.

    2005-07-01

    To explore the relationship between tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing with changing emissions, we compiled two sets of global scenarios for the emissions of the ozone precursors methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) up to the year 2030 and implemented them in two global Chemistry Transport Models. The "Current Legislation" (CLE) scenario reflects the current perspectives of individual countries on future economic development and takes the anticipated effects of presently decided emission control legislation in the individual countries into account. In addition, we developed a "Maximum technically Feasible Reduction" (MFR) scenario that outlines the scope for emission reductions offered by full implementation of the presently available emission control technologies, while maintaining the projected levels of anthropogenic activities. Whereas the resulting projections of methane emissions lie within the range suggested by other greenhouse gas projections, the recent pollution control legislation of many Asian countries, requiring introduction of catalytic converters for vehicles, leads to significantly lower growth in emissions of the air pollutants NOx, NMVOC and CO than was suggested by the widely used and more pessimistic IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) scenarios (Nakicenovic et al., 2000), which made Business-as-Usual assumptions regarding emission control technology. With the TM3 and STOCHEM models we performed several long-term integrations (1990-2030) to assess global, hemispheric and regional changes in CH4, CO, hydroxyl radicals, ozone and the radiative climate forcings resulting from these two emission scenarios. Both models reproduce broadly the observed trends in CO, and CH4 concentrations from 1990 to 2002.

    For the "current legislation" case, both models indicate an increase of the

  14. Necrotising lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration (Kikuchi's disease).

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M H; Horton, L W

    1985-01-01

    Kikuchi's disease (necrotising lymphadenitis) is characterised by cervical lymphadenopathy in young patients and may be mistaken for malignant disease both clinically and histologically. Microscopically, there is a varying degree of effacement of the lymph node architecture and necrosis with an infiltrate of "histiocytic" cells and absence of polymorphs. The disease is of unknown aetiology. It was originally described in Japan, and only 27 cases have been reported elsewhere (none in the United Kingdom), although it has probably been seen but not recognised. The clinical, histopathological, electron microscopic, and immunohistological findings in four cases of the disease were evaluated. Images PMID:4066984

  15. Management of infiltrating spinal epidural angiolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Mustafa M.; Nadi, Arwa M.; Zabara, Mohammad Y.; Ahmad, Tahani M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiolipomas of the spine are rare benign tumors commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. The present report describes a case of spinal angiolipoma with thoracic mediastinal extension in a 50-year-old woman. She presented with a long-standing history of mid-back pain with progressive lower extremities weakness. An MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass located in the posterior epidural space of the thoracic spine with mediastinal extension. Histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the diagnosis and therapeutic management options of infiltrating spinal angiolipomas. PMID:25864069

  16. IMPACT OF HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OPERATION AND LEAKAGE ON VENTILATION AND INTERCOMPARTMENT TRANSPORT: STUDIES IN UNOCCUPIED AND OCCUPIED TENNESSEE VALLEY HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forced-air heating and air conditioning (HAC) systems caused an average and maximum increase in air infiltration rates of 1.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively, during brief whole-house studies of tracer gas decay In 39 occupied houses. An average Increase in air infiltration rate of 0...

  17. Radiation chemical effects in experiments to study the reaction of glass in an environment of gamma-irradiated air, groundwater, and tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1986-05-02

    The results of experiments performed by John K. Bates et al. on the reaction of nuclear waste glass with a gamma-irradiated 90{sup 0}C aqueous solution were analyzed using theory developed from past research in radiation chemistry. The aqueous solution they used is similar to what would be expected in a water-saturated environment in a nuclear waste repository in tuff. The purpose of our study was to develop an understanding of the radiation-chemical processes that occurred in the Bates et al. experiments so the results could be applied to the design and performance analysis of a proposed repository in unsaturated tuff in Nevada. For the Bates et al. experiments at the highest dose (269 Mrad), which originally contained about 16 ml of "equilibrated" water taken from Nevada Test Site Well J-13 and 5.4 ml of air, we predicted that water decomposition to H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} would produce a pressure increase of at least 1.0 MPa at 20{sup 0}C. We also predicted that nitrogen fixation from the air would occur, producing an increase of 1.6 x 10{sup -4} M in total fixed nitrogen concentration in solution. In addition, an equimolar production of H{sup +} would occur, which would be buffered by the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the water. The fixed nitrogen in solution was predicted to be present as NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} with the ratio influenced by the presence of materials catalytic to the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. We found reasonable agreement between our predictions and the observations of Bates et al., where comparisons were possible. We apply the results to the proposed Nevada repository to the degree possible, given the different expected conditions.

  18. Finite-volume model for chemical vapor infiltration incorporating radiant heat transfer. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.W.; Starr, T.L.

    1995-05-01

    Most finite-volume thermal models account for the diffusion and convection of heat and may include volume heating. However, for certain simulation geometries, a large percentage of heat flux is due to thermal radiation. In this paper a finite-volume computational procedure for the simulation of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in three dimensional complex enclosures is developed. The radiant heat transfer is included as a source term in each volume element which is derived by Monte Carlo ray tracing from all possible radiating and absorbing faces. The importance of radiative heat transfer is illustrated in the modeling of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of tubes. The temperature profile through the tube preform matches experimental measurements only when radiation is included. An alternative, empirical approach using an {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} thermal conductivity for the gas space can match the initial temperature profile but does not match temperature changes that occur during preform densification.

  19. Estimating Pan Arctic Net Ecosystem Exchange using Functional Relationships with Air temperature, Leaf Area Index and Photosynthetic Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbufong, H.; Kusbach, A.; Lund, M.; Persson, A.; Christensen, T. R.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Connolly, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high variability in Arctic tundra net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon (C) is often attributed to the high spatial heterogeneity of Arctic tundra. Current models of carbon exchange thus handle the Arctic as either a single or few ecosystems, responding to environmental change in the same manner. In this study, we developed and tested a simple NEE model using the Misterlich light response curve (LRC) function with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) as the main driving variable. Model calibration was carried out with eddy covariance carbon dioxide data from 12 Arctic tundra sites. The model input parameters (fcsat, Rd and α) were estimated as a function of air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) and represent specific characteristics of the NEE-PPFD relationship. They describe the saturation flux, dark respiration and initial light use efficiency, respectively. While remotely sensed LAI is readily available as a MODIS Terra product (MCD15A3), air temperature was estimated from a direct relationship with MODIS land surface temperature (MOD11A2, LST). Therefore, no specific knowledge of the vegetation type is required. Preliminary results show the model captures the spatial heterogeneity of the Arctic tundra but so far, overestimates NEE on all 17 test sites which include heaths, bogs, fens, and tussock tundra vegetation. The final updated results and error assessment will be presented at the conference in December.

  20. Future ozone air quality and radiative forcing over China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jia; Liao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    We apply the nested grid version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to assess 2000-2050 changes in O3 air quality and associated radiative forcing in China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Changes in surface layer O3 concentrations, numbers of O3 exceedance days (days with maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O3 exceeding 74.7 ppbv), and tropospheric O3 radiative forcing (RF) are simulated for 2000-2050. Over China, RCP8.5 is the worst scenario for near future (2020-2030) and RCP6.0 is the worst scenario over 2040-2050; the maximum increases in annual mean surface layer O3 concentrations of 6-12 ppbv relative to present day (year 2000) are found over southern China in 2020 and 2030 under RCP8.5 and in 2040 and 2050 under RCP6.0. The numbers of MDA8 O3 exceedance days are simulated to be 10, 0, 0, and 2 days over Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu (BTT), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SCB), respectively, in the present day (year 2000). No exceedance days are simulated in year 2050 for all the four regions under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, but extremely high numbers of exceedance days are found in 2050 under RCP6.0 (with 102, 75, 57, and 179 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively) and in 2030 under RCP8.5 (with 94, 60, 34, and 162 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively). The tropospheric O3 RF in 2050 relative to 2000 averaged over eastern China (18°-45°N, 95°-125°E) is simulated to be -0.11, 0.0, 0.01, and 0.14 W m-2 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5, respectively. When we consider both the health and climate impacts of tropospheric O3 over China in 2050, RCP2.6 is a significantly improving scenario for both air quality and climate, RCP4.5 is a significantly improving scenario for air quality but has small consequences for climate, RCP6.0 is a significantly worsening scenario for air quality

  1. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  2. Control of extended high-voltage electric discharges in atmospheric air by UV KrF-laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zvorykin, V D; Levchenko, A O; Ustinovskii, N N

    2011-03-31

    Experiments in the commutation of extended ({approx}1-m long) high-voltage (up to 390 kV) electric discharges were carried out with the aid of 100-ns long UV pulses of the GARPUN KrF laser, in which we demonstrated a one-and-a-half-fold lengthening of the discharge gap broken down in the presence of laser illumination. Total control of discharge trajectory along the direction of the laser beam was observed for a radiation energy of {approx}300 mJ (the corresponding intensity I = 5x10{sup 8} W cm{sup -2} and its attendant initial electron density Ne {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) and partial control for an energy of 40 mJ (I = 7x10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}, Ne {approx} 8x10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) with a 100% probability of breakdown. We discuss the advantages of employing a UV laser for active lightning protection in comparison with IR lasers and ultrashort-pulse laser systems. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  3. Numerical analysis of a neutron radiography-monitored infiltration experiment: Two-phase modeling using TOUGH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Princ, Tomas; Sacha, Jan; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown in ponded infiltration-outflow column experiments that true steady state flow is often not reached in certain soils exhibiting preferential flow. Experiments often show a temporal change of flow rate that can, in the case of experiments conducted on saturated samples at constant head gradients, be interpreted as variations of saturated hydraulic conductivity. It has also been shown that these variations can be caused by slow redistribution of entrapped air in the sample. The experiment presented in this study was conducted on a small fabricated sample with axially symmetrical inner geometry of material distribution. In preparing the sample, areas of fine sand were surrounded by continuous preferential pathways composed of coarse sand. Ponded infiltration was performed on the sample while monitoring using neutron imaging was conducted to obtain spatiotemporal information about the water content distribution in the sample. Results of the experiment revealed that during the quasi-steady state stage of the experiment the saturated hydraulic conductivity gradually decreased due to the transfer of air bubbles from fine sand to coarse sand. Flow through the coarse sand became partially blocked by air bubbles and the overall quasi-steady flow rate consequently decreased by 30% during six hours of infiltration. In an attempt to model this behavior, we simulated ponded infiltration in two dimensional (2D) domains using the EOS3 module of the numerical simulator TOUGH2 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). The main objective was to determine which types of preferential pathway patterns were prone to air entrapment and whether the air redistribution observed in the experiment could be numerically simulated. Modeling was conducted in three different 2D domains with increasing complexity of the preferential pathways' geometry. Analysis of the results confirmed that during ponded infiltration, water percolated fastest at the start of infiltration through the

  4. Liquid precursor infiltration processing of powder compacts. 1: Kinetic studies and microstructure development

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, W.C.; Lange, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    The kinetics of infiltrating a solution precursor into Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder compacts were studied using either water or an aqueous solution of Zr-nitrate and Y-nitrate that formed a crystalline Zr(Y)O{sub 2} (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) solid solution during pyrolysis. When the powder compact contained air, the infiltration involved two steps: (1) relatively rapid intrusion of liquid via flow due to capillary pressure and (2) diffusion of entrapped gas to the surface as its pressure became equal to the capillary pressure. The kinetics of both processes are described with different parabolic rate laws--Darcy`s law and Fick`s law, respectively. When the intruded precursor is converted to an inorganic during heat treatment, the void space is partially filled with pyrolyzed precursor without shrinkage of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder. The movement of precursor molecules was prevented by gelling prior to drying, viz., by soaking the infiltrated bodies in an aqueous NH{sub 4}OH solution. Microstructures developed during cyclic precursor infiltration and pyrolysis were characterized to show that cracklike voids are produced within the pyrolyzed precursor due to its large volume change during pyrolysis and densification; the size distribution of the cracklike voids is proportional to the size distribution of the voids within the initial powder compact.

  5. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The main focus during operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is on clogging processes, specifically on the changes of infiltration capacities and degradation of infiltrated organic substances including vadose zone oxygen dynamics. Lab scale experiments are one opportunity to understand and characterize these processes under different drying and wetting cycles and infiltration rates. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over- or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Therefore, the specific objective of this investigation is to compare the results obtained from two different experimental set-ups with different scales: a 3D, rectangular shaped, stainless steel lysimeter (1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 m) with an infiltration basin installed in the centre of its surface and a 1D soil column (1m, ᴓ 0.15 m) with the infiltration over the complete column surface. The study focuses on the influence of the experimental setup conditions on the soil clogging, water flow pattern, oxygen dynamics and degradation of organic substances. The results should allow making statements about the suitability of these lab experiments for the investigation of processes taking place in the unsaturated soil zone during operation of MAR. Both experimental units were packed with the same soil and equipped with tensiometers, TDR-probes, oxygen probes and suction cups in two depths for the estimation of spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture, oxygen and infiltrated substances. The lysimeter and the column were placed inside of a fully automatic climate tent, which facilitates the exact control of air temperature and humidity. The first results confirm that both infiltration units are suitable to simulate the clogging and the oxidation of easily degradable organic substances. However, the velocity of water transport is higher in the column compared with the lysimeter

  6. Diffusion tensor-based tumor infiltration index cannot discriminate vasogenic edema from tumor-infiltrated edema.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Manabu; Goto, Tetsu; Okita, Yoshiko; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-02-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now used not only for delineating white matter fiber tracts, but also for assessing the histological characteristics of pathological tissues. Among these uses, predicting the extent or existence of tumor cell invasion into white matter by DTI is under extensive investigation. The previously reported tumor infiltration index (TII) holds great potential for the discrimination of pure vasogenic edema from tumor-infiltrated edema. However, conflicting data are being reported questioning the clinical value of TII. The present investigation reevaluated the utility of TII in patients with meningioma or glioma. We found that TII was unable to discriminate vasogenic from tumor-infiltrated edema. Conversely, detailed voxel-by-voxel comparison of TII and (11)C-methionie PET in the T2-hyperintense area of gliomas showed that TII and (11)C-methionie PET has a positive correlation, suggesting that, although TII is unable to discriminate the cause of edema, the extent of tumor cell invasion into white matter is depicted in gliomas by TII. These data suggest that TII involves both vasogenic and tumor-infiltrated factors, rather than only a single factor. A more intensive investigation is required to reach a complete understanding of TII. PMID:19696968

  7. Excitational energy transfer enhancing ionization and spatial-temporal evolution of air breakdown with UV laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummelt, Jason S.; Scharer, John E.

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the role multiphoton excitation of oxygen has on the ionization of nitrogen in laser air breakdown. Plasma is created by focusing a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using an 18 cm focal length lens, producing a cylindrical 540 μm wide spot of intensity 6.5 GW/cm2, well below the classical limit for collisional cascade (CC) breakdown. By spectroscopically monitoring the B Σ2u+ to X Σ2g+ transition at 391.4 nm of N2+ in N2 and O2 mixes, collisions between N2 and metastable O2 states that have undergone 1+1 absorption processes are shown to lower the degree of nonlinearity (i.e., the number of photons involved in the rate limiting multiphoton absorption process) in the ionization of N2. This process is also found to dominate the 2+1 resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization of N2 in air and be the primary source for ionization of N2 to the B Σ2u+ state. Plasma formation and evolution is also examined using a 1.3 cm focal length objective lens creating a 40 μm wide spot of intensity 1.25 TW/cm2, above the classical limit for breakdown. This plasma is imaged with a fast (1.2 ns) gating intensified charge coupled device camera. Early plasma formation is seen to be inhomogeneous in nature, and significant ion density is found to exist up to 20 μs after the laser pulse.

  8. Reactive infiltration in fabricating silicon carbide composites for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liming

    The silicon carbide (SiC) composite is a promising material to improve thermal dissipation and thermal expansion matching for electronic packaging, but its wide application has been greatly hindered by the high fabrication cost. To address this cost issue, two new reactive infiltration methods have been proposed and developed to fabricate SiC composite in a net-shape manner. They are Method 1--locally magnesium-enhanced infiltration and Method 2--globally carbon-enhanced infiltration. In Method 1, a magnesium wetting agent was strategically inserted at the interface between SiC powder and Al-Si alloy. The molten Al-Si alloy was assisted by chemical reaction to infiltrate into the porous SiC powder in an inert atmosphere sealed in a quartz tube or a steel cup. The infiltration kinetics was characterized by measuring the infiltration weight gain with respect to time. It was found that the infiltration kinetics could be divided into three stages: infiltration initiation, rapid infiltration, and slow infiltration, and most of the weight gain occurred in the rapid infiltration stage. The rapid infiltration was due to the magnesium-silicon oxide reaction and the magnesium accumulation at the infiltration front. Modeling of the infiltration kinetics showed the magnesium dilution increased the dynamic contact angle, which in turn decreased the infiltration rate. The SiC oxidation, Mg content and temperature were shown to be important factors affecting the infiltration. In Method 2, a carbon wetting agent is coated globally on every SiC particle. To accomplish this coating, a slip casting, drying, curing and carbonization process was developed. A crucibleless infiltration method was designed to fabricate SiC composites in an open atmosphere protected by nitrogen. The temperature change of SiC preform during infiltration was monitored to determine the infiltration kinetics. The silicon-carbon reaction was found to create a spontaneous infiltration of molten Si or molten Al

  9. Decreased neutrophil skin infiltration after UVB exposure in patients with polymorphous light eruption.

    PubMed

    Schornagel, Ines J; Sigurdsson, Vigfús; Nijhuis, Evert H J; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Knol, Edward F

    2004-07-01

    UV radiation, in particular UVB, suppresses the skin immune response. In patients with polymorphous light eruption (PLE) the skin immune response seems activated after UV exposure. Typical PLE skin lesions can occur as early as several hours after UV exposure. In healthy volunteers, neutrophils infiltrate the skin shortly after UV exposure. The kinetics and mechanisms of neutrophil infiltration in the skin of PLE patients after UVB exposure was studied. Skin biopsies at 0, 3, 6, and 18 h were taken from five PLE patients and six healthy controls after irradiation with three minimal erythema dose UVB. Furthermore, neutrophils were isolated from blood of five PLE patients and six healthy controls to test their chemotactic activity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant decreased neutrophil infiltration in PLE skin after UVB irradiation compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). In both healthy controls and PLE patients, after UVB irradiation, ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression on endothelial cells increased at 6 h after irradiation. Blood neutrophil chemotactic response towards IL-8 and C5a, as well as the expression of cell surface markers involved in adhesion and chemotaxis, was not different between PLE patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, PLE is marked by a decreased skin infiltration of neutrophils after UVB irradiation, possibly leading to a diminished neutrophil-induced suppression. PMID:15191561

  10. Assessing the Usefulness of AIRS Radiance Observations in a 4D-Var Assimilation Scheme Using the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5) and a Stand Alone Radiative Transfer Algorithm (SARTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, M.; Zou, X.; Lapenta, W. M.; Jedlovec, G.

    2004-01-01

    Short-term precipitation forecast skill remains poor despite further advances in numerical modeling and data analysis. Utilizing indirect observations, such as the radiance observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), in a 4D-Var assimilation scheme may lead to a rapid improvement in the skill of 12-h QPF. In order to investigate the usefulness of AIRS observations, the adjoint code of a radiative transfer model (SARTA) is developed and linked to MM5 4D-Var system. A statistical comparison of the AIRS radiances with those calculated using the linked MMS-SARTA model is carried out to assess errors in the radiative transfer model, MM5 and AIRS data, and to develop a quality control scheme. Outliers and any bias that may exist in radiative transfer model, MM5 and AIRS data are identified. An adjoint sensitivity study, utilizing the SARTA adjoint model, is then done to identify the relative sensitivities of each spectral channel to such parameters as atmospheric temperature, pressure, and mixing ratio. Another sensitivity study is done using the MM5 alone to determine the sensitivity of the 12-h QPF to model parameters such as atmospheric temperature, pressure, and mixing ratio under various weather regimes (i.e. summertime convection, winter snowfall). Results from these two types of adjoint sensitivity studies are used to determine which AIRS channels contribute most to 12-h QPF under differing weather regimes. This information is useful when conducting 4D-Var experiments using a subset of the 2378 AIRS spectral channels. Finally, 4D-Var experiments are done to analyze the impact of the AIRS observations on the quality of the 12-h QPF results. This project falls under the data assimilation general session topic as specified by the conference organizers.

  11. Relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dushyanthen, Sathana; Beavis, Paul A; Savas, Peter; Teo, Zhi Ling; Zhou, Chenhao; Mansour, Mariam; Darcy, Phillip K; Loi, Sherene

    2015-01-01

    While breast cancer has not been considered a cancer amenable to immunotherapeutic approaches, recent studies have demonstrated evidence of significant immune cell infiltration via tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in a subset of patient tumors. In this review we present the current evidence highlighting the clinical relevance and utility of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer. Retrospective and prospective studies have shown that the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is a prognostic marker for higher responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and better survival, particularly in triple negative and HER2-positive early breast cancer. Further work is required to determine the immune subsets important in this response and to discover ways of encouraging immune infiltrate in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes-negative patients. PMID:26300242

  12. The direct problem of acoustic diffraction of an audible probe radiation by an air-saturated porous cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogam, Erick; Depollier, Claude; Fellah, Z. E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Gas-saturated, solid skeleton, porous media like geomaterials, polymeric and metallic foams or biomaterials are fundamental in a diverse range of applications, from structural materials to energy technologies. Most polymeric foams are used for noise control applications and knowledge of the manner in which the energy of sound waves is dissipated with respect to the intrinsic acoustic properties is important for the design of sound packages. Foams are often employed in the audible, low frequency range where modeling and measurement techniques for the recovery of physical parameters responsible for energy loss, are still few. Accurate acoustic methods for the characterization of porous media are based on the measurement of the transmitted and/or reflected acoustic waves by platelike specimens at ultrasonic frequencies. In this study we have developed a method based on the theory and experiment of diffraction of acoustic waves by a rigid-frame, air-saturated polymeric foam in cylindrical form in the audible frequency regime. A dispersion relation for sound wave propagation in the porous medium is derived from the propagation equations and a model solution is sought based on plane-wave decomposition using orthogonal cylindrical functions. The explicit analytical solution equation of the scattered field show that it is also dependent on the intrinsic microstructural parameters of the porous cylinder namely, porosity, tortuosity, and the flow resistivity (related to permeability).

  13. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  14. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  15. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  16. Evaluation of field water infiltration test results of windows and sliding glass door assemblies installed in new construction projects

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, P.E.; Smith, W.D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the results of field water infiltration tests of windows and sliding glass door assemblies that were conducted within the last five years. In all cases, the tests were conducted during the new construction process. The tests were performed using ASTM Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of Installed Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, and Doors by Uniform or Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference (E 1105). The results show a majority of windows and sliding glass door assemblies fail initial field water infiltration tests, which is compelling evidence that these tests are prudent as part of a new construction process.

  17. [Ultraviolet radiation impact on seasonal variations of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy young adults in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Constanzo, Pablo R; Elías, Natalia O; Kleiman Rubinsztein, Jessica; García Basavilbaso, Natalia X; Piacentini, Rubén; Salerni, Helena H

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight (ES) is the main source of vitamin D. There are few reports regarding the seasonal variations of serum 25(OH) vitamin D in young adults and its correlation with ultraviolet radiation dose (UVRd). Our aims were to determine 25OHD variations in young adults and assess the correlation between 25OHD levels, dietary calcium intake (DCI) and the UVRd. Eighty two healthy volunteers were prospectively studied: 42 women and 40 men. Serum 25OHD, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured at the end of winter and at the end of summer. ES and UVRd were determined hourly in winter and summer. Seasonal variation in serum 25OHD levels was observed with significantly higher levels in summer in both gender. Serum 25OHD <20 ng/ml was more frequently found in winter (42.6% in women and 50% in men). The ES and UVRd were significantly lower in winter vs. summer. ES and UVRd positively correlated with 25OHD only in winter in both men and women. DCI was lower than recommended and did not correlate with 25OHD levels. PMID:21893446

  18. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  19. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  20. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  1. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  2. [Asymptomatic facial infiltrated papules in an HIV-positive male].

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Rosin, C; Battegay, M; Häusermann, P

    2011-12-14

    A 65 year old HIV-infected patient (CDC A2, diagnosed in 07/2008) presented with facial, erythematous infiltrated papular lesions. Consistent with progressive immunodeficiency a low CD4+ T-cell count and an increase of the viral load was seen simultaneously and an eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) was assumed. Though, the lesional biopsy revealed a follicular eosinophilic infiltration and endotrichial hyphae, proving for an infiltrating dermatophytosis. This shows how an infiltrating Tinea faciei is mimicking clinically and histologically an HIV-associated EPF of the face. PMID:22161883

  3. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  4. Inexpensive perfluorocarbon tracer technique for wide-scale infiltration measurements in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Cote, E.A.; Senum, G.I.; Wieser, R.F.

    1981-08-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer technique to determine infiltration rates in homes is described. A tracer kit, coined the Brookhaven National Laboratory Air Infiltration Measurement System, which can be deployed by the average homeowner, is briefly described. The tracer source is a fluoroelastomer plug impregnated with a known mass of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and crimped within a metal shell. The PFT diffuses from the end of the plug. Two samplers briefly described are: the capillary adsorption tube sampler (CATS) and the programmable Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Sampler (BATS). Deployment of one of the diffusion sources in a home and use of a BATS unit to measure the increase in the tracer concentration perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (PDCH) are discussed. Results of the tests are presented. (MCW)

  5. Spatial analysis of water infiltration in urban soils. Case study of Iasi municipality (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian Vasilica, Secu; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    The post-communist period (after 1989) caused important changes in the functional structure of Iasi municipality. The partly dismantling of the industrial area, the urban sprawl against the periurban and agricultural space, the new infrastructure works, all these determined important changes of soils' physical and morphological properties (e.g. porosity, density, compaction, infiltration rate etc., in the first case, and changes in soil horizons, in the second case etc.). This study aims to prove the variability of physical properties through the combination of statistical and geostatistical methods intended for a correct spatial representation. Water infiltration in urban soils was analyzed in relation to land use and the age of parental materials. Field investigations consisted in measurements of the water infiltration (by the means of Turf Tech infiltrometer), resistance to penetration (penetrologger), moisture deficit (Theta Probe) and resistivity (EC) for 70 equally distanced points (750 m x 750 m) placed in a grid covering more than 33 km2. In the laboratory, there were determined several parameters as density, porosity (air pycnometer), gravimetric moisture and other hydrophysical indicators. Filed investigations results are very heterogeneous, because of the human intervention on soils. The curves of variation for the rate water infiltration in soils indicate a downward trend, from high values in first time interval (one minute), between 5000 and 60 mm/h-1, gradually decreasing to the interval of 5-10 minutes (between 30 and 1000 mm/ h-1 to a general trend of flattening after a large time interval (in the timeframe of 50-60 minutes, the infiltration rate ranges between 4 and 142 mm•h-1). The highest frequency (≥65%) caracterizes the infiltration rates between 20 and 65 mm•h-1. For each analyzed sector (residential areas, industrial areas, degraded lands, recreational areas - parks and botanical gardens, forests heterogeneous agricultural lands), the

  6. Acute ozone-induced change in airway permeability: role of infiltrating leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, S.R.; Hudak, B.B. )

    1992-02-01

    The role of infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in acute lung injury and inflammation is still controversial. In inbred mice, acute ozone (O3) exposure induces airway inflammation that is characterized by a maximal influx of lavageable PMNs 6 h after exposure and a maximal increase in lung permeability 24 h after O3. We tested the hypothesis that O3-induced change in airway epithelial permeability of O3-susceptible C57BL/6J mice is due to infiltrating PMNs. Male mice (6-8 wk) were treated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin), a chemotactic inhibitor (colchicine), or an immunosuppressant (cyclophosphamide) to deplete or inhibit PMNs from infiltrating the airways. After drug or vehicle treatment, mice were exposed for 3 h to 2 ppm O3 or filtered air, and pulmonary inflammation was assessed by inflammatory cell counts and total protein content (a marker of airway permeability) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Filtered air exposure did not affect the parameters of pulmonary inflammation at any time after exposure. Compared with vehicle controls, each of the drug treatments resulted in significant reduction of PMN influx 6 and 24 h after O3. However, total BAL protein content was not attenuated significantly by the three treatments at either 6 or 24 h postexposure. Results of these experiments suggest that the influx of PMNs and the change in total BAL protein are not mutually dependent events in this model and suggest that infiltrating PMNs do not play a major role in acute O3-induced changes in permeability of the murine lung.

  7. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  8. Infiltration on sloping surfaces: Laboratory experimental evidence and implications for infiltration modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Cifrodelli, Marco; Corradini, Corrado; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration on sloping surfaces occupies an important role in our understanding of surface and subsurface hydrology. Previous studies have provided conflicting results about the role of slope on infiltration. Here, our main objective is to highlight, by well-controlled experiments, the slope role in the absence of the conflicting contributions generated by other physical processes observed in previous studies under natural or laboratory conditions. The experimental program was designed to resolve some of the confounding factors such as lower impermeable boundary condition, range of rainfall rates relative to soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, surface sealing, and erosion of top soil. The experimental apparatus consists of a box containing a natural bare soil with slope angle γ chosen between 0° and 10°, two sensors of surface and deep flow, one probe for moisture content and an artificial rainfall generator. The primary experimental results suggest that under steady conditions and rainfall rate, r, greater than saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, the deep flow, Qd, decreases with increasing slope angle, γ, up to a value leading to Qd(γ = 1°)/Qd(γ = 10°) equal to ≈4 which is in contrast with the results provided in a few earlier papers. Furthermore, in sloping bare soils surface runoff is produced even for r < Ks. Finally, we discuss the link between Qd(γ) and the shear stress at the soil surface as a guideline in the determination of an effective saturated hydraulic conductivity to be incorporated in the existing horizontal infiltration models.

  9. Simulating Infiltration at the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test, INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Unger; Ardyth Simmons, Gudmundur Bodvarsson

    2001-05-31

    This work involved using ITOUGH2 to simulate the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test (LPIT) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in order to calibrate parameters controlling the infiltration of water in fractured basalt using a dual-permeability modeling approach. This supports the higher objective of building confidence in the use of the dual-permeability approach for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock systems. In particular, the objective of this work is to be able to understand transport of radionuclides at INEEL and subsequently at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A 3-D dual-permeability mesh representing the geological conditions at the LPIT was constructed as shown by the cross-section on Figure 1a. The geology consisted of surficial sediments, two separate basalt flows (A and B basalts) underlain by a low permeability sedimentary interbed (BC interbed), with a lower C basalt constituting the bottom of the model. Water was allowed to infiltrate from the pond and then pool on top of the sedimentary interbed. Water pressure and {sup 75}Se breakthroughs were simulated at four wells screened within the fractured basalt on top of the sedimentary interbed (B04N11, C04C11, B06N11, C06C11) along two radial angles and at two radial distances. Model results were calibrated to field data using ITOUGH2.

  10. Effect of spatial variability of soil properties on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, Marisa; Castro Franco, Mauricio; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José Luis

    2013-04-01

    Topography and soil properties are key determinants of spatial variability of water content. Prediction of soil hydraulic properties are essential for modeling water flow and solute transport. In the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, the effect of the relief on soil spatial variability is result of the relationship between elevation and effective depth (ED). Digital elevation models (DEM) provide quantitive information about relief. The objective was to determine the effect of spatial variability of soil properties on infiltration. The field was 50 ha and the soil classes were vertic Hapludoll, typic and petrocalcic Argiudoll. ED was measured using Gidding_Soil_Sampler® in 30x30m grid size. Elevation data were measured ussing a DGPS Trimble_R3®. From this, a DEM was generated. Two elevation and ED areas were delineated named High and Low zones. Three soil samples were taken at each zone with three replications at depth 0-30 and 30-90 cm. Texture, bulk density (δb) and organic matter (OM) were determined. A disc infiltrometer was used to determine the water infiltration rate (i). Clay content (As) and OM were homogeneous in the profile of the High zone. However, As content at 30-90 cm decreased in the Low zone. At the High zone, δb ranged from 1.31 to 1.34 g cm-3 and was higher than at the Low zone (δb=1.16 - 1.27 g cm-3). Also the i had less variation at the High zone. Under pressure head of -1 cm , the i increased in the Low zone. At lower pressure heads, the i was greater in the High zone. Higher i at the Low zone could be due to major ED, textural heterogeneity and higher OM content. Textural homogeneity, shallow ED and high δb allowed a more stable i at the High zone. Using topography and ED is a promising way of characterizing soil hydraulic behavior and its spatial variability across a field.

  11. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  12. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how

  13. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  14. Approximate furrow infiltration model for time-variable ponding depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is proposed for estimating furrow infiltration under time-variable ponding depth conditions. The methodology approximates the solution to the two-dimensional Richards equation, and is a modification of a procedure that was originally proposed for computing infiltration under constant ...

  15. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  16. MEASUREMENTS OF INFILTRATION RATES IN COMPACTED URBAN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research hs identified significant reductions in infiltration rates in disturbed urban soils, More than 150 prior tests were conducted in predominately sandy and clayey urban soils in the Birmingham and Mobile, AL areas. Infiltration in Clayey soils ws found to be affect...

  17. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  18. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  19. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  20. Infiltration model for center pivot irrigation on bare soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infil...

  1. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

  2. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  3. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b)...

  6. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  7. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  8. KEY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, L.; Oborin, A. V.; Dobrovosky, J.; Milevsky, V. S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Lapenas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Comparison of air kerma measurements between the PTB and the IAEA for x-radiation qualities used in general diagnostic radiology and mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, István; Büermann, Ludwig; Gomola, Igor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    A comparison of the air kerma standards for x-radiation qualities used in general diagnostic radiology and mammography, identified as EURAMET.RI(I)-S10 (EURAMET project #1221), was performed between the PTB and the IAEA. Two spherical and two parallel-plate reference-class ionization chambers of the IAEA and 12 beam qualities standardized in the IEC standard 61267:2005 plus 7 additional standard beam qualities established at both laboratories were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients were determined for the transfer chambers at the PTB in September 2012 and before and after this at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The results show the calibration coefficients of both laboratories to be in good agreement within the standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.47%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  11. Influence Of The Vibrational Dissociation Model On The Relaxation Of The Excited States Calculated With The CORIA's Collisional- Radiative Model CoRaM-Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butel, Arnaud; Annaloro, Julien; Schneider, Ioan F.; Benredgem, Djamel

    2011-08-01

    In relation with the problem of space vehicles re-entry into the earth atmosphere, we have developed a nonlinear electronic and vibrational specific time-dependent Collisional-Radiative (CR) model for air plasma working between 100 Pa and atmospheric pressure and between 2000 K and 20000 K for the translation temperatures. 13 species are considered: N2, O2, NO, N, O, Ar, N+2 , O+2 , NO+ , N+ , O+ , Ar+ and electrons. This model takes into account a total of 335 different states separated in excited electronic states and vibrational states of N2, O2 and NO on their electronic ground state. Owing to the temperature levels involved, many elementary processes are considered. The CR model is partially validated by comparison with experimental results under atmospheric pressure. Time scales to reach the final steady state are derived. Two models of dissociation are tested with respect to the vibration-translation transfers. The excitation and vibrational temperature results are analyzed in a typical Heaviside-like case at constant pressure and temperature.

  12. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m(2) of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions. PMID:21301889

  13. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  14. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  15. Displacement of nonwetting liquids from unsaturated sands by water infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, T.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1998-09-01

    Accidental spills of nonwetting or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) onto land can lead to ground water contamination. Once a spill has occurred, liquid infiltrates downward under the influence of gravity. As the infiltration continues, capillary forces retain a portion of the immiscible liquid within the pore spaces. After infiltration ceases, the liquid remaining within the pores is termed the residual liquid, which is frequently expressed as a percentage of the total pore volume. The quantity of residual liquid retained depends on soil and liquid properties. Xylene was spilled onto moist glass beads or various moist sands and water was trickled onto the columns every eight hours for periods up to 10 days. The xylene residual in the columns with water infiltration decreased compared to those of control columns, indicating a downward displacement of xylene. The extent of displacement increased with increasing size of the porous media and with increasing amounts of water infiltration.

  16. Infiltration kinetics of aluminum in silicon carbide compacts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Although metal-matrix composites have been fabricated by various techniques, the most successful are solid state processes such as powder metallurgy and diffusion bonding. Liquid-metal processes such as compucasting, pultrusion, and infiltration, while less successful, are potentially more economical. The advantages of producing silicon carbide-aluminum matrix composites by liquid-metal infiltration techniques can not be fully realized without an improved understanding of the infiltration behavior and the fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms. This paper reports on infiltration models which consider the physical properties of the liquid and preform (either porous compact or capillary/tube bundle). These properties include viscosity, density, surface tension, and wettability (pore shape and size in the case of the porous compact). The models have been assessed in terms of their ability to predict infiltration behavior from known physical properties of the materials.

  17. Observation of infiltration experiments with time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Günther, Thomas; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Grissemann, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of resistivity equipment enables the real time observation of infiltration processes through the vadose zone. In order to study the advantages and limitations of the method infiltration experiments are carried out for different soil types at various locations. All sites are subsequently excavated and investigated in detail. For an improved verification of the resistivity data the most recent experiment is conducted using a colour tracer. Two infiltration experiments are carried out in sandy soil. The location is Fuhrberg, close to Hannover, Germany. The area has been intensively studied for soil research purposes for more than 30 years. During both infiltration experiments water (110 l/80 l) is infiltrated for a period of 4.5 h and 8 h, respectively, and the infiltration process is observed by ERT. The resistivity measurements are conducted using a 3D-dipole-dipole configuration with electrode distances of 20 cm in the centre of the infiltration field. The whole resistivity array consists of 200 and 300 electrodes, respectively. The second experiment uses increased electrode spacing in the border area in order to enable the resolution of the deeper groundwater table (3.5 m during the second experiment compared to about 1.2 m for the first experiment). Immediately after completion of the resistivity measurements TDR and tensiometer measurements are carried out in 5-8 slices of the excavated infiltration area over a period of several days. The colour tracer used during the second experiment clearly outlines the infiltration plume with sharp outer limits. The ERT inversion depicts the shape of the plume successfully. Time lapse ERT interpretation reveals the development of the plume in time. The combination of ERT interpretation and TDR measurements enables the construction of the relationship between water content and resistivity as reconstructed by ERT using an Archie approach. By using this function water content changes can be

  18. Infiltration related miRNAs in bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peng; Xu, Feng; Cheng, Wen; Gao, Jianping; Zhang, Zhengyu; Ge, Jingping; Wei, Zhifeng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Youhuang

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate infiltration related microRNAs (miRNAs) in bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC). Twenty patients with BUC were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to infiltration or not: infiltrating BUC group (n=12) and non-infiltrating BUC group (n=8). Gene chip was used to detect infiltration related miRNAs in the BUC samples. In other recruited 17 patients with BUC who were divided into infiltrating BUC samples (n=14) and non-infiltrating BUC samples (n=3), and in 4 BUC cell lines (EJ, 5637, T24 and BIU-87), the expression of miRNAs was assayed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In infiltrating BUC group, as compared with non-infiltrating BUC group, there were 7 differentially expressed miRNAs: hsa-miR-29c, hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-378, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-200c and hsa-miR-141 were up-regulated, while hsa-miR-451 was down-regulated. In the BUC samples, the results of RT-PCR were consistent with those by the miRNA array. In the cancer cell lines, RT-PCR in T24 only revealed the similar expression pattern of miRNAs to that by the miRNA array. It is suggested that infiltration of BUC is related with different expression of miRNAs, which may provide a novel platform for further study on function and action mechanism of miRNAs. PMID:22886973

  19. Effect of Injection Pressure of Infiltration Anesthesia to the Jawbone.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone. Japanese white male rabbits were used as test animals. After inducing general anesthesia with oxygen and sevoflurane, cannulation to the femoral artery was performed and arterial pressure was continuously recorded. Subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was performed by injecting 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1/80,000 adrenaline, and injection pressure was monitored by a pressure transducer for 40 seconds. After specified time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), jawbone and blood samples were collected, and the concentration of lidocaine at each time interval was measured. The mean injection pressure was divided into 4 groups (100 ± 50 mm Hg, 200 ± 50 mm Hg, 300 ± 50 mm Hg, and 400 ± 50 mm Hg), and comparison statistical analysis between these 4 groups was performed. No significant change in blood pressure during infiltration anesthesia was observed in any of the 4 groups. Lidocaine concentration in the blood and jawbone were highest 10 minutes after the infiltration anesthesia in all 4 groups and decreased thereafter. Lidocaine concentration in the jawbone increased as injection pressure increased, while serum lidocaine concentration was significantly lower. This suggests that when injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia is low, infiltration of local anesthetic to the jawbone may

  20. Unstable infiltration fronts in porous media on laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Cindi; Neuweiler, Insa

    2014-05-01

    , while the inclusions act as a storage that is filled during the infiltration process. References: Chouke, R.L., van Meurs, P., and van der Poel, C., 1959. The instability of slow immiscible, viscous liquid-liquid displacements in permeable media, Trans. AIME. 216:188-194. Glass, R.J., Steenhuis, T.S., and Parlange J.-Y., 1989a. Mechanism for finger persistence in homogeneous, unsaturated, porous media: Theory and verification, Soil Sci. 148:60-70. Glass R.J., Parlange, J.-Y., and Steenhuis, T.S., 1991. Immiscible displacement in porous media: Stability analysis of three-dimensional, axisymmetric disturbances with application to gravity-driven wetting front instability, Water Resour. Res., 27, 1947-1956. Guarracino, L., 2007. Estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks from the van Genuchten shape parameter , Water Resour. Res., 43, W11502. Parlange, J.-Y. and Hill, D.E., 1976a. Theoretical analysis of wetting front instability in soils, Soil Sci. 122:236-239. Philip, J. 1975a. Stability analysis of infiltration, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39:1042-1049. Saffman, P.G. and Taylor, G., 1958. The penetration of a fluid into a porous medium or hele-shaw cell containing a more viscous liquid, Proc. R. Soc. London, 245:312-329. Wang Z., Feyen, J., Nielsen, D.R., and van Genuchten, M.T., 1997. Two-phase flow infiltration equations accounting for air entrapment effects, Water Resour. Res., 33:2759-2767. Wang, Z., Feyen, J., and Elrick, D.E., 1998c. Prediction of fingering in porous media, Water Resour. Res. 34(9):2183-2190. Wang Z., Wu, L., and Wu, Q.J., 2000. Water-entry value as an alternative indicator of soil water-repellency and wettability, Journal of Hydrology., 231-232, 76-83. White, I., Colombera, P.M., and Philip, J.R., 1976. Experimental studies of wetting front instability induced by sudden changes of pressure gradient, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 40:824-829.

  1. Model description of storage and infiltration functions of infiltration facilities for urban runoff analysis by a distributed model.

    PubMed

    Furumai, H; Jinadasa, H K P K; Murakami, M; Nakajima, F; Aryal, R K

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been simulation researches focusing on reduction of stormwater peak flow by introduced infiltration facilities, model simulation of dynamic runoff behavior is still limited for frequently occurring rainfall events with weak intensity. Therefore, dynamic simulation was carried out in two urban drainages with infiltration facilities incorporated with a distributed model using two methods for describing functions of infiltration facilities. A method adjusting effective rainfall model gave poor simulation of runoff behavior in light rainfalls. Another method considering dynamic change of storage capacity as well as infiltration rate gave satisfactory estimation of the runoff in both drainages. In addition, assumption of facility clogging improved the agreement between measured and simulated hydrographs in small and medium-sized rainfall. Therefore, the proposed method might be useful for quantifying the secondary effects of the infiltration facilities on groundwater recharge and urban non-point pollutant trapping as well as runoff reduction. PMID:16248180

  2. Nextel{trademark}/SiC composites fabricated using forced chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.L.; Lowden, R.A.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Schwarz, O.J.

    1993-06-01

    Oxide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated employing the forced-flow, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Composites using Nextel{sup TM} fibers of varying composition were prepared to investigate the effectiveness of each Nextel{sup TM} fiber as a reinforcement for the given matrix. A carbon interface coating was used for the baseline materials, however, alternate interlayers with improved oxidation resistance were also explored Room-temperature flexure strengths of as-fabricated composites and specimens heated in air at 1273 K were measured and compared to results for other SiC-matrix composites.

  3. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Pinzauti, Serena; Santulli, Pietro; Chapron, Charles; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. Ovarian endometrioma (OMA), superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are, till now, recognized as major phenotypes. The discussion is to know whether they share the same pathogenetic mechanisms. Till today, DIE is recognized as the most severe clinical form of endometriosis and has a complex clinical management. The DIE lesions have been considered in the present article, without distinguishing between the anterior (bladder) or the posterior (vagina, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, and ureter) compartment. The present knowledge indicates that hormonal function (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and immunological factors, such as peritoneal macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, are critically altered in DIE. The aggressive behavior of DIE may be explained by the highly decreased apoptosis (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kB], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Blc-2], and anti-Mullerian hormone) and by the increased proliferation activity related to oxidative stress (NF-kB, reactive oxygen species, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), advanced oxidation protein product). Invasive mechanisms are more expressed (matrix metalloproteinases and activins) in DIE in comparison to the OMA and SPE. Correlated with the increased invasiveness are the data on very high expression of neuroangiogenesis (nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule) genes in DIE. Therefore, at the present time, several of the DIE pathogenetic features result specific in comparison to other endometriosis phenotypes, pleading for the existence of a specific entity. These evidence of specific pathogenetic features of DIE may explain the more severe symptomatology related to this form of endometriosis and suggest

  4. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  5. The Green-Ampt limit with reference to infiltration coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.; Broadbridge, P.

    2012-07-01

    Recent progress with an analytic nonlinear model has provided the exact infiltration coefficients for realistic soil behaviors with nonsingular hydraulic functions, as well as their exact delta-function diffusivity limits. After some correction and reinterpretation of the approximate analytical method, the exactly solvable model validates some previously obtained approximate infiltration functions. The Green-Ampt infiltration function follows from a delta-function diffusivity limit with a hydraulic conductivity that may be, among other possibilities, a linear function of water content. Just as a linear conductivity function is an overestimate for a realistic soil, the second Philip infiltration coefficient S1 in the Green-Ampt infiltration function is too large due to conductivity being overestimated. Better agreement with experiment (halving the value of S1) is obtained from the analytic nonlinear model, with a limiting delta-function diffusivity and a matching Gardner exponential hydraulic conductivity function. In general, infiltration behavior is determined by the limiting forms of the diffusivity and conductivity relative to one another at the saturated water content, or alternatively, the relationship between the conductivity and soil moisture potential. A new infiltration model demonstrates the possible range of S1 for physically valid limiting conductivity functions. We show that in the delta-function diffusivity limit, the solution behaves as if the potential at the wet front were time dependent, decreasing in magnitude from an initial value at the traditional Green-Ampt level.

  6. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Zhdanov, M.S.; Watt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in and climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-07-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  8. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  9. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration.

    PubMed

    Kulongoski, Justin T; Izbicki, John A

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events. PMID:18194325

  10. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  11. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelle, Louis; Thomas, Jennie L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Roiger, Anke; Schlager, Hans; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry) simulations combined with high-resolution, real-time STEAM2 (Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model version 2) shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) aircraft campaign, which was conducted in the summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are derived for specific ships by combining in situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without STEAM2 ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15 km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and ozone (O3) production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (< 5 %) to the horizontal grid resolution (15 or 3 km), while surface PM10 particulate matter enhancements due to ships are moderately sensitive (15 %) to resolution. The 15 km resolution WRF-Chem simulations are used to estimate the regional impacts of shipping pollution in northern Norway. Our results indicate that ship emissions are an important source of pollution along the Norwegian coast, enhancing 15-day-averaged surface concentrations of NOx ( ˜ +80 %), SO2 ( ˜ +80 %), O3 ( ˜ +5 %), black carbon (

  12. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem simulations combined with high resolution, real-time STEAM2 shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS campaign, which was conducted in summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of NOx and SO2 are derived for specific ships from in-situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and O3 production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (< 5 %) to the horizontal grid resolution (15 or 3 km), while surface PM10 enhancements due to ships are moderately sensitive (15 %) to resolution. The 15 km resolution WRF-Chem simulations are used to estimate the local and regional impacts of shipping pollution in northern Norway. Our results indicate that ship emissions are an important local source of pollution, enhancing 15 day averaged surface concentrations of NOx (∼ +80 %), O3 (∼ +5 %), black carbon (∼ +40 %) and PM2.5 (∼ +10 %) along the Norwegian coast. Over the same period ship emissions in northern Norway have a shortwave (direct + semi-direct + indirect) radiative effect of -9.3 m W m-2 at the global scale.

  13. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  14. Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon nitride composites by slurry infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Grenet, C.; Plunkett, L.; Veyret, J.B.; Bullock, E.

    1995-12-01

    The present paper reports on the fabrication of long-carbon fibre reinforced silicon nitride matrix composites by liquid infiltration of an aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry followed by hot-pressing. A methodology for the maximum volume and uniform infiltration of preforms has been developed by optimising slurry rheology and fibre wetting conditions. Fully infiltrated green forms of 55% theoretical density are achieved with some 40% volume fraction of fibres. The quality of the composites has been assessed by microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization.

  15. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Qin, Yi; Campbell, Susan; Gras, John L.; Parry, David

    This two-part series investigates the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol (or particulate matter) across the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. In Part I, Meyer et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.089.] used a fuel load distribution coupled with a satellite-derived imagery of fire scars and hotspots and the diurnal variation of a fire danger index to estimate hourly emission rates of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5) for the dry season April-November 2004 at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. In the present paper, these emission rates are used in TAPM, a three-dimensional meteorological and air pollution model, and the modelled PM 2.5 concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared with satellite and ground-based measurements. This exercise also seeks to fine-tune and validate the emission calculation methodology, a process through which it is found that cases with hotspots without any corresponding fire scars (e.g. in mountainous terrain), which were initially ignored, need to be included to improve the accuracy of model predictions. Overall, the model is able to describe the measurements satisfactorily, considering the issues associated with the model resolution, emission uncertainty, and modelled meteorology. The model hindcasts numerous exceedences of the advisory maximum PM 2.5 exposure limit across the study region, with large areas in excess of 30 exceedences during the study period. Estimated mean top of atmosphere direct radiative forcing due to aerosol shows a seasonal mean of -1.8 W m -2 with a region of strong enhancement over the western portion of the Top End.

  16. Contact damage resistance and strength degradation of glass-infiltrated alumina and spinel ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y G; Peterson, I M; Pajares, A; Lawn, B R

    1999-03-01

    All-ceramic crowns are coming into widespread use because of their superior esthetics and chemical inertness. This study examines the hypothesis that glass-infiltrated alumina and spinel core ceramics are resistant to damage accumulation and strength degradation under representative oral contact conditions. Accordingly, Hertzian indentation testing with hard spheres is used to evaluate damage accumulation in alumina and spinel ceramics with different pre-form grain morphologies and porosities. Indentation stress-strain curves measured on fully infiltrated materials reveal a marked insensitivity to the starting pre-form state. The glass phase is shown to play a vital role in providing mechanical rigidity and strength to the ceramic structures. All the infiltrated ceramics show subsurface cone fracture and quasi-plastic deformation above critical loads P(C) (cracking) and P(Y) (yield), depending on sphere radius, with P(Y) < P(C). Strength degradation from accumulation of damage in Hertzian contacts above these critical loads is conspicuously small, suggesting that the infiltrated materials should be highly damage-tolerant to the "blunt" contacts encountered during mastication. Failure in the strength tests originates from either cone cracks ("brittle mode") or yield zones ("quasi-plastic mode"), with the brittle mode more dominant in the spinels and the quasi-plastic mode more dominant in the aluminas. Multi-cycle contacts at lower loads, but still above loads typical of oral function, are found to be innocuous up to 10(5) cycles in air and water, although contacts at 10(6) cycles in water do cause significant strength degradation. By contrast, contacts with Vickers indenters produce substantial strength losses at low loads, suggesting that the mechanical integrity of these materials may be compromised by inadvertent "sharp" contacts. PMID:10096457

  17. The energy impact of air leakage through insulated walls

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Infiltration is customarily assumed to increase the heating and cooling load of a building by an amount equal to the mass flow rate of the infiltration times the enthalpy difference between the inside and outside air--with the latent portion of the enthalpy difference sometimes neglected. An experimental and analytical investigation has been conducted on the actual energy impact of air leakage on a well-characterized insulated stud-cavity wall specimen. Calorimetric measurements conducted on the specimen with measured amounts of air leakage introduced under a variety of controlled conditions and configurations verify earlier test cell measurements showing that infiltration heat exchange can lead to a much smaller change in the energy load due to infiltration than is customarily calculated and show the dependence of infiltration heat exchange on flow rate and path length. A analytical model based on fundamental heat and mass transfer principles has been developed and the predicted values of Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness, {var_epsilon}, as a function of air flow rates and effective path length for five study-cavity wall specimen test configurations were consistent with the experimental results. Significant experimental results include: (i) {epsilon} values in the 0.16--0.7 range in the stud-cavity and (ii) {epsilon} values of 0.16 to 0.34 for air exiting the stud-cavity directly across from the entry. These results indicate that significant heat recovery is probable for most leakage occurring through insulated stud cavities.

  18. Conservation therapy for breast cancers other than infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J M; Jacquemier, J; Torhorst, J; Spitalier, J M; Amalric, R; Hünig, R; Walther, E; Harder, F; Almendral, A; Brandone, H

    1989-04-15

    Pathologic review of 861 Stage I and II breast cancers yielded 152 patients (18%) with histologic types other than invasive ductal carcinoma. All patients had been treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy, including supplemental radiation to the tumor bed. For 67 patients with predominantly lobular carcinomas, the actuarial overall 5-year survival was 100% and 77% for node-negative and node-positive patients, respectively. The actuarial probability of recurrence in the treated breast (13.5% at 5 years) appeared to be somewhat greater than that observed after treatment of invasive ductal cancers (8.8% at 5 years, P = 0.11). Of 12 mammary recurrences in patients with lobular carcinoma, four occurred at a considerable distance from the original primary and seven were multifocal, involving more than one quadrant in five patients. Of 47 patients with strictly in situ carcinomas, one patient whose axillary nodal status had not been determined subsequently developed distant metastases. Three additional patients developed mammary recurrence, two at the primary tumor site and one in another quadrant. The actuarial 5-year mammary recurrence and overall survival rates were 4% and 98%, respectively. For 27 patients with true medullary cancers, overall survival at 5 years was 90%. One localized mammary recurrence was observed at the site of the original primary. Actuarial mammary recurrence rate was 4% at 5 years. No relapse was observed in ten patients with colloid and one patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. The authors conclude that, in addition to its well-established efficacy in the treatment of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the combination of tumor excision and radiotherapy appears to provide adequate local control for other histologic types as well. However, patients with lobular cancer appear to be at somewhat greater risk of mammary failure, and recurrences in such patients tend to be multifocal and multicentric. PMID:2538219

  19. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  20. Reaction Infiltration Instabilities in Partially Molten Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pec, M.; Holtzman, B. K.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tabular dunites in ophiolites are thought to form high-permeability, melt channels due to a positive feedback between melt flow and melt-solid reaction in the upper mantle. Reaction-infiltration instability (RII) theory predicts whether or not channels emerge from background flow. To test the applicability of RII theory to mantle rocks, we sandwiched a partially molten rock between a melt reservoir and a porous sink. Hot-pressed 50:50 mixtures of olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) with either 4, 10 or 20 vol% alkali basalt formed ~4 mm long cylinders of partially molten rock. Source and sink are disks of alkali basalt and porous alumina. We annealed the melt-rock-sink triplets for up to 5 h at a confining pressure of Pc=300 MPa with effective pressure Pe=0 to 299.9 MPa at T=1200° or 1250°C. The melt fraction in the partially molten rock influences the permeability, which, together with the applied pressure gradient, controls the melt migration velocity. The temperature influences the reaction rate. Melt velocity and reaction rate are fundamental parameters in RII theory. In experiments, two distinct features form due to melt migration, 1) a planar reaction layer (RL) and 2) finger-shaped channels. Both the RL and the channels contain Ol+melt with no Cpx, indicating that the reaction melt1+Cpx→melt2+Ol occurs. The channels develop only if the melt velocity is >5µm/s. Once a channel reaches the porous sink, a large increase in the effective permeability is detected. The morphology and spacing of the channels depends on the initial melt fraction. With 20 vol% melt, multiple, voluminous channels with a spacing of 1.8±0.5 mm develop. At lower melt contents, fewer, thinner channels with a spacing of ~3 mm develop. The channel spacing predicted by theory is about a factor 2-4 smaller than observed. Our results indicate that RII theory provides a solid framework for investigating melt migration in experiments and potentially a basis for extrapolation to mantle

  1. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  2. Epistemic Uncertainty in Evaluation of Evapotranspiration and Net Infiltration Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.

    2006-12-01

    Uncertainty is typically defined as a potential deficiency in the modeling of a physical process, owing to a lack of knowledge. Uncertainty can be categorized as aleatoric (inherent uncertainty caused by the intrinsic randomness of the system) or epistemic (uncertainty caused by using various model simplifications and their parameters). One of the main reasons for model simplifications is a limited amount of meteorological data. This paper is devoted to the epistemic uncertainty quantification involved in two components of the hydrologic balance—evapotranspiration and net infiltration for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates at Yucca Mountain, using the data from analogue meteorological stations. In particular, the author analyzes semi-empirical models used for evaluating (1) reference-surface potential evapotranspiration, including temperature-based models (Hargreaves-Samani, Thornthwaite, Hamon, Jensen- Haise, and Turc) and radiation-based models (Priestly-Taylor and Penman), and (2) surface-dependent potential evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models). Evapotranspiration predictions are then used as inputs for the evaluation of net infiltration using the semi-empirical models of Budyko, Fu, Milly, Turc-Pike, and Zhang. Results show that net infiltration ranges are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The propagation of uncertainties through model predictions for different climates is characterized using statistical measures. Predicted evapotranspiration ranges are reasonably corroborated against the data from Class A pan evaporometers (taking into account evaporation-pan adjustment coefficients), and ranges of net infiltration predictions are corroborated against the geochemical and temperature-based estimates of groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the

  3. Epistemic Uncertainty in Evalustion of Evapotranspiration and Net Infiltration Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-01

    Uncertainty is typically defined as a potential deficiency in the modeling of a physical process, owing to a lack of knowledge. Uncertainty can be categorized as aleatoric (inherent uncertainty caused by the intrinsic randomness of the system) or epistemic (uncertainty caused by using various model simplifications and their parameters). One of the main reasons for model simplifications is a limited amount of meteorological data. This paper is devoted to the epistemic uncertainty quantification involved in two components of the hydrologic balance-evapotranspiration and net infiltration for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates at Yucca Mountain, using the data from analogue meteorological stations. In particular, the author analyzes semi-empirical models used for evaluating (1) reference-surface potential evapotranspiration, including temperature-based models (Hargreaves-Samani, Thornthwaite, Hamon, Jensen-Haise, and Turc) and radiation-based models (Priestly-Taylor and Penman), and (2) surface-dependent potential evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models). Evapotranspiration predictions are then used as inputs for the evaluation of net infiltration using the semi-empirical models of Budyko, Fu, Milly, Turc-Pike, and Zhang. Results show that net infiltration ranges are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The propagation of uncertainties through model predictions for different climates is characterized using statistical measures. Predicted evapotranspiration ranges are reasonably corroborated against the data from Class A pan evaporometers (taking into account evaporation-pan adjustment coefficients), and ranges of net infiltration predictions are corroborated against the geochemical and temperature-based estimates of groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated

  4. 10. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: MISCELLANEOUS METAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: MISCELLANEOUS METAL DETAILS. Sheet A-22, November, 1940. File no. SA 342/31. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. Safety of CT-Guided Lumbar Nerve Root Infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Summary Selective nerve root infiltrations are frequently performed in patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Computed tomography (CT) is now commonly used for image guidance. Despite the widespread use of CT-guided lumbar nerve root infiltrations few studies have systematically examined the safety of this approach. In a two-year period, 231 lumbar nerve root infiltrations were performed on in-patients and were retrospectively reviewed. No major complications like inflammation (especially spondylodiscitis), large haematomas requiring surgery, severe allergic reactions or spinal ischaemia occurred. In accordance with other published studies, CT-guided lumbar nerve root infiltrations seem to be safe. To minimize the risk of catastrophic neurological complications due to spinal ischaemia, careful needle placement dorsal to the nerve root and the use of a non-particulate corticosteroid, like dexamethasone, are advocated. PMID:25363255

  6. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  7. Spatial Variability and Scaling of Infiltration on Undulating Agricultural Terrain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focuses on surface water infiltration and soil physical properties affecting spatial soil water, nutrient, and plant estimation along with uncertainty and scaling associated with spatial variability. The field site in northeastern Colorado, USA comprises undulating agricultural te...

  8. Wetting and infiltration of graphite materials by molten silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.G.; Hausner, H.

    1995-02-01

    Wetting-assisted infiltration without the application of external pressure has advantages for the production of complex shaped metal-ceramic composites to near net shape with very low residual porosity. A class of fibrous Si/SiC composites was formed by infiltrating molten silicon into densely packed carbon fibers in preformed shapes. The liquid silicon/solid carbon system may be considered to be a model for reactive wetting and infiltration which is accompanied by the heterogeneous chemical reaction between silicon and carbon to form a solid SiC product layer at the silicon/carbon interface. The wetting behavior of various carbon materials by molten silicon has been extensively investigated recently with the sessile drop method. Some results of this investigation will be reported in the present paper. Attention will be paid to the surface roughness of the substrates on the wetting behavior. The eventual infiltration of silicon into the graphites will be discussed with relation to the wetting.

  9. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  10. Modeling Water Infiltration in Soil Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Albalasmeh, Ammar; Alghzawi, Ma'in

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration of soils irrigated with treated wastewater (TWW) was modeled using Philip, Horton, Kostiakov, and modified Kostiakov. Treatments were: soil irrigated with TWW for 5 years, 2 years, and a control site. Cumulative (Ft), rate of infiltration (ft), and hydraulic conductivity (HC) were measured in the field and aggregate stability (AS) in the lab. Both HC and ft were decreased with and AS was increased with TWW use and period of application. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) were used to measure the goodness of fit and linearity of the relationship between models and measured data. Philip model was best to fit infiltration compared to other models. High AS values in treated areas compared to control area indicated that infiltration was more affected by pore clogging than soil dispersion and swelling,

  11. Water-depth dependent infiltration into burnt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Sheridan, Gary; Noske, Phil; Metzen, Daniel; Lane, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration into severely burnt forest soils in South Eastern Australia exhibits a behaviour that is at odds with traditional infiltration theories that assumes a coherent soil matrix, which has important implications for upscaling from plot to hillslope. Infiltration patterns were studied at three severely burnt sites with different soils by applying a blue dye solution during rainfall and runon experiments, and subsequent profile excavation. Rainfall and runon rates were varied on each plot, runoff measured, and orthogonal photos taken during quasi-steady states. From transects on these photos average inundation fractions of the surface were measured, and 1.5 mm horizontal resolution DEMs were generated with image-based software. This information was combined in a DEM inundation algorithm that calculated water depth maps for each plot and rainfall and runon rate. At all three sites, nearly 100% of infiltration occurred through macropores that bypass the matrix of a water repellent layer. Average fractions of subsoil dye staining were 3% in shallow soils with a northerly aspect and low trees, 60% in deep soils with southerly aspects and high trees, and 20% in an intermediate soil. This was consistent with runoff coefficients of 0.94 for the shallow soil, 0.08 for the deep soil, and 0.71 for the intermediate soil. Irrespective of the runoff coefficient or dyed fraction there was a positive relationship between average water depth and infiltration rates on a given plot. Functions of water depth vs. bypass infiltration were derived inversely for each plot by matching average infiltration rates with the rates derived from sampling the water depth distributions. Additionally, characteristic bypass infiltration rates for all sites as function of runon and rainfall intensity were derived, normalized by the maximum infiltration rate at full inundation. These infiltration functions represent the water depth-dependent dynamics of runoff generation in bypass infiltration

  12. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  13. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  14. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  15. Intraocular involvement with subretinal pigment epithelium infiltrates by mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Erny, B. C.; Egbert, P. R.; Peat, I. M.; Shorrock, K.; Rosenthal, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular mycosis fungoides in a 48-year-old man. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, white subretinal lesions, and vitritis. Post-mortem histopathology revealed malignant T cell infiltrates consistent with mycosis fungoides in the retina, vitreous, and between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane Focal atrophy of the RPE, along with the sub-RPE infiltrates, correlated with the clinically visible fundus lesions. Images PMID:1751471

  16. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  17. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  18. Focal fatty infiltration of the liver mimicking metastatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Y.

    1990-01-01

    We report the mistaken diagnosis of metastatic liver disease by ultrasonography in a patient with congestive heart failure and focal fatty infiltration of the liver. Multiple echogenic space-occupying lesions in the liver can be caused by benign conditions as well as tumour deposits and in a debilitated patient the possibility of focal fatty infiltration should always be considered. Images Figure 1 PMID:2201014

  19. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control. PMID:26216710

  20. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  1. Modelling of percolation rate of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration rate of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical model describing changes in the infiltration rate variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for modelling were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the model developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils. PMID:24292460

  2. Partitioning of Infiltration into Macropore and Soil-Matrix Flow: Predictive Model Based on Mesoscale Heterogeneity of Infiltrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A condition that initiates macropore flow at the land surface is the application of water faster than it can infiltrate into the soil matrix material. Sometimes this is taken to require ponding, but accumulated evidence shows preferential flow to be commonplace when wetness is less than saturation and when macropores are not completely filled. Examples include water flowing into shrinkage cracks or funneled into macropores by hydrophobic surface material. A more inclusive criterion is that macropore flow is generated when the water application rate exceeds the infiltrability of a small area associated with a macropore. A new model based on this criterion considers the representative elementary area (REA), as would be appropriate for measurement of field-scale infiltrability, to be divided into a mosaic of functional sub-areas (FSA). A single value of matrix infiltrability characterizes each FSA. The REA as a mosaic of FSAs is hydraulically represented by a characteristic distribution of infiltrabilities. During rainfall or irrigation, each FSA absorbs water into its soil matrix material up to the rate of its matrix infiltrability. Water applied in excess of this infiltrability is assumed to flow into a macropore within or adjacent to the FSA, becoming preferential flow. Especially if crusted or hydrophobic, an FSA can generate preferential flow even during low-intensity rainfall when other FSAs are absorbing all incident water into the matrix. The total flux of preferential flow at given depth is the sum of contributions from all FSAs. In this way the characteristic distribution of FSA infiltrabilities controls the field-scale partitioning of matrix and macropore flow as an emergent phenomenon. Illustrative case studies use field-measured data concerning water application rate and preferential flux. Results show this model can quantitatively represent observations of preferential flow occurring in relatively dry soils or at modest rainfall intensities.

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Hyperspectral air-to-air seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Nahum; Barhen, Jacob; Gulati, Sandeep; Steiner, Todd D.

    1994-07-01

    Synthetic hyperspectral signatures representing an airborne target engine radiation, a decoy flare, and the engine plume radiation are used to demonstrate computational techniques for the discrimination between such objects. Excellent discrimination is achieved for a `single look' at SNR of -10 dB. Since the atmospheric transmittance perturbs the signature of all objects in an identical fashion, the transmittance is equivalent to a modulation of the target radiance (in the spectral domain). The proper spectral signal decomposition may, therefore, recover the original unperturbed signature accurately enough to allow discrimination. The algorithms described here, and in two accompanying papers, have been tested over the spectral range that includes the VNIR and MWIR and are most appropriate for an intelligent, autonomous, air-to-air or surface-to-air guided munitions. With additional enhancements, the techniques apply to ground targets and other dual-use applications.

  6. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  7. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  8. Time-Averaged Indoor Radon Concentrations and Infiltration RatesSampled in Four U.S. Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, S.M.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.

    1983-09-01

    Indoor radon concentrations, measured in 58 houses over a four to five month period during the winter and spring of 1981-1982, varied from 0.1 to 16 pCi 1{sup -1} (4-590 Bq m{sup -3}). Average infiltration rates were determined for each house over the same period, based on a measurement of the effective leakage area and an infiltration model, and found to range from 0.2 to 2.2 air changes per hour (hr{sup -1}). Indoor radon concentrations correlated poorly with infiltration rates for houses within each city as well as for the entire sample. Differences in radon entry rates among houses thus appear to be more important than differences in infiltration rates in determining whether a house has high indoor radon levels, consistent with previous indications from grab-sample measurements. Radon entry rates and indoor radon concentrations were generally higher in houses in Fargo, ND and Colorado Springs, CO than in houses in Portland, ME and Charleston, NC.

  9. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. Th...

  10. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  12. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  13. Lymphocyte infiltration and increased macrophage phagocytosis in the lungs of HNO sub 3 -exposed humans

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, S.; Roger, L.J.; Devlin, R.B.; Koren, H.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Nitric acid is a common air pollutant possibly associated with airway inflammation. Therefore the authors have exposed healthy, non-smoking volunteers, 18-35 yr of age, once to HNO{sub 3} and once to filtered air for 2 hr with 100 min of moderate exercise. Eighteen hr after exposure bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the cells and fluid were analyzed for indicators of inflammation. Compared to air, the number of lymphocytes in lavage fluid was increased after HNO{sub 3}; macrophage and PMN counts were unchanged. In a phagocytosis assay, the number of macrophages ingesting unopsinized C. albicans increased from 12% (air to 33%) (HNO{sub 3}); the number ingesting opsonized yeast increased from 58% to 78%. Lavage fluid protein concentration was increased. These preliminary data suggest that HNO{sub 3} exposure results in permeability changes accompanied by lymphocyte infiltration and stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis in the lower airways. The lack of LDH and PMN increases in the lavage, under the conditions tested, suggests that this pollutant does not cause tissue damage in the airways as previously reported with O{sub 3}.

  14. Strong coupling of exciton and photon modes in photonic crystal infiltrated with organic-inorganic layered perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumioka, Kazuhiro; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2001-03-01

    Large vacuum Rabi-splitting, the evidence of strong coupling of photon and exciton modes, was observed at room temperature in an ordered array of silica microspheres infiltrated with organic-inorganic layered perovskite. By natural sedimentation of a colloidal suspension of monodispersed silica microspheres with a diameter of 256 nm, three-dimensional ordered array of silica microspheres (silica opal) were prepared. Into an air space of the silica opal, organic-inorganic perovskite, bis-(phenethylammonium) tetraiodoplumbate (PAPI), which exhibits intense exciton absorption at 2.40 eV, was infiltrated. The silica opal infiltrated with PAPI (23% of air space was filled) exhibited a stop band at 2.13 eV, when observed at a normal direction to the sample surface. By changing the observation angle, the coupling of the stop band at around 2.1-2.4 eV and the exciton band at 2.40 eV due to PAPI was attained. From angle-tuning measurements of reflection spectra, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of 240 meV was evaluated.

  15. Enhancement of T cell recruitment and infiltration into tumours

    PubMed Central

    Oelkrug, C; Ramage, J M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have documented that cancer patients with tumours which are highly infiltrated with cytotoxic T lymphocytes show enhanced survival rates. The ultimate goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit high-avidity tumour-specific T cells to migrate and kill malignant tumours. Novel antibody therapies such as ipilumimab (a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 blocking antibody) show enhanced T cell infiltration into the tumour tissue and increased survival. More conventional therapies such as chemotherapy or anti-angiogenic therapy and recent therapies with oncolytic viruses have been shown to alter the tumour microenvironment and thereby lead to enhanced T cell infiltration. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the migration of high-avidity tumour-specific T cells into tumours will support and provide solutions for the optimization of therapeutic options in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24828133

  16. Mathematical physics of infiltration on flat and sloping topography

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    We review the modern mathematical-physical analysis of water movement in unsaturated soils, which is central to understanding of the terrestrial segment of the hydrologic cycle. The relevant flow equation is a strongly nonlinear Fokker-Planck (convection-diffusion) equation. The theory of infiltration (the penetration into a soil mass of water made available at its surface) is described. Solutions are developed for hillslope topographies. We deal primarily with ponded infiltration, but constant-rainfall infiltration is discussed also. The emphasis is on quasi-analytic and analytic solutions. Fully nonlinear solutions are developed, together with linearized solutions of certain problems. The nonlinear solutions involve either usefully convergent series or traveling waves. The linearizations use product solutions.

  17. Diffuse Infiltrative Gastrointestinal Lipomatosis in a Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Beninson, Jennifer A; Keller, Jill M; Hoenerhoff, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    An intact adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) went into cardiopulmonary arrest during a surgical procedure, and efforts at resuscitation were unsuccessful. Gross examination revealed a gastric rupture along the greater curvature of the stomach, which was associated with free blood and ingesta in the abdominal cavity, and a 2-cm nodular, partially circumferential, soft-to-firm mass within the pyloric region. Histologically, the pyloric mass was composed of sheets of infiltrative adipocytes expanding the muscular wall. Similar infiltrative sheets of adipocytes were present adjacent to the rupture site and within the small intestine, cecum, and colon. These findings are consistent with diffuse infiltrative lipomatosis, an exceedingly rare condition in human and veterinary species. This report is the first description of this rare disease in guinea pigs, and the concurrent involvement of both the stomach and intestines has not been reported in any veterinary species. PMID:26473346

  18. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  19. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  20. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  1. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  2. The diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS). A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Martis, Nihal; Boyer, Julien; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Mekinian, Arsène; Coppo, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is a rare multisystemic syndrome described in HIV-infected patients. It is characterised by CD8(+) T-cell lymphocytosis associated with a CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of multiple organs. DILS is usually seen in uncontrolled or untreated HIV infection but can also manifest itself independently of CD4(+) T-cell counts. The syndrome may present as a Sjögren-like disease that generally associates sicca signs with bilateral parotiditis, lymphadenopathy, and extraglandular organ involvement. The latter may affect the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and digestive tract. Anomalies of the respiratory system are often identified as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Facial nerve palsy, aseptic meningitis or polyneuropathy are among the more frequent neurological features. Hepatic lymphocytic infiltration, lymphocytic interstitial nephropathy and digestive tract lymphocytic infiltration account for more rarely noted complications. Sicca syndrome, organomegaly and/or organ dysfunction associated with polyclonal CD8(+) T-cell organ-infiltration are greatly suggestive of DILS in people living with HIV. Labial salivary gland biopsy is therefore helpful when the focus score is equal or greater than 1 (or Chisholm Score ≥ 3). Primary Sjögren syndrome, chronic HCV or HTLV1 infection, graft versus host disease, IgG4-related disease, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are among the differential diagnoses that need to be considered. Treatment consists in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which is usually effective in resolving clinical signs and symptoms. Steroids, however, may also be occasionally required when organ infiltration does not respond to HAART. This review should provide an insight into this rare entity complicating the course of HIV infection. PMID:25660200

  3. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  4. Changes of pore systems and infiltration analysis in two degraded soils after rock fragment addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Basile, Angelo; Mele, Giacomo; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Many soils in arid and semi-arid environments contain high amounts of rock fragments as a result of both natural soil forming processes and human activities. The amount, dimension and shape of rock fragment strongly influence soil structure development and therefore many soil processes (e.g. infiltration, water storage, solute transport, etc.). The aim of this work was to test the effects on both infiltration process and soil pore formation following an addition of rock fragments. The test was performed on two different soils: a clayey soil (Alfisol) and a clay loamy soil (Entisol) showing both a natural compact structure and water stagnation problems in field. Three concentrations of 4-8mm rock fragments (15%, 25% and 35%) were added to air-dried soils and the repacked samples have been subject to nine wet/dry cycles in order to induce soil structure formation and its stabilization. The process of infiltration was monitored at -12 cm of pressure heads imposed at the soil surface and kept constant for a certain time by a tension infiltrometer. Moreover, k(h) was determined imposing -9, -6,-3 and -1 cm at soil surface and applying a steady-state solution. After the hydrological measurements the soil samples were resin-impregnated and images of vertical sections of the samples, acquired at 20µm resolution, were analyzed in order to quantify the pore size distribution. This latter was calculated using the "successive opening" approach. The Entisol samples showed similar infiltration curves I(t) among the 4 treatments, with higher percentage of stones (i.e. 25 and 35%) showing a faster rising in the early-time (< 2 min) infiltration; the Alfisol samples are spread, showing a higher variability: limiting the analysis to the first three, despite they show a similar shape, the higher the stones content the lower the cumulated infiltration. The behavior of the 35% sample diverges from the others: it shows a fast rising step at the very early time (< 2 min) followed by a

  5. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  6. Local infiltrative anesthesia for transaxillary subpectoral breast implants.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1995-01-01

    Breast augmentations using a transaxillary subpectoral approach are usually performed under general anesthesia. This article describes a technique that uses local infiltrative anesthesia in breast augmentation, adenomastectomies with immediate breast reconstruction, and when placing breast expansors. Large anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictor and long-acting effects are prepared. The axila, the subpectoral space, and a surrounding area of 3 cm outside the demarcation limits are infiltrated. Minimal bleeding, long-lasting effects, and a considerable postoperative analgesic effect are some of the advantages of this procedure. PMID:7900554

  7. Regulatory T cells actively infiltrate metastatic brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Adam Quasar; Rolle, Cleo E; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2009-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+, Treg) have been shown to play a major role in suppression of the immune response to malignant gliomas. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of Treg infiltration in metastatic brain tumor models, including melanoma, breast and colon cancers. Our data indicate that both CD4+ and Treg infiltration are significantly increased throughout the time of metastatic tumor progression. These findings were recapitulated in human CNS tumor samples of metastatic melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Collectively, these data support investigating immunotherapeutic strategies targeting Treg in metastatic CNS tumors. PMID:19424570

  8. Infiltrative pattern of carcinomatosis in extremity muscles on MRI.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Fatima; Hwang, Sinchun; Landa, Jonathan; Lefkowitz, Robert A; Panicek, David M

    2016-01-01

    Carcinomas can cause an unusual, infiltrative pattern of metastatic carcinoma in extremity muscles on MRI. To assess this pattern, reports of MRI exams of 907 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively to identify those that mentioned muscle metastasis or myositis in an extremity. Thirty-six (4%) of those reports described muscle metastasis (n=18) or myositis (n=18); based on medical record review and imaging follow-up, 17 cases represented metastases. Metastases manifested as an infiltrative carcinomatosis pattern in five patients, resulted from primary esophageal or gastric adenocarcinomas, and often were misdiagnosed as myositis. PMID:27133685

  9. An experiment of rainfall infiltration under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shuang; Tong, Fuguo; Xue, Song

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall infiltration is a two-phase flow of water and gas, which should be simulated through solving the nonlinear governing equations of gas and water flow. In order to avoid the three main problems, such as convergence, numerical stability and computational efficiency in the solution of the nonlinear governing equations, Richard equation was usually used to simulate rainfall infiltration when the effect of gas phase could be ignored. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of boundary condition on rainfall infiltration, and to know in which cases Richard equation is available for the simulation of rainfall infiltration. The sample of soil has a height of 1200 mm. It is tightly enclosed in a toughened glass sleeve. The gas pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure on the top surface of the model. The gas tight of its bottom can be controlled by a tap to simulate two different gas boundary conditions, permeable boundary and impermeable boundary. When the bottom of the model is not gas tight, the water infiltration rate is entirely bigger than gas tight. There is a big difference over the long time of rainfall that infiltration rate tends to be stable to 0.05cm/min when permeable but it is only 0.002cm/min when impermeable. The dramatic contrast reflects that gas paly a hindered part during rainfall infiltration. In addition, the gas pressure is obviously lower when the model is not gas tight. Although the pore gas pressure rise a little bit when water block gas, it is still same with atmospheric pressure all time. The situation is different when gas tight, the pore gas pressure increases sharply in the early stage and stable to a higher value, such as 10cm gas pressure on 67cm depth. Therefore, people basically negate the correlation between gas pressure and rainfall infiltration rate, but the evidence points out that the effect of gas pressure is in a significant position and Richard equations are not accurate under gas impermeable condition.

  10. Intracystic papillary breast carcinoma with areas of infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Martín Gutiérrez, Silvia; Nieto Gallo, María Antonia; Noguero Meseguera, Rosario; Rodríguez Prieto, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast associated with areas of infiltration is rare in that it constitutes less than 1% of breast cancers. After initial radiological study, these tumors show lesions with little likelihood of malignancy in a high proportion of cases. Two cases of intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with infiltration were diagnosed at the Breast Unit of Hospital Infanta Cristina. In both cases, the reason for consultation arose after palpation of a nodule and the initial radiographic analyses showed lesions with little likelihood of malignancy. PMID:24893058

  11. The Significance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytology in Diagnosing Lung Infiltrates in Children

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Amina; Mujicic, Ermina; Milisic, Selma; Pejicic, Tanja; Rancic, Milan; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Lukic-Bilela, Lada; Moro, Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to show why is it important in diagnosing children with lung infiltrates. Methods: Our study included 50 children with lung infiltrates during period 2005-2012, and was conducted on Pediatric Clinic of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. We sent all cytological BAL analyses to the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. Cytology was performed by direct microscopy. BAL cytology was performed by the principle of sending samples for centrifuging, 12000 revolutions during a 10 min Shandon-cyto spin. Then the centrifuged sample is dried in the air during 1-2 hours, and is then dyed under the May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and analyzed under the Olympus BX41 microscope. Results: Nosocomial pneumonia has occurred in 32% children, acquired pneumonia in 38%, and 30% children had a lung infiltrates. 6 (12%) of children were younger then 1 year old, 23 (46%) children were between 1 to 5 years, 14 (28%) of children were between 5 to 10 ages, and 7 (14%) of children were between 10-15 ages. The most of the changes in observed children took place on the right lung, 34%, while 26% occurred on the left side, 22% were normal and 18% changes have affected both lungs, right and left. Percentage of cells in cytological smear in children with BAL were: cylindrical cells 28%, lung macrophage 26%, lymphocytes 17%, detritus 17% and phlegm 12%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in children with BAL was up to 10-52%, to 50-30%, while ESR after first hour was above 50-18 %. Conclusion: Clinical parameters and local inflammation of the affected lobe are associated with positive bronchoalveolar cytology lavage findings. PMID:26980927

  12. Radial water infiltration advance evaporation processes during irrigation using point source emitters in rigid and swelling soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ninghu

    2007-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we investigate the dynamic water balance of radial flows during irrigation using point source emitters. The components of radial flows of this kind include infiltration simultaneously coupled to the storage and advance on the soil surface, and evaporation into the air while the source continuously supplies water. The soils we consider here can be rigid or swelling. Because the infiltration equations reported for both rigid and swelling soils have an identical mathematical structure, the analysis for rigid soils using Philip's two-term infiltration equation applies to both swelling and rigid soils. As such, we emphasise that our analysis is applicable to both rigid and swelling soils. We first extend the radial Lewis-Milne equation (RLME) given by Rasmussen to analyse the radial flow mechanics by incorporating evaporation as a key component in the radial dynamic water balance. Then we present a set of four solutions of the RLME using Philip's two-parameter infiltration equation and two-term and three-term equations for cumulative evaporation. With the two-term cumulative evaporation equation, we show that the three solutions yield a simple identical asymptotic formulae at large times, which can be used to design the area to be irrigated, or to derive the final infiltration rate, A, and the final evaporation rate, E2. Analyses show that evaporation plays an important role in the radial dynamic water balance at large times, and as expected it plays a minor role during the early stage of irrigation (small time solutions).

  13. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  14. Hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation beneath a rapid infiltration basin, Reedy Creek Improvement District, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Bradner, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement District disposes of about 7.5 million gallons per day (1992) of reclaimed water through 85 1-acre rapid infiltration basins within a 1,000-acre area of sandy soils in Orange County, Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field experiments in 1992 at an individual basin to examine and better understand the hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation of reclaimed water beneath a rapid infiltration basin. At the time, concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in reclaimed water were about 3 and 0.25 milligrams per liter, respectively. A two-dimensional, radial, unsaturated/saturated numerical flow model was applied to describe the flow system beneath a rapid infiltration basin under current and hypothetical basin loading scenarios and to estimate the hydraulic properties of the soil and sediment beneath a basin. The thicknesses of the unsaturated and saturated parts of the surficial aquifer system at the basin investigated were about 37 and 52 feet, respectively. The model successfully replicated the field-monitored infiltration rate (about 5.5 feet per day during the daily flooding periods of about 17 hours) and ground-water mounding response during basin operation. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the saturated part of the surficial aquifer system were estimated to be 150 and 45 feet per day, respectively. The field-saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity of the shallow soil, estimated to be about 5.1 feet per day, was considered to have been less than the full- saturation value because of the effects of air entrapment. Specific yield of the surficial aquifer was estimated to be 0.41. The upper 20 feet of the basin subsurface profile probably served as a system control on infiltration because of the relatively low field-saturated, vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments within this layer. The flow model indicates that, in the vicinity of the basin, flow in the deeper

  15. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  16. High Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinomas With Lower Vaginal Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kazumoto, Tomoko Kato, Shingo; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi; Kutsutani-Nakamura, Yuzuru; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Michiko; Shiromizu, Kenji; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: This report presents the clinical applications of an automated treatment-planning program of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for advanced uterine cervical cancer infiltrating the parametrium and the lower vagina. Methods and Materials: We adopted HDR-ICBT under optimized dose distribution for 22 cervical cancer patients with tumor infiltration of the lower half of the vagina. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stages IIB-IVA. After whole pelvic external beam irradiation with a median dose of 30.6 Gy, a conventional ICBT was applied as 'pear-shaped' isodose curve. Then 3-4 more sessions per week of this new method of ICBT were performed. With a simple determination of the treatment volume, the cervix-parametrium, and the lower vagina were covered automatically and simultaneously by this program, that was designated as 'utero-vaginal brachytherapy'. The mean follow-up period was 87.4 months (range, 51.8-147.9 months). Results: Isodose curve for this program was 'galaxy-shaped'. Five-year local-progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 90.7% and 81.8%, respectively. Among those patients with late complications higher than Grade 2 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity score, only one (4.5%) developed severe proctitis. Conclusions: Because of the favorable treatment outcomes, this treatment-planning program with a simplified target-volume based dosimetry was proposed for cervical cancer with lower vaginal infiltration.

  17. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  18. Critical effect of pore characteristics on capillary infiltration in mesoporous films.

    PubMed

    Ceratti, D R; Faustini, M; Sinturel, C; Vayer, M; Dahirel, V; Jardat, M; Grosso, D

    2015-03-12

    Capillary phenomena governing the mass-transport (capillary filling, condensation/evaporation) has been experimentally investigated in around 20 different silica thin films exhibiting various porosities with pores dimension ranging from 2 to 200 nm. Films have been prepared by sol-gel chemistry combined with soft-templating approaches and controlled dip coating process. Environmental ellipsometric porosimetry combined with electronic microscopy were used to assess the porosity characteristics. Investigation of lateral capillary filling was performed by following the natural infiltration of water and ionic liquids at the edge of a sessile drop in open air or underneath a PDMS cover. The Washburn model was applied to the displacement of the liquid front within the films to deduce the kinetic constants. The role of the different capillary phenomena were discussed with respect to the porosity characteristics (porosity vol%, pore dimensions and constrictions). We show that correlation between capillary filling rate and pore dimensions is not straightforward. Generally, with a minimum of constrictions, faster filling is observed for larger pores. In the case of mesopores (<50 nm in diameter), the presence of bottle necks considerably slows down the infiltration rate. At such a small dimension, evaporation/capillary condensation dynamics, taking place at the meniscus inside the porosity, has to be considered to explain the transport mode. This fundamental study is of interest for applications involving liquids at the interface of mesoporous networks such as nanofluidics, purification, separation, water harvesting or heat transfer. PMID:25723817

  19. An ultra large negative dispersion regular octagonal PCF with liquid infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangmin; Li, Xinlu; Jiang, Xingfang; Tang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    For solving the problem of dispersion in fiber communication, this article designed a ultra large negative dispersion regular octagonal PCF with liquid infiltration. The effects of air-hole diameter (d), layer-to-layer spacing (Λ) and refractive index of the infiltrating liquid (nL) on dispersion have been obtained based on Finite Element Method (FEM) by using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results show that with an increase of nL, the dispersion gets blue-shifted and the negative dispersion will increase. However, with the increase of Λ, the dispersion is red-shifted and the negative dispersion will reduce. Again, with the increase of d, the dispersion is red-shifted but with an augment of negative dispersion. This paper's theoretical study shows a high negative dispersion of -13000ps/(nm·km) around 1550nm when d=1.000μm, Λ=1.500μm and nL=1.374. The Dispersion Compensating Fiber (DCF) can effectively compensate the single mode fiber G. 652, which has been widely used. One meter the DCF can compensate 650 meters G. 652.

  20. Critical effect of pore characteristics on capillary infiltration in mesoporous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceratti, D. R.; Faustini, M.; Sinturel, C.; Vayer, M.; Dahirel, V.; Jardat, M.; Grosso, D.

    2015-03-01

    Capillary phenomena governing the mass-transport (capillary filling, condensation/evaporation) has been experimentally investigated in around 20 different silica thin films exhibiting various porosities with pores dimension ranging from 2 to 200 nm. Films have been prepared by sol-gel chemistry combined with soft-templating approaches and controlled dip coating process. Environmental ellipsometric porosimetry combined with electronic microscopy were used to assess the porosity characteristics. Investigation of lateral capillary filling was performed by following the natural infiltration of water and ionic liquids at the edge of a sessile drop in open air or underneath a PDMS cover. The Washburn model was applied to the displacement of the liquid front within the films to deduce the kinetic constants. The role of the different capillary phenomena were discussed with respect to the porosity characteristics (porosity vol%, pore dimensions and constrictions). We show that correlation between capillary filling rate and pore dimensions is not straightforward. Generally, with a minimum of constrictions, faster filling is observed for larger pores. In the case of mesopores (<50 nm in diameter), the presence of bottle necks considerably slows down the infiltration rate. At such a small dimension, evaporation/capillary condensation dynamics, taking place at the meniscus inside the porosity, has to be considered to explain the transport mode. This fundamental study is of interest for applications involving liquids at the interface of mesoporous networks such as nanofluidics, purification, separation, water harvesting or heat transfer.

  1. Mobilization of bacteria in a bioinfilitration system during intermittent infiltration of stormwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, A.; Mohanty, S. K.; Torkelson, A. A.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Green infrastructure, like bioinfintration systems in rain gardens, is increasingly being used in urban centers to harvest stormwater for reuse or groundwater replenishment, but the fate of stormwater contaminants in these systems is not well understood. The present study compared the ability of a bioinfiltration system packed with sand and a geomaterial (iron oxide coated sand, IOCS) to remove model bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) under intermittent flow conditions. Experiments were carried out in two phases: (1) saturated columns packed with either sand or IOCS were contaminated by injecting synthetic stormwater with bacteria followed by injection of uncontaminated stormwater and (2) the mobilization of sequestered bacteria by intermittent infiltration of stormwater was examined by pausing infiltration and allowing columns to drained under gravity, and then reapplying uncontaminated stormwater; results were compared to a column subjected to the same intermittent flow conditions but not allowed to drain. Intermittent flow mobilized a greater fraction of sequestered bacteria when the column was allowed to drain suggesting mobilizing by scouring by the air-water interface. A smaller fraction of sequestered bacteria were mobilized from IOCS than sand indicating that irreversible attachment on the IOCS surface reduced mobilization of bacteria during rewetting. Presence of NOM in stormwater increase the amount of bacteria mobilized from IOCS during intermittent flow. The result of the study indicates that use of geomedia such as IOCS that promotes irreversible attachment of bacteria and maintaining saturated condition could minimize the mobilization of bacteria from bioinfiltration systems.

  2. Fabrication of SiC matrix composites by liquid phase infiltration with a polymeric precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Interrante, L.V.; Whitmarsh, C.W.; Sherwood, W.

    1995-10-01

    A process for the fabrication of SiC matrix composites has been developed which employs a liquid, highly branched, polycarbosilane (AHPCS). This polymer thermosets on heating at 200--400 C (or at 100 C with catalyst) and yields an amorphous SiC with low excess C and O content in 60--80% yield on pyrolysis to 1,000 C. Preforms consisting of C-coated Nicalon SiC fiber cloth, unidirectional Textron SiC SCS-6 fiber layups, or Mo boats packed with SiC whiskers, were infiltrated with the polymer, cured in an autoclave, and pyrolized to 1,000 C. Five to eight infiltration cycles gave net shape composites with final densities at 85--94% of theoretical. The results of 4-point flexure tests on the as-prepared Nicalon composites indicate flexure strengths (aver. 378 MPa) that are comparable to or better than similarly reinforced CVI-SiC matrix composites. The whisker and SCS-6 composites showed a small weight loss (10--20%) on heating to 1,500 C in Ar and little or no weight change or obvious embrittlement in air at 1,000 C.

  3. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

    2010-06-01

    The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

  4. Forced chemical vapor infiltration of tubular geometries: Modeling, design, and scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.

    1995-06-01

    In advanced indirectly fired coal combustion systems and externally fired combined cycle concepts, ceramic heat exchangers are required to transfer heat from the hot combustion gases to the clean air that drives the gas turbines. For high efficiencies, the temperature of the turbine inlet needs to exceed 1100{degrees}C and preferably be about 1260{degrees}C. The heat exchangers will operate under pressure and experience thermal and mechanical stresses during heating and cooling, and some transients will be severe under upset conditions. Silicon carbide-matrix composites are promising for such applications because of their high strength at elevated temperature, light weight, thermal and mechanical resistance, damage tolerance, and oxidation and corrosion resistance. Fiber-reinforced composite tubes of several fiber architectures were fabricated by forced chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) and characterized. Unfortunately, long times ({approximately}150 hours) were required to thoroughly density the tubes. An objective of the current investigation was to optimize the forced CVI process so that composite tubes could be fabricated in much shorter times. To aid in such optimization, a computer code which models the CVI process was used to identify critical process parameters. Finally, successful demonstration of the utility of composite tubes for these applications will require the testing of near-full scale components. As a result a new infiltration system was designed and constructed to prepare 10-cm diameter tubes, and is described in this report.

  5. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  6. 9. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF VALVE CONTROL STRUCTURE. Sheet A-20, July, 1939. File no. SA 342/29. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  8. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  9. Diffuse Infiltrative Lesion of the Breast: Clinical and Radiologic Features

    PubMed Central

    An, Yeong Yi; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Na Young; Whang, In Yong; Yoon, Soo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the clinical and radiologic features of a variety of diffuse, infiltrative breast lesions, as well to review the relevant literature. Radiologists must be familiar with the various conditions that can diffusely involve the breast, including normal physiologic changes, benign disease and malignant neoplasm. PMID:21228947

  10. Improved Cellular Infiltration in Electrospun Fiber via Engineered Porosity

    PubMed Central

    NAM, JIN; HUANG, YAN; AGARWAL, SUDHA; LANNUTTI, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Small pore sizes inherent to electrospun matrices can hinder efficient cellular ingrowth. To facilitate infiltration while retaining its extracellular matrix-like character, electrospinning was combined with salt leaching to produce a scaffold having deliberate, engineered delaminations. We made elegant use of a specific randomizing component of the electrospinning process, the Taylor Cone and the falling fiber beneath it, to produce a uniform, well-spread distribution of salt particles. After 3 weeks of culture, up to 4 mm of cellular infiltration was observed, along with cellular coverage of up to 70% within the delaminations. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of extensive cellular infiltration of electrospun matrices. Infiltration appears to be driven primarily by localized proliferation rather than coordinated cellular locomotion. Cells also moved from the salt-generated porosity into the surrounding electrospun fiber matrix. Given that the details of salt deposition (amount, size, and number density) are far from optimized, the result provides a convincing illustration of the ability of mammalian cells to interact with appropriately tailored electrospun matrices. These layered structures can be precisely fabricated by varying the deposition interval and particle size conceivably to produce in vivo-like gradients in porosity such that the resulting scaffolds better resemble the desired final structure. PMID:17536926

  11. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Dennis F

    2016-01-01

    Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. PMID:26730209

  12. Polyacrylamide molecular weight effects on soil infiltration and erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of smectitic soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  13. Immune infiltrates are prognostic factors in localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Semeraro, Michaela; Sarabi, Matthieu; Desbois, Mélanie; Locher, Clara; Mendez, Rosa; Vimond, Nadège; Concha, Angel; Garrido, Federico; Isambert, Nicolas; Chaigneau, Loic; Le Brun-Ly, Valérie; Dubreuil, Patrice; Cremer, Isabelle; Caignard, Anne; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Chaba, Kariman; Flament, Caroline; Halama, Niels; Jäger, Dirk; Eggermont, Alexander; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Commo, Frédéric; Terrier, Philippe; Opolon, Paule; Emile, Jean-François; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Kroemer, Guido; Chaput, Nathalie; Le Cesne, Axel; Blay, Jean-Yves; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2013-06-15

    Cancer immunosurveillance relies on effector/memory tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells with a T-helper cell 1 (TH1) profile. Evidence for a natural killer (NK) cell-based control of human malignancies is still largely missing. The KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate markedly prolongs the survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) by direct effects on tumor cells as well as by indirect immunostimulatory effects on T and NK cells. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expressing CD3, Foxp3, or NKp46 (NCR1) in a cohort of patients with localized GIST. We found that CD3(+) TIL were highly activated in GIST and were especially enriched in areas of the tumor that conserve class I MHC expression despite imatinib mesylate treatment. High densities of CD3(+) TIL predicted progression-free survival (PFS) in multivariate analyses. Moreover, GIST were infiltrated by a homogeneous subset of cytokine-secreting CD56(bright) (NCAM1) NK cells that accumulated in tumor foci after imatinib mesylate treatment. The density of the NK infiltrate independently predicted PFS and added prognostic information to the Miettinen score, as well as to the KIT mutational status. NK and T lymphocytes preferentially distributed to distinct areas of tumor sections and probably contributed independently to GIST immunosurveillance. These findings encourage the prospective validation of immune biomarkers for optimal risk stratification of patients with GIST. PMID:23592754

  14. Groundwater Infiltration Path of Road Deicing Agent and its Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Hada, J.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A deicing agent has been sprinkled on an expressway to prevent it from freezing in the hilly and mountainous area along the expressway having been used for more than 30 years. We investigated the infiltration, the river runoff, and the scattering of the de-icing agent quantitatively, observed the variation of water quality in river, and discussed the infiltration route and balance of the deicing agent in order to clarify the influence of the de-icing agent on the groundwater salinization. As a result, it turned out that 65% of the de-icing agent sprinkled on the road surface flowed into the waterway, the 25% infiltrated into underground through the crack of a road surface, and the remaining 10% dispersed out of an expressway. Next, for the rate of the de-icing agent outflowing to the river during a frozen snow term, it was estimated that the 39% of the sprinkled de-icing agent outflowed with surface water, and the 17% did with groundwater. Moreover, it was shown clearly that the 44% was probably stored in underground from the balance between the sprinkled de-icing agent and the outflowing one. In addition, the Cl- concentration of groundwater by the infiltrated deicing agent was simulated to clarify its extent and to predict its change in future when stopped sprinkling the deicing agent.

  15. LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON INFILTRATION RATE OF SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil physical properties and water infiltration were measured for five land use and soil management practices at North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds, Coshocton, Ohio. The five treatments were no-till with and without manure (NTM, NTWM), no-till corn-soybean rotation (NTCSR), conventional till...

  16. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  17. Manufacturing of Three-dimensionally Microstructured Nanocomposites through Microfluidic Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Dermanaki-Farahani, Rouhollah; Lebel, Louis Laberge; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured composite beams reinforced with complex three-dimensionally (3D) patterned nanocomposite microfilaments are fabricated via nanocomposite infiltration of 3D interconnected microfluidic networks. The manufacturing of the reinforced beams begins with the fabrication of microfluidic networks, which involves layer-by-layer deposition of fugitive ink filaments using a dispensing robot, filling the empty space between filaments using a low viscosity resin, curing the resin and finally removing the ink. Self-supported 3D structures with other geometries and many layers (e.g. a few hundreds layers) could be built using this method. The resulting tubular microfluidic networks are then infiltrated with thermosetting nanocomposite suspensions containing nanofillers (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes), and subsequently cured. The infiltration is done by applying a pressure gradient between two ends of the empty network (either by applying a vacuum or vacuum-assisted microinjection). Prior to the infiltration, the nanocomposite suspensions are prepared by dispersing nanofillers into polymer matrices using ultrasonication and three-roll mixing methods. The nanocomposites (i.e. materials infiltrated) are then solidified under UV exposure/heat cure, resulting in a 3D-reinforced composite structure. The technique presented here enables the design of functional nanocomposite macroscopic products for microengineering applications such as actuators and sensors. PMID:24686754

  18. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  19. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  20. Analytical model of infiltration under constant-concentration boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.; Broadbridge, P.

    2010-03-01

    Known integrable models for 1D flow in unsaturated soil have a rescaled soil water diffusivity that is either constant or proportional to C(C - 1)/(C - Θ)2, where Θ is the degree of saturation and C > 1 is constant. With a wider more realistic range of hydraulic conductivity functions than has been used in this context before, a formal series solution is developed for infiltration, subject to constant-concentration boundary conditions. A readily programmed iteration algorithm, applicable for any value of C, is used to construct many coefficients of the infiltration series without requiring any numerical integration. In particular, for either C - 1 small or 1/C small, several infiltration series coefficients are constructed as formal power series in C - 1 or in 1/C, for which we construct a number of terms explicitly. In the limit as the diffusivity approaches a delta function, the infiltration coefficients are obtained in simpler closed form. All but the sorptivity depend on the form of the conductivity function.