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Sample records for air injection system

  1. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  2. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  3. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  4. The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

    1992-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

  5. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  6. Implementation of pressurized air injection system in a Kaplan prototype for the reduction of vibration caused by tip vortex cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Hene, M.; Capezio, O.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Blade tip cavitation is a well-known phenomenon that affects the performance of large-diameter Kaplan turbines and induces structural vibration. Injection of pressurized air has been found to yield promising results in reducing those damaging effects. In this work, the results of an experimental test of air injection on a 9.5-m-diameter Kaplan turbine are reported. Experiments were performed for several load conditions and for two different net heads. Accelerations, pressure pulsation and noise emission were monitored for every tested condition. Results show that, at the expense of a maximum efficiency drop of 0.2%, air injection induces a decrease on the level of vibration from 57% up to 84%, depending on the load condition. Such decrease is seen to be proportional to the air flow rate, in the range from 0.06 to 0.8‰ (respect to the discharge at the best efficiency point).

  7. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  8. Development of a real-time chemical injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical injection system is an effective method to minimize chemical waste and reduce the environmental pollution in pesticide spray applications. A microprocessor controlled injection system implementing a ceramic piston metering pump was developed to accurately dispense chemicals to be mixed wi...

  9. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  10. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  11. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    a function of the key variables. Next, the variables such as the slot geometry can be optimized using the build-in optimizer within JMP. Finally, a wind tunnel testing will be conducted using the optimized slot geometry and other key variables to verify the empirical statistical model. The long term goal for this effort is to assess the impacts of active flow control using air injection at system level as one of the task plan included in the NASAs URETI program with Georgia Institute of Technology.

  12. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  13. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Herth, H.; Kraus, B.; Sautter, W.; Wessel, W.

    1983-03-15

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes electromagnetic injection valves controlled by a fuel control unit which receives signals from a camshaft actuated switch, a position-dependent throttle transducer and an oxygen sensor. When the oxygen sensor changes output levels, the transmission of this information is delayed, by the action of a switching transistor controlled by a monostable multivibrator, for a period of time equal to the internal time constant of the multivibrator.

  14. Gas chromatograph injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Henderson, M. E.; Donaldson, R. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An injection system for a gas chromatograph is described which uses a small injector chamber (available in various configurations). The sample is placed in the chamber while the chamber is not under pressure and is not heated, and there is no chance of leakage caused by either pressure or heat. It is injected into the apparatus by changing the position of a valve and heating the chamber, and is volatilized and swept by a carrier gas into the analysis apparatus.

  15. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  16. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  17. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  18. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  19. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  20. Reductant injection and mixing system

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  1. Air-assist fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Klomp, E.D.

    1987-09-15

    An air-assist fuel injection nozzle is described for use in discharging fuel into an associate combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The injection nozzle includes a nozzle body means. The straight walled spray tip portion has a plurality of radial discharge orifices extending. An axial bore in the body means extends from the opposite end to define a bushing, a needle plunger reciprocably received in the bushing between a fully raised position and a fully depressed position corresponding to the end of a suction stroke and the end of a pump stroke, respectively. The needle plunger has a radial supply passage and a radial discharge ports angularly aligned with the radial discharge orifices, wherein the discharge ports are in flow communication with the blind bore. The needle plunger and the interior portion of the enclosed end of the nozzle body means define a variable volume pump chamber. The nozzle body means includes a supply passage means with a check valve in fluid communication with the radial supply passage when the needle plunger is in the raised position. The opposite end of the supply passage means is to sequentially receive a metered quantity of pressurized fuel, and the needle plunger allows aeriform fluid flow from the combustion chamber into the pump chamber. The needle plunger blocks flow through the radial discharge orifices until such time as the needle plunger has moved a predetermined axial extent so that the radial discharge ports come into alignment with the radial discharge orifices to initiate an air-assist discharge of air, fuel vapors and fuel from the radial discharge orifices.

  2. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Iwanaga, T.; Fujisawa, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for a diesel engine comprising: condition detection means for detecting operating conditions of the diesel engine including a rotational position thereof; low pressure fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a low pressure at an output port thereof; high pressure fuel pump means, having a pump chamber communicating with the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means, and plunger means reciprocable within the pump chamber for introducing fuel from the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means into the pump chamber during a movement in a predetermined direction of the plunger means and for pressurizing the introduced fuel during a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction so that pressurized fuel is delivered from the high pressure fuel pump means at an output port thereof; common rail fuel storage means, connected to the output port of the high pressure fuel pump means, for storing pressurized fuel delivered from the high pressure pump therein at a substantially continuous pressure.

  3. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  4. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  5. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  6. Impact of Air Injection on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Norum, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to review the program to determine impact of core fluidic chevrons on noise produced by dual stream jets (i.e., broadband shock noise - supersonic, and mixing noise - subsonic and supersonic). The presentation reviews the sources of jet noise. It shows designs of Generation II Fluidic Chevrons. The injection impacts shock structure and stream disturbances through enhanced mixing. This may impact constructive interference between acoustic sources. The high fan pressures may inhibit mixing produced by core injectors. A fan stream injection may be required for better noise reduction. In future the modification of Gen II nozzles to allow for some azimuthal control: will allow for higher mass flow rates and will allow for shallower injection angles A Flow field study is scheduled for spring, 2008 The conclusions are that injection can reduce well-defined shock noise and injection reduces mixing noise near peak jet noise angle

  7. Injection System for Multi-Well Injection Using a Single Pump

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Protus, Thomas J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Many hydrological and geochemical studies rely on data resulting from injection of tracers and chemicals into groundwater wells. The even distribution of liquids to multiple injection points can be challenging or expensive, especially when using multiple pumps. An injection system was designed using one chemical metering pump to evenly distribute the desired influent simultaneously to 15 individual injection points through an injection manifold. The system was constructed with only one metal part contacting the fluid due to the low pH of the injection solutions. The injection manifold system was used during a three-month pilot scale injection experiment at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site. During the two injection phases of the experiment (Phase I = 0.27 L/min total flow, Phase II = 0.56 L/min total flow), flow measurements were made 20 times over three months; an even distribution of flow to each injection well was maintained (RSD <4%). This durable system is expandable to at least 16 injection points and should be adaptable to other injection experiments that require distribution of air-stable liquids to multiple injection points with a single pump. PMID:26140014

  8. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    PubMed

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  9. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  10. CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR FOR ENHANCED PCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to use preferential flow of air to improve the dynamics of cosolvent displacement in order to enhance DNAPL displacement and dissolution. The concurrent injection of cosolvent and air was evaluated in a glass micromodel for a DNAPL remediation technolog...

  11. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  12. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  13. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  14. Air injection test on a Kaplan turbine: prototype - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Díaz, L.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is a very well-known resource to reduce pressure pulsation magnitude in turbines, especially on Francis type. In the case of large Kaplan designs, even when not so usual, it could be a solution to mitigate vibrations arising when tip vortex cavitation phenomenon becomes erosive and induces structural vibrations. In order to study this alternative, aeration tests were performed on a Kaplan turbine at model and prototype scales. The research was focused on efficiency of different air flow rates injected in reducing vibrations, especially at the draft tube and the discharge ring and also in the efficiency drop magnitude. It was found that results on both scales presents the same trend in particular for vibration levels at the discharge ring. The efficiency drop was overestimated on model tests while on prototype were less than 0.2 % for all power output. On prototype, air has a beneficial effect in reducing pressure fluctuations up to 0.2 ‰ of air flow rate. On model high speed image computing helped to quantify the volume of tip vortex cavitation that is strongly correlated with the vibration level. The hydrophone measurements did not capture the cavitation intensity when air is injected, however on prototype, it was detected by a sonometer installed at the draft tube access gallery.

  15. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  16. Design and Testing of Trace Contaminant Injection and Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig D.; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In support of the Carbon dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) testing, a contaminant injection system as well as a contaminant monitoring system has been developed by the Johnson Space Center Air Revitalization Systems (JSC-ARS) team. The contaminant injection system has been designed to provide trace level concentrations of contaminants generated by humans in a closed environment during space flight missions. The contaminant injection system continuously injects contaminants from three gas cylinders, two liquid reservoirs and three permeation ovens. The contaminant monitoring system has been designed to provide real time gas analysis with accurate flow, humidity and gas concentration measurements for collection during test. The contaminant monitoring system consists of an analytical real time gas analyzer, a carbon monoxide sensor, and an analyzer for ammonia and water vapor.

  17. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-07-20

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections.

  18. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  19. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsbos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1993-07-27

    A high-pressure pump is described for a fuel injection system having a fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a relatively constant pressure to the pump, the pump comprising: a pump body having a pumping chamber defined therein; a mechanically driven linearly reciprocating plunger disposed in the pumping chamber, the plunger having a head end and a tail end, the plunger being linearly reciprocatable over a stroke range between an extended position and a retracted position, the pumping chamber extending beyond the extended position of the plunger to define a head portion of the pumping chamber; plunger spring means for resiliently biasing the plunger to its retracted position; an inlet valve disposed in the pump body for admitting fuel to the pumping chamber within the stroke range of the head end of the plunger; inlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the inlet valve to a closed position, the inlet valve being opened by a pressure differential when the head end of the plunger is retracted; an outlet valve disposed in the pump body for discharging fuel from the head portion of the pumping chamber; and outlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the outlet valve to a closed position; the inlet valve being a ball valve; a piston, the pump body further defining therein a leakage accumulator chamber, the leakage accumulator chamber being slidably divided by the piston into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, the posterior portion being at substantially atmospheric pressure, the collector groove communicating with the anterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber, recaptured fuel from the fuel injection nozzles also being communicated to the anterior portion of the accumulator chamber; and piston spring means for resiliently biasing the piston away from the posterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber.

  20. Robotic Male Vas Deferens Intraluminal Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    controls an electro-mechanical device which assists the medical personnel’s hand holding the injection syringe to approach the biological structure... contraception . The system may be adapted for injection into blood vessels. Key Words: Injection; multimodal imaging; feedback electro-mechanical...based piston drive does not give the necessary "feel" required for correct injection. The force involved in free hand drive of the syringe piston

  1. PTV analysis of the entrained air into the diesel spray at high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Naoki; Yamashita, Hayato; Mashida, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the effect of high-pressure injection on soot reduction in terms of the air entrainment into spray, the air flow surrounding the spray and set-off length indicating the distance from the nozzle tip to the flame region in diffusion diesel combustion were investigated using 300MPa injection of a multi-hole injector. The measurement of the air entrainment flow was carried out at non-evaporating condition using consecutive PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) method with a high-speed camera and a high-frequency pulse YAG laser. The set-off length was measured at highpressure and high-temperature using the combustion bomb of constant volume and optical system of shadow graph method. And the amount of air entrainment into spray until reaching set-off length in diffusion combustion was studied as a factor of soot formation.

