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Sample records for air injection hpai

  1. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  2. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  3. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  4. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  5. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Review of oblique water and fluorocarbon injection test results obtained in experimental studies of the effects of multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams. The results include the finding that maximum lateral penetration from such injections increases linearly with the square root of the jet-to-freestream dynamic-pressure ratio and is proportional to an equivalent orifice diameter.

  6. Evolution of injected air stream in granular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Ritwik; Das, Gargi; Das, Prasanta

    2015-11-01

    An air stream injected through an orifice into a granular bed creates intriguing but aesthetically exotic patterns. The interaction of air with an aggregate of cohesionless granules presents evolution of patterns from stationary bubble to meandering filament and finally to a floating canopy with the increase of air velocity.

  7. Gas injection apparatus. [Air or steam

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrov, A.A.

    1986-04-22

    A gas injection apparatus is described in combination with a lined vessel wherein the lined vessel includes a vessel wall and an inner liner. The inner liner consists of a series of parallel tubes radially joined together by web members, the inner liner being spaced apart from the vessel wall and having an inner surface and an outer surface. The gas injection apparatus consists of at least one plenum assembly sealably attached to the outer surface of the inner liner; the inner liner having openings positioned and arranged to provide communication between the interior of the vessel and the area defined by the plenum assembly and the inner liner for injection of gas into the interior of the vessel perpendicularly to the plane of the inner liner; the gas injection apparatus further comprising an expansible supply duct attached to and extending between the vessel wall and the plenum assembly.

  8. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  9. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8). PMID:22872998

  10. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    PubMed

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  11. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  12. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  13. CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR FOR ENHANCED PCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to use preferential flow of air to improve the dynamics of cosolvent displacement in order to enhance DNAPL displacement and dissolution. The concurrent injection of cosolvent and air was evaluated in a glass micromodel for a DNAPL remediation technolog...

  14. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  15. Vaccination of domestic ducks against H5N1 HPAI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, and therefore, successful control of HPAI in ducks is vital for the eradication of the disease in poultry. Vaccination can be used as a tool for supporting eradication by inc...

  16. Resurgence of HPAI in birds and mechanisms of transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses typically produce a similar severe, systemic disease with high mortality in chickens and other gallinaceous birds, but either no disease or only mild disease in domestic ducks and wild birds. However with emergence of H5N1 HPAI viruses and their mai...

  17. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  18. Protective efficacy of crude virus‐like particle vaccine against HPAI H5N1 in chickens and its application on DIVA strategy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae‐Keun; Lee, Dong‐Hun; Youn, Ha‐Na; Kim, Myeong‐Seob; Lee, Yu‐Na; Yuk, Seong‐Su; Lim, Tae‐Hyun; Jang, Jun‐Hyuk; Kwon, Jung‐Hoon; Kim, Byoung‐Yoon; Kang, Sang‐Moo; Seong, Baik‐Lin; Lee, Joong‐Bok; Park, Seung‐Yong; Choi, In‐Soo; Song, Chang‐Seon

    2012-01-01

    Background  Currently, Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has become widespread across continents. These viruses are persistently circulating among poultry populations in endemic regions, causing huge economic losses, and raising concerns about an H5N1 pandemic. To control HPAI H5N1, effective vaccines for poultry are urgently needed. Objective  In this study, we developed HPAI virus‐like particle (VLP) vaccine as a candidate poultry vaccine and evaluated its protective efficacy and possible application for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Methods  Specific pathogen‐free chickens received a single injection of HPAI H5N1 VLP vaccine generated using baculovirus expression vector system. Immunogenicity of VLP vaccines was determined using hemagglutination inhibition (HI), neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and ELISA test. Challenge study was performed to evaluate efficacy of VLP vaccines. Results and Conclusions  A single immunization with HPAI H5N1 VLP vaccine induced high levels of HI and NI antibodies and protected chickens from a lethal challenge of wild‐type HPAI H5N1 virus. Viral excretion from the vaccinated and challenged group was strongly reduced compared with a mock‐vaccinated control group. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate VLP‐vaccinated chickens from vaccinated and then infected chickens with a commercial ELISA test kit, which offers a promising strategy for the application of DIVA concept. PMID:22716302

  19. Reducing Water/Hull Drag By Injecting Air Into Grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed technique for reduction of friction drag on hydrodynamic body involves use of grooves and combinations of surfactants to control motion of layer on surface of such body. Surface contains many rows of side-by-side, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves. Dimensions of grooves and sharpnesses of tips in specific case depends on conditions of flow about vessel. Requires much less air than does microbubble-injection method.

  20. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections. PMID:27440854

  1. Epidemiology of HPAI in wild birds in Mongolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Since its emergence in 1997 and subsequent re-emergence in 2003, a highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza (HPAI) virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 has affected humans, domestic poultry, and wildlife across Eurasia and Africa. Prior to 2005, outbreaks in wild birds were sporadic and thoug...

  2. Fuel injection system uses air-bled nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Gayler, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    A microprocessor-controlled fuel injection system known as ''Pijet'' has been developed by researchers at Piper FM Ltd. It is explained that air and fuel are mixed in the fuel injectors and the mixture is distributed to each cylinder via ''natural selection.'' The system consists of integrated primary pressure pump and pressure relief valve; control box, integrated with the throttle valve housing and containing throttle angle sensor and fuel metering slot valve; solenoid-operated fuel metering pulser and fuel accumulator; fuel injectors; electronic control module; engine speed sensor; and engine, air temperature, and barometric pressure sensors. It is pointed out that the Pijet system has been used successfully in a number of European and Japanese cars ranging from 1.1 to 2.0 L with operating mileage from 5000 to 30,000 miles. The application of inertia-ram tuned induction systems has shown maximum torque increases of 10-15% with a torque spread increase of 1200 rpm into the low speed range.

  3. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.

  4. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  5. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of

  6. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  7. Co-injection of air and steam for the prevention of the downward migration of DNAPLs during steam enhanced extraction: an experimental evaluation of optimum injection ratio predictions.

    PubMed

    Kaslusky, Scott F; Udell, Kent S

    2005-05-01

    When steam is injected into soil containing a dense volatile non-aqueous phase liquid contaminant, the DNAPL vaporized within the heated soil region condenses and accumulates ahead of the steam condensation front. If enough DNAPL accumulates, gravitational forces can overcome trapping forces allowing the liquid contaminant to flow downward. By injecting air with steam, a portion of the DNAPL vapor remains suspended in equilibrium with the air, decreasing liquid contaminant accumulation ahead of the steam condensation front, and thus reducing the possibility of downward migration. In a previous work, a theoretical model was developed to predict the optimum injection ratio of air to steam that would eliminate accumulation of DNAPL ahead of the temperature front and thus minimize the potential for downward migration. In this work, the theoretical model is summarized, and an experiment is presented in order to evaluate the optimum injection ratio prediction. In the experiment, a two-dimensional water saturated sand pack is contaminated with a known mass of TCE (DNAPL). The system is then remediated by co-injecting air and steam at the predicted optimum injection ratio, calculated based on the average contaminant soil concentration in the sand pack. Results for the co-injection of air and steam are compared to results for the injection of pure steam or pure air. Injection at the predicted optimum injection ratio for a volumetric average NAPL saturation, reduced accumulation of the contaminant ahead of the condensation front by over 90%, as compared to steam injection alone. This indicates that the optimum injection ratio prediction is a valuable tool for limiting the spreading of DNAPL during steam-enhanced extraction. Injection at the optimum injection ratio resulted in earlier recovery of contaminant than for steam injection alone. Co-injection of steam and air is also shown to result in much higher recovery rates than air injection alone. PMID:15854722

  8. Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

  9. Experimental H5N1 HPAI infections in waterbirds: clinical response and viral shedding patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in numerous wild avian species in Southeast Asia. During the winter of 2005/2006, outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI virus occurred in wild birds and domestic poultry in several European countries and a growing body of epide...

  10. Vaccination of domestic ducks against H5N1 HPAI: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Consequently, the successful control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The continuing re-em...

  11. STEAM INJECTION INTO FRACTURED LIMESTONE AT LORING AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project on steam injection for the remediation of spent chlorinated solvents from fractured limestone was recently undertaken at the former Loring AFB in Limestone, ME. Participants in the project include the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, EPA Region I,...

  12. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  13. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  14. The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Dilek K.; Dikmen, Yurdanur; Kokturk, Furuzan; Dedeoglu, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of air-lock technique (ALT) on pain of intramuscular (IM) injection delivered to the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal site (DS). Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used to assess the pain intensity associated with IM injections administered using 2 different methods and injection sites. Recruitment of patients was carried out between April and August 2013 at the Department of Brain Surgery, Cekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. The sample comprised 60 patients who developed no complications at the IM site, and had no illness that could affect their perception of pain. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Patients in the first group received injections in the ventrogluteal site (VS), while the DS was used for injections in the second group. Patients in each group received 2 injections, one using ALT and one not using the technique. After each injection, the pain felt by patients during the injection was immediately assessed using a visual analog scale. Results: The mean pain score after injections to the DS by the ALT was 3.30 ± 2.70, while the mean pain score after injections to the VS using the same technique was 2.53 ± 2.52. Conclusion: Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivered to the DS. PMID:26905354

  15. Reducing Ultrafine Particle Emissions Using Air Injection in Wood-Burning Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Vi H; Caubel, Julien J; Wilson, Daniel L; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. The results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking. PMID:27348315

  16. Simultaneous inversion of air-injection tests in fractured unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Tsang, Y. W.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    1999-08-01

    Air-injection tests are being used to characterize the flow characteristics of the fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. As the air component flows mainly in the heterogeneous fracture system, air-injection tests can be used to determine the hydrological properties and parameters of the fracture networks. In situ air-injection tests have been carried out in 30 boreholes drilled in a fractured rock block of 13 × 21.5 × 18 m3 in the underground facility at Yucca Mountain. These in situ field tests consist of a constant rate flow injection in one of the boreholes, while the pressure response is monitored in all 30 boreholes of the rock block. This paper presents a simultaneous inversion for 21 air-injection tests in 21 separate boreholes using TOUGH2, a three-dimensional numerical code for multiphase, multicomponent transport [Pruess, 1991; Pruess et al., 1996]. Spatially variable fracture permeability is used as an adjustable parameter to fit the measured pressure responses. For most of the pneumatic experiments the calculated pressure changes match the measured data well. Estimated permeabilities range over 5 orders of magnitude, from 10-15 to 8 × 10-11 m2, indicating large spatial variability in permeability of the heterogeneous fracture system.

  17. An experimental study on the effect of air bubble injection on the flow induced rotational hub

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.M.; Sarreshtehdari, A.

    2009-01-15

    Modification of shear stress due to air bubbles injection in a rotary device was investigated experimentally. Air bubbles inject to the water flow crosses the neighbor of the hub which can rotate just by water flow shear stresses, in this device. Increasing air void fraction leads to decrease of shear stresses exerted on the hub surface until in high void fractions, the hub motion stopped as observed. Amount of skin friction decrease has been estimated by counting central hub rotations. Wall shear stress was decreased by bubble injection in all range of tested Reynolds number, changing from 50,378 to 71,238, and also by increasing air void fraction from zero to 3.06%. Skin friction reduction more than 85% was achieved in this study as maximum measured volume of air fraction injected to fluid flow while bubbles are distinct and they do not make a gas layer. Significant skin friction reduction obtained in this special case indicate that using small amount of bubble injection causes large amount of skin friction reduction in some rotary parts in the liquid phases like as water. (author)

  18. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  19. Cross-protection of newly emerging HPAI H5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: A viable alternative to oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Guiqin; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongxing; Cheng, Genhong; Zhou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China. We show that antibodies FLA5.10, FLD21.140, 100F4 and 65C6, but not AVFluIgG01, AVFluIgG03, S139/1 and the VRC01 control, potently cross-neutralize the H5N8 NE14 and H5N6 SC14 viruses. Furthermore, we show that a single injection of >1 mg/kg of antibody 100F4 at 4 hours before, or 20 mg/kg antibody 100F4 at 72 hours after, a lethal dose of H5N8 NE14 enables mice to withstand the infection. Finally, we show that a single injection of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg antibody 100F4 prophylactically or 10 mg/kg 100F4 therapeutically outperforms a 5-day course of 10 mg/kg/day oseltamivir treatment against lethal H5N8 NE14 or H5N6 SC14 infection in mice. Our results suggest that further preclinical evaluation of human monoclonal antibodies against newly emerging H5 viruses is warranted. PMID:27167234

  20. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  1. Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S.

    1995-09-01

    This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

  2. Pachymetry-guided intrastromal air injection ("pachy-bubble") for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ramon C; Ghanem, Marcielle A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate an innovative technique for intrastromal air injection to achieve deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with bare Descemet membrane (DM). Thirty-four eyes with anterior corneal pathology, including 27 with keratoconus, underwent DALK. After 400 μm trephination with a suction trephine, ultrasound pachymetry was performed 0.8 mm internally from the trephination groove in the 11 to 1 o'clock position. In this area, a 2-mm incision was created, parallel to the groove, with a micrometer diamond knife calibrated to 90% depth of the thinnest measurement. A cannula was inserted through the incision and 0.5 mL of air was injected to dissect the DM from the stroma. After peripheral paracentesis, anterior keratectomy was carried out to bare the DM. A 0.25-mm oversized graft was sutured in place. Overall, 94.1% of eyes achieved DALK. Bare DM was achieved in 30 eyes, and a pre-DM dissection was performed in 2 eyes. Air injection was successful in detaching the DM (achieving the big bubble) in 88.2% of the eyes. In keratoconus eyes, the rate was 88.9%. All cases but one required a single air injection to achieve DM detachment. Microperforations occurred in 5 cases: 3 during manual layer-by-layer dissection after air injection failed to detach the DM, 1 during removal of the residual stroma after big-bubble formation, and 1 during the diamond knife incision. Two cases (5.9%) were converted to penetrating keratoplasty because of macroperforations. The technique was reproducible, safe, and highly effective in promoting DALK with bare DM. PMID:22367050

  3. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  4. The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

    1992-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

  5. Monitoring of binder removal from injection molded ceramics using air-coupled ultrasound at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Wright, W D; Hutchins, D A

    1999-01-01

    A pair of capacitance-type air-coupled ultrasonic transducers have been constructed that were capable of operating in air at temperatures of 500 to 600 degrees C. These devices were then used to monitor the pyrolytic removal of organic binder from injection molded silicon nitride ceramic components using air-coupled ultrasound inside a furnace at elevated temperatures. Through-thickness waveforms were obtained in the ceramic and compared with simultaneous measurements of the mass of the sample. Both the ultrasonic velocity and signal amplitudes could be used to monitor the change in mass of the injection molded ceramic, and other phenomena (such as softening and redistribution of the binder) were observed. PMID:18238465

  6. The HIV/AIDS epidemic and changes in injecting drug use in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Pawlowicz, María Pía; Rangugni, Victoria; Singh, Dhan Zunino; Goltzman, Paula; Cymerman, Pablo; Vila, Marcelo; Touzé, Graciela

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the changes in injecting drug use from 1998 to 2003 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Rapid Situation Assessment and Response methodology was used to obtain the information. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were triangulated: 140 current IDUs and 35 sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) were surveyed; 17 in-depth interviews with the surveyed IDUs and 2 focus groups were held, as well as ethnographic observations. The way in which risk and care practices among injecting drug users changed and the influence of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on this process are described. In recent years, the frequency of injection practices and sharing of injecting equipment has decreased, while injecting drug use is a more hidden practice in a context of increasing impact of the disease in the injecting drug use social networks and changes in the price and quality of drugs. Knowledge about these changes helps build harm reduction activities oriented to IDUs in their particular social context. PMID:16612428

  7. [Steam and air co-injection in removing TCE in 2D-sand box].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Peng, Sheng; Chen, Jia-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a newly developed and promising soil remediation technique for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in vadose zone. In this study, in order to investigate the mechanism of the remediation process, trichloroethylene (TCE) removal using steam and air co-injection was carried out in a 2-dimensional sandbox with different layered sand structures. The results showed that co-injection perfectly improved the "tailing" effect compared to soil vapor extraction (SVE), and the remediation process of steam and air co-injection could be divided into SVE stage, steam strengthening stage and heat penetration stage. Removal ratio of the experiment with scattered contaminant area was higher and removal speed was faster. The removal ratios from the two experiments were 93.5% and 88.2%, and the removal periods were 83.9 min and 90.6 min, respectively. Steam strengthened the heat penetration stage. The temperature transition region was wider in the scattered NAPLs distribution experiment, which reduced the accumulation of TCE. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed in the experiment with TCE initially distributed in a fine sand zone. And such downward movement of TCE reduced the TCE removal ratio. PMID:25244869

  8. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  9. High-Pressure Air Injection on a Low-Head Francis Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Fellenberg, S.; Häussler, W.; Michler, W.

    2014-03-01

    Birecik is a Turkish hydroelectric power plant located at the Euphrat River in the southeast of Turkey. During commissioning of the units, a vibration phenomenon was discovered, restricted to a small power band. The cone which supports the thrust bearing and which is braced against the turbine head cover started to vibrate at its natural frequency. Investigations showed the vibrations to be innocuous to the lifetime of the machine. Exhaustive vibration measurements on site pointed to hydraulic source for the vibration. Detailed flow simulations by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were carried out. They permitted the detailed analysis of a variety of transient flow phenomena happening inside the machine. They revealed the presence of interblade vortices in the power and head range where the vibrations occurred. As a consequence, it was suggested to inject air downstream of the wicket gates through the head cover. In 2012, one unit of the Birecik power plant was equipped with such an air injection system. As soon as the air injection was turned on, the machine operated calmly in the small power band where vibrations had been observed before. The necessary air volume was considerably smaller than expected to be necessary for a calm operation.

  10. Estimating the sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojimelukwe, Agatha E; Prakarnkamanant, Apisit; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This study identified characteristics of poultry farming with a focus on practices that affect the detection of HPAI; and estimated the system sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in commercial and backyard chicken farms in Bayelsa-State, Nigeria. Field studies were carried out in Yenegoa and Ogbia local government areas in Bayelsa state. Willingness to report HPAI was highest in commercial poultry farms (13/13) than in Backyard farms (8/13). Poor means of dead bird disposal was common to both commercial and backyard farms. Administering some form of treatment to sick birds without prior consultation with a professional was higher in backyard farms (8/13) than in commercial farms (4/13). Consumption of sick birds was reported in 4/13 backyard farms and sale of dead birds was recorded in one commercial farm. The sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI was assessed using scenario tree modelling. A scenario tree model was developed and applied to estimate the sensitivity, i.e. the probability of detecting one or more infected chicken farms in Bayelsa state at different levels of disease prevalence. The model showed a median sensitivity of 100%, 67% and 23% for detecting HPAI by passive surveillance at a disease prevalence of 0.1%, a minimum of 10 and 3 infected poultry farms respectively. Passive surveillance system sensitivity at a design prevalence of 10 infected farms is increasable up to 86% when the disease detection in backyard chicken farms is enhanced. PMID:27317323

  11. A PIV Study of Slotted Air Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented for single and dual-stream jets with fluidic injection on the core stream. The fluidic injection nozzles delivered air to the jet through slots on the interior of the nozzle at the nozzle trailing edge. The investigations include subsonic and supersonic jet conditions. Reductions in broadband shock noise and low frequency mixing noise were obtained with the introduction of fluidic injection on single stream jets. Fluidic injection was found to eliminate shock cells, increase jet mixing, and reduce turbulent kinetic energy levels near the end of the potential core. For dual-stream subsonic jets, the introduction of fluidic injection reduced low frequency noise in the peak jet noise direction and enhanced jet mixing. For dual-stream jets with supersonic fan streams and subsonic core streams, the introduction of fluidic injection in the core stream impacted the jet shock cell structure but had little effect on mixing between the core and fan streams.

  12. Instability of an interface between air and a low conducting liquid subjected to charge injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicón, Rafael; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2006-10-01

    We study the linear stability of an interface between air and a low conducting liquid in the presence of unipolar injection of charge. As a consequence of charge injection, a volume charge density builds up in the air gap and a surface charge density on the interface. Above a certain voltage threshold the electrical stresses may destabilize the interface, giving rise to a characteristic cell pattern known as rose-window instability. Contrary to what occurs in the classical volume electrohydrodynamic instability in insulating liquids, the typical cell size is several times larger than the liquid depth. We analyze the linear stability through the usual procedure of decomposing an arbitrary perturbation into normal modes. The resulting homogeneous linear system of ordinary differential equations is solved using a commercial software package. Finally, an analytical method is developed that provides a solution valid in the limit of small wavenumbers.

  13. Risk factors and characteristics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) post-vaccination outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Vu, Le Tri

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 is now endemic in South-East Asia but HPAI control methods differ between countries. A widespread HPAI vaccination campaign that started at the end of 2005 in Viet Nam resulted in the cessation of poultry and human cases, but in 2006/2007 severe HPAI outbreaks re-emerged. In this study we investigated the pattern of this first post-vaccination epidemic in southern Viet Nam identifying a spatio-temporal cluster of outbreak occurrence and estimating spatially smoothed incidence rates of HPAI. Spatial risk factors associated with HPAI occurrence were identified. Medium-level poultry density resulted in an increased outbreak risk (Odds ratio (OR) = 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–18.9) but also climate-vegetation factors played an important role: medium-level normalised difference vegetation indices during the rainy season from May to October were associated with higher risk of HPAI outbreaks (OR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7–8.1), probably because temporal flooding might have provided suitable conditions for the re-emergence of HPAI by expanding the virus distribution in the environment and by enlarging areas of possible contacts between domestic waterfowl and wild birds. On the other hand, several agricultural production factors, such as sweet potatoes yield, increased buffalo density, as well as increased electricity supply were associated with decreased risk of HPAI outbreaks. This illustrates that preventive control measures for HPAI should include a promotion of low-risk agricultural management practices as well as improvement of the infrastructure in village households. Improved HPAI vaccination efforts and coverage should focus on medium poultry density areas and on the pre-monsoon time period. PMID:19081006

  14. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Takano, Mizuki; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2015-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, for the suppression of surge phenomenon resulting in the extension of the stable operating range of centrifugal compressor to lower flow rate, the compressed air at the compressor exit was re-circulated and injected into the impeller inlet by using the double injection nozzle system. The experiments were performed to find out the optimum circumferential position of the second nozzle relative to the fixed first one and the optimum inner diameter of the injection nozzles, which are able to most effectively reduce the flow rate of surge inception. Moreover, in order to examine the universality of these optimum values, the experiments were carried out for two types of compressors.

  15. The role of NS protein in the pathogenicity of HPAI H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until 2002, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses caused no disease or only mild respiratory infections in ducks. Since then, new viruses have emerged that cause systemic disease and high mortality in ducks and other waterfowl. Studies on HPAI virus pathogenicity in ducks have been...

  16. The effect of NS1 gene exchange on the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused only mild respiratory infections in ducks. Since then, new viruses have emerged that cause systemic disease and high mortality in ducks and other waterfowl. Studies on HPAI virus pathogenicity in ducks have been limited and t...

  17. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  18. The potential spread of H5N1 HPAI virus in swans and geese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential role of wild birds in the epidemiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in Asia and their contribution to the spread of H5N1 virus to Europe and Africa is unclear. In order to address this, we experimentally infected four species of swans and two species of geese...

  19. Hot air injection for removal of dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid contaminants from low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.C.

    1996-08-01

    The performance of soil vapor extraction systems for the recovery of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is potentially enhanced by the injection of heated air to increase soil temperatures. The soil temperature increase is expected to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) performance by increasing target compound vapor pressures and by increasing soil permeability through drying. The vapor pressure increase due to temperature rise relieves the vapor pressure limit on the feasibility of soil vapor extraction. However, the system still requires an air flow through the soil system to deliver heat and to recover mobilized contaminants. Although the soil permeability can be increased through drying, very low permeability soils and low permeability soils adjacent to high permeability air flow pathways will be treated slowly, if at all. AR thermal enhancement methods face this limitation. Heated air injection offers advantages relative to other thermal techniques, including low capital and operation costs. Heated air injection is at a disadvantage relative to other thermal techniques due to the low heat capacity of air. To be effective, heated air injection requires that higher air flows be established than for steam injection or radio frequency heating. Heated air injection is not economically feasible for the stratified soil system developed as a standard test for this document. This is due to the inability to restrict heated air flow to the clay stratum when a low-resistance air flow pathway is available in the adjoining sand. However, the technology should be especially attractive, both technically and economically, for low-volatile contaminant recovery from relatively homogeneous soil formations. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Doctor, J R; Solanki, S L; Patil, V P; Divatia, J V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  1. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure.

  2. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. PMID:23962760

  3. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, JR; Solanki, SL; Patil, VP; Divatia, JV

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  4. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  6. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  7. The stability of a horizontal interface between air and an insulating liquid subjected to charge injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicón, Rafael; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the linear stability analysis of an interface between air and an insulating liquid subjected to a perpendicular electric field, in the presence of unipolar injection of charge. Depending on the characteristics of the liquid and the depth of the liquid layer two different instability thresholds may be found. One of them is characterized by a wavelength of the order of the liquid layer thickness and corresponds to the well-known volume instability of a liquid layer subjected to charge injection. The other one is characterized by a wavelength some ten times the liquid layer thickness and corresponds to the so-called rose-window instability, an instability associated to the balance of surface stresses.

  8. Air-stepping in neonatal rats: A comparison of L-dopa injection and olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jamon, M; Maloum, I; Riviere, G; Bruguerolle, B

    2002-12-01

    The kinematic parameters of air-stepping induced by 2 methods known to elicit locomotion (olfactory stimulation vs. L-dopa injection) were compared in 3-day-old rats. In the 1st stage, suspended pups were induced to step with an olfactory stimulus of soiled shavings from the nest. In the 2nd stage, they received a subcutaneous injection of L-dopa. Their movements were faster, with a larger amplitude and a phase delay in ipsilateral coupling. Third, the olfactory stimulus was presented in conjunction with L-dopa. The characteristics of locomotion returned to the same level as with the olfactory stimulus alone. These results suggest that olfactory stimulation involves higher nerve centers able to modulate the dopaminergic pathways. They are discussed in relation to the neural structure involved in locomotion. PMID:12492300

  9. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  10. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025

  11. A study on supersonic mixing by circular nozzle with various injection angles for air breathing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, S.; Inoue, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tani, Y.

    2009-09-01

    SCRAM-jet engine is considered to be one of the useful system propulsion for super/hypersonic transportation vehicle and various researches were made to develop the engine. However, there are a lot of problems to be solved to develop it and one of them is the problem of supersonic mixing. In the SCRAM-jet engine combustor, main airflow is supersonic and residence time of the air is very short (about 1 ms). Hence rapid mixing of air and fuel is necessary. However, usually it is quite difficult to mix fuel with air in very short distance. Also total pressure loss occurs by flow interaction the air and fuel. Total pressure loss is not preferable because it causes the thrust loss. Therefore, supersonic mixing with very rapid mixing and lower total pressure loss ratio is highly requested. In order to develop the supersonic mixing, it is very important to understand the effect of injection angle. In present study, we investigate the effect of injection angle with circular sonic nozzle by changing the injection angle. Experimental and computational studies on supersonic mixing phenomena of two-dimensional slot injector with various injection angles were conducted. Supersonic wind tunnel was used for the experiments. The free stream Mach number is 3.8, total pressure is 1.1 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. As a secondary gas, helium gas was injected at sonic speed from the circular nozzle. The injection angle is 30°, 90° and 150°. Its total pressure is 0.4 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. The same flow field was also simulated by solving three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equation with AUSM-DV scheme [Y. Wada, M.S. Liou, A flux splitting scheme with high-resolution and robustness for discontinuities, AIAA Paper 94-0083, 1994] for convective terms and full implicit LU-ADI factorization method [S. Obayashi, K. Matsushima, K. Fujii, K. Kuwahara, Improvements in efficiency and reliability for Navier-Stokes computations using the LU

  12. Understanding the potential dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus by migratory wildfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    We analysed wildfowl movements between 2006-2009, including 228 birds from 19 species, part of a larger international programme (see Figure 1) coordinated by the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations aimed at understanding if there are temporal or spatial relationships between HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and movements of migratory wildfowl, the first large scale data set available for such an analysis.

  13. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands I: epidemiological modelling to support economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of control strategies for contagious diseases is a necessity in the development of contingency plans. Economic impacts arising from epidemics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) consist of direct costs (DC), direct consequential costs (DCC), indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs (AC). Epidemiological models to support economic analysis need to provide adequate outputs for these critical economic parameters. Of particular importance for DCC, ICC and AC is the spatial production structure of a region. Spatial simulation models are therefore particularly suited for economic analysis; however, they often require a large number of parameters. The aims of this study are (i) to provide an economic rationale of epidemiological modelling in general, (ii) to provide a transparent description of the parameterization of a spatially based epidemiological model for the analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands and (iii) to discuss the validity and usefulness of this model for subsequent economic analysis. In the model, HPAI virus transmission occurs via local spread and animal movements. Control mechanisms include surveillance and tracing, movement restrictions and depopulation. Sensitivity analysis of key parameters indicated that the epidemiological outputs with the largest influence on the economic impacts (i.e. epidemic duration and number of farms in the movement restriction zone) were more robust than less influential indicators (i.e. number of infected farms). Economically relevant outputs for strategy comparison were most sensitive to the relative role of the different transmission parameters. The default simulation and results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with the general outcomes of known HPAI models. Comparison was, however, limited due to the absence of some economically relevant outputs. It was concluded that the model creates economically relevant, adequate and credible output for subsequent use in

  14. The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

    1988-01-01

    The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

  15. Electric Field Effects on an Injected Air Bubble at Detachment in a Low Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacona, Estelle; Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static and uniform electric field. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized and recorded in microgravity using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement, and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.

  16. Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.

  17. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations. PMID:18529171

  18. Supra-Descemet’s Fluid Drainage with Simultaneous Air Injection: An Alternative Treatment for Descemet’s Membrane Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffariyeh, Alireza; Honarpisheh, Nazafarin; Chamacham, Tooraj

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we present an alternative technique to manage Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD). We call the technique supra-Descemet’s fluid drainage with intracameral air injection. Under topical anesthesia, we injected air through the stab incision to fill 2/3 of the anterior chamber. Then we inserted the tip of a curved 10/0 needle through the corneal surface (entry angle at 45 degrees) into the supra-Descemet’s area 3 times to drain this fluid. In our method, we neither injected expanding gas or viscoelastic nor used a suture. Consequently, there was little chance for suture-induced astigmatism or increased intraocular pressure. This technique may be considered a relatively safe and simple surgical method for the management of postoperative DMD. PMID:21731334

  19. Nonlinear control of rotating stall and surge with axisymmetric bleed and air injection on axial flow compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chung-Hei (Simon)

    The study of compressor instabilities in gas turbine engines has received much attention in recent years. In particular, rotating stall and surge are major causes of problems ranging from component stress and lifespan reduction to engine explosion. In this thesis, modeling and control of rotating stall and surge using bleed valve and air injection is studied and validated on a low speed, single stage, axial compressor at Caltech. Bleed valve control of stall is achieved only when the compressor characteristic is actuated, due to the fast growth rate of the stall cell compared to the rate limit of the valve. Furthermore, experimental results show that the actuator rate requirement for stall control is reduced by a factor of fourteen via compressor characteristic actuation. Analytical expressions based on low order models (2--3 states) and a high fidelity simulation (37 states) tool are developed to estimate the minimum rate requirement of a bleed valve for control of stall. A comparison of the tools to experiments show a good qualitative agreement, with increasing quantitative accuracy as the complexity of the underlying model increases. Air injection control of stall and surge is also investigated. Simultaneous control of stall and surge is achieved using axisymmetric air injection. Three cases with different injector back pressure are studied. Surge control via binary air injection is achieved in all three cases. Simultaneous stall and surge control is achieved for two of the cases, but is not achieved for the lowest authority case. This is consistent with previous results for control of stall with axisymmetric air injection without a plenum attached. Non-axisymmetric air injection control of stall and surge is also studied. Three existing control algorithms found in literature are modeled and analyzed. A three-state model is obtained for each algorithm. For two cases, conditions for linear stability and bifurcation criticality on control of rotating stall are

  20. Atomization and Dispersion of a Liquid Jet Injected Into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seay, J. E.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, environmental regulations have become more stringent, requiring lower emissions of mainly nitrogen oxides (NOx), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). These regulations have forced the gas turbine industry to examine non-conventional combustion strategies, such as the lean burn approach. The reasoning behind operating under lean conditions is to maintain the temperature of combustion near and below temperatures required for the formation of thermal nitric oxide (NO). To be successful, however, the lean processes require careful preparation of the fuel/air mixture to preclude formation of either locally rich reaction zones, which may give rise to NO formation, or locally lean reaction zones, which may give rise to inefficient fuel processing. As a result fuel preparation is crucial to the development and success of new aeroengine combustor technologies. A key element of the fuel preparation process is the fuel nozzle. As nozzle technologies have developed, airblast atomization has been adopted for both industrial and aircraft gas turbine applications. However, the majority of the work to date has focused on prefilming nozzles, which despite their complexity and high cost have become an industry standard for conventional combustion strategies. It is likely that the new strategies required to meet future emissions goals will utilize novel fuel injector approaches, such as radial injection. This thesis proposes and demonstrates an experiment to examine, on a mechanistic level (i.e., the physics of the action), the processes associated with the atomization, evaporation, and dispersion of a liquid jet introduced, from a radial, plain-jet airblast injector, into a crossflow of air. This understanding requires the knowledge not only of what factors influence atomization, but also the underlying mechanism associated with liquid breakup and dispersion. The experimental data acquired identify conditions and geometries for improved

  1. Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, V.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Zhou, X.; Xiao, X.; Prosser, D.J.; Guo, F.; Gilbert, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004-2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  2. Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Vincent; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Guo, Fusheng; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004–2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  3. Spatial Distribution and Risk Factors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Vincent; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Guo, Fusheng; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004–2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  4. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  5. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  6. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  7. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  8. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  9. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-07-01

    Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

  10. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  11. Bubble-size distributions produced by wall injection of air into flowing freshwater, saltwater and surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc

    2004-12-01

    As air is injected into a flowing liquid, the resultant bubble characteristics depend on the properties of the injector, near-wall flow, and flowing liquid. Previous research has shown that near-wall bubbles can significantly reduce skin-friction drag. Air was injected into the turbulent boundary layer on a test section wall of a water tunnel containing various concentrations of salt and surfactant (Triton-X-100, Union Carbide). Photographic records show that the mean bubble diameter decreased monotonically with increasing salt and surfactant concentrations. Here, 33 ppt saltwater bubbles had one quarter, and 20 ppm Triton-X-100 bubbles had one half of the mean diameter of freshwater bubbles.

  12. Pekin and Muscovy ducks respond differently to vaccination with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) commercial inactivated vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are key intermediates in the transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, and therefore are included in vaccination programs to control H5N1 HPAI. Although vaccination has proven effective in protecting ducks against disease, different species of domestic duc...

  13. Pressurized air injection in an axial hydro-turbine model for the mitigation of tip leakage cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Tip leakage vortex cavitation in axial hydro-turbines may cause erosion, noise and vibration. Damage due to cavitation can be found at the tip of the runner blades on the low pressure side and the discharge ring. In some cases, the erosion follows an oscillatory pattern that is related to the number of guide vanes. That might suggest that a relationship exists between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex cavitating core that induces this kind of erosion. On the other hand, it is known that air injection has a beneficial effect on reducing the damage by cavitation. In this paper, a methodology to identify the interaction between guide vanes and tip vortex cavitation is presented and the effect of air injection in reducing this particular kind of erosion was studied over a range of operating conditions on a Kaplan scale model. It was found that air injection, at the expense of slightly reducing the efficiency of the turbine, mitigates the erosive potential of tip leakage cavitation, attenuates the interaction between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex and decreases the level of vibration of the structural components.

  14. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  15. Collective resistance to HPAI H5N1 surveillance in the Thai cockfighting community: Insights from a social anthropology study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde C; Figuié, Muriel; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Valeix, Sophie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Ducrot, Christian; Roger, François; Binot, Aurélie

    2015-06-01

    Farmers may organize themselves to collectively manage risks such as animal diseases. Our study shows some evidence of such organization among fighting cock owners in Thailand. Fighting cocks were specifically targeted by HPAI (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza) H5N1 surveillance and control measures in Thailand because they were thought to pose a high risk of spreading diseases. In this work, we used a social-anthropological approach to gain an inside view of the issues associated with HPAI H5N1 surveillance in the cockfighting community in Thailand. Based on a qualitative analysis of data collected through in-depth interviews and observation of cockfighters' practices, we found that fighting cock owners share a sense of belonging to the same community based on a common culture, values, interests, practices, and internal rules, including rules to manage poultry diseases. During the HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, these rules may have contributed to mitigating the potential risk associated with the intense movements of fighting cocks inside the country. Nevertheless, this community, despite the high awareness and know-how of its members regarding poultry diseases, has shown a strong reluctance to comply with HPAI surveillance programs. We suggest that this reluctance is due to important gaps between the logic and rationales underlying surveillance and those associated with cockfighting activities. Our study highlights the need for multi and trans-disciplinary research involving the social sciences to analyze interactions between stakeholders and the collective actions implemented by communities to face risks. PMID:25800453

  16. Differences between Pekin and Muscovy ducks in response to vaccination against HPAI H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination of domestic ducks against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has been done in Asia with mixed results. One of the observations from the field is that Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) respond differently to vaccination than other common domestic ducks (Anas sp.). The objectiv...

  17. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard AJ; Peterson, A Townsend

    2009-01-01

    Background The emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 ("HPAI-H5N1") has spread broadly in the past decade, and is now the focus of considerable concern. We tested the hypothesis that spatial distributions of HPAI-H5N1 cases are related consistently and predictably to coarse-scale environmental features in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. We used ecological niche models to relate virus occurrences to 8 km resolution digital data layers summarizing parameters of monthly surface reflectance and landform. Predictive challenges included a variety of spatial stratification schemes in which models were challenged to predict case distributions in broadly unsampled areas. Results In almost all tests, HPAI-H5N1 cases were indeed occurring under predictable sets of environmental conditions, generally predicted absent from areas with low NDVI values and minimal seasonal variation, and present in areas with a broad range of and appreciable seasonal variation in NDVI values. Although we documented significant predictive ability of our models, even between our study region and West Africa, case occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula appear to follow a distinct environmental regime. Conclusion Overall, we documented a variable environmental "fingerprint" for areas suitable for HPAI-H5N1 transmission. PMID:19619336

  18. Reduction in airborne virus using modifications of simulated home slaughter of asymptomatic H5N1 HPAI virus infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The majority of human infections with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus have occurred in the village setting of developing countries with the primary exposure risk being direct contact with live or dead poultry in the household or neighborhood. In Egypt, the majority o...

  19. Study of Injection of Helium into Supersonic Air Flow Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the transverse injection of helium into a Mach 3 crossflow is presented. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to measure penetration and helium mole fraction in the mixing region. The method is based on planar molecular Rayleigh scattering using an injection-seeded, frequency-doubled ND:YAG pulsed laser and a cooled CCD camera. The scattered light is filtered with an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light. Preliminary data are presented for helium mole fraction and penetration. Flow visualization images obtained with a shadowgraph and wall static pressure data in the vicinity of the injection are also presented.

  20. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further. PMID:23206287

  1. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A LANDFILL PRACTICING LEACHATE RECIRCULATION AND AIR INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently research has begun on operating bioreactor landfills. The bioreactor process involves the injection of liquid into the waste mass to accelerate waste degradation. Arcadis and EPA conducted a fugitive emissions characterization study at the Three Rivers Solid Waste Techno...

  2. Air-Stable, Cross-Linkable, Hole-Injecting/Transporting Interlayers for Improved Charge Injection in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li,J.; Marks, T.

    2008-01-01

    Modification of inorganic electrode surfaces has attracted great attention in the quest to optimize organic optoelectronic devices. An air-stable, cross-linkable trimethoxysilane functionalized hole-transporting triarylamine (4,4'-bis[(p-trimethoxysilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl, TPD-[Si(OMe)3]2) has been synthesized and self-assembled or spin-coated onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anode surfaces to form monolayers or multilayer siloxane films, respectively. The modified ITO surfaces were characterized by advancing aqueous contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Increased surface work function and enhanced ITO-hole transport layer (HTL) contact via robust covalent bonding are expected to facilitate hole injection from the ITO anode, resulting in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance enhancement versus that of a device without such interlayers. For a device having the structure ITO/spin-coated-TPD-[Si(OMe)3]2 from aqueous alcohol + acetic acid blend solution (40 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/Alq (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), a maximum light output of 32800 cd/m2, a 4.25 V turn-on voltage, and a maximum current efficiency of 5.8 cd/A is achieved. This performance is comparable to or superior to that of analogous devices prepared with analogous trichorosilyl precursors. The air-stable interlayer material developed here is also applicable to large-area coating techniques.

  3. Numerical simulation of a turbulent flow with droplets injection in annular heated air tube using the Reynolds stress model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merouane, H.; Bounif, A.; Abidat, M.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of single-phase and two-phase flow. The droplets are injected in annular heated air tube. The numerical simulation is performed by using a commercial CFD code witch uses the finite-volume method to discretize the equations of fluid flow. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Reynolds stress model were used in the computation. The governing equations are solved by using a SIMPLE algorithm to treat the pressure terms in the momentum equations. The results of prediction are compared with the experimental data.

  4. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  5. ENHANCED CONTACT OF COSOLVENT AND DNAPL IN POROUS MEDIA BY CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sites contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) is a major
    environmental problem and cosolvent flooding is proposed as a remedial alternative. The
    efficacy of cosolvent flooding is a function of the degree of mixing between the injected
    remed...

  6. The injection of air/oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber of rabbits as a treatment for hyphema in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ayintap, Emre; Keskin, Uğurcan; Sadigov, Fariz; Coskun, Mesut; Ilhan, Nilufer; Motor, Sedat; Semiz, Hilal; Parlakfikirer, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 8), there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (n = 8), both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (n = 8), and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (n = 8). Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD) for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout. PMID:24808955

  7. Expression of HpaI in Pichia pastoris and optimization of conditions for the heparinase I production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Yang, Jun; Gu, Huifen

    2014-06-15

    Heparinase I has important applications in the fields of biomedicine and pharmaceuticals. The heparinase I gene (HpaI) from Flavobacterium heparinum was cloned and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and the conditions for the heparinase I production were optimized by RSM. PCR analysis indicated that HpaI was integrated into the P. pastoris GS115 genome. The concentrations of key factors that affected the heparinase I activity were optimized, and were as follows: oleic acid, 0.07%, liquid volume in flask, 34.3 ml/L, and methanol, 0.96%. Under the optimal conditions, the activity of heparinase I was up to 323 U/L in shake flask. A maximal heparinase I activity of 398.5 U/L from the transformant 2 was achieved in a 5L fermentor. This study demonstrates the overproduction of heparinase I by recombinant P. pastoris. PMID:24721072

  8. The space-time clustering of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S S U; Ersbøll, A K; Biswas, P K; Christensen, J P

    2010-06-01

    Bangladesh faced two epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in two consecutive years. The peaks of the waves were observed in February-July 2007 and January-April 2008, respectively. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the 293 outbreaks in 143 subdistricts in 2007 and 2008. Global clustering assessed by K-function was seen at distances 150-300 km between subdistricts. Significant local clusters were detected by space-time scan statistics. In both waves, significant primary clusters of HPAI outbreaks were identified in the central part of the country dominated by commercial production systems and in the northwestern part primarily in backyard production systems. Secondary clusters varied from the northwestern part in 2007 and the southern part in 2008. The findings are highly relevant for the successful planning and implementation of control, prevention and surveillance strategies by highlighting areas where detailed investigations should be initiated. PMID:20109257

  9. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Data Comparisons for Global Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongmei; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Fei; Yao, Baodong

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 is a zoonotic disease and control of the disease is one of the highest priority in global health. Disease surveillance systems are valuable data sources for various researches and management projects, but the data quality has not been paid much attention in previous studies. Based on data from two commonly used databases (Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)) of global HPAI H5N1 outbreaks during the period of 2003–2009, we examined and compared their patterns of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal distributions for the first time. OIE and FAO data showed similar trends in temporal and spatial distributions if they were considered separately. However, more advanced approaches detected a significant difference in joint spatio-temporal distribution. Because of incompleteness for both OIE and FAO data, an integrated dataset would provide a more complete picture of global HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. We also displayed a mismatching profile of global HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and found that the degree of mismatching was related to the epidemic severity. The ideas and approaches used here to assess spatio-temporal data on the same disease from different sources are useful for other similar studies. PMID:21187964

  11. Migration of waterfowl in the East Asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, John Y; Newman, Scott H; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J; Spragens, Kyle A; Palm, Eric C; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian; Lei, Fumin; Zhao, Delong; Douglas, David C; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Ji, Weitao

    2010-03-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by

  12. Migration of Waterfowl in the East Asian Flyway and Spatial Relationship to HPAI H5N1 Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Palm, Eric C.; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian; Lei, Fumin; Zhao, Delong; Douglas, David C.; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Ji, Weitao

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007–08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by

  13. Migration of waterfowl in the east asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.; Prosser, D.J.; Spragens, K.A.; Palm, E.C.; Yan, B.; Li, T.; Lei, F.; Zhao, D.; Douglas, D.C.; Muzaffar, S.B.; Ji, W.

    2010-01-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by

  14. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  15. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus.

    PubMed

    Kilany, Walid H; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Shalaby, Azhar G; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge. PMID:27304069

  16. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kilany, Walid H.; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M.; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G.; Shalaby, Azhar G.; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K.; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge. PMID:27304069

  17. Equivalent ambipolar carrier injection of electrons and holes with Au electrodes in air-stable field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Ikeda, Susumu; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Shimotani, Hidekazu E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Shang, Hui; Tanigaki, Katsumi E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-07-27

    Carrier injection from Au electrodes to organic thin-film active layers can be greatly improved for both electrons and holes by nano-structural surface control of organic semiconducting thin films using long-chain aliphatic molecules on a SiO{sub 2} gate insulator. In this paper, we demonstrate a stark contrast for a 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)bithiophene (BP2T) active semiconducting layer grown on a modified SiO{sub 2} dielectric gate insulator between two different modifications of tetratetracontane and poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Important evidence that the field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are independent of electrode metals with different work functions is given by the observation of a conversion of the metal-semiconductor contact from the Schottky limit to the Bardeen limit. An air-stable light emitting FET with an Au electrode is demonstrated.

  18. Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Flow Evolution in a Helium Jet Injected into Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satti, Rajani P.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational model to study the stability characteristics of an evolving buoyant helium gas jet in ambient air environment is presented. Numerical formulation incorporates a segregated approach to solve for the transport equations of helium mass fraction coupled with the conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum using a staggered grid method. The operating parameters correspond to the Reynolds number varying from 30 to 300 to demarcate the flow dynamics in oscillating and non-oscillating regimes. Computed velocity and concentration fields were used to analyze the flow structure in the evolving jet. For Re=300 case, results showed that an instability mode that sets in during the evolution process in Earth gravity is absent in zero gravity, signifying the importance of buoyancy. Though buoyancy initiates the instability, below a certain jet exit velocity, diffusion dominates the entrainment process to make the jet non-oscillatory as observed for the Re=30 case. Initiation of the instability was found to be dependent on the interaction of buoyancy and momentum forces along the jet shear layer.

  20. Estimation of the heterogeneity of fracture permeability by simultaneous modeling of multiple air-injection tests in partially saturated fractured tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Y. W.; Huang, K.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    Air-injection tests were used to investigate the flow characteristics of the fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Because the tuff matrix pores are saturated over 90% with water and the matrix permeability is on the order of microdarcies, the air component of flow is mainly in the fractures. Air-injection tests can therefore help to determine the flow characteristics and heterogeneity structure of the densely fractured welded tuff. The tests were carried out in the Exploratory Studies Facility, an 8 km long underground tunnel at the Yucca Mountain site, in twelve 40 m long boreholes, forming three clusters within a cubic rock volume of approximately 40 meters on each edge. Each borehole in the test block was packed off (or isolated) into four sections (or zones) by inflatable packers. The in situ field tests consisted of constant-rate air injection into one of the isolated borehole zones while the pressure response was monitored in all the isolated zones. The pressure data showed an almost universal response in all monitored zones to injection into any borehole-zone, indicating that the fractures are well connected for airflow. Air-injection tests were performed in succession for all isolated zones. A simultaneous inversion was performed for the pressure response of all the monitoring zones for all the injection tests in the test block. TOUGH2, a 3D numerical code for multiphase, multicomponent transport, was used for this purpose. Spatially variable fracture permeability was used as an adjustable parameter to fit the simulated pressure responses to those measured, assuming fixed fracture porosity. For most of the pneumatic experiments, the calculated pressure changes matched the data well, and the estimated permeability ranged over four orders of magnitude, from 10-15 m2 to 10-11 m2.

  1. Informal inter-island poultry movement in Indonesia: does it pose a risk to HPAI H5N1 transmission?

    PubMed

    Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Ambarawati, Annie; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Suadnya, Wayan

    2015-10-01

    Informal movement of domesticated poultry and wild birds is considered a major threat in terms of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 transmission between birds and from birds to humans. However, the risk of transmission from informal illegal poultry movement has received little attention in Indonesia where human fatalities are the highest in the world. This research investigated the illegal movement of adult poultry between the islands of Java, Bali and Lombok to determine the potential risk of HPAI H5N1 transmission. The aim was to determine known origins and destinations of poultry, estimated quantity and types of birds, people involved and the drivers of illegal movement. Transportation and handling methods and views on how to minimise illegal movement were also investigated. In-depth interviews were carried out with 71 key informants in Bali and Lombok in 2009. East Java was the main origin of poultry entering Bali, followed by Central Java and Lombok. Interviewees estimated that over 10,000 village chickens, 500 ducks and 50 fighting cocks were brought into Bali per month from all origins. However, there were significant discrepancies with quarantine records indicating that the majority of birds imported illegally are not detected. We conclude that although informal illegal movement of poultry in Indonesia poses a potentially high risk for potential HPAI H5N1 transmission if birds are infected, much can be done to increase surveillance, encourage reporting of sick birds, educate traders about the risks and provide effective quarantine within an appropriate cultural framework. PMID:26091934

  2. Defining "Sector 3" Poultry Layer Farms in Relation to H5N1-HPAI-An Example from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Durr, Peter A; Wibowo, Michael Haryadi; Tarigan, Simson; Artanto, Sidna; Rosyid, Murni Nurhasanah; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2016-05-01

    To help guide surveillance and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (H5N1-HPAI), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2004 devised a poultry farm classification system based on a combination of production and biosecurity practices. Four "Sectors" were defined, and this scheme has been widely adopted within Indonesia to guide national surveillance and control strategies. Nevertheless, little detailed research into the robustness of this classification system has been conducted, particularly as it relates to independent, small to medium-sized commercial poultry farms (Sector 3). Through an analysis of questionnaire data collected as part of a survey of layer farms in western and central Java, all of which were classified as Sector 3 by local veterinarians, we provide benchmark data on what defines this sector. A multivariate analysis of the dataset, using hierarchical cluster analysis, identified three groupings of the farms, which were defined by a combination of production-and biosecurity-related variables, particularly those related to farm size and (the lack of) washing and disinfection practices. Nevertheless, the relationship between production-related variables and positive biosecurity practices was poor, and larger farms did not have an overall higher total biosecurity score than small or medium-sized ones. Further research is required to define the properties of poultry farms in Indonesia that are most closely related to effective biosecurity and the prevention of H5N1-HPAI. PMID:27309054

  3. After the outbreak: how the British Columbia commercial poultry industry recovered after H7N3 HPAI.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Victoria A

    2007-03-01

    In spring 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H7N3, occurred in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The active outbreak lasted more than 90 days; 42 commercial poultry farms were identified as infected premises, and more than 17 million birds were culled. Through the depopulation of HPAI-positive farms and the strategic depopulation of adjacent test-negative farms, a total of 410 commercial poultry farms were emptied. The goals for the commercial poultry industry were to expedite restocking, reduce nonproductive downtime, negotiate equitable financial compensation, review and restructure emergency disease response plans, and identify and implement mitigation strategies. After the outbreak, multijurisdictional reviews identified the strengths and weaknesses of the outbreak control strategy. Lessons learned were incorporated into current emergency disease response protocols for both industry and government. The industry-led challenge to initial compensation values, especially for specialty poultry and breeder birds, resulted in a review of the federal Health of Animals Act. The British Columbia poultry industry, in collaboration with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, developed an Enhanced Biosecurity Initiative that included the identification of mandatory on-farm biosecurity standards for commercial producers, an educational biosecurity self-assessment guide, and provisions for a producer self-quarantine to be enacted upon the first suspicion of disease. PMID:17494573

  4. Associations between attributes of live poultry trade and HPAI H5N1 outbreaks: a descriptive and network analysis study in northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The structure of contact between individuals plays an important role in the incursion and spread of contagious diseases in both human and animal populations. In the case of avian influenza, the movement of live birds is a well known risk factor for the geographic dissemination of the virus among poultry flocks. Live bird markets (LBM's) contribute to the epidemiology of avian influenza due to their demographic characteristics and the presence of HPAI H5N1 virus lineages. The relationship between poultry producers and live poultry traders (LPT's) that operate in LBM's has not been adequately documented in HPAI H5N1-affected SE Asian countries. The aims of this study were to document and study the flow of live poultry in a poultry trade network in northern Vietnam, and explore its potential role in the risk for HPAI H5N1 during 2003 to 2006. Results Our results indicate that LPT's trading for less than a year and operating at retail markets are more likely to source poultry from flocks located in communes with a past history of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks during 2003 to 2006 than LPT's trading longer than a year and operating at wholesale markets. The results of the network analysis indicate that LPT's tend to link communes of similar infection status. Conclusions Our study provides evidence which can be used for informing policies aimed at encouraging more biosecure practices of LPT's operating at authorised LBM's. The results suggest that LPT's play a role in HPAI H5N1 transmission and may contribute to perpetuating HPAI H5N1 virus circulation amongst certain groups of communes. The impact of current disease prevention and control interventions could be enhanced by disseminating information about outbreak risk and the implementation of a formal data recording scheme at LBM's for all incoming and outgoing LPT's. PMID:20175881

  5. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  6. Impact of HPAI H5N1 infection on select blood chemistry and gas ranges in layers, broilers and turkeys using the i-STAT Clinical Analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 typically results in mortality within six days of inoculation. However, the exact mechanisms that induce death are unknown, even as birds may die in the absence of overt clinical signs of disease. In human and many veterinary ...

  7. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Jiyeung; Ahn, So Shin; Byun, Young-Ho; Seong, Baik Lin; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk; Choi, Young Ki; Na, Yun Jeong; Hwang, Inhwan; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Chang Geun

    2009-12-20

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains. PMID:19836045

  8. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Jiyeung; Ahn, So Shin; Byun, Young-Ho; Seong, Baik Lin; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk; Choi, Young Ki; Na, Yun Jeong; Hwang, Inhwan; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Chang Geun

    2009-12-20

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8{sup +} T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains.

  9. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  10. Risk of Introduction in Northern Vietnam of HPAI Viruses from China: Description, Patterns and Drivers of Illegal Poultry Trade.

    PubMed

    Desvaux, S; Nguyen, C O; Vu, D T; Henriquez, C; Ky, V D; Roger, F; Fenwick, S; Goutard, F

    2016-08-01

    Poultry movement is known to contribute to the dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In Northern Vietnam, the illegal trade of poultry from China is a source of concern and is considered as responsible for the regular introduction of new H5N1 viruses. The general objective of this study was to get a better understanding of this illegal trade (organization, volume, actors involved and drivers) to propose adequate preventive and control options. The information was also used to qualitatively evaluate the risk of exposure of susceptible poultry to HPAI H5N1 virus introduced from China by illegally traded poultry. We found that the main products imported from China are spent hens, day-old chicks (DOCs) and ducklings; spent hens being introduced in very large number. The drivers of this trade are multiple: economic (especially for spent hens) but also technical (demand for improved genetic potential for DOC and ducklings). Furthermore, these introductions also meet a high consumer demand at certain periods of the year. We also found that spatial dispersion of a batch of poultry illegally introduced from China is extensive and rapid, making any prediction of possible new outbreaks very hazardous. Finally, a risk mitigation plan should include measures to tackle the drivers of this trade or to legally organize it, to limit the threat to the local poultry sector. It is also essential for traders to be progressively better organized and biosecure and for hygienic practices to be enforced, as our study confirmed that at-risk behaviours are still very common among this profession. PMID:25268992

  11. Development of a real-time chemical injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical injection system is an effective method to minimize chemical waste and reduce the environmental pollution in pesticide spray applications. A microprocessor controlled injection system implementing a ceramic piston metering pump was developed to accurately dispense chemicals to be mixed wi...

  12. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kurscheid, Johanna; Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Suadnya, Wayan; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Fenwick, Stanley; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurscheid, Johanna; Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Suadnya, Wayan; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Fenwick, Stanley; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L

    2015-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19–81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths

  14. The effect of air injection on the parameters of swirling flow in a Turbine-99 draft tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripkin, S. G.; Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    Results of experimental modeling of a swirling flow in a Turbine-99 draft tube prototype are presented. The influence of gas phase injection into the flow has been studied. Experiments were performed on a closed hydrodynamic setup containing a working stage with the Turbine-99 draft tube geometry. It is established that the gas content affects the flow structure. Gas injection leads to a change in the frequency of precession of the vortex core formed in the draft tube cone, which is not related to an increase in the gas-liquid mixture flow rate.

  15. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  16. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  17. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    PubMed Central

    Löndt, Brandon Z.; Núñez, Alejandro.; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J.; Russell, Christine; Richard‐ Löndt, Angela C.; Brown, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. Objectives  To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Methods  Pekin ducks in two age‐matched groups (n = 18), 8 and 12 weeks old (wo) were each infected with 106 EID50/0·1 ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2·2). Each day for 5 days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs collected, before three birds from each group were selected randomly for post‐mortem examination. Tissue samples were collected for examination by real‐time RT‐PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results  Severe clinical signs, including incoordination and torticollis were observed in the 8 wo group resulting in 100% mortality by 4 dpi. Mild clinical signs were observed in the 12 wo group with no mortality. Real‐time RT‐PCR and IHC results demonstrated the systemic spread of H5N1 virus in birds of both age groups. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs, with similar levels of shedding detected in both age groups. Variations in level and temporal dissemination of virus within tissues of older ducks, and the presence of the virus in brain and heart were observed, which coincided with the appearance of clinical signs preceding death in younger birds. Conclusions  These results are consistent with reports of natural infections of wild waterfowl and poultry possibly indicating an age‐related association with dissemination and clinical outcome in ducks following infection with H5N1 HPAI virus. PMID:20021503

  18. Injection of lightning-produced NOx, water vapor, wildfire emissions, and stratospheric air to the UT/LS as observed from DC3 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Pucik, T.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Heimerl, K.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D. P.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Schwartz, M. J.; Barth, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    During the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment in summer 2012, airborne measurements were performed in the anvil inflow/outflow of thunderstorms over the Central U.S. by three research aircraft. A general overview of Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)-Falcon in situ measurements (CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, and black carbon) is presented. In addition, a joint flight on 29 May 2012 in a convective line of isolated supercell storms over Oklahoma is described based on Falcon, National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream-V (NSF/NCAR-GV), and NASA-DC8 trace species in situ and lidar measurements. During DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state's history were burning, which strongly influenced air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Lofted biomass burning (BB) plumes were frequently observed in the mid- and upper troposphere (UT) in the vicinity of deep convection. The impact of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) and BB emissions was analyzed on the basis of mean vertical profiles and tracer-tracer correlations (CO-NOx and O3-NO). On a regular basis DC3 thunderstorms penetrated the tropopause and injected large amounts of LNOx into the lower stratosphere (LS). Inside convection, low O3 air (~80 nmol mol-1) from the lower troposphere was rapidly transported to the UT/LS region. Simultaneously, O3-rich stratospheric air masses (~100-200 nmol mol-1) were present around and below the thunderstorm outflow and enhanced UT-O3 mixing ratios significantly. A 10 year global climatology of H2O data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder confirmed that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  19. Autoignition in a premixing-prevaporizing fuel duct using 3 different fuel injection systems at inlet air temperatures to 1250 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions were determined in a continuous-flow, premixing-prevaporizing duct at which autoignition occurred. Test conditions were representative of an advanced, regenerative-cycle, automotive gas turbine. The test conditions inlet air temperatures from 600 to 1250 K (a vitiated preheater was used), pressures from 170 to 600 kPa, air velocities of 10 to 30 m/sec, equivalence ratios from 0.3 to 1.0, mixing lengths from 10 to 60 cm, and residence times of 2 to 100 ms. The fuel was diesel number 2. The duct was insulated and had an inside diameter of 12 cm. Three different fuel injection systems were used: One was a single simplex pressure atomizer, and the other two were multiple-source injectors. The data obtained with the simplex and one of the multiple-source injectors agreed satisfactorily with the references and correlated with an Arrenhius expression. The data obtained with the other multiple source injector, which used multiple cones to improve the fuel-air distribution, did not correlate well with residence time.

  20. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  1. Cartilage Tissue Engineering Application of Injectable Gelatin Hydrogel with In Situ Visible-Light-Activated Gelation Capability in Both Air and Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hang; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Alexander, Peter G.; Beck, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells encapsulated in a chondrogenically supportive, three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold represents a promising, regenerative approach to articular cartilage repair. In this study, we have developed an injectable, biodegradable methacrylated gelatin (mGL)–based hydrogel capable of rapid gelation via visible light (VL)–activated crosslinking in air or aqueous solution. The mild photocrosslinking conditions permitted the incorporation of cells during the gelation process. Encapsulated human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) showed high, long-term viability (up to 90 days) throughout the scaffold. To assess the applicability of the mGL hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering, we have evaluated the efficacy of chondrogenesis of the encapsulated hBMSCs, using hBMSCs seeded in agarose as control. The ability of hBMSC-laden mGL constructs to integrate with host tissues after implantation was further investigated utilizing an in vitro cartilage repair model. The results showed that the mGL hydrogel, which could be photopolymerized in air and aqueous solution, supports hBMSC growth and TGF-β3-induced chondrogenesis. Compared with agarose, mGL constructs laden with hBMSCs are mechanically stronger with time, and integrate well with native cartilage tissue upon implantation based on push-out mechanical testing. VL-photocrosslinked mGL scaffold thus represents a promising scaffold for cell-based repair and resurfacing of articular cartilage defects. PMID:24575844

  2. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.

  3. Injection of Lightning-Produced NOx, Water Vapor, Wildfire Emissions, and Stratospheric Air to the UT/LS as Observed from DC3 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Hair, J. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Rappenglück, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Heimerl, K.; Pucik, T.; Fütterer, D.; Ackermann, L.; Betten, D.; Butler, C. F.; Barth, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    In summer 2012 the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign investigated a number of severe thunderstorms over the Central U.S. and their impact on the upper tropospheric (UT) - lower stratospheric (LS) composition and chemistry. In addition, during DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state history were burning, influencing the air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Besides three instrumented aircraft platforms measuring a variety of trace species in-situ and remotely (e.g. CO, O3, SO2, NOx, VOC, CN, and black carbon), dense networks of ground-based instruments (e.g. radar and lightning) complemented the airborne measurements. Satellite measurements (e.g. GOES, MODIS, and GOME-2) and model forecasts (e.g. WRF-Chem and FLEXPART) were used to monitor the rapid development of the thunderstorms (which frequently developed huge anvils with overshooting tops) and the spread of smoke plumes in the vicinity of the storms. In-situ probing of fresh and aged (12-24 h) anvil outflows showed injection of lightning-produced NOx and wildfire emissions into the UTLS. Vertical cross sections of lidar and Doppler radar measurements supported these observations and gave detailed information on dynamical processes within and in the vicinity of the storms. Besides very strong updrafts in the storm core, surrounding downdrafts caused a direct in-mixing of O3-rich LS air masses into the boundaries of the anvil outflow. The wrapping of O3-rich LS air masses around and below the anvil outflow was also a prominent feature in several storms. The in-situ probing of the aged anvil outflow showed a pronounced influence on the UT composition and chemistry with average O3 enhancements in the range of 20-50 nmol mol-1 and evidence of new particle formation. A 10-year global climatology of H2O data from Aura-MLS confirms that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  4. A Study of a Striated Positive Column after Ethanol Impurity Injection in an Air DC Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak, Laura; Post Zwicker, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    In a glow discharge when ethanol (CH3CH2OH) was injected, a series of atypical striations formed through the positive column. When the pressure decreased as the ethanol evaporated and was evacuated by the vacuum pump, this behavior decayed away until only an anode glow or normal discharge remained. Varying interelectrode spacings and quantities of ethanol yielded similar patterns. The typical evolution as the pressure decreased consisted of a visible traveling wave traveling from the anode to the cathode followed by numerous, thin ( 1.6 mm) striations evenly spaced down the entire length of the positive column. These, shifted back toward the anode and transformed into bent striations with the tip of the 'V' pointing toward the cathode, and finally, the 'V' striations grouped into fours and took on the appearance of beats. The unusual 'V' striations may be due in part to a contraction of the column, causing the equipotential surfaces to shift from smooth convex to the observed striation shape. The conditions for this contraction effect include a nonlinearly increasing dependence of electron production rate on electron density and a bulk recombination rate higher than that at the tube walls. Visible emission spectra indicated the presence of carbon monoxide (CO), signifying that the striations are due to not only vibrational excitation of the ethanol molecule but also to decomposition and subsequent excitation of the decomposition products as well. One possible mechanism of decomposition is the formation of a radical cation from the ethanol molecule and the ensuing loss of a proton to yield formaldehyde; this then would follow an analogous decomposition to produce carbon monoxide. Thus, there may exist additional charged species which can then contribute to the unique observations. Further analysis, if possible, will include higher temporal resolution spectroscopy and a detailed model of the positive column under these specific conditions.

  5. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  6. Clade-level Spatial Modelling of HPAI H5N1 Dynamics in the Mekong Region Reveals New Patterns and Associations with Agro-Ecological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Artois, Jean; Newman, Scott H.; Dhingra, Madhur S.; Chaiban, Celia; Linard, Catherine; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella; Fusaro, Alice; Xenarios, Ioannis; Engler, Robin; Liechti, Robin; Kuznetsov, Dmitri; Pham, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tung; Pham, Van Dong; Castellan, David; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Inui, Ken; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Asia since 2003 and diversified into several genetic lineages, or clades. Although the spatial distribution of its outbreaks was extensively studied, differences in clades were never previously taken into account. We developed models to quantify associations over time and space between different HPAI H5N1 viruses from clade 1, 2.3.4 and 2.3.2 and agro-ecological factors. We found that the distribution of clades in the Mekong region from 2004 to 2013 was strongly regionalised, defining specific epidemiological zones, or epizones. Clade 1 became entrenched in the Mekong Delta and was not supplanted by newer clades, in association with a relatively higher presence of domestic ducks. In contrast, two new clades were introduced (2.3.4 and 2.3.2) in northern Viet Nam and were associated with higher chicken density and more intensive chicken production systems. We suggest that differences in poultry production systems in these different epizones may explain these associations, along with differences in introduction pressure from neighbouring countries. The different distribution patterns found at the clade level would not be otherwise apparent through analysis treating all outbreaks equally, which requires improved linking of disease outbreak records and genetic sequence data. PMID:27453195

  7. Clade-level Spatial Modelling of HPAI H5N1 Dynamics in the Mekong Region Reveals New Patterns and Associations with Agro-Ecological Factors.

    PubMed

    Artois, Jean; Newman, Scott H; Dhingra, Madhur S; Chaiban, Celia; Linard, Catherine; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella; Fusaro, Alice; Xenarios, Ioannis; Engler, Robin; Liechti, Robin; Kuznetsov, Dmitri; Pham, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tung; Pham, Van Dong; Castellan, David; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Inui, Ken; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Asia since 2003 and diversified into several genetic lineages, or clades. Although the spatial distribution of its outbreaks was extensively studied, differences in clades were never previously taken into account. We developed models to quantify associations over time and space between different HPAI H5N1 viruses from clade 1, 2.3.4 and 2.3.2 and agro-ecological factors. We found that the distribution of clades in the Mekong region from 2004 to 2013 was strongly regionalised, defining specific epidemiological zones, or epizones. Clade 1 became entrenched in the Mekong Delta and was not supplanted by newer clades, in association with a relatively higher presence of domestic ducks. In contrast, two new clades were introduced (2.3.4 and 2.3.2) in northern Viet Nam and were associated with higher chicken density and more intensive chicken production systems. We suggest that differences in poultry production systems in these different epizones may explain these associations, along with differences in introduction pressure from neighbouring countries. The different distribution patterns found at the clade level would not be otherwise apparent through analysis treating all outbreaks equally, which requires improved linking of disease outbreak records and genetic sequence data. PMID:27453195

  8. Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeCain, Gary D.

    1998-01-01

    Air-injection and tracer testing were conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from August 1994 to July 1991. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Efficacy of a recombinant HVT-H5 vaccine against challenge with two genetically divergent Indonesian HPAI H5N1 strains.

    PubMed

    Soejoedono, Retno D; Murtini, Sri; Palya, Vilmos; Felföldi, Balázs; Mató, Tamás; Gardin, Yannick

    2012-12-01

    The swift evolution rate of avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus demands constant efforts to update inactivated vaccines to match antigenically with the emerging new field virus strains. Recently, a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT)-AI vaccine, rHVT-H5, expressing the HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 clade 2.2 A/Swan/Hungary/499/ 2006 strain inserted into FC-126 strain of HVT vector, has been developed to combat current threats in poultry industry. Here, we present the results of two trials where rHVT-H5 was tested alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines (the latter vaccines contained antigens produced by using a clade 2.1.3 HPAI H5N1 virus [A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007] in the first trial or mixture of antigen produced by strain A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007 and A/Ck/Banten-Tangerang/2010 [bivalent vaccine] for second trial) in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) carrying maternally derived antibodies to H5N1 and then challenged with Indonesian HPAI H5N1 field isolates. The effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated on the basis of clinical protection (morbidity and mortality) and measurement of virus shedding after challenge. Immune response to vaccination was followed by serology. In the first experiment, chickens were vaccinated at the day of hatch with rHVT-H5 alone (Group 1) or combined with inactivated vaccine at day old (Group 2) or at 10 days of age (Group 3). The chickens along with nonvaccinated hatch-mates were challenged at 28 days of age with the HPAI H5N1 field isolate dade 2.1.3 A/Chicken/WestJava-Subang/29/2007. Eighty, 100%, and 80% clinical protection was recorded in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A similar experiment was performed a second time, but the chicks in Group 3 received the inactivated vaccine earlier, at 7 days of age. Challenge was performed at 28 days of age using a different H5N1 isolate, clade 2.1.3 A/Ck/Purwakarta-Cilingga/142/10. Clinical protection achieved in the second trial was 95

  10. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  11. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  12. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  13. Chimeric Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for H5N1 HPAI and ND Confers Protection against a Lethal Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA).

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA) makes the virus surveillance difficult. In this study, we developed a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine that is composed of the hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix 1 (M1) proteins of the H5N1 HPAI virus (HPAIV) and a chimeric protein containing the ectodomain of the ND virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the HPAIV HA protein. A single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers against H5N1 HPAI virus and anti-NDV antibody detected in ELISA and protected chickens against subsequent lethal HPAIV and NDV infections. Furthermore, we could easily perform DIVA test using the commercial NP-cELISA tests against HPAIV and HI assay against NDV. These results strongly suggest that utilization of chimeric VLP vaccine in poultry species would be a promising strategy for the better control of HPAI and ND simultaneously. PMID:27626934

  14. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  15. Emergence and dissemination of clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx influenza viruses-how is the Asian HPAI H5 lineage maintained.

    PubMed

    Claes, Filip; Morzaria, Subhash P; Donis, Ruben O

    2016-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses containing the A/goose/Guangdong/96-like (GD/96) HA genes circulated in birds from four continents in the course of 2015 (Jan to Sept). A new HA clade, termed 2.3.4.4, emerged around 2010-2011 in China and revealed a novel propensity to reassort with NA subtypes other than N1, unlike dozens of earlier clades. Two subtypes, H5N6 and H5N8, have spread to countries in Asia (H5N6), Europe and North America (H5N8). Infections by clade 2.3.4.4 viruses are characterized by low virulence in poultry and some wild birds, contributing to wide geographical dissemination of the viruses via poultry trade and wild bird migration. PMID:26991931

  16. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  17. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  18. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  19. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  20. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  1. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  2. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  3. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  4. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  5. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  6. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  7. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  8. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  9. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  10. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  11. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  12. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  14. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  15. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  17. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  18. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  19. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  20. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  1. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  2. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  3. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  4. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  6. Possible Association of IFN-γ Gene -316A/G SNP with Humoral Immune Response to Killed H5N1 HPAI Vaccine in a Red Junglefowl Population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Sun, Ting-Ting; Ma, Zhi-Liang; Lu, Qiong-Fen; Hu, Wen-Li; Jian, Zong-Hui; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Pei-Fu

    2015-11-01

    To understand the role of interferon (IFN)-γ gene (IFNG) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the resistance to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), we determined the SNPs, the log2-transformed specific antibody titers, and ex vivo recall antigen-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 62 red junglefowls (Gallus gallus) immunized twice with inactivated H5N1 HPAI vaccine. Consequently, 52 SNPs were detected in the amplified 1137-bp length covering the promoter region and all exons, with +2133A/T SNP in the coding DNA sequence that caused a missense mutation and was identified in G. gallus for the first time. For -316A/G SNP genotypes, the chi-squared test showed that the bird sample was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=0.369>0.05), and the least squares analysis revealed an increasing tendency in the antibody titers with G to A substitution so that a significant difference occurred between the AA genotype (8.031±0.247) and the GG genotype (6.571±0.528) (P=0.015<0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0004-0.0866), as basically consistent with the antigen-induced IFN-γ protein expression, which indicated possible association of the -316A/G SNP with a secondary humoral immune response to the HPAI vaccine in the bird population. These findings may help to improve genetic resistance using cross-breeding and enhance HPAI vaccine-induced immunity in chicken production. PMID:26154533

  7. Agro-ecological features of the introduction and spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Giuliano; Ilemobade, Albert; Le Brun, Yvon; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Nigeria was the first African country to report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus outbreaks in February 2006 and has since been the most severely hit country in sub-Saharan Africa. A retrospective survey carried out towards the end of 2007, coupled with follow-up spatial analysis, support the notion that the H5N1 virus may have spread from rural areas of northern Nigeria near wetlands frequented by palaearctic migratory birds. Possibly, this could have happened already during November to December 2005, one or two months prior to the first officially reported outbreak in a commercial poultry farm (Kaduna state). It is plausible that backyard poultry played a more important role in the H5N1 propagation than thought previously. Farming landscapes with significant numbers of domestic ducks may have helped to bridge the geographical and ecological gap between the waterfowl in the wetlands and the densely populated poultry rich states in north-central Nigeria, where the virus had more sizeable, visible impact. PMID:19021104

  8. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  9. Development of an empirical model of a variable speed vapor injection compressor used in a Modelica-based dynamic model of a residential air source heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechesne, Bertrand; Bertagnolio, Stephane; Lemort, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a steady-state model of a variable speed vapour injection scroll compressor. Two compressors were investigated. The developed empirical model is based on five dimensionless polynomials that were fitted using experimental data from a 2.7kW scroll compressor. A second set of data was used to show the prediction of the presented model for an other device which exhibits a different swept volume. In both cases, the suction and injection mass flow rate were respectively predicted with a coefficient of determination equal to 99.9 and 94.3% and for the consumed power, 98.4% and 95.6%. A Modelica based dynamic model is then presented. The steady-state validation of the main components models is performed. Finally the control of the cycle using two PID controllers is presented and commented.

  10. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  11. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  12. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  13. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  14. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  15. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  16. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  17. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, w...

  19. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  20. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  1. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  2. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  3. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  4. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected directly into a vein through ... catheter or added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter into a ...

  5. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  6. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  7. Terbutaline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Terbutaline injection is used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Terbutaline is in a class of medications called beta ...

  8. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron ... mention any of the following: certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide ( ...

  9. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  10. Insulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin); octreotide (Sandostatin);oral ... cramps abnormal heartbeat large weight gain in a short period of time swelling of the arms, hands, ...

  11. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a serious allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing or swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, ... the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes difficulty swallowing or breathing Fondaparinux injection may cause other side ...

  12. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  13. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  14. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... home. When certolizumab injection is used to treat Crohn's disease, it is usually given every two weeks for ...

  15. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  16. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  17. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  18. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  20. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  1. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  2. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  3. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  4. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  5. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  6. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  7. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  8. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  9. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  10. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  11. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  12. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  13. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes with needles attached, and alcohol swab pads. Throw away needles, syringes, and vials ...

  14. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  15. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  16. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  17. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  18. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  19. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  20. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  1. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing) in people with allergic asthma ( ... receiving a dose of omalizumab injection shortness of breath coughing up blood skin sores severe pain, numbness ...

  2. Necitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; loss of consciousness; or fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat.Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving necitumumab injection.

  3. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. Dolasetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. ... stiff or twitching muscles seizures coma (loss of consciousness) Dolasetron injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  4. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used together with other medications to treat cervical cancer (cancer that begins in the opening of the ... days. When topotecan injection is used to treat cervical cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  5. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  6. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediate-release injection is also used to control diarrhea and flushing caused by carcinoid tumors (slow-growing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away: diarrhea constipation pale, bulky, foul-smelling stools constantly feeling ...

  7. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  8. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  9. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  10. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  11. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  12. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called ... injected once a day. For some types of brain tumors, temozolomide is given daily for 42 to 49 ...

  13. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a person ... Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that developed in people who were in a ...

  14. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  15. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent ... tissues that may be caused when an anthracycline chemotherapy medication such as daunorubicin (Daunoxome, Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Doxil), ...

  16. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  17. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid ... a class of medications called anthracenediones. Mitoxantrone treats MS by stopping certain cells of the immune system ...

  18. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to dexrazoxane injection or any other medications.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  19. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  20. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  1. Exenatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... month. Exenatide extended-release solution is injected once weekly at any time of day without regard to ... you remember it and then continue your regular weekly schedule. However, if there are less than 3 ...

  2. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  3. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH; a rare inherited condition that ...

  4. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  5. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  6. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  7. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment.You may receive methylprednisolone injection in a hospital or medical facility, or you may be given ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  8. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have.You may receive ampicillin injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  9. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding fever, cough, flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, burning on urination, worsening skin problems, and other signs of infection rash blistering or peeling skin Romidepsin injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  10. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  11. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is for intravenous (into a vein) use only. Giving ganciclovir through intramuscular (into a muscle) or ... the storage of ganciclovir solution. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you ...

  12. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  13. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  14. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  15. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injections (Abilify Maintena, Aristada) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  16. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  17. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat in the stomach area in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have lipodystrophy (increased body ... injection is in a class of medications called human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) analogs. It works ...

  18. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  19. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  20. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes are accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to ... stomach pain sudden weight loss paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes shortness of breath ...

  1. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. ...

  2. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for CML and can no longer benefit from these medications or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is ... side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: ...

  3. Basiliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  4. Metoclopramide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve symptoms caused by slow stomach emptying in people who have diabetes. These symptoms include ... When metoclopramide injection is used to treat slowed stomach emptying due to diabetes, it may be given up ...

  5. Intrathymic Injection.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Intrathymic injection is used in several T cell-associated immunological studies to deliver cells or other substances directly into the thymus. Here, we describe the intrathymic injection procedure involving surgical incision of the mouse with or without a thoracotomy. Though this procedure can result in poor recovery, postsurgical complications, and distress to the animal, it is actually a simple procedure that can be carried out relatively easily and quickly with experience. PMID:26294410

  6. The flow field of an underexpanded H2 jet coaxially injected into a hot free or ducted supersonic jet of air or nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data obtained in an investigation of the mixing of an underexpanded hydrogen jet in a supersonic flow both with and without combustion are presented. Tests were conducted in a Mach 2 test stream with both air and nitrogen as test media. Total temperature of the test stream was 2170 K, and static exit pressure was about one atmosphere. The static pressure at the exit of the hydrogen injector's Mach 2 nozzle was about two atmospheres. Primary measurements included shadowgraphs and pitot pressure surveys of the flow field. Pitot surveys and wall static pressures were measured for the case where the entire flow was shrouded. The results are compared to similar experimental data and theoretical predictions for the matched pressure case.

  7. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  8. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that causes loss of the ability to see straight ahead and may make it more ... used to treat macular edema after retinal vein occlusion (an eye disease ...

  9. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has already been treated with other medications. Cabazitaxel injection is in a class of medications called microtubule inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.

  10. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  11. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  12. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sudden wave of mild or intense body heat) decreased sexual ability or desire leg or joint pain breast pain pain, itching, swelling, or redness at the place where injection was given difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  13. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  14. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  15. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: allergy shots (a series of injections given regularly to prevent the body from developing ...

  16. Famotidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Famotidine injection is in a class of ...

  17. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a class of ...

  18. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  19. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be given to you two times a day for 2 to 3 weeks, and then once a day, 5 to 7 days of each week.Your dose of ganciclovir will ... may give you several doses (enough for a day's supply) of premixed ganciclovir injection solution at one ...

  20. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  1. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  2. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Dulaglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  3. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Liraglutide injection also slows the emptying of the ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  4. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Albiglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  5. Supercritical fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  6. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  7. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  8. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  9. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  10. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  11. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  12. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  13. Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bishai, M.N.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

  14. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age; episodes of symptoms in people who have multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do ... When corticotropin repository injection is used to treat multiple sclerosis, it is usually injected once a day for ...

  15. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  16. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  17. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Botox® Cosmetic ... OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox, Botox Cosmetic) is used to treat a number of conditions.OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia ( ...

  18. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  19. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  20. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  1. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  4. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck ... is injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of ...

  6. Air-Lubricated Lead Screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Air lubricated lead screw and nut carefully machined to have closely matched closely fitting threads. Compressed air injected into two plenums encircle nut and flow through orifices to lubricate mating threads. Originally developed to position precisely interferometer retroreflector for airborne measurement of solar infrared radiation, device now has positioning accuracy of 0.25 micron.

  7. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  8. Simulated afterburner performance with hydrogen peroxide injection for thrust augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, Allen J; Grobman, Jack S

    1956-01-01

    Combustion performance of three afterburner configurations was evaluated at simulated altitude flight conditions with liquid augmentation to the primary combustor. Afterburner combustion efficiency and stability were better with injection of high-strength hydrogen peroxide than with no injection or with water injection. Improvements were observed in afterburner configurations with and without flameholders and in a short-length afterburner. At a peroxide-air ratio of 0.3, combustion was stable and 85 to 90 percent efficient in all configurations tested. Calculated augmented net-thrust ratios for peroxide injection with afterburning were approximately 60 percent greater than those for water injection.

  9. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  10. A comparison of two depot injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Mac Gabhann, L

    In the study reported in this article, the researchers attempted to raise awareness among practitioners of the importance of intramuscular drug administration technique in reducing injection site complications following antipsychotic depot injections. They also aimed to improve and expand the scope of present practice by comparing the effect of two accepted techniques, the 'air bubble' and 'Z-track' on these complications, and demonstrate that the air bubbles technique is more effective in reducing seepage and causes less discomfort. A 'within subjects' design was used, and Likert scales for scoring subjective and objective assessment of complications were established and scored at each injection. The study showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of either technique. PMID:9732632

  11. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  12. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1939-01-01

    The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.

  16. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Class V injection wells are also described in 40 CFR 144.81. Class V wells include: (1) Air... hazardous waste beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter (1/4) mile of the well bore... inject fluids beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter mile of the well bore,...

  17. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... types of Class V injection wells are also described in 40 CFR 144.81. Class V wells include: (1) Air... hazardous waste beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter (1/4) mile of the well bore... inject fluids beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter mile of the well bore,...

  18. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... types of Class V injection wells are also described in 40 CFR 144.81. Class V wells include: (1) Air... hazardous waste beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter (1/4) mile of the well bore... inject fluids beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter mile of the well bore,...

  19. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... types of Class V injection wells are also described in 40 CFR 144.81. Class V wells include: (1) Air... hazardous waste beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter (1/4) mile of the well bore... inject fluids beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter mile of the well bore,...

  20. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... types of Class V injection wells are also described in 40 CFR 144.81. Class V wells include: (1) Air... hazardous waste beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter (1/4) mile of the well bore... inject fluids beneath the lowermost formation containing, within one quarter mile of the well bore,...

  1. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  2. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  3. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  4. The presence of monocytes enhances the susceptibility of B cells to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus possibly through the increased expression of α2,3 SA receptor.

    PubMed

    Lersritwimanmaen, Patharapan; Na-Ek, Prasit; Thanunchai, Maytawan; Thewsoongnoen, Jutarat; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Wiboon-ut, Suwimon; Mahanonda, Rangsini; Thitithanyanont, Arunee

    2015-08-28

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus causes severe systemic infection in avian and mammalian species, including humans by first targeting immune cells. This subsequently renders the innate and adaptive immune responses less active, thus allowing dissemination of the virus to systemic organs. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of H5N1, this study aims to determine the susceptibility of human PBMCs to the H5N1 virus and explore the factors which influence this susceptibility. We found that PBMCs were a target of H5N1 infection, and that monocytes and B cells were populations which were clearly the most susceptible. Analysis of PBMC subpopulations showed that isolated monocytes and monocytes residing in whole PBMCs had comparable percentages of infection (28.97 ± 5.54% vs 22.23 ± 5.14%). In contrast, isolated B cells were infected to a much lower degree than B cells residing in a mixture of whole PBMCs (0.88 ± 0.34% vs 34.87 ± 4.63%). Different susceptibility levels of B cells for these tested conditions spurred us to explore the B cell-H5N1 interaction mechanisms. Here, we first demonstrated that monocytes play a crucial role in the enhancement of B cell susceptibility to H5N1 infection. Although the actual mechanism by which this enhancement occurs remains in question, α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA), known for influenza virus receptors, could be a responsible factor for the greater susceptibility of B cells, as it was highly expressed on the surface of B cells upon H5N1 infection of B cell/monocyte co-cultures. Our findings reveal some of the factors involved with the permissiveness of human immune cells to H5N1 virus and provide a better understanding of the tropism of H5N1 in immune cells. PMID:26187669

  5. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  6. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  7. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  8. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  9. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.1662a, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... follows: (a) It is used for the treatment of air sacculitis (air-sac disease, chronic respiratory disease... hours, diagnosis and therapy should be reevaluated. (v) When injecting intramuscularly in...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.1662a, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... follows: (a) It is used for the treatment of air sacculitis (air-sac disease, chronic respiratory disease... hours, diagnosis and therapy should be reevaluated. (v) When injecting intramuscularly in...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.1662a, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... follows: (a) It is used for the treatment of air sacculitis (air-sac disease, chronic respiratory disease... hours, diagnosis and therapy should be reevaluated. (v) When injecting intramuscularly in...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.1662a, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... follows: (a) It is used for the treatment of air sacculitis (air-sac disease, chronic respiratory disease... hours, diagnosis and therapy should be reevaluated. (v) When injecting intramuscularly in...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.1662a, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... follows: (a) It is used for the treatment of air sacculitis (air-sac disease, chronic respiratory disease... hours, diagnosis and therapy should be reevaluated. (v) When injecting intramuscularly in...

  14. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  15. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. PMID:26027488

  16. Tevatron reverse injection

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-25

    In the new injection scenario antiprotons are injected onto a helical orbit in the Tevatron in order to avoid the detrimental effects of the beam-beam interaction at 150 GeV. The new scenario required changes in the tuning procedure. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning, therefore the antiproton injection line has to be tuned with protons by reverse injecting them from the Tevatron into the Main Pang (MR). Previously, the reverse injection was performed in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS dock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus marking it possible to inject 6 proton batches and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR.

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  18. Spin injection into semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, M.; Hübner, J.; Hägele, D.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Rühle, W. W.; Ashenford, D. E.; Lunn, B.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spin-polarized electrons is presently one of the major challenges in semiconductor spin electronics. We propose and demonstrate a most efficient spin injection using diluted magnetic semiconductors as spin aligners. Time-resolved photoluminescence with a Cd0.98Mn0.02Te/CdTe structure proves the feasibility of the spin-alignment mechanism.

  19. Film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer with injection through holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the local film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer downstream of injection of air through discrete holes into a turbulent boundary layer of air on a flat plate is reported. Secondary air is injected through a single hole normal to the main flow and through both a single hole and a row of holes spaced at three diameter intervals with an injection angle of 35 deg to the main flow. Two values of the mainstream Reynolds number are used; the blowing rate is varied from 0.1 to 2.0. Photographs of a carbon dioxide-water fog injected into the main flow at an angle of 90 deg are also presented to show interaction between the jet and mainstream.

  20. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  1. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  2. Flow visualization of film cooling with spanwise injection from a small array of holes and compound-angle injection from a large array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a smooth, flat plate was studied for two configurations: (1) spanwise injection through a four hole staggered array; and (2) compound angle injection through a 49 hole staggered array. The ratio of boundary layer thicknesses to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. Streaklines showing the motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles that followed the flow field.

  3. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  4. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  5. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  6. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging. Final report, July 1990-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, N.J.; Barkhimer, R.L.; Steinmeyer, D.C.; Kelly, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine. Electronic fuel injection, Turbocharging, Diesel combustion, Cold starting, Flame photography.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study of flow through turbine cascades with coolant flow injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study is presented which deals with the change in the outlet flow conditions from a turbine blade row due to coolant air injection through slots. The analysis applies to small secondary to primary mass flow ratios, taking into consideration the change in boundary layer development resulting from injection. The effects of injection location, injection flow angle and injected air momentum flux are investigated. The results of the present analysis are compared with the values obtained using the mixing theory method and experimental data from cold flow tests in a turbine cascade tunnel.

  8. Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1999-05-01

    On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

  9. Improved electron injection and transport by use of baking soda as a low-cost, air-stable, n-dopant for solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earmme, Taeshik; Jenekhe, Samson A.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) is found to be an efficient low-cost, air-stable, and environmentally friendly n-dopant for electron-transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). A 2.0-fold enhancement in power efficiency of blue PhOLEDs is observed by use of NaHCO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) ETL. The bulk conductivity of NaHCO3-doped BPhen film is increased by 5 orders of magnitude. Enhanced performance of PhOLEDs is similarly observed by use of NaHCO3-doped 1,3,5-tris(m-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene ETL. These results demonstrate that sodium bicarbonate is an effective n-dopant in organic electronics.

  10. Evaluation of centrifugal compressor performance with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L; Hamrick, Joseph T; Withee, Joseph R , Jr

    1951-01-01

    The effects of water injection on a compressor are presented. To determine the effects of varying water-air ratio, the compressor was operated at a constant equivalent impeller speed over a range of water-air ratios and weight flows. Operation over a range of weight flows at one water-air ratio and two inlet air temperatures was carried out to obtain an indication of the effects of varying inlet air temperature. Beyond a water-air ratio of 0.03 there was no increase in maximum air-weight flow, a negligible rise in peak total-pressure ratio, and a decrease in peak adiabatic efficiency. An increase in inlet air temperature resulted in an increase in the magnitude of evaporation. An analysis of data indicated that the magnitude of evaporation within the compressor impeller was small.

  11. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  12. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  13. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  14. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ... syringe before injecting it. Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ...

  15. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. If you experience a severe reaction, ...

  16. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... on dialysis. Ferric carboxymaltose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... rapid, weak pulse; chest pain; or loss of consciousness. If you experience a severe reaction, your doctor ...

  17. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's body) ... wheezing difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness lack of energy dizziness fainting Epoetin alfa injection may cause other ...

  18. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  19. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Amphotericin B Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by slowing the growth of fungi ... amikacin, gentamicin, or tobramycin (Bethkis, Kitabis Pak, Tobi); antifungals such as clotrimazole, fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Onmel, Sporanox), ...

  1. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's ... injection is used to decrease the risk that blood transfusions will be required due to surgery, it is ...

  2. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may tell you not to use darbepoetin alfa injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  3. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in people with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  4. Insulin Lispro Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... if it is colored, cloudy, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin lispro suspension, the ...

  5. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  6. Ceftazidime and Avibactam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may receive ceftazidime and avibactam injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  7. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure you are not having a serious reaction to the medication. You will be given other medications 30 minutes before your infusion to prevent reactions to sipuleucel-T injection. Tell your doctor or ...

  8. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  9. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also used to temporarily smooth frown lines (wrinkles between the eyebrows). AbobotulinumtoxinA injection is in a ... to treat excessive sweating, many types of facial wrinkles, anal fissures, and to prevent headaches in patients ...

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys to stop working) who are on dialysis and are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, ... gluconate injection is usually given during 8 consecutive dialysis sessions for a total of 8 doses. If ...

  11. A comparative study of depot injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Quartermaine, S; Taylor, R

    Depot injections of long-acting neuroleptic drugs, by maintaining a consistent drug regime, together with regular contact with health-care professionals, are an important factor in helping psychiatric patients who live in the community. As these injections are administered over a long period--often for years--it is important that care is taken to minimise discomfort and to reduce the incidence of problems at the injection site. Seepage of even small amounts of the medication will result in an inaccurate dose being absorbed and, owing to the irritant nature of many of these drugs, leakage into subcutaneous tissue and on to the skin surface can cause pain, irritation and lesions. This study was set up to compare two techniques of administering deep intramuscular injections to determine which best fulfilled the criteria of preventing seepage while causing as little discomfort as possible. The two methods used were the Z-track, which is standard practice in the UK, and the air bubble, which is widely taught and used in Canada and the USA. The study showed the air-bubble method to be significantly more effective at controlling seepage than the Z-track. PMID:7644369

  12. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  13. Combustion engine. [for air pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement for an internal combustion engine is provided in which one or more of the cylinders of the engine are used for generating hydrogen rich gases from hydrocarbon fuels, which gases are then mixed with air and injected into the remaining cylinders to be used as fuel. When heavy load conditions are encountered, hydrocarbon fuel may be mixed with the hydrogen rich gases and air and the mixture is then injected into the remaining cylinders as fuel.

  14. Simulator Of Rain In Flowing Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Richard M.; Cho, Young I.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Back, Lloyd H.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes relatively inexpensive apparatus that creates simulated precipitation from drizzle to heavy rain in flowing air. Small, positive-displacement pump and water-injecting device positioned at low-airspeed end of converging section of wind tunnel 10 in. in diameter. Drops injected by array entrained in flow of air as it accelerates toward narrower outlet, 15 in. downstream. Outlet 5 in. in diameter.

  15. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  16. Lean direct wall fuel injection method and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel combustion chamber, and a method of and a nozzle for mixing liquid fuel and air in the fuel combustion chamber in lean direct injection combustion for advanced gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines. Liquid fuel in a form of jet is injected directly into a cylindrical combustion chamber from the combustion chamber wall surface in a direction opposite to the direction of the swirling air at an angle of from about 50.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a tangential line of the cylindrical combustion chamber and at a fuel-lean condition, with a liquid droplet momentum to air momentum ratio in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.12. Advanced gas turbines benefit from lean direct wall injection combustion. The lean direct wall injection technique of the present invention provides fast, uniform, well-stirred mixing of fuel and air. In addition, in order to further improve combustion, the fuel can be injected at a venturi located in the combustion chamber at a point adjacent the air swirler.

  17. Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM2.5 during winter haze period around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival at Nanjing: Insights of source changes, air mass direction and firework particle injection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Li; Yin, Yan; Chen, Kui; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Yingjie; Shan, Yunpeng; Ji, Yaqin

    2015-07-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Nanjing around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF) and analyzed for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS. Comparison of PAH concentrations during different periods, with different air mass origins and under different pollution situations was done. Sources were analyzed by diagnostics ratios and principal component analysis (PCA). The threat of PAHs was assessed by BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The averaged PAHs for pre-SF, SF and after SF periods were 50.6, 17.2 and 29 ng m(-3), indicating the variations of PAH sources, with reduced traffic, industrial and construction activities during SF and gradually re-starting of them after-SF. According to PAH mass concentrations, their relative abundance to particles, ratio of PAHs (3-ring+4-ring)/PAHs(5-ring+6-ring), mass concentrations of combustion-derived and carcinogenic PAHs, fireworks burning is an important source for PAHs during SF. The ILCR values for Chinese New Year day were 0.68 and 3.3 per 100,000 exposed children and adults. It suggested the necessity of controlling fireworks burning during Chinese SF period which was always companied with serious regional haze pollution. PAH concentrations exhibited decreasing trend when air masses coming from the following directions as North China Plain (63.9 ng m(-3))>Central China (53.0 ng m(-3))>Shandong Peninsula (46.6 ng m(-3))>Northwest China (18.8 ng m(-3))>Sea (15.8 ng m(-3)). For different pollution situations, they decreased as haze (44.5 ng m(-3))>fog-haze (28.4 ng m(-3))>clear (12.2 ng m(-3))>fog day (9.2 ng m(-3)). Coal combustion, traffic emission, industrial processes and petroleum (only for non-SF holiday periodss) were the main sources of PM2.5 associated PAHs. Fireworks burning contributed 14.0% of PAHs during SF period. Directly measurement of PAHs from fireworks burning is urgently needed for source apportionment studies in

  18. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  19. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  20. [The injectables in urogynecology].

    PubMed

    Pifarotti, P; Gattei, U; Meschia, M

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of reports of injectable agents for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence. The real indication for injectables is intrinsic shincter deficiency (ISD) but urethral hypermobility is not a controindication. Six agents were reviewed: Teflon, autologous fat, collagen, silicone microparticles, silicone microballoons and pyrolytic carbon. Collagen was the most frequently reported agent and yielded 1 year cure/ improvement rate of 60-80%, but results de-creased significantly with longer term follow-up. Teflon has been used longer for the treatment of stress incontinence but both low long and short-term success rate and the reported complications such as particles migration have resulted in its lack of widespread acceptance. Autologous fat has been suggested as the natural injectable but yielded disappointing success rate. Injection of silicone microparticles was associated with a long-term success rate of about 70% in patients with ISD. Moreover, it is now injected without urethroscopy and this makes the procedure easier. Silicone microballoons and pyrolytic carbon have been recently introduced into clinical practice with a short-term success rate of about 70%. However, longer follow-up is needed. In conclusion, long-term durability, cost effectiveness and some safety issues still have to be addressed by further clinical trials. PMID:12711996

  1. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  2. Compressor Stall Recovery Through Tip Injection Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Ken L.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is a fundamental limit in the compressor design process. The development of robust techniques for increasing stability has several benefits: enabling higher loading and fewer blades, increasing safety throughout a mission, increasing tolerance to stage mismatch during part-speed operation and speed transients, and providing an opportunity to match stages at the compressor maximum efficiency point, thus reducing fuel burn. Mass injection upstream of the tip of a high-speed axial compressor rotor is a stability enhancement approach known to be effective in suppressing stall in tip-critical rotors if the injection is activated before stall occurs. This approach to stall suppression requires that a reliable stall warning system be available. Tests have recently been performed to assess whether steady injection can also be used to recover from fully developed stall. If mass injection is effective in recovering from stall quickly enough to avoid structural damage or loss of engine power, then a stall warning system may not be required. The stall recovery tests were performed on a transonic compressor rotor at its design tip speed of 1475 ft/sec using four injectors evenly spaced around the compressor case upstream of the rotor. The injectors were connected to an external air source. In an actual engine application, the injected air would be supplied with compressor bleed air. The injectors were isolated from the air source by a fast-acting butterfly valve. With the injectors turned off, the compressor was throttled into stall. Air injection was then activated with no change in throttle setting by opening the butterfly valve. The compressor recovered from stall at a fixed throttle setting with the aid of tip injection. The unsteady operating characteristic of the rotor was measured during these tests using high-response pressure sensors located upstream and downstream of the rotor. The figure shows the results, where the unsteady pressure and mass

  3. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  4. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  5. Pressurised air injury in a child.

    PubMed

    Poovazhagi, V; Thangavelu, S; Shanthi, S

    2011-08-01

    We report the case of a 7 year old girl, who sustained accidental injury following injection of pressurized air from a bicycle tyre air nozzle. She presented with generalized subcutaneous emphysema along with pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumorra-chis. The child was recovered completely on conservative management. PMID:21918272

  6. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  7. Shale fracturing injections at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: 1977-1979 series

    SciTech Connect

    Weeren, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    Intermediate-level waste solution generated at ORNL is periodically mixed with a cement-base blend of dry solids and injected into an impermeable shale formation at an approximate depth of 240 m (800 ft). The grout mix sets shortly after the injection, permanently fixing the radionuclides in the shale formation. A series of four injections of intermediate-level waste solution was made between 1977 and 1979. A total of 1.2 million l (314,000 gal) of waste solution containing 81,780 Ci of radionuclides was injected. This report is an account of this injection series - preparations, injections, results, and conclusions. The volumes and activities that were injected are summarized. In Injection ILW-15 a small leak of grout to the waste pit eroded the drain valves and forced a shutdown of the injection while repairs were made. The injection was completed 2 days later. Injection ILW-16 was terminated about two-thirds through the injection when the diesel drive of the injection pump blew a connecting rod through the block. The facility and well were washed down with the standby pump. Prior to Injection ILW-17, air pads were installed on all bulk solids storage bins. All subsequent injections have been marked by a much more even flow of solids and a resulting improvement in the mix ratio control. Injections ILW-17 and ILW-18 were made without notable incidents. Logs of the observation wells indicated that all grout sheets were within the disposal zone.

  8. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... room temperature for a month. Gather your supplies: insulin, needles, syringes, alcohol wipes, and a container for used needles ... the plunger to get the right dose of insulin into the syringe. Check the syringe for air bubbles. If there ...

  9. STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach used is to inject steam into 1- dimensional columns that have been packed with contaminated soil from the site. Temperatures in the system are monitored aliquots of the effluent collected for analysis. A sample of the initial soil, the final steamed soil, the effluen...

  10. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is a weakened and changed form of Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1 'cold sore virus') that ... injection sites or bandages. This can spread the virus in the talimogene ... signs of a herpes infection;: pain, burning, or tingling in a blister ...

  11. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations.

  12. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... in which fertilization occurs outside of the body. First, egg cells are harvested and transferred to a special media in a laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the center of an egg cell to aid in the process of fertilization. If successful, the ...

  13. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  14. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, E.; Steinwart, J.; Will, P.

    1981-01-06

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes an air suction pipe, a throttle valve located in the pipe, and a member, upstream of the throttle valve, which is actuatable by air flowing through the suction pipe so as to move a piston valve to dose a quantity of fuel to a fuel injection nozzle. The system includes a duct which bypasses the throttle valve, the duct having a valve which closes the duct when the throttle valve is closed and when the engine is above the idling speed. Dosing of fuel is thereby stopped during coasting of a vehicle, leading to decreased fuel consumption.

  15. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  16. Pellet injection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, S. K.

    1993-07-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, significant progress has been made worldwide in the area of pellet injection technology. This specialized field of research originated as a possible solution to the problem of depositing atoms of fuel deep within magnetically confined, hot plasmas for refueling of fusion power reactors. Using pellet injection systems, frozen macroscopic (millimeter-size) pellets composed of the isotopes of hydrogen are formed, accelerated, and transported to the plasma for fueling. The process and benefits of plasma fueling by this approach have been demonstrated conclusively on a number of toroidal magnetic confinement configurations; consequently, pellet injection is the leading technology for deep fueling of magnetically confined plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion research. Hydrogen pellet injection devices operate at very low temperatures (≂10 K) at which solid hydrogen ice can be formed and sustained. Most injectors use conventional pneumatic (light gas gun) or centrifuge (mechanical) acceleration concepts to inject hydrogen or deuterium pellets at speeds of ≂1-2 km/s. Pellet injectors that can operate at quasi-steady state (pellet delivery rates of 1-40 Hz) have been developed for long-pulse fueling. The design and operation of injectors with the heaviest hydrogen isotope, tritium, offer some special problems because of tritium's radioactivity. To address these problems, a proof-of-principle experiment was carried out in which tritium pellets were formed and accelerated to speeds of 1.4 km/s. Tritium pellet injection is scheduled on major fusion research devices within the next few years. Several advanced accelerator concepts are under development to increase the pellet velocity. One of these is the two-stage light gas gun, for which speeds of slightly over 4 km/s have already been reported in laboratory experiments with deuterium ice. A few two-stage pneumatic systems (single-shot) have recently been installed on tokamak

  17. Heat Transfer to Fuel Sprays Injected into Heated Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selden, Robert F; Spencer, Robert C

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.

  18. Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines Employing Very Early Injection Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Tsurushima, Tadashi; Shimazaki, Naoki; Harada, Akira; Sasaki, Satoru; Hayashi, Koichi; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aoyagi, Yuzo

    An ignition and combustion model has been developed to predict the heat release rate in direct injection compression ignition engines employing very early injection timing. The model describes the chemical reactions, including low-temperature oxidation. The KIVA II computer code was modified with the present ignition and combustion model. The numerical results indicate that the model developed in this work reproduces major features of two-stage autoignition, as well as experimentally observed trends in NOx and unburned fuel emissions. The computational results show that fuel injection timing significantly influences NOx emissions. Results also indicate that fuel droplets that enter the squish region possibly become unburned fuel emissions. Some graphical results demonstrate the relationships among the in-cylinder fuel spray distributions, fuel-air equivalence ratio, temperature, and mass fractions of NO and unburned fuel.

  19. Arterial air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Nicks, Rowan

    1967-01-01

    The incidence and the outcome of systemic air embolism in 340 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass in this unit for congenital defects of the cardiac septa and diseases involving the aortic and mitral valves have been studied. This was thought to have occurred in 40 patients, of whom 10 died. The distribution of air embolism according to the types of operation undertaken was as follows: six of 127 for atrial septal defect; six of 36 for ventricular septal defect; seven of 42 for mitral valve replacement; seven of 47 for aortic valve débridement; and 14 of 55 for aortic valve replacement. The cause was considered to have been systolic ejection of air into the aorta which, following cardiotomy, had been trapped in the pulmonary veins, the left atrium, the ventricular trabeculae, and the aortic root. Since the adoption of a more rigid `debubbling' routine, air embolism has not occurred. The incidence of pulmonary complications occurring in these patients after bypass was studied. Unilateral atelectasis, which occurred in five patients, resulted from retained bronchial secretions in all and was cured by bronchoscopic aspiration in all. The cause of bilateral atelectases, occurring in nine patients and fatal in eight of these, appeared to be related to cardiopulmonary factors and not to air embolism. Acute air injection made into the pulmonary artery of a dog resulted in pulmonary hypertension and a grossly deficient pulmonary circulation, but changes were largely resolved within a week. In view of this, it is considered that pulmonary air embolism may temporarily embarrass the right heart after the repair of a ventricular septal defect in a patient with an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and diminished pulmonary vascular bed. Images PMID:6035795

  20. Changes in air flow patterns using surfactants and thickeners during air sparging: Bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Heonki; Annable, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Air injected into an aquifer during air sparging normally flows upward according to the pressure gradients and buoyancy, and the direction of air flow depends on the natural hydrogeologic setting. In this study, a new method for controlling air flow paths in the saturated zone during air sparging processes is presented. Two hydrodynamic parameters, viscosity and surface tension of the aqueous phase in the aquifer, were altered using appropriate water-soluble reagents distributed before initiating air sparging. Increased viscosity retarded the travel velocity of the air front during air sparging by modifying the viscosity ratio. Using a one-dimensional column packed with water-saturated sand, the velocity of air intrusion into the saturated region under a constant pressure gradient was inversely proportional to the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The air flow direction, and thus the air flux distribution was measured using gaseous flux meters placed at the sand surface during air sparging experiments using both two-, and three-dimensional physical models. Air flow was found to be influenced by the presence of an aqueous patch of high viscosity or suppressed surface tension in the aquifer. Air flow was selective through the low-surface tension (46.5 dyn/cm) region, whereas an aqueous patch of high viscosity (2.77 cP) was as an effective air flow barrier. Formation of a low-surface tension region in the target contaminated zone in the aquifer, before the air sparging process is inaugurated, may induce air flow through the target zone maximizing the contaminant removal efficiency of the injected air. In contrast, a region with high viscosity in the air sparging influence zone may minimize air flow through the region prohibiting the region from de-saturating.

  1. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  2. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  3. The Mechanism of Atomization Accompanying Solid Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, R A , Jr

    1933-01-01

    A brief historical and descriptive account of solid injection is followed by a detailed review of the available theoretical and experimental data that seem to throw light on the mechanism of this form of atomization. It is concluded that this evidence indicates that (1) the atomization accompanying solid injection occurs at the surface of the liquid after it issues as a solid stream from the orifice; and (2) that such atomization has a mechanism physically identical with the atomization which takes place in an air stream, both being due merely to the formation, at the gas-liquid interface, of fine ligaments under the influence of the relative motion of gas and liquid, and to their collapse, under the influence of surface tension, to form the drops in the spray.

  4. Injection of deuterium pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S.A.; Andersen, V.; Nordskov-Nielsen, A.; Sass, B.; Weisberg, K.V.

    1984-09-01

    A discussion is given of the work done at Riso National Laboratory on the design and construction of deuterium pellet injectors. A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Next some of the details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 550 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined.

  5. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  6. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  7. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  8. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  9. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  10. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

  11. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND AIR SPARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging, also called "in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization" injects air into the saturated zone to strip away volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater and adsorbed to soil. hese volatile contaminants transfer in a vapor phase to the unsaturated ...

  12. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  14. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  15. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  16. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  18. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  19. EZVI Injection Field Test Leads to Pilot-Scale Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing and monitoring of emulsified zero-valent ironTM (EZVI) injections was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Launch Complex 34, FL, in 2002 to 2005 to evaluate the technology’s efficacy in enhancing in situ dehalogenation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) ...

  20. A qualitative view of cryogenic fluid injection into high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Schlumberger, J.; Proctor, M.

    1991-01-01

    The injection of supercritical pressure, subcritical temperature fluids, into a 2-D, ambient, static temperature and static pressure supersonic tunnel and free jet supersonic nitrogen flow field was observed. Observed patterns with fluid air were the same as those observed for fluid nitrogen injected into the tunnel at 90 deg to the supersonic flow. The nominal injection pressure was of 6.9 MPa and tunnel Mach number was 2.7. When injected directly into and opposing the tunnel exhaust flow, the observed patterns with fluid air were similar to those observed for fluid nitrogen but appeared more diffusive. Cryogenic injection creates a high density region within the bow shock wake but the standoff distance remains unchanged from the gaseous value. However, as the temperature reaches a critical value, the shock faded and advanced into the supersonic stream. For both fluids, nitrogen and air, the phenomena was completely reversible.

  1. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  2. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  3. Precision diagnostic disc injections.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J D

    2000-07-01

    Spinal pain is an important public health problem affecting the population indiscriminately. The structures responsible for pain in the spine include the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, nerve roots, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, atlanto-occipital joints, atlanto-axial joints, and sacroiliac joints. Even though disc herniation, facet joints, strained muscles, and torn ligaments have been attributed to be the cause of most spinal pain, either in the neck and upper extremities, upper and mid back, or low back and lower extremities, disorders of the disc other than disc herniation have been implicated more frequently than any other disorders. Once stifled by misinformation, discography now has applications in a number of clinical settings. While cervical and lumbar discography is well studied and well known, thoracic discography is in its nascent stages of clinical application. The value of discography lies in its ability to produce pain and thereby identify a "pain generator." This allows treatment to be based on the specific cause of pain. The three primary components of diagnostic disc injection are: provocation/analgesia, discometry, and nucleography. Despite the recent exponential growth of noninvasive spinal technology, diagnostic disc injection remains the sole direct method for definitively determining whether a disc is a physiological pain generator. It is clear that discography is a safe and powerful complement to the overall clinical context. PMID:16906185

  4. Analysis of Inadvertent Intradiscal Injections during Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Mun; Bae, Jin Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, there have been several case reports and retrospective studies about the incidence of intradiscal (ID) injection during transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). Inadvertent ID injection is not a rare complication, and it carries the risk of developing diskitis, although there has been no report of diskitis after TFESI. We prospectively evaluated the incidence of inadvertent ID injection during lumbar TFESI and analyzed the contributing factors. Methods Ten patients received 2-level TFESI, and the remaining 229 patients received 1-level TFESI. When successful TFESI was performed, 2 ml of contrast dye was injected under real-time fluoroscopy to check for any inadvertent ID spread. A musculoskeletal radiologist analyzed all magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of patients who demonstrated inadvertent ID injection. When reviewing MRIs, the intervertebral foramen level where ID injection occurred was carefully examined, and any anatomical structure which narrowing the foramen was identified. Results Among the 249 TFESI, we identified 6 ID injections; thus, there was an incidence of 2.4%. Four patients had isthmic spondylolisthesis, and the level of spondylolisthesis coincided with the level of ID injection. We further examined the right or left foramen of the spondylolisthesis level and identified the upward migrated disc material that was narrowing the foramen. Conclusions Inadvertent ID injection during TFESI is not infrequent, and pain physicians must pay close attention to the type and location of disc herniation. PMID:24748946

  5. Design and Testing of Trace Contaminant Injection and Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig D.; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In support of the Carbon dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) testing, a contaminant injection system as well as a contaminant monitoring system has been developed by the Johnson Space Center Air Revitalization Systems (JSC-ARS) team. The contaminant injection system has been designed to provide trace level concentrations of contaminants generated by humans in a closed environment during space flight missions. The contaminant injection system continuously injects contaminants from three gas cylinders, two liquid reservoirs and three permeation ovens. The contaminant monitoring system has been designed to provide real time gas analysis with accurate flow, humidity and gas concentration measurements for collection during test. The contaminant monitoring system consists of an analytical real time gas analyzer, a carbon monoxide sensor, and an analyzer for ammonia and water vapor.

  6. Assisted injection among people who inject drugs in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assisted injection is common among people who inject drugs (IDU), and has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection and overdose. However, this practice has not been explored in the Asian context, including in Thailand, where HIV prevalence among IDU remains high. Methods Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the prevalence and correlates of assisted injecting among IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. We also sought to identify reasons for engaging in assisted injecting and those who provide this form of assistance. Results In total, 430 IDU participated in this study, including 376 (87.5%) who reported having ever required assistance injecting, and 81 (18.8%) who reported assisted injecting in the previous six months. In multivariate analyses, assisted injecting in the previous six months was independently and positively associated with being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 – 4.18), being a weekly heroin injector (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99 – 3.20), syringe sharing (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.18 – 3.68) and soft-tissue infection (AOR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.43 – 2.53). Having a longer injecting career (AOR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94 – 0.99) was negatively associated with assisted injecting. Primary reasons given for engaging in assisted injecting included being new to injecting and lacking knowledge on how to inject. The most common providers of assistance with injecting were close friends. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of assisted injecting among IDU in Bangkok, with females, frequent heroin injectors, those with shorter injecting careers being more likely to engage in this practice. Those who require help with the injecting process are more likely to share syringes, and have skin infections. These findings indicate the need for interventions focused on promoting safer and self-administered injections. PMID:24020370

  7. REDUCTION OF COAL-BASED METAL EMISSIONS BY FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of sorbent injection technology to reduce the potential for trace metal emissions from coal combustion was researched. Pilot scale tests of high-temperature furnace sorbent injection were accompanied by stack sampling for coal-based, metallic air toxics. Tested sorben...

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  9. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  10. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  11. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  12. Stability of revex, nalmefene hydrochloride injection, in injectable solutions.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S S; Brittain, H G

    1996-11-01

    The short-term stability of Revex, nalmefene hydrochloride injection, was determined in a number of diluents commonly employed for intravenous use. An HPLC method was used to follow the potency of the diluted solutions, and was fully validated for its intended concentration range prior to its use. Dilutions of Revex were prepared separately in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, lactated Ringer's injection, 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate injection. Each admixture was stored at 4 degrees C, room temperature (21 degrees C) and 40 degrees C, with samples being tested after storage at each temperature for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Defining stability as the retention of at least 95% of the initial drug concentration at the end of the storage period, it was concluded that the diluted solutions of Revex were uniformly stable for up to 72 h in all of the injectable solutions maintained at either 4, 21 or 40 degrees C. PMID:8933423

  13. Statement on injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    Injectable hormonal contraception with 2 longacting steroidal preparations--norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)--provides an effective means of fertility regulation and has become an important method of family planning. DMPA and NET-EN have several advantages which make them particularly appropriate for some women and acceptable in family planning programs. A single injection can provide highly effective contraception for 2 or more months, delivery is simple, independent of coitus, and ensures periodic contact with medical or other trained health personnel. Currently, DMPA is registered as a therapeutic agent in nearly all countries and as a contraceptive agent in over 80 developed and developing countries. NET-EN is registered as a contraceptive in 40 countries. Administered by intramuscular injection in an aqueous microcrystalline suspension, DMPA exerts its contraceptive effect primarily by suppression of ovulation, but its effects on the endometrium, the uterine tubes, and the production of cervical mucus may also play a role in reducing fertility. DMPA as a contraceptive agent is generally given at a dosage of 150 mg every 90 days. NET-EN when administered as an intramuscular injection of an oil preparation at a dose of 200 mg inhibits ovulation. It should be administered at 8 weekly intervals for the 1st 6 months of use, then at intervals of 8 or 12 weeks. Longterm animal studies with DMPA have been completed mainly on beagle bitches and rhesus monkeys, and similar studies with NET-EN are nearing completion. None of the findings in beagles is considered applicable to human populations because the beagle responds differently than humans to steroidal hormones. None of the deaths among rhesus monkeys was attributable to effects of the drug. Endometrial carcinoma was found in 2 of the replacement monkeys but the number of animals was too small for statistically significant studies, and it is not possible to conclude

  14. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  15. Viscoelastic-injecting cystotome.

    PubMed

    Teus, M A; Fagúndez-Vargas, M A; Calvo, M A; Marcos, A

    1998-11-01

    This continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is for use in complicated surgical cases such as when the anterior chamber is shallow, the red reflex is not good, or eye movements are present. This technique is easier and safer in such cases because it uses a cystotome connected to a viscoelastic syringe. First, the anterior chamber is filled with viscoelastic material using a conventional cannula. The cannula is replaced with a bent needle (or cystotome), and the CCC is performed in the usual way. This instrument allows the surgeon to inject small amounts of viscoelastic material exactly where and when it is needed. The anterior chamber remains deep while the CCC is performed, and the anterior capsule tear is done in a more controlled fashion. PMID:9818330

  16. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  17. NIF injection laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisoff, Peter J.; Bowers, Mark W.; Erbert, Gaylen V.; Browning, Donald F.; Jedlovec, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-power, 192-beam laser facility being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The 192 laser beams that will converge on the target at the output of the NIF laser system originate from a low power fiber laser in the Master Oscillator Room (MOR). The MOR is responsible for generating the single pulse that seeds the entire NIF laser system. This single pulse is phase-modulated to add bandwidth, and then amplified and split into 48 separate beam lines all in single-mode polarizing fiber. Before leaving the MOR, each of the 48 output pulses are temporally sculpted into high contrast shapes using Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG). Each output pulse is then carried by optical fiber to the Preamplifier Module (PAM) where it is amplified to the multi-joule level using a diode-pumped regenerative amplifier and a multi-pass, flashlamp-pumped rod amplifier. Inside the PAM, the beam is spatially shaped to pre-compensate for the spatial gain profile in the main laser amplifiers. The output from the PAM is sampled by a diagnostic package called the Input Sensor Package (ISP) and then split into four beams in the Preamplifier Beam Transport System (PABTS). Each of these four beams is injected into one of NIF's 192 beam lines. The combination of the MOR, PAM, ISP and PABTS constitute the Injection Laser System (ILS) for NIF. This system has proven its flexibility of providing a wide variety of pulse shapes and energies during the first experiments utilizing four beam lines of NIF.

  18. The cost of unsafe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. A.; Pisani, E.

    1999-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. These inadvertently transmitted bloodborne diseases become manifest some considerable time after infection and hence may not be appropriately accounted for. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for. Investment in health education and safer disposal will also reduce infections associated with unsafe injecting practices. Safer injecting practices are more expensive than current less safe practices, but the additional cost is more than offset by the reduction in disease that would result. PMID:10593028

  19. Intraperitoneal Injection into Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kinkel, Mary D.; Eames, Stefani C.; Philipson, Louis H.; Prince, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  20. Intraperitoneal injection into adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Mary D; Eames, Stefani C; Philipson, Louis H; Prince, Victoria E

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  1. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  2. New perspectives on substorm injections

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.

  3. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. PMID:27594185

  4. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  5. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3

  6. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  7. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  8. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  9. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  10. Injection nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power. PMID:23546341

  11. Air distribution in the Borden aquifer during in situ air sparging.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D W; Thomson, N R; Johnson, R L; Redman, J D

    2003-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Canadian Forces Base Borden (CFB Borden) to assess the air distribution from a single in situ air sparging injection point. This aquifer consists of fine to medium sand deposited in horizontal layers. The permeability at the study location varied from 10(-10) to 10(-14) m2 and distinct low permeability horizons were present at approximately 1.2, 2.0, and 2.9 m below the water table. Prior to air injection, a 15x15-m portion of the vadose zone was excavated to the water table (approximately 1 m below ground surface) in order to visually observe air release distribution at the water table. The water table was actively maintained 5 cm above the excavated surface. The sparging system operated for a period of 7 days with an injection flow rate of 200 m3/days (5 scfm). The resulting subsurface air distribution was assessed using a variety of techniques including neutron logging, borehole and surface ground penetrating radar, piezometric head measurements, surface visualization, and hydraulic testing. Through this combination of tests, it was demonstrated that variations in permeability and, hence, capillary pressure at the site were sufficient to cause the injected air to spread laterally, forming stratigraphically trapped air pockets beneath the low permeability horizons. The formation of these air pockets eventually resulted in a buildup of capillary pressure that exceeded the air entry pressure and allowed some air to migrate up through the lower permeability layers. Each of the assessment techniques employed generated information at different spatial scales that prevented a direct comparison of the results from the various techniques; however, the results from all techniques proved to be critical in the interpretation of the experimental data. As a consequence, the different assessment techniques should not be viewed as alternatives, but rather as complimentary techniques. PMID:14607473

  12. Control of diesel engine emissions by dilute oxidizer injection

    SciTech Connect

    Duva, A.W.; Ibrahim, O.; Zhang, Z.

    1996-12-31

    The current diesel engine power systems have progressed to the point where significant reduction in emissions or fuel consumption are at the limit of the state of the art with the present fuels. It is proposed that overall system weight, power or efficiency must be traded to achieve reduced exhaust emission levels. Emission control through the injection of dilute oxidizers are explored to minimize the formation of noxious gases, emission of unburned hydrocarbons and soot in internal combustion diesel cycle engines. Relevant literature detailing the attempts to control exhaust emissions by altering the intake charge are reviewed and utilized as the foundation for the current study. Steady flow type combustion simulations utilizing low concentration hydrogen peroxide with available air in varying ratios are presented for trend comparison to experimental data developed during this investigation. The empirical portion of the study focused on the adaptation of proposed dilute hydrogen peroxide injection to a standard four cylinder marine diesel engine. The main thrust evaluated the impact of oxidizer injection on an aging engine without significant modifications to the existing auxiliary equipment. A simple spray apparatus delivered the dilute hydrogen peroxide to the air intake stream to minimize the alterations to the existing system. Water injection was performed as an experimental control for comparison to reference literature and to normalize the results obtained from the injection of the 5% and 10% concentration hydrogen peroxide. The injection of both concentrations of hydrogen peroxide showed an improvement relative to water injection for unburned hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The improvements relative to water was greater with the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

  13. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond or are ... tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

  15. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  16. Improvements in powered air purifying respirator protection in an ABSL-3E facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of and experimentation with zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) requires risk mitigation strategies including laboratory engineering controls and safety equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper practices and techniques. Incidences of potent...

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  18. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  19. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  20. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  1. Study of Forebody Injection and Mixing with Application to Hypervelocity Airbreathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The use of premixed, shock-induced combustion in the context of a hypervelocity, airbreathing vehicle requires effective injection and mixing of hydrogen fuel and air on the vehicle forebody. Three dimensional computational simulations of fuel injection and mixing from flush-wall and modified ramp and strut injectors are reported in this study. A well-established code, VULCAN, is used to conduct nonreacting, viscous, turbulent simulations on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 flight vehicle forebody. In comparing results of various fuel injection strategies, it is found that strut injection provides the greatest balance of performance between mixing efficiency and stream thrust potential.

  2. Experimental Study of Gas Injection Effect as a Secondary Phase on Flow Induced Rotary Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, N. M.; Sarreshtehdari, A.; Maghsoudi, E.

    Rotational velocity changes, via shear stress modification, due to air bubbles injection in a rotary device experimentally investigated. Air bubbles injected to the water flow crosses the neighbor of the hub which can rotate just by water flow shear stresses. Increasing air void fraction lead to decrease of shear stresses exerted on the hub surface until in high void fractions, the hub motion stopped as observed. Amount of skin friction decrease has been estimated by counting central hub rotations. Wall shear stress decreased as bubbles were injected in the all range of Re changing from 60378 to 61238 and also by increasing air void fraction from 1.22 to 3.06%. Skin friction reduction more than 80% achieved in this study as maximum measured volume of air fraction injected to fluid flow. Remarkable obtained skin friction reduction in this special case indicates the possibility of drag reduction by injection of low amount of air on rotary parts in liquid phase (e.g., water) while this effect is unfavorable in cases where shear stress is a useful phenomena (e.g., mixing).

  3. Pure Air`s Bailly scrubber: A four-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Manavi, G.B.; Vymazal, D.C.; Sarkus, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project has completed four highly successful years of operation at NIPSCO`s Bailly Station. As part of their program, Pure Air has concluded a six-part study of system performance. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration program, including AFGD performance on coals ranging from 2.0--2.4% sulfur. The paper highlights novel aspects of the Bailly facility, including pulverized limestone injection, air rotary sparger for oxidation, wastewater evaporation system and the production of PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum. Operations and maintenance which have led to the facility`s notable 99.47% availability record are also discussed. A project company, Pure Air on the Lake Limited Partnership, owns the AFGD facility. Pure Air was the turn key contractor and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is the operator of the AFGD system.

  4. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  5. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  6. “Vivo para consumirla y la consumo para vivir” [“I live to inject and inject to live”]: High-Risk Injection Behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga, Wendy Davila; Case, Patricia; Firestone, Michelle; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Perez, Saida Gracia; Magis, Carlos; Fraga, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Injection drug use is a growing problem on the US–Mexico border, where Tijuana is situated. We studied the context of injection drug use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana to help guide future research and interventions. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female current IDUs in Tijuana. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles, and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Of the 20 IDUs, median age and age at first injection were 30 and 18. Most reported injecting at least daily: heroin (“carga,” “chiva,” “negra”), methamphetamine (“crico,” “cri-cri”), or both drugs combined. In sharp contrast to Western US cities, almost all regularly attended shooting galleries (“yongos” or “picaderos”) because of the difficulties obtaining syringes and police oppression. Almost all shared needles/paraphernalia [“cuete” (syringe), “cacharros” (cookers), cotton from sweaters/socks (filters)]. Some reported obtaining syringes from the United States. Key themes included (1) pharmacies refusing to sell or charging higher prices to IDUs, (2) ample availability of used/rented syringes from “picaderos” (e.g., charging approximately 5 pesos or “10 drops” of drug), and (3) poor HIV/AIDS knowledge, such as beliefs that exposing syringes to air “kills germs.” This qualitative study suggests that IDUs in Tijuana are at high risk of HIV and other blood-borne infections. Interventions are urgently needed to expand access to sterile injection equipment and offset the potential for a widespread HIV epidemic. PMID:16107441

  7. Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Li, Nan; Tobin, Karin E.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Sokolov, Nikolai; Levchenko, Julia; Batluk, Julia; Kozlov, Andrei A.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs. PMID:19214731

  8. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  9. Some Effects of Air and Fuel Oil Temperatures on Spray Penetration and Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1930-01-01

    Presented here are experimental results obtained from a brief investigation of the appearance, penetration, and dispersion of oil sprays injected into a chamber of highly heated air at atmospheric pressure. The development of single sprays injected into a chamber containing air at room temperature and at high temperature was recorded by spray photography equipment. A comparison of spray records showed that with the air at the higher temperature, the spray assumed the appearance of thin, transparent cloud, the greatest part of which rapidly disappeared from view. With the chamber air at room temperature, a compact spray with an opaque core was obtained. Measurements of the records showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in the dispersion of the spray injected into the heated air. No ignition of the fuel injected was observed or recorded until the spray particles came in contact with the much hotter walls of the chamber about 0.3 second after the start of injection.

  10. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post- furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the fifth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1991 through the end of December 1991. Due to the power plant's planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

  11. Noise analysis of injection-locked semiconductor injection lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, N.; Peterman, K.

    1986-05-01

    The noise of injection-locked semiconductor lasers is analyzed by rate equations including the spontaneous emission noise. The side mode suppression and the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the locked laser (slave laser) are given for different wavelengths detuning between the master and slave laser and for different linewidth enhancement factors ..cap alpha... For large ..cap alpha.., locking is difficult to achieve, whereas extremely low noise may be obtained for injection-locked lasers with a low linewidth enhancement factor.

  12. Ceramic injection molding material analysis, modeling and injection molding simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, D.; Messingschlager, S.

    2014-05-01

    In comparison to unfilled polymers, a ceramic feedstocks has a very high viscosity, a very high heat conductivity and a different pvT-behavior. So far standard simulation tools for plastic injection molding are capable of simulating unfilled or fiber filled compounds with their typical low viscosity and heat conductivity etc. but not for very high ceramic powder filled polymers. This article shows an approach of preparing and adding ceramic feedstocks to standard injection molding tools. Two different feedstocks are used.

  13. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John H

    2015-11-01

    There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do. PMID:26505540

  14. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Jr., Henry S.

    1985-01-01

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  15. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  16. Particles in small volume injections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  17. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  18. Stagnation Point Heat Transfer with Gas Injection Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancrayenest, B.; Tran, M. D.; Fletcher, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental study of the stagnation-point heat transfer to a cooled copper surface with gas injection under subsonic conditions. Test were made with a probe that combined a steady-state water-cooled calorimeter that allows the capability to study convective blockage and to perform heat transfer measurements in presence of gas injection in the stagnation region. The copper probe was pierced by 52 holes, representing 2.4% of the total probe surface. The 1.2 MW high enthalpy plasma wind tunnel was operated at anode powers between 130 and 230 kW and a static pressures from 35 hPa up to 200 hPa. Air, carbon dioxide and argon were injected in the mass flow range 0-0.4 g/s in the boundary layer developed around the 50 mm diameter probe. The measured stagnation-point heat transfer rates are reported and discussed.

  19. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  20. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOEpatents

    Upatnieks, Ansis

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.