  2. Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

    2009-05-01

    In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline

  3. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  4. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  5. Hot air injection for removal of dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid contaminants from low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.C.

    1996-08-01

    The performance of soil vapor extraction systems for the recovery of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is potentially enhanced by the injection of heated air to increase soil temperatures. The soil temperature increase is expected to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) performance by increasing target compound vapor pressures and by increasing soil permeability through drying. The vapor pressure increase due to temperature rise relieves the vapor pressure limit on the feasibility of soil vapor extraction. However, the system still requires an air flow through the soil system to deliver heat and to recover mobilized contaminants. Although the soil permeability can be increased through drying, very low permeability soils and low permeability soils adjacent to high permeability air flow pathways will be treated slowly, if at all. AR thermal enhancement methods face this limitation. Heated air injection offers advantages relative to other thermal techniques, including low capital and operation costs. Heated air injection is at a disadvantage relative to other thermal techniques due to the low heat capacity of air. To be effective, heated air injection requires that higher air flows be established than for steam injection or radio frequency heating. Heated air injection is not economically feasible for the stratified soil system developed as a standard test for this document. This is due to the inability to restrict heated air flow to the clay stratum when a low-resistance air flow pathway is available in the adjoining sand. However, the technology should be especially attractive, both technically and economically, for low-volatile contaminant recovery from relatively homogeneous soil formations. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  7. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  8. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  9. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.

  10. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  11. Air-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making CAES technically and economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity in a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, have the highest cost of the storage system options study and the potential for longest time to startup, are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  12. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  13. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  14. Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.B.; Otter, A. den )

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the environmental impact of operating gas turbines and to find suitable solution for its expanding gas transmission system to meet further air emission restrictions. While turbine steam injection provides many benefits, it has not been considered for remote, less supported environments such as gas transmission applications due to its high water consumption. The SIWR process can alleviate this problem regardless of the amount of injection required. The paper also covers conceptual designs of a prototype SIWR system on a small gas turbine unit. However, because of relatively high costs, it is generally believed that the system is more attractive to larger size turbines and especially when it is used in conjunction with cogeneration or combined cycle applications.

  15. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, P.J.; Hilshos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a high-pressure pump for the injectors of an electronically controlled fuel system. It comprises: a pump body having a chamber therein, a reciprocal plunger in the chamber having a fixed stroke, a solenoid operated normally closed metering inlet valve for metering fuel into the chamber, a normally closed discharge valve, both of the valves being located within the pump body and closing respective fuel ports communicating with the chamber at one end of the plunger and means for controlling the amount of fuel discharged by the pump comprising an electronic control for the solenoid-operated valve to determine the time that the valve is held open during the intake stroke of the plunger; and a supply pump for delivering fuel at a relatively fixed pressure to the metering inlet valve.

  16. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  17. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  18. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6.

  19. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  20. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  1. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  2. Air Mobile Utility Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER PIPES, AIR TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS , FUEL HOSES, HOSES....PIPES, *PIPING SYSTEMS, INSULATION, FABRICATION, CORROSION INHIBITION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, POLYURETHANE RESINS, PLASTICS

  3. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE NSLS-II INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN,T.; ROSE, T.; PINAYEV, I.; HEESE, R.; BENGTSSON, J.; SKARITKA, J.; MENG, W.; OZAKI, S.; MEIER, R.; STELMACH, C.; LITVINENKO, V.; PJEROV, S.; SHARMA, S.; GANETIS, G.; HSEUH, H.C.; JOHNSON, E.D.; TSOUPAS, N.; GUO, W.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; YU, L.H.; RAPARIA, D.; WANG, D.

    2007-06-25

    We present the conceptual design of the NSLS-II injection system [1,2]. The injection system consists of a low-energy linac, booster and transport lines. We review two different injection system configurations; a booster located in the storage ring tunnel and a booster housed in a separate building. We briefly discuss main parameters and layout of the injection system components.

  4. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  5. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  6. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  7. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  8. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  9. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  10. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  11. Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

  12. High-pressure fuel injection system for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a high-pressure fuel injection system for a diesel engine. This system consists of: (a) main pumps for injecting fuel each located at one of cylinders of the engine and formed with a fuel injecting port, a discharge valve located in a path connecting the first injected fuel space with the fuel injecting port. The discharge valve is opened when the fuel to be injected reaches a predetermined pressure level. A first injection timing fuel space fluidly connected with the first injected fuel space through a movable shuttle is filled with injection timing fuel, and a plunger varies the volume of the first injection timing fuel space; (b) a metering and distributing pump formed with injection fuel outputs and injection timing fuel outlets corresponding in number to the cylinders of the engine for discharging fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine; (c) fuel metering valves for metering fuel flowing into the second injected fuel space and second injection timing fuel space respectively; (d) pipes for fluidly connecting the first injected fuel space and first injection timing fuel space of the main pump for injecting fuel with the injected fuel outlets and injection timing fuel outlets of the metering and distributing pump respectively; and (e) a rocker arm mechanism for driving the plunger of the main pump for injecting fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine.

  13. Effect of air injection under subsurface drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of corn in a sandy clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Abuarab, Mohamed; Mostafa, Ehab; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can substantially reduce the amount of irrigation water needed for corn production. However, corn yields need to be improved to offset the initial cost of drip installation. Air-injection is at least potentially applicable to the (SDI) system. However, the vertical stream of emitted air moving above the emitter outlet directly toward the surface creates a chimney effect, which should be avoided, and to ensure that there are adequate oxygen for root respiration. A field study was conducted in 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the effect of air-injection into the irrigation stream in SDI on the performance of corn. Experimental treatments were drip irrigation (DI), SDI, and SDI with air injection. The leaf area per plant with air injected was 1.477 and 1.0045 times greater in the aerated treatment than in DI and SDI, respectively. Grain filling was faster, and terminated earlier under air-injected drip system, than in DI. Root distribution, stem diameter, plant height and number of grains per plant were noticed to be higher under air injection than DI and SDI. Air injection had the highest water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in both growing seasons; with values of 1.442 and 1.096 in 2010 and 1.463 and 1.112 in 2011 for WUE and IWUE respectively. In comparison with DI and SDI, the air injection treatment achieved a significantly higher productivity through the two seasons. Yield increases due to air injection were 37.78% and 12.27% greater in 2010 and 38.46% and 12.5% in 2011 compared to the DI and SDI treatments, respectively. Data from this study indicate that corn yield can be improved under SDI if the drip water is aerated.

  14. Effect of air injection under subsurface drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of corn in a sandy clay loam soil

    PubMed Central

    Abuarab, Mohamed; Mostafa, Ehab; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can substantially reduce the amount of irrigation water needed for corn production. However, corn yields need to be improved to offset the initial cost of drip installation. Air-injection is at least potentially applicable to the (SDI) system. However, the vertical stream of emitted air moving above the emitter outlet directly toward the surface creates a chimney effect, which should be avoided, and to ensure that there are adequate oxygen for root respiration. A field study was conducted in 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the effect of air-injection into the irrigation stream in SDI on the performance of corn. Experimental treatments were drip irrigation (DI), SDI, and SDI with air injection. The leaf area per plant with air injected was 1.477 and 1.0045 times greater in the aerated treatment than in DI and SDI, respectively. Grain filling was faster, and terminated earlier under air-injected drip system, than in DI. Root distribution, stem diameter, plant height and number of grains per plant were noticed to be higher under air injection than DI and SDI. Air injection had the highest water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in both growing seasons; with values of 1.442 and 1.096 in 2010 and 1.463 and 1.112 in 2011 for WUE and IWUE respectively. In comparison with DI and SDI, the air injection treatment achieved a significantly higher productivity through the two seasons. Yield increases due to air injection were 37.78% and 12.27% greater in 2010 and 38.46% and 12.5% in 2011 compared to the DI and SDI treatments, respectively. Data from this study indicate that corn yield can be improved under SDI if the drip water is aerated. PMID:25685457

  15. Modular injection systems for miniature engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Mike

    1992-07-01

    Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

  16. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  17. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  18. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  19. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  2. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  3. STEAM INJECTION INTO FRACTURED LIMESTONE AT LORING AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project on steam injection for the remediation of spent chlorinated solvents from fractured limestone was recently undertaken at the former Loring AFB in Limestone, ME. Participants in the project include the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, EPA Region I,...

  4. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  7. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  8. Injectable electronic identification, monitoring, and stimulation systems.

    PubMed

    Troyk, P R

    1999-01-01

    Historically, electronic devices such as pacemakers and neuromuscular stimulators have been surgically implanted into animals and humans. A new class of implants made possible by advances in monolithic electronic design and implant packaging is small enough to be implanted by percutaneous injection through large-gauge hypodermic needles and does not require surgical implantation. Among these, commercially available implants, known as radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, are used for livestock, pet, laboratory animal, and endangered-species identification. The RFID tag is a subminiature glass capsule containing a solenoidal coil and an integrated circuit. Acting as the implanted half of a transcutaneous magnetic link, the RFID tag is powered by and communicates with an extracorporeal magnetic reader. The tag transmits a unique identification code that serves the function of identifying the animal. Millions of RFID tags have been sold since the early 1980s. Based on the success of the RFID tags, research laboratories have developed injectable medical implants, known as micromodules. One type of micromodule, the microstimulator, is designed for use in functional-neuromuscular stimulation. Each microstimulator is uniquely addressable and could comprise one channel of a multichannel functional-neuromuscular stimulation system. Using bidirectional telemetry and commands, from a single extracorporeal transmitter, as many as 256 microstimulators could form the hardware basis for a complex functional-neuromuscular stimulation feedback-control system. Uses include stimulation of paralyzed muscle, therapeutic functional-neuromuscular stimulation, and neuromodulatory functions such as laryngeal stimulation and sleep apnea.

  9. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  10. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  11. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Caubel, Julien J.; Wilson, Daniel L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-06-27

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.

  12. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  13. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. Diesel engine fuel injection system with a rate-of-injection control arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Izawa, A.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump for delivering a controlled quantity of high pressure fuel cyclically at a timing synchronized with the operation of the engine; (b) a fuel injection nozzle hydraulically connected to the injection pump for receiving high pressure fuel therefrom and injecting the fuel into an engine cylinder; (c) means for controlling a rate of injection of the system in response to operating conditions of the engine; and (d) passage means for providing, during each delivery stroke of the pump plunger, fluid communication between the pumping chamber and the variable volume chamber only for a predetermined initial phase of the delivery stroke. The variable volume chamber is hydraulically isolated from the pumping chamber during subsequent phases of the delivery stroke.

  15. Exogenous factors contributing to column bed heterogeneity: Part 1: Consequences of 'air' injections in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny; Shalliker, Andrew

    2015-08-07

    It has been shown that not only the packing homogeneity, but also factors external to the column bed, such as, frits and distributors can have important effects on the column performance. This current communication is the first in a series focusing on the impact of exogenous factors on the column bed heterogeneity. This study is based on several observations by us and others that chromatographic runs often, for technical reasons, include more or less portions of air in the injections. It is therefore extremely important to find out the impact of air on the column performance, the reliability of the results derived from analyses where air was injected, and the effect on the column homogeneity. We used a photographic approach for visualising the air transport phenomena, and found that the air transport through the column is comprised of many different types of transport phenomena, such as laminal flow, viscous fingering like flows, channels and bulbs, and pulsations. More particularly, the air clouds within the column definitely interact in the adsorption, i.e. mobile phase adsorbed to the column surface is displaced. In addition, irrespective of the type of air transport phenomena, the air does not penetrate the column homogeneously. This process is strongly flow dependent. In this work we study air transport both in an analytical scale and a semi-prep column.

  16. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

    DOE PAGES

    Rapp, Vi H.; Caubel, Julien J.; Wilson, Daniel L.; ...

    2016-06-27

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injectionmore » on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.« less

  17. Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical

  18. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2016-12-13

    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  19. Safety of 1000 CT-guided steroid injections with air used to localize the epidural space.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Pochert, S; Romano, C; Brook, A; Miller, T

    2011-10-01

    Historically, ESIs were performed without any imaging guidance, resulting in erroneous placement in up to 30% of injections. Fluoroscopic imaging is now used to guide most procedures. Recently, several reports have described the use of CT to guide ESIs instead of fluoroscopy. CT provides the ability to use air as contrast to localize the epidural space. This retrospective review will discuss findings in 1000 CT-guided ESIs with air localization.

  20. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).

  1. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  2. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  3. Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S.

    1995-09-01

    This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

  4. Fuel Lubricity Requirements for Diesel Injection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    8. Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218 (AD A...injection pumps. The unitest pump stand and test equipment specification are described in more detail in the report by Montemayor and Owens*. A schematic...operation. * Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218

  5. Analytical steam injection model for layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

  6. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  7. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  8. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  9. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  10. Active waste-injection systems in Florida, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John; McKenzie, D.J.; Pascale, C.A.; Wilson, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    As of the end of 1976, seven systems were injecting liquid wastes into Florida 's subsurface environment at a combined average rate of 15 million gallons per day. This report presents for each of these systems information on the kind and amount of waste injected and type of pretreatment, construction characteristics of the injection and monitor wells, type of test and monitoring data available, and brief discussion of any operational problems experienced. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  13. [Steam and air co-injection in removing TCE in 2D-sand box].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Peng, Sheng; Chen, Jia-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a newly developed and promising soil remediation technique for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in vadose zone. In this study, in order to investigate the mechanism of the remediation process, trichloroethylene (TCE) removal using steam and air co-injection was carried out in a 2-dimensional sandbox with different layered sand structures. The results showed that co-injection perfectly improved the "tailing" effect compared to soil vapor extraction (SVE), and the remediation process of steam and air co-injection could be divided into SVE stage, steam strengthening stage and heat penetration stage. Removal ratio of the experiment with scattered contaminant area was higher and removal speed was faster. The removal ratios from the two experiments were 93.5% and 88.2%, and the removal periods were 83.9 min and 90.6 min, respectively. Steam strengthened the heat penetration stage. The temperature transition region was wider in the scattered NAPLs distribution experiment, which reduced the accumulation of TCE. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed in the experiment with TCE initially distributed in a fine sand zone. And such downward movement of TCE reduced the TCE removal ratio.

  14. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  15. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  16. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  17. Extinction Dynamics of a Co-flow Diffusion Flame by Very Small Water Droplets Injected into the Air Stream

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-28

    flame extinction with UFM are available in the literature. Ndubizu et al. [18-20] conducted experiments on the effects of UFM on a forced convection ...injected air Reynolds number of 4 x 105 (Re=650). This suggests that the bulk of the air is affected by the natural convection and deviates...significantly from the streamlines of the injected air at the bottom of the burner. Therefore, the fluid flow set up by the natural convection is

  18. A PIV Study of Slotted Air Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented for single and dual-stream jets with fluidic injection on the core stream. The fluidic injection nozzles delivered air to the jet through slots on the interior of the nozzle at the nozzle trailing edge. The investigations include subsonic and supersonic jet conditions. Reductions in broadband shock noise and low frequency mixing noise were obtained with the introduction of fluidic injection on single stream jets. Fluidic injection was found to eliminate shock cells, increase jet mixing, and reduce turbulent kinetic energy levels near the end of the potential core. For dual-stream subsonic jets, the introduction of fluidic injection reduced low frequency noise in the peak jet noise direction and enhanced jet mixing. For dual-stream jets with supersonic fan streams and subsonic core streams, the introduction of fluidic injection in the core stream impacted the jet shock cell structure but had little effect on mixing between the core and fan streams.

  19. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  20. Stimulation of waste decomposition in an old landfill by air injection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli

    2016-12-01

    Three pilot-scale lysimeters were operated for 4.5years to quantify the change in the carbon and nitrogen pool in an old landfill under various air injection conditions. The results indicate that air injection at the bottom layer facilitated homogeneous distribution of oxygen in the waste matrix. Substantial total organic carbon (TOC) decomposition and methane generation reduction were achieved. Considerable amount of nitrogen was removed, suggesting that in situ nitrogen removal via the effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification mechanism is viable. Moreover, material mass change measurements revealed a slight mass reduction of aged MSW (by approximately 4.0%) after 4.5years of aeration. Additionally, experiments revealed that intensive aeration during the final stage of the experiment did not further stimulate the degradation of the aged MSW. Therefore, elimination of the labile fraction of aged MSW should be considered the objective of in situ aeration.

  1. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, Brent

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state of the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.

  2. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Yasui, Ryutaro; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2017-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, the compressed air at the exit of centrifugal compressor was re-circulated and injected to the impeller inlet by using two injection nozzles in order to suppress the surge phenomenon. The most effective circumferential position was examined to reduce the flow rate at the surge inception. Moreover, the influences of the injection on the fluctuating property of the flow field before and after the surge inception were investigated by examining the frequency of static pressure fluctuation on the wall surface and visualizing the compressor wall surface by oil-film visualization technique.

  3. INJECTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE BSNS/RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; TANG, J.Y.; CHEN, Y.; CHI, Y.L.; JIANG, Y.L.; KANG, W.; PANG, J.B.; QIN, Q.; QIU, J.; SHEN, L.; WANG, W.

    2006-06-23

    The BSNS injection system is designed to take one uninterrupted long drift in one of the four dispersion-free straight sections to host all the injection devices. Painting bumper magnets are used for both horizontal and vertical phase space painting. Closed-orbit bumper magnets are used for facilitating the installation of the injection septa and decreasing proton traversal in the stripping foil. Even with large beam emittance of about 300 {pi}mm.mrad used, BSNS/RCS still approaches the space charge limit during the injection/trapping phase for the accumulated particles of 1.9*10{sup 13} and at the low injection energy of 80 MeV. Uniform-like beam distribution by well-designed painting scheme is then obtained to decrease the tune shift/spread. ORBIT code is used for the 3D simulations. Upgrading to higher injection energy has also been considered.

  4. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... reach the injection pump or injectors....

  5. An air quality sensing system for cool air storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, T. J.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling and ventilation systems play an important role in human occupied spaces. However, cooling using reversible air conditioners systems pollutes the environment and consumes a significant amount of energy. With global warming that experiences our environment, the large consumption of electrical energy and the operating instructions for reversible air conditioners, there is a need to find alternatives to those cooling systems. Hence this research project aims to investigate an air storage system, a microsystem reversible ventilation system using natural atmospheric air (renewable energy) for cooling at low consumption of energy. For the variation of the temperature range of comfort due to thermal heat produces by occupants, equipment and environment, an optimal transient automatic regulation of air flow as to be design in order to maintain the temperature of comfort in occupied spaces during peak hours.

  6. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  7. [Development of a novel liquid injection system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Lv, Yong-Gui

    2009-11-01

    A liquid jet injector employs compressed gas or spring to produce a high-velocity stream to deliver liquid drug into human body through skin. There are many clinical jet injection products available, none of which is domestic. A new liquid jet injector is designed based on a comprehensive analysis of the current products. The injector consists of an ejector, trigger and a re-positioning mechanism. The jets characteristics of sample injector are tested, and the results show that the maximum exit pressure is above 15 MPa, a threshold value for penetrating into the skin.

  8. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-20

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  9. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  10. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  11. Discharge characteristics of a simulated unit injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Edred T

    1938-01-01

    Rate-of-discharge curves that show the discharge characteristics of an injection system having a very short fuel passage are presented. The rate of discharge closely follows the rate of displacement of the injection-pump plunger for open nozzles in which the maximum calculated pressures at the orifice do not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the particular injection pump. With small orifices and high pump speeds, the rate of discharge does not follow the rate of plunger displacement because the higher discharge pressure results in increased leakage with corresponding decrease in discharge rate. The rate of discharge is not directly related to the rate of plunger displacement with automatic injection valves having closed nozzles. The types of pump check valve tested did not control the rate of cut-off or the discharge rate but they did affect the injection lag. Use of the short fuel passage eliminated the formation of secondary discharges.

  12. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  13. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  14. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  15. Coanda injection system for axially staged low emission combustors

    DOEpatents

    Evulet, Andrei Tristan [Clifton Park, NY; Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto [Greer, SC; ElKady, Ahmed Mostafa [Niskayuna, NY; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC

    2012-05-15

    The low emission combustor includes a combustor housing defining a combustion chamber having a plurality of combustion zones. A liner sleeve is disposed in the combustion housing with a gap formed between the liner sleeve and the combustor housing. A secondary nozzle is disposed along a centerline of the combustion chamber and configured to inject a first fluid comprising air, at least one diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to a downstream side of a first combustion zone among the plurality of combustion zones. A plurality of primary fuel nozzles is disposed proximate to an upstream side of the combustion chamber and located around the secondary nozzle and configured to inject a second fluid comprising air and fuel to an upstream side of the first combustion zone. The combustor also includes a plurality of tertiary coanda nozzles. Each tertiary coanda nozzle is coupled to a respective dilution hole. The tertiary coanda nozzles are configured to inject a third fluid comprising air, at least one other diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to one or more remaining combustion zones among the plurality of combustion zones.

  16. Dynamic Particle Injections in the Magnetospheres of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of dynamic, planetward injections of plasma and energetic particles on the nightside magnetosphere is one of the defining characteristics of magnetospheric substorms at Earth. And yet, with the exploration of the solar system with planetary probes, it has become clear that dynamic planetward injections are if fact a ubiquitous characteristic of most strongly magnetized planets; only Neptune did not reveal the signatures of such processes when visited. But, within this diversity of magnetospheric environments, it is clear that the driving forces associated with injections can be very different from those at Earth. Jupiter, for example, is known to be powered by planetary rotation rather than the solar wind. Saturn has injections that are clearly powered by rotations, but it also has nightside injections that are, at minimum, triggered by solar wind events if not powered by the solar wind. Even for those magnetospheres clearly powered by rotation, there appears to be substantial similarity between the physical processes involved with the extraterrestrial planetary injections and recent formulations of injections within Earth's near-Earth magnetotail. With a focus on comparisons between Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, I here review the state of understanding generally of injections within extraterrestrial planets and what the comparisons might tell us about our understanding of substorm phenomena at Earth.

  17. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, JR; Solanki, SL; Patil, VP; Divatia, JV

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  18. Availability of high-pressure safety injection system in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.H.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of typical variations in configuration of the design of the High Pressure Injection (HPSI) System on system unavailability. The HPSI systems in seventeen nuclear power plants were reviewed for variations in design, systems operation, testing and maintenance policies, and possible sources for common cause failures. The power plants reviewed include PWRs with two, three and four loop Reactor Coolant Systems and cover all three PWR vendors. As a result of this effort, the following five representative configurations (along with some variations) were identified and their unavailability to initiate injection was estimated.

  19. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  20. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  1. SNS INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS ? ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Beam loss is higher than expected in the Ring injection section and in the injection dump beam line. The primary causes are fairly well understood, and we have made some equipment modifications to reduce the loss. In the ring extraction beam line the beam distribution exhibits cross-plane coupling (tilt), and the cause has been traced to a large skew-quadrupole component in the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we will discuss the issues surrounding the ring injection and extraction systems, the solutions we have implemented to date, and our plans for future improvements.

  2. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  3. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  4. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  5. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  6. Electromagnetically controlled distributor-type fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Levin, M.B.; Dutcher, W.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    With the advent of electronic controls and development of electromagnetically controlled fuel injection pumps, the cost of fuel systems using plunger-type pumps was substantially reduced. Further reduction in cost can be achieved if fewer solenoid valves are used. A new type of injection pump combining electromagnetic spill control principle with distributor-type operation is described. A review of the basic concept and operating principles is given, and test results as well as cost considerations are discussed.

  7. Omni-axis secondary injection thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkley, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The concept, development, design study and preliminary analysis and layout of the required digital logic scheme to be used for injection valve control are presented. An application and optimization study of an Omni-Axis Secondary Injection Control System applicable to the proposed Space Shuttle Pressure Fed Engine is reported. Technical definition and analysis control procedures and test routines, as well as a supporting set of drawing sketches and reference manual, are enclosed.

  8. Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    12 Figure 2.2. Pitot Tube...that relay pitot -static information from the aircraft’s air data system and inertial measurement information from the Inertial Navigation System...Air data systems receive total and static pressure inputs from a pitot -static system. A typical pitot tube, as shown below, receives total pressure

  9. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  10. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Barron, Benigno; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Benitez-Rangel, Juan P.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.

    2012-01-01

    The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected. PMID:23202036

  11. FPGA-based multiprocessor system for injection molding control.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barron, Benigno; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Benitez-Rangel, Juan P; Osornio-Rios, Roque A

    2012-10-18

    The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected.

  12. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    DOEpatents

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  13. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  14. Improving environmental noise suppression for micronewton force sensing based on electrostatic by injecting air damping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yelong; Song, Le; Hu, Gang; Zhao, Meirong; Tian, Yanling; Zhang, Zihui; Fang, Fengzhou

    2014-05-01

    A micro/nano force can be traced to the International System of Units by means of an electrostatic force balance weight system. However, the micro/nano force measurement system is susceptible to environmental disturbances. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the effect of environmental disturbances and obtain high resolution and fast response. In this paper, we introduce a combination of air damping and inherent damping from the internal molecular friction of spring suspension. This will optimize system stability and improve environmental noise suppression. Results from the air damping model show that the damping ratio increases from 0.0005 to 0.1, which improves the vibration resistance. We found that the system with air damping has the advantages of fast response and low scatter.

  15. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.22 Fuel-injection system. This system shall be...

  16. Efficacy of Vitrectomy Combined with Subretinal rtPA Injection with Gas or Air Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Waizel, M; Todorova, M G; Rickmann, A; Blanke, B R; Szurman, P

    2017-01-31

    Background Functional and anatomical outcome after vitrectomy with rtPA combined with gas or air tamponade. Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of pseudophakic patients treated with subretinal rtPA and gas or air tamponade. The primary endpoint was displacement of haemorrhage six months after surgery. The secondary endpoints were visual acuity (BCVA), haemorrhage diameter (MHD) and central macular thickness (CMT), as measured by SD-OCT. Results 53 of 85 eyes were pseudophakic. 27 of these eyes were treated with air tamponade and 26 with gas tamponade. For patients with air tamponade, the mean BCVA improved from 20/530 to 20/355 (p = 0.01). MHD and CMT decreased from 6386 ± 2281 µm to 3805 ± 2397 µm (p < 0.001) and 895 ± 592 µm to 532 ± 386 µm (p < 0.001), respectively. For patients with gas tamponade, the mean BCVA improved only slightly, from 20/471 to 20/394 (p = 0.17). MHD and CMT exhibited statistically significant decreases from 6759 ± 1773 µm to 3525 ± 1548 µm (p < 0.001) and 1089 ± 587 µm to 537 ± 251 µm (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions Vitrectomy with subretinal rtPA injection has strong functional and anatomical effects on submacular haemorrhages with both gas and air tamponade.

  17. System and method for injecting fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2012-12-04

    According to various embodiments, a system includes a staggered multi-nozzle assembly. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly includes a first fuel nozzle having a first axis and a first flow path extending to a first downstream end portion, wherein the first fuel nozzle has a first non-circular perimeter at the first downstream end portion. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly also includes a second fuel nozzle having a second axis and a second flow path extending to a second downstream end portion, wherein the first and second downstream end portions are axially offset from one another relative to the first and second axes. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly further includes a cap member disposed circumferentially about at least the first and second fuel nozzles to assemble the staggered multi-nozzle assembly.

  18. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  19. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  20. Air ion exposure system for plants.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Tibbitts, T W

    1987-02-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  1. Air ion exposure system for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  2. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  3. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  4. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  5. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  6. Online assay of bone specific alkaline phosphatase with a flow injection-bead injection system.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Somprayoon, Duangporn; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Ongchai, Siriwan; Arppornchayanon, Olarn; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Grudpan, Kate

    2007-09-26

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been used as one of the biomarkers for bone resorption and liver diseases. Normally, total alkaline phosphatase is quantified along with other symptoms to determine the releasing source of the alkaline phosphatase. A semi-automated flow injection-bead injection system was proposed to conveniently and selectively assay bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) based on its specific binding to wheat germ coated beads. Amount of BALP in serum was determined from the intensity of the yellow product produced from bound BALP on the retained beads and its substrate pNPP. The used beads were discarded and the fresh ones were introduced for the next analysis. The reaction cell was designed to be opened and closed using a computer controlled solenoid valve for a precise incubation time. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated by using it to assay BALP in human serum. The results were compared to those obtained by using a commercial ELISA kit. The system is proposed to be an easy and cost effective system for quantification of BALP as an alternative to batch wise wheat germ specific binding technique.

  7. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  8. Tactical Integrated Air Defense System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    and integrated. The discussion in %,hapter II sunmmarlies the effective. ness of their integration experiences. 4 Any evaluation of current air...require- ments. Therefore, to serve as a baseline for evaluating the present IAD capabilities of the United States, Chapter III contains an analysis...of the present Soviet tactical air threat. Given the historical background and operational requirements for IAD, an evaluation of the present United

  9. Efficiency of compressed-air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The current state of knowledge in American industry concerning the energy efficient design and operation of industrial compressed air systems and system components is examined. Since there is no standard reference for designers and operators of compressed air systems which provides guidelines for maximizing the energy efficiency of these systems, a major product of this contract was the preparation of a guidebook for this purpose.

  10. Fuel injection system electromagnetic-valve controlled type

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    1989-01-31

    A fuel injection system for an engine is described including: (a) a fuel injection pump having a pump housing, a plunger associated with the pump housing and reciprocatively movable in relation to rotation of a crankshaft of the engine, and a fuel pressurizing chamber associated with the pump housing and variable in volume in response to reciprocative movement of the plunger; (b) supply passage means supplying fuel to the fuel pressurizing chamber, the supply passage means being closed substantially during a forward stroke of the plunger and being opened substantially during a backward stroke of the plunger; (c) forcible-delivery passage means connecting the fuel pressurizing chamber to at least one fuel injection nozzle of the engine; (d) release passage means communicating with the fuel pressurizing chamber.

  11. Variable stroke, electronically controlled fuel injection control system

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, C.G.

    1987-02-17

    A fuel injection control system is described comprising an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft, a fuel supply, a spill valve in fluid communication with the fuel supply, a fuel injection nozzle, a fuel pump comprising a piston and cylinder, the cylinder in fluid communication with the fuel injection nozzle and the spill valve, means for actuating the fuel pump piston comprises means for actuating the fuel pump piston to achieve a constant velocity relative to angular rotation of the crankshaft for the piston during the delivery portion of the pumpstroke during the travel of the piston in the cylinder, means for closing the spill valve when the piston, during the delivery portion of the pumpstroke, reaches a first predetermined position in the fuel pump cylinder and opening the spill valve when the piston, during the delivery portion, reaches a second predetermined position in the fuel pump cylinder.

  12. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations.

  13. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  14. The Injection Laser System on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M; Burkhart, S; Cohen, S; Erbert, G; Heebner, J; Hermann, M; Jedlovec, D

    2006-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also precompensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with precompensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed.

  15. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    Technology November 2, 2011 The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Frank Castaneda, III, P.E. APIMS Program Manager AFCEE/TDNQ APIMS...NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS... Information   Management   System : Sustainability of  Enterprise air quality management system • Aspects and Impacts to Process • Auditing and Measurement

  16. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    PubMed

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC.

  17. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  18. Compressed air energy storage system two-phase flow experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Ohtsu, Iwao; Murata, Hideo

    1996-08-01

    A water/CO{sub 2}-combination test facility, having a vertical shaft height of {approximately} 25 m and a shaft inner diameter of 0.2 m, has been constructed in simulating a water/air full-size CAES system, having a shaft height of {approximately} 1,000 m and an inner diameter of {approximately} 3 m. Totally fifteen experiments have been performed in this test facility. In an experiment of CO{sub 2} high-concentration ({approximately} 0.4 MPa) and medium water injection velocity ({approximately} 0.5 m/s), the shaft void fraction during gas charging to a lower reservoir (i.e. during water injection to the shaft) became highest in all the experiment. This experiment may correspond to the severest situation in a full-size CAES system; however, the blowout did not occur in this experiment. In an experiment of CO{sub 2} high-concentration({approximately} 0.4 MPa) and very-high injection velocity ({approximately} 2.5 m/s), after gas charging stopped, CO{sub 2}-supersaturated water, remained in the shaft, formed bubbles vigorously, and thereafter the blowout occurred. However, the injection velocity of {approximately} 2.5 m/s corresponds to a velocity of {approximately} 100 m/s in a full-size CAES system and may be unreal.

  19. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  20. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  1. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  2. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  3. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  4. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  5. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  6. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  7. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  8. AIRS FPA applied to the MIRIADS: powerful infrared systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John T.; McCarley, Paul L.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.

    2001-10-01

    Raytheon's Infrared Operations (RIO) has invented and developed a new type of focal plane array with 'Image Processing on-the-chip' named the Adaptive IR Sensor (AIRS). The AIRS FPA is based upon the human retina in that it performs signal processing near the photoreceptors. The AIRS FPA has been reduced to practice and adaptively removes detector and optic temperature drift and 1/f induced fixed pattern noise. This 3rd-generation multi-mode IRFPA, also called a Smart FPA, is a 256 X 256-array format capable of operation in four modes: (1) Direct Injection (DI), (2) Adaptive Non-uniformity Correction (NUC), (3) Motion/Edge Detection, and (4) Subframe Averaging. Nova Research has developed a Modular IR Application Development System (MIRIADS) which is a compact single board camera system that is highly integrated with the dewar assembly. The MIRIADS system coupled with the AIRS Smart FPA results in a very high performance wide field of view IR Sensor and processing system with integrated in one of the smallest packages to date.

  9. Supra-Descemet’s Fluid Drainage with Simultaneous Air Injection: An Alternative Treatment for Descemet’s Membrane Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffariyeh, Alireza; Honarpisheh, Nazafarin; Chamacham, Tooraj

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we present an alternative technique to manage Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD). We call the technique supra-Descemet’s fluid drainage with intracameral air injection. Under topical anesthesia, we injected air through the stab incision to fill 2/3 of the anterior chamber. Then we inserted the tip of a curved 10/0 needle through the corneal surface (entry angle at 45 degrees) into the supra-Descemet’s area 3 times to drain this fluid. In our method, we neither injected expanding gas or viscoelastic nor used a suture. Consequently, there was little chance for suture-induced astigmatism or increased intraocular pressure. This technique may be considered a relatively safe and simple surgical method for the management of postoperative DMD. PMID:21731334

  10. Biodegradable block copolymers as injectable drug-delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Byeongmoon; Bae, You Han; Lee, Doo Sung; Kim, Sung Wan

    1997-08-01

    Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 °C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs.

  11. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  12. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  13. The injection laser system on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Mark; Burkhart, Scott; Cohen, Simon; Erbert, Gaylen; Heebner, John; Hermann, Mark; Jedlovec, Don

    2007-02-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also pre-compensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with pre-compensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed. Work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy under contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  15. Atomization and Dispersion of a Liquid Jet Injected Into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seay, J. E.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, environmental regulations have become more stringent, requiring lower emissions of mainly nitrogen oxides (NOx), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). These regulations have forced the gas turbine industry to examine non-conventional combustion strategies, such as the lean burn approach. The reasoning behind operating under lean conditions is to maintain the temperature of combustion near and below temperatures required for the formation of thermal nitric oxide (NO). To be successful, however, the lean processes require careful preparation of the fuel/air mixture to preclude formation of either locally rich reaction zones, which may give rise to NO formation, or locally lean reaction zones, which may give rise to inefficient fuel processing. As a result fuel preparation is crucial to the development and success of new aeroengine combustor technologies. A key element of the fuel preparation process is the fuel nozzle. As nozzle technologies have developed, airblast atomization has been adopted for both industrial and aircraft gas turbine applications. However, the majority of the work to date has focused on prefilming nozzles, which despite their complexity and high cost have become an industry standard for conventional combustion strategies. It is likely that the new strategies required to meet future emissions goals will utilize novel fuel injector approaches, such as radial injection. This thesis proposes and demonstrates an experiment to examine, on a mechanistic level (i.e., the physics of the action), the processes associated with the atomization, evaporation, and dispersion of a liquid jet introduced, from a radial, plain-jet airblast injector, into a crossflow of air. This understanding requires the knowledge not only of what factors influence atomization, but also the underlying mechanism associated with liquid breakup and dispersion. The experimental data acquired identify conditions and geometries for improved

  16. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  17. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  18. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  19. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  20. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  1. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  2. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  3. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  4. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  5. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  6. Injection mode-locking Ti-sapphire laser system

    DOEpatents

    Hovater, James Curtis; Poelker, Bernard Matthew

    2002-01-01

    According to the present invention there is provided an injection modelocking Ti-sapphire laser system that produces a unidirectional laser oscillation through the application of a ring cavity laser that incorporates no intracavity devices to achieve unidirectional oscillation. An argon-ion or doubled Nd:YVO.sub.4 laser preferably serves as the pump laser and a gain-switched diode laser serves as the seed laser. A method for operating such a laser system to produce a unidirectional oscillating is also described.

  7. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  8. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Neves, Nuno; Campos, Bruno B; Almeida, Isabel F; Costa, Paulo C; Cabral, Abel Trigo; Barbosa, Mário A; Ribeiro, Cristina C

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium(Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35%w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N.Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation.

  9. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  10. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  11. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  12. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  13. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  14. The Biomechanics and Optimization of the Needle-Syringe System for Injecting Triamcinolone Acetonide into Keloids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Injecting triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into a keloid is physically challenging due to the density of keloids. The purpose was to investigate the effects of various syringe and needle combinations on the injection force to determine the most ergonomic combination. Materials and Methods. A load cell was used to generate and measure the injection force. Phase 1: the injection force of 5 common syringes was measured by injecting water into air. The syringe that required the lowest injection force was evaluated with various needle gauges (25, 27, and 30 G) and lengths (16, 25, and 38 mm) by injecting TA (40 mg/mL) into air. The needle-syringe combination with the lowest injection force (CLIF) was deemed the most ergonomic combination. Phase 2: comparisons between the CLIF and a standard combination (SC) were performed by injecting TA into air and tap water into a keloid specimen. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and independent t-test were used. Results. Increasing the syringe caliber, injection speed, and needle gauge and length significantly increased the injection force (p value < 0.001). The SC required a maximum force of 40.0 N to inject water into keloid, compared to 25.0 N for the CLIF. Injecting TA into keloid using the SC would require an injection force that was 103.5% of the maximum force female thumbs could exert compared to 64.8% for the CLIF. ICC values were greater than 0.4. Conclusions. The 1 mL polycarbonate syringe with a 25 G, 16 mm needle (CLIF) was the most ergonomic combination. The SC required a substantial injection force, which may represent a physical challenge for female thumbs. PMID:27843936

  15. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  17. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-07-01

    Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation.

  18. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  19. A study of fault injection in multichannel spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements to be studied are the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study are being applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard. Some of the reactions of the breadboard to some of the faults which have been encountered are presented along with the results of this study.

  20. Piezo stack actuation control system for sperm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. K.; Putra, A. S.

    2005-12-01

    Among the electric motor drives, the piezoelectric actuator (PA) is one drive which is becoming very popular in high precision biomedical applications, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The main benefits of a PA include low thermal losses and, most importantly, the high precision and accuracy achievable consequent of the driect drive principle. One major source of uncertainties in PA control design is the hysteresis behavior which yields a rate-independent lag and residual displacement near zero input, reducing the precision of the actuators. Due to the typical precision positioning requirements and low offset tolerance of PA applications, the design and control of these systems, under the influence of these uncertainties, is particularly challenging since conventional PID control usually does not suffice in these application domains to meet the stringent performance requirements. In this paper, we consider the design and realization of a piezo stack actuator which is capable of linear motion and non-full rotation to fulfill the stringent requirements associated with sperm injection applications. A complementary precise control system is developed employing a robust adaptive control algorithm to reject the hysteresis phenomenon associated with general PAs and to achieve rapid and highly precise positioning. The controller comprises of a PID feedback component and an adaptive component for hysteresis compensation. The adaptive component is continuously refined based on just prevailing input and output signals. In the paper, it will be proven that the tracking error can asymptotically converge to zero. In addition, analytical quantification is given to illustrate the improvement of the system's transient performance. Real-time experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed micro actuator for high precision motion trajectory tracking in intracytoplasmic sperm injection using mice eggs.

  1. Control System of Neutral Beam Injection on HT-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjun; Hu, Chundong; Liu, Zhimin; Liu, Sheng; Song, Shihua; Yang, Daoye

    2005-06-01

    Neutral Beam Injection control system (NBICS) is constructed to measure the plasma current, Magnet current, vacuum pressure, cryopump temperature, control water cooling, filament voltage, and power supply, etc. The NBICS, consisting mainly of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) subsystem, data acquisition and processing subsystem and cryopump and vacuum pressure monitoring subsystem, has successfully been used on a NBI device. In this article, the design of NBICS on HT-7 is discussed and each subsystem is described in particular. In addition, some experimental results are reported which are very important data for further research related to the HT-7 tokamak.

  2. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  3. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  4. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  5. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T

    1937-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  6. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  7. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  8. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. (a) Supply system. (1) Supply ducts and any dampers contained..., Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class 2 air ducts shall be located at least 3 feet from the...

  9. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  10. Fuel system for rotary distributor fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Kelly, W.W.

    1993-06-01

    In a fuel injection pump having a drive shaft, a pump rotor driven by the drive shaft, reciprocating pumping means with periodic intake and pumping strokes to periodically receive an intake charge of fuel and deliver fuel at high pressure for fuel injection is described; a distributor head with a plurality of angularly spaced distributor outlets, the pump rotor providing a distributor rotor with a distributor port connected to the pumping means, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for sequential registration of the distributor port with the distributor outlets for distributing said high pressure delivery of fuel thereto; a fuel system for supplying fuel to the pumping means, having an end chamber at one end of the pump rotor and a fuel supply pump driven by the drive shaft and having an inlet and outlet, the supply pump outlet being connected to the end chamber for supplying fuel thereto, and a pressure regulator for regulating the fuel pressure in the end chamber; and a control valve connected between the pumping means and the end chamber and selectively opened during the intake strokes to supply fuel to the pumping means from the end chamber and during the pumping strokes to spill fuel from the pumping means into the end chamber to terminate said high pressure delivery of fuel; the improvement wherein the fuel system comprises a fuel return passage connected in series with the end chamber downstream thereof, wherein the pressure regulator is mounted in the return passage for regulating the upstream fuel pressure, including the upstream fuel pressure within the end chamber, and is connected for conducting excess fuel for return to the supply pump inlet, and wherein the supply pump is driven by the drive shaft to supply fuel at a rate exceeding the rate of said high pressure delivery of fuel for fuel injection and to provide excess fuel flow continuously through the end chamber and return passage to the pressure regulator.

  11. The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

    1991-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

  12. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  13. A Compact Flexible Pellet Injection System for Fueling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2000-10-01

    A compact pellet injection system is being designed and built at ORNL to provide a flexible pellet fueling system for studies in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The system known as a ``pellet injector in a suitcase (PIS)'' is a pipe gun device with four barrels that uses a cryocooler for in-situ hydrogenic pellet formation. The system is being built to provide a flexible, low-cost fueling system that can be used on a number of plasma confinement experiments with minimal installation and operation costs. components in the system. It will use both propellant gas and a mechanical punch to accelerate the 1 - 4 mm size pellets to 100-1500 m/s. With the mechanical punch alone a low speed pellet, useful for curved guide tube applications, can be produced with minimal gas load eliminating the need for a large ballast volume. can be independently fired. diagnose the injector. The PIS is a flexible tool for fueling alternative concept devices such as MST and NSTX and for specialized studies in mainline tokamak experiments such as DIII-D and JET. The small size makes installation on such devices more feasible. of the system design and the expected performance will be presented.

  14. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  15. Performance analysis of the BNL FACE gas injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.; Alexander, Y.

    1992-12-31

    As described elsewhere in this volume, the criteria for successful operation of a FACE-type crop fumigation system include the spatial uniformity of the gas injected over the crop growing area, the efficiency of gas usage, and the overall cost of the system. Efficiency of gas usage is important not only from a cost standpoint, but also to reduce the distances required to preclude interference between replicate FACE arrays or control plots. The details of the FACE design and analyses of the important fluid mechanical concepts are described below. A more detailed description of the hardware was given. Additional FACE performance and CO{sub 2} distribution data are given. 7 refs., 25 figs.

  16. A factorial design for optimizing a flow injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Luna, J R; Ovalles, J F; León, A; Buchheister, M

    2000-05-01

    The use of a factorial design for the response exploration of a flow injection (FI) system is described and illustrated by FI spectrophotometric determination of paraquat. Variable response (absorbance) is explored as a function of the factors flow rate and length of the reaction coil. The present study was found to be useful to detect and estimate any interaction among the factors that may affect the optimal conditions for the maximal response in the optimization of the FI system, which is not possible with a univariate design. In addition, this study showed that factorial experiments enable economy of experimentation and yield results of high precision due to the use of the whole data for calculating the effects.

  17. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  18. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  19. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  20. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kasas, S; Alonso, L; Jacquet, P; Adamcik, J; Haeberli, C; Dietler, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  1. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Imaging system for hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, L. A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C. M.; Wang Zhehui

    2006-10-15

    The novel hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic will facilitate our understanding of basic aspects of dust-plasma interaction and magnetic field topology in fusion plasma devices, by observing 'comet tails' associated with the injected micron-size dust particles. A single projection of the tail onto an image plane will not provide sufficient information; therefore, we plan to use two views, with intensified DiCam-Pro cameras on two NSTX ports. Each camera can furnish up to five overlaying sequential images with gate times greater than 3 ns and 1280x1024 pixel resolution. A coherent fiber bundle with 1500x1200 fibers will relay the image from an imaging lens installed directly on the port to the camera optics. The lens receives light from the outer portion of the NSTX cross section and focuses a 1 cm tail onto at least 60 fibers for adequate resolution. The estimated number of photons received by the camera indicates signal-to-noise ratios of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}, with the use of a 10 nm bandwidth filter. The imaging system with one camera was successfully tested on NSTX in 2005. Photographing lithium pellets yielded bright and distinctive pictures of the tails nearly aligned with B lines. We also observed that the bright 'filaments' - plasma cords with high density and temperature - are present in both top and bottom portions of the machine.

  3. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  4. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  5. Hydrologic characteristics of the Bandelier Tuff as determined through an injection well system

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Enyart, E.A.; McLin, S.G.

    1989-08-01

    Injection wells were used to determine some of the hydrologic transmitting characteristics of the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff. At site 1, a 60-ft injection well with a 5-ft injection zone was used to conduct four tests. These preliminary tests were made in order to design an injection-well monitoring system that could track the movement of fluids in the tuff. At site 2, a second injection well with a 10-ft injection zone and seven observation holes was used to monitor the movement of 335,000 gal. of water injected into the tuff. The initial injection rate at site 2 was 5.8 gallons per minute (gpm), but that rate gradually declined to 0.4 gpm after 89 days of the test; 289 days after the test ended, the pear-shaped nephol (the shape of moisture injected into the tuff) reached a maximum depth of 210 ft and had a diameter of about 120 ft. A second test at site 2 indicated that intermittent use of an injection system would allow for short periods of higher injection rates, thereby extending the life of the system. Finally, a third test at site 2 was made using a 50-ft injection zone, which resulted in an injection rate of 15.8 gpm, or about 3 times the initial rate achieved when a 10-ft injection zone was used. 8 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  7. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  8. Vacuum systems of linear accelerators of the NICA injection complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosachev, V. V.; Bazanov, A. M.; Butenko, A. V.; Galimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The NICA project, which includes several accelerators of charged particles, is under construction in the Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna. Obtaining the required vacuum conditions is one of the key points in implementing the project, because reaching the required ion lifetime at all stages of particle acceleration is what determines the effective luminosity of the experiments in the long run. Currently, modernization of the vacuum system of the injection complex of the LU-20 linear accelerator of light ions, one of oldest accelerators in the JINR, is being carried out and the new HILAC linear accelerator for the acceleration of gold ions in the collider mode of the NICA complex is being installed. At the end parts of the linear accelerators, the residual gas pressure must be approximately 10-5 Pa, which is determined by the maximum amplitude of the RF electric field used for the acceleration of ions.

  9. Propellant Feed System for Swirl-Coaxial Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant feed system for swirl-coaxial injection of a liquid propellant includes a reservoir having a bottom plate and at least one tube originating in the bottom plate and extending therefrom. The tube has rectangular slits defined in and distributed tangentially and evenly about a portion of the tube that is disposed in the bottom plate. Drain holes are provided in the bottom plate and tunnels are defined in the bottom plate. Each tunnel fluidly couples one of the drain holes to a corresponding one of the rectangular slits. Each tunnel includes (i) a bend of at least 90.degree., and (ii) a straight portion leading to its corresponding rectangular slit wherein the straight portion is at least five times as long as a hydraulic diameter of the corresponding rectangular slit.

  10. Performance of the RHIC Injection Line Instrumentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Ryan, W. A.; Smith, G.; Zitvogel, E.

    1997-05-01

    The beam injection line from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) transports proton and heavy ion bunches. This line and the RHIC first sextant currently contain thefollowing complement of beam instrumentation: stripline position monitors, ionization loss monitors, video profile monitors, and commercial current transformers. Over several years, these systems have been designed and bench tested to assure a desired performance level. The design criteria will be briefly reviewed. Then, using data from laboratory tests and the recent single pass beam tests, desired performance and attained performance will be compared. Finally, experience from the beam based tests will be applied to the design criteria for the future collider ring instrumentation.

  11. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  12. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  13. Studies on the mixing of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows for lean direct injection combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jun-Young

    A lean direct injection (LDI) combustion concept was introduced recently to obtain both low NOsbx emissions and high performance for advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was reported that pollutant emissions, especially NOsbx, in a lean combustion mode depend significantly on the degree of mixing (mixedness) of supplied air and liquid fuel droplets. From a viewpoint of environmental protection, therefore, uniform mixing of fuel and air in a very short period of time, i.e., well-stirred mixing, is crucially important in the LDI combustion mode. In the present study, as the first stage toward understanding the combustion phenomena in a lean direct injection (LDI) mode, the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows is investigated. Laser-based flow visualization and image analysis techniques are applied to analyze the instantaneous motion of the mixing process of the jets and pre-atomized sprays. Statistical analysis system (SAS) software is utilized to analyze the experimental data, and correlate experimental parameters. Statistical parameters, such as centrality, degree of spread, and total area ratio of particles, are defined in this study, and used to quantify the mixedness (degree of mixing) of liquid particles in confined geometry. Two empirical equations are obtained to predict jet intact lengths and spray angles, respectively, in confined swirling air flows. It is found that initial jet characteristics, such as intact length and spray angle, determine the mixing of the liquid particles resulting from the jet. It is verified that image analysis is feasible in quantitative determination of the mixedness of liquid particles. Even though substantial improvements in liquid fuel injector systems are required before they can be considered adequate for LDI combustion at high pressure and high temperature, the results and ideas obtained from the present study will help engineers find better mixing methods for LDI

  14. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A LANDFILL PRACTICING LEACHATE RECIRCULATION AND AIR INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently research has begun on operating bioreactor landfills. The bioreactor process involves the injection of liquid into the waste mass to accelerate waste degradation. Arcadis and EPA conducted a fugitive emissions characterization study at the Three Rivers Solid Waste Techno...

  16. Mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow screen reduces air contamination in a simulated setting for intra-vitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Traversari, Roberto; van der Linden, Jan Willem; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Lapid, Oren; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a mobile ultra-clean laminar airflow screen reduces the air-borne particle counts in the setting of a simulated procedure of an intra-vitreal injection. A mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow (UDF) screen was tested in a simulated procedure for intra-vitreal injections in a treatment room without mechanical ventilation. One UDF was passed over the instrument tray and the surgical area. The concentration of particles was measured in the background, over the instrument table, and next to the ocular area. The degree of protection was calculated at the instrument table and at the surgical site. Use of the UDF mobile screen reduced the mean particle concentration (particles > 0.3 microns) on the instrument table by a factor of at least 100.000 (p < 0.05), and over the patient's eye by at least a factor of 436 (p < 0.05), which in clinical practice translates into significantly reduced air contamination. Mobile UDF screen reduces the mean particle concentration substantially. The mobile UDF screen may therefore allow for a safer procedural environment for ambulatory care procedures such as intra-vitreal injections in treatment rooms.

  17. Modeling and investigation of refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection in a scroll compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rui

    Vapor compression cycles are widely used in heating, refrigerating and air-conditioning. A slight performance improvement in the components of a vapor compression cycle, such as the compressor, can play a significant role in saving energy use. However, the complexity and cost of these improvements can block their application in the market. Modifying the conventional cycle configuration can offer a less complex and less costly alternative approach. Economizing is a common modification for improving the performance of the refrigeration cycle, resulting in decreasing the work required to compress the gas per unit mass. Traditionally, economizing requires multi-stage compressors, the cost of which has restrained the scope for practical implementation. Compressors with injection ports, which can be used to inject economized refrigerant during the compression process, introduce new possibilities for economization with less cost. This work focuses on computationally investigating a refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection, developing a better understanding of the impact of injected refrigerant quality on refrigeration system performance as well as evaluating the potential COP improvement that injection provides based on refrigeration system performance provided by Copeland.

  18. Linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in air by concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Companioni-Damas, E Y; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a simple and fast method for the analysis of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in ambient air based on active sampling combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The retention efficiency of five sampling sorbents (activated coconut charcoal, Carbopack B, Cromosorb 102, Cromosorb 106 and Isolute ENV+) was evaluated and Isolute ENV+ was found to be the most effective. A volume of 2700 L of air can be sampled without significant losses of the most volatile methylsiloxanes. To improve the sensitivity of the GC-MS method, concurrent solvent recondensation - large volume injection (CSR-LVI), using volumes up to 30 µl of sample extract, is proposed and limits of quantification down to 0.03-0.45 ng m(-3), good linearity (r>0.999) and precision (RSD %<9%) were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of ambient air. Concentrations of linear and cyclic methylsiloxanes in indoor air ranging from 3.9 to 319 ng m(-3) and between 48 and 292668 ng m(-3), were obtained, respectively, while levels from 6 to 22 ng m(-3) for linear and between 2.2 and 439 ng m(-3) for cyclic methylsiloxanes in outdoor air from Barcelona (Spain), were found.

  19. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Dehumidifying Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    not be connected to other ventilating systems. Duct runs shall be as short as possible to avoid leakage of moisture. I b. Special Considerations. (1...For rectangular duct design, see the SMACNA -Low Pressure Duct Construction Standards. Under jnormal applications, a minimum duct size of 6 by 6 inches...prevent leakage of the moisture-laden discharge air into the intake duct , and the intake and discharge outlets shall be located to prevent any

  20. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  3. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew R; Nightingale, Philp D; Turner, Suzanne M; Liss, Peter S

    2013-09-24

    Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions.

  4. Low Cost Air Combat Training System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Earl

    1987-10-01

    Air combat training has evolved into a highly sophisticated and expensive process. To effectively train fighter pilots in air-to-air combat, interaction between pilots is essential. This interaction can be accomplished using multiple low cost laser image projections of friend and/or foe aircraft controlled by pilots in a multiple dome configuration. A Laser Target Projector (LTP) produces a calligraphically written aircraft model comprised of up to 200 vectors which are updated at a 60 Hz rate. The resulting wire frame image imparts both position, velocity, distance and altitude information to the pilots. Using a laser light source guarantees high luminance levels and provides large depths of field. This large depth of field allows for unique packaging arrangements and cost saving attributes. The LTP has total dome coverage via a computer-controlled, servo-driven, gimb-alled two-axis assembly that projects the wire frame aircraft image onto the dome surface. To unburden the host computer, all dome-to-dome communication, real world-to-dome coordinate transformations and all geometry corrections are done by a special purpose high-speed computer called a Dome Master. Each dome has one Dome Master that can drive up to six LTP's. This paper will deal with the technical aspects of the design and development of the LTP and Dome Master as a low cost air combat training system.

  5. Injection molding lens metrology using software configurable optical test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Cheng; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Optical plastic lens produced by injection molding machine possesses numerous advantages of light quality, impact resistance, low cost, etc. The measuring methods in the optical shop are mainly interferometry, profile meter. However, these instruments are not only expensive, but also difficult to alignment. The software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) is based on the geometry of the fringe refection and phase measuring deflectometry method (PMD), which can be used to measure large diameter mirror, aspheric and freeform surface rapidly, robustly, and accurately. In addition to the conventional phase shifting method, we propose another data collection method called as dots matrix projection. We also use the Zernike polynomials to correct the camera distortion. This polynomials fitting mapping distortion method has not only simple operation, but also high conversion precision. We simulate this test system to measure the concave surface using CODE V and MATLAB. The simulation results show that the dots matrix projection method has high accuracy and SCOTS has important significance for on-line detection in optical shop.

  6. A 1-Joule laser for a 16-fiber injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J

    2004-04-06

    A 1-J laser was designed to launch light down 16, multi-mode fibers (400-{micro}m-core dia.). A diffractive-optic splitter was designed in collaboration with Digital Optics Corporation (DOC), and was delivered by DOC. Using this splitter, the energy injected into each fiber varied <1%. The spatial profile out of each fiber was such that there were no ''hot spots,'' a flyer could successfully be launched and a PETN pellet could be initiated. Preliminary designs of the system were driven by system efficiency where a pristine TEM{sub 00} laser beam would be required. The laser is a master oscillator, power amplifier (MOPA) consisting of a 4-mm-dia. Nd:YLF rod in the stable, q-switched oscillator and a 9.5-mm-dia. Nd:YLF rod in the double-passed amplifier. Using a TEM{sub 00} oscillator beam resulted in excellent transmission efficiencies through the fibers at lower energies but proved to be quite unreliable at higher energies, causing premature fiber damage, flyer plate rupture, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Upon further investigation, it was found that both temporal and spatial beam formatting of the laser were required to successfully initiate the PETN. Results from the single-mode experiments, including fiber damage, SRS and SBS losses, will be presented. In addition, results showing the improvement that can be obtained by proper laser beam formatting will also be presented.

  7. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  8. Instrumentation design and installation for monitoring air injection ground water remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.L.; Baldwin, C.K.; Lachmar, T.E.; Dupont, R.R.

    2000-03-31

    An in situ instrumentation bundle was designed for inclusion in monitoring wells that were installed at the Wasatch Trailer Sales site in Layton, Utah, to evaluate in situ air sparging (IAS) and in-well aeration (IWA). Sensors for the bundle were selected based on laboratory evaluation of accuracy and precision, as well as consideration of size and cost. SenSym pressure transducers, Campbell Scientific, Inc. (CSI) T-type thermocouples, and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes manufactured by Technalithics Inc. (Waco, Texas), were selected for each of the 27 saturated zone bundles. Each saturated zone bundle also included a stirring blade to mix water near the DO probe. A Figaro oxygen sensor was included in the vadose zone bundle. The monitoring wells were installed by direct push technique to minimize soil disruption and to ensure intimate contact between the 18 inch (46 cm) long screens and the soil. A data acquisition system, comprised of a CSI 21X data logger and four CSI AM416 multiplexers, was used to control the stirring blades and record signals from more than 70 in situ sensors. The instrumentation performed well during evaluation of IAS and IWA at the site. However, the SenSym pressure transducers were not adequately temperature compensated and will need to be replaced.

  9. Investigation of performances of innovative aeronautic injection systems using advanced laser diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, M.; Grisch, F.; Jourdanneau, E.; Rossow, B.; Guin, C.; Trétout, B.

    2011-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) kerosene and PLIF-OH have been successfully performed in a multipoint injection system for various overall equivalence ratios, air inlet temperatures between 480 and 730 K, and pressures up to 2.2 MPa. Single-shot two-dimensional (2D) maps of the spatial distribution of kerosene vapor and OH radical in the combustor have been recorded with good signal-to-noise ratio. Results show that depending on the split between the pilot and the main injectors, the flame front exhibits either a single or a double structure. Good spatial correlation between the repartition of kerosene vapor and the position of the flame front was observed; in particular, no "dark zone" is observed between the fuel and the flame front. As temperature and pressure increase, fuel evaporation improves and the spatial distribution of OH radical becomes more homogeneous in the combustor, suggesting a partially-distributed combustion.

  10. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  11. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    SciTech Connect

    Stretch, Dale; Wright, Brad; Fortini, Matt; Fink, Neal; Ramadan, Bassem; Eybergen, William

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  12. SRS supplemental safety system injection (gas pressurizer) test

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, W.L.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation and validation of an existing version of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics computer code was undertaken for the purpose of certification for use in the new production reactor - heavy water reactor (NPR-HWR) program. This version of the code was RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5q, designated for the purposes of the NPR-HWR program as RELAP5/NPR Version 0. As part of the evaluation and assessment, test data from theSRS Supplemental Safety System Injection (Gas Pressurizer) was used to verify and assess the ability of RELAP5/NPR Version 0 to perform thermal-hydraulic model analysis using the test data. Specifically, the assessment determines RELAP5/NPR Version 0 capability in modeling sudden depressurization phenomena. Two RELAP5/NPR Version 0 components (pipe and accumulator) were used to compare calculated pressure and temperature against test data. The code deficiencies are a temperature clamp in the accumulator component prevents the gas temperature from going below [minus]9[degrees]F, and RELAP5 accumulator and pipe components wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlation and interfacial vapor heat transfer correlation need substantial improvement. Only the code pipe component calculated pressures and temperatures within the specified 10 percent accuracy.

  13. SRS supplemental safety system injection (gas pressurizer) test

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, W.L.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    An evaluation and validation of an existing version of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics computer code was undertaken for the purpose of certification for use in the new production reactor - heavy water reactor (NPR-HWR) program. This version of the code was RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5q, designated for the purposes of the NPR-HWR program as RELAP5/NPR Version 0. As part of the evaluation and assessment, test data from theSRS Supplemental Safety System Injection (Gas Pressurizer) was used to verify and assess the ability of RELAP5/NPR Version 0 to perform thermal-hydraulic model analysis using the test data. Specifically, the assessment determines RELAP5/NPR Version 0 capability in modeling sudden depressurization phenomena. Two RELAP5/NPR Version 0 components (pipe and accumulator) were used to compare calculated pressure and temperature against test data. The code deficiencies are a temperature clamp in the accumulator component prevents the gas temperature from going below {minus}9{degrees}F, and RELAP5 accumulator and pipe components wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlation and interfacial vapor heat transfer correlation need substantial improvement. Only the code pipe component calculated pressures and temperatures within the specified 10 percent accuracy.

  14. ENHANCED CONTACT OF COSOLVENT AND DNAPL IN POROUS MEDIA BY CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sites contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) is a major
    environmental problem and cosolvent flooding is proposed as a remedial alternative. The
    efficacy of cosolvent flooding is a function of the degree of mixing between the injected
    remed...

  15. The injection of air/oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber of rabbits as a treatment for hyphema in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ayintap, Emre; Keskin, Uğurcan; Sadigov, Fariz; Coskun, Mesut; Ilhan, Nilufer; Motor, Sedat; Semiz, Hilal; Parlakfikirer, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 8), there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (n = 8), both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (n = 8), and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (n = 8). Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD) for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout.

  16. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  17. Central Nervous System Toxicity After Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Ilkhchoui, Yashar; Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Knezevic, N. Nick; Candido, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Since Its first description of botulism toxicity in 1820s, specific formulations of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) have been introduced with different clinical benefits. However, there is increasing number of adverse events reported to Food and Drug Administration. This report presents the case of 62-year-old woman with Parkinson’s disease who received BoNT injections to treat painful spasticity in her hands. She developed severe generalized dystonia shortly after BoNT injections. PMID:24223367

  18. Central nervous system toxicity after botulinum neurotoxin injection.

    PubMed

    Ilkhchoui, Yashar; Ghaly, Ramsis F; Knezevic, N Nick; Candido, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Since Its first description of botulism toxicity in 1820s, specific formulations of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) have been introduced with different clinical benefits. However, there is increasing number of adverse events reported to Food and Drug Administration. This report presents the case of 62-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease who received BoNT injections to treat painful spasticity in her hands. She developed severe generalized dystonia shortly after BoNT injections.

  19. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  20. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  1. Development of a particle injection system for impurity transport study in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. Y.; Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Siwon; Jang, Juhyeok; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jae Sun; Choe, Wonho; Hong, Suk-Ho

    2014-11-15

    A solid particle injection system is developed for KSTAR. The system has a compact size, compatibility with a strong magnetic field and high vacuum environment, and the capability to inject a small amount of solid particles with a narrow injection angle. The target flight-distance of 10 cm has been achieved with a particle loss rate of less than 10%. Solid impurity particles such as tungsten and carbon will be injected by this system at the midplane in KSTAR. The impurity transport feature will be studied with a soft X-ray array, a vacuum ultra-violet diagnostic, and Stand Alone Non-Corona code.

  2. Tracer-Encapsulated Solid Pellet (TESPEL) Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, N.; McCarthy, K. J.; Hayashi, H.; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Foust, Charles R; Garcia, R.; Panadero, N.; Pawelec, E.; Sanchez, J. Hernandez; Navarro, M.; Soleto, A.

    2016-01-01

    A tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator was recently developed. In order to reduce the time and cost for the development, we combined a TESPEL injector provided by National Institute for Fusion Science with an existing TJ-II cryogenic pellet injection system. Consequently, the TESPEL injection into the TJ-II plasma was successfully achieved, which was confirmed by several pellet diagnostics including a normal-incidence spectrometer for monitoring a tracer impurity behavior.

  3. Tracer-Encapsulated Solid Pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, N.; McCarthy, K. J.; Hayashi, H.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C.; García, R.; Panadero, N.; Pawelec, E.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; Navarro, M.; Soleto, A.

    2016-11-01

    A tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator was recently developed. In order to reduce the time and cost for the development, we combined a TESPEL injector provided by National Institute for Fusion Science with an existing TJ-II cryogenic pellet injection system. Consequently, the TESPEL injection into the TJ-II plasma was successfully achieved, which was confirmed by several pellet diagnostics including a normal-incidence spectrometer for monitoring a tracer impurity behavior.

  4. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  5. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  6. Data acquisition system for sorbent injection test program at Virginia Power Yorktown Power Station Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.; Scharpf, G.H. Jr.

    1995-06-01

    Virginia Power has installed an ABB Boiler Performance Optimization System (BPOS) at their Yorktown Power Station Unit 2, in conjunction with an in-furnace, sorbent injection, sulfur dioxide emissions reduction test program., This system was selected as offering lower cost and long-term benefits to the station than using dedicated test equipment and personnel for the test program. In addition to providing data acquisition and storage functions for characterization of the effect of sorbent injection on boiler performance, sorbent injection equipment performance, and emissions reduction, the system performs on-line plant heat rate and controllable losses calculations. The BPOS included the following advanced features: (1) Access to test and operating results for station operators, station engineering staff and sorbent injection project staff at their own work spaces at the station and at remote locations. (2) Boiler section surface cleanliness models to aid the boiler operators with soot blowing and to assess the impact of sorbent injection on individual boiler surfaces. (3) Interfaces to the station`s distributed control system (DCS), the sorbent injection system`s programmable logic controller (PLC), and to a data logger used for test instrumentation. (4) Model-based calculations for sorbent injection system control setpoints implemented in BPOS computer system. (5) On-line continuous calculation of sorbent injection system performance indices.

  7. Comparison of a needle-free high-pressure injection system with needle-tipped injection of intracavernosal alprostadil for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Harding, L M; Adeniyi, A; Everson, R; Barker, S; Ralph, D J; Baranowski, A P

    2002-12-01

    Patients identified from hospital records as using alprostadil injections for erectile dysfunction were invited to take part in this open crossover study. On alternate weeks eight patients were given intracavernosal needle injections and transdermal needle-free injection of alprostadil in a randomized order. Efficacy of injection and associated pain were assessed and compared for the two methods. Pain produced during injection was significantly greater with the needle-free system than with the needle-tipped injection whilst efficacy was significantly less. Bruising was reported in all except one patient following needle-free injection only. Patient ratings of the needle-free injector were significantly lower than ratings for needle-tipped alprostadil delivery and when asked to express a preference, every patient chose the needle-tipped injection over the needle-free device.

  8. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  12. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  13. Modeling of the flow continuum and optimal design of control-oriented injection systems in liquid composite molding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokce, Ali

    Several methodologies are presented in this dissertation that aim to ensure successful filling of the mold cavity consistently, during the mold filling stage of Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes such as Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) and Seemann Composites Resin Infusion Molding (SCRIMP). Key parameters that affect the resin flow in the mold cavity can be divided into two main groups as continuum-related parameters and injection-related parameters. Flow continuum, which consists of all the spaces resin can reach in the mold cavity, has two major components: the porous medium, which is made up of the fiber reinforcements, and the flow channels that are introduced into the flow continuum unintentionally and offer an easy flow path to the resin. The properties that characterize the porous medium and the unintentional flow channels are continuum-related parameters. The injection-related parameters include resin injection locations (gates), resin injection conditions and air drainage locations (vents). Modeling the flow continuum is crucial in predicting the resin flow in the mold cavity. In this study, permeability, the key property of the porous medium, is predicted using the Method of Cells, a proven method to predict macroscopic properties of heterogeneous materials. Unintentional flow channels, which are also called racetracking channels, are modeled using a probabilistic approach. Injection-related parameters are the key tools to influence the resin flow in the mold cavity. In this study, Branch and Bound Search is modified for single gate optimization. Due to its pertinence to injection system design, the parameters that govern gate effectiveness in steering the resin advance are studied. A combinatorial search algorithm is proposed for vent optimization. Vent optimization and gate optimization algorithms are integrated for simultaneous gate and vent optimization. Overall, these methodologies reduce the cycle

  14. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  15. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  16. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  17. Status of the NSLS-II Injection System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Shaftan,T.

    2008-06-23

    The NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3rd generation 3 GeV light source that will be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its design is well under way. The requirements for the compact injector complex, which will continuously provide 3 GeV electrons for top-off injection into the storage ring, are demanding: high reliability, relatively high charge and low losses. The injector consists of a linear accelerator, a full-energy booster, as well as transport lines, and an injection straight section. In this paper we give an overview of the NSLS-II injector, discuss its status, specifications, and the design challenges.

  18. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  19. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  20. Controlling energy in an air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, R. H.; Davis, R. A.

    1985-03-26

    A system for minimizing the energy consumption in a central air conditioning unit incorporating a refrigeration unit which is normally in operation to supplement or substitute for the cooling effect of outside air. The system employs sensor to sense the enthalpy of the return air entering the unit from the work space, the outside air entering the unit from the outside, and the washer air discharged into the work space from the unit, and controls the operation of the unit in accordance with the relative levels of enthalpy at these points. The energy content of the discharged washer air may be modified by modulating dampers controlling the proportion of outside and recirculated air, and also by modulating the washer which provides evaporative cooling and, in addition, cooling by refrigeration. The controls keep the outdoor air dampers normally closed when the enthalpy of the outdoor air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air and keep the outdoor air dampers normally opened when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the enthalpy of the return air. Regulating means provide auxiliary signals to modulate the dampers to avoid adversely affecting the conditioning effect of the washer air in the work area, and also to enable the continued operation of the refrigeration unit without damage when the system would otherwise call for operating the unit at less than the minimum safe operating load.

  1. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcome after injecting gonadotropins with use of a needle-free carbon dioxide injection system for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Solnica, Amy; Oh, Cheongeun; Cho, Michael M; Loughlin, Jacquelyn S; McCulloh, David H; McGovern, Peter G

    2009-10-01

    In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that a needle-free CO(2) injection system (Biojector 2000) would be better tolerated by patients when compared with traditional sharp needles used for gonadotropin injections during stimulation for IVF. As measured by our questionnaire, the needle-free CO(2) injection system was not better tolerated by patients, even though it was equally effective clinically.

  2. Direct digital control of air washer cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Elben, T.; Roseblock, R.; Lawler, R.; McCord, J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to make a practical evaluation of using new technology to extend the life of obsolete HVAC mechanical equipment. The specific exercises in this project involved the application of software driven control algorithms to operate and manage open loop air washer cooling systems in the air handling units located in the Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri. The specific opportunity evaluated in this project involved eight air handling units at the Municipal Auditorium. The air handling systems utilize outdated air washer cooling systems that provide air conditioning and dehumidification to the areas they serve. We utilized direct digital control to assume total control of the operation of the air handling units. We also found it necessary to upgrade some components of the air handling units in order to allow the new control applications to execute their functions. This report describes the plan used to execute the project and the results. 20 tabs.

  3. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  4. RAZOR EX anthrax air detection system.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Usha K; Christensen, Clarissa J; Crisp, Robert J; Vaughn, Michael B; Trauscht, Robert C; Gardner, Jordan R; Thatcher, Stephanie A; Clemens, Kristine M; Teng, David H F; Bird, Abigail; Ota, Irene M; Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System, developed by Idaho Technology, Inc. (ITI), is a qualitative method for the detection of Bacillus anthracis spores collected by air collection devices. This system comprises a DNA extraction kit, a freeze-dried PCR reagent pouch, and the RAZOR EX real-time PCR instrument. Each pouch contains three assays, which distinguish potentially virulent B. anthracis from avirulent B. anthracis and other Bacillus species. These assays target the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids and chromosomal DNA. When all targets are detected, the instrument makes an "anthrax detected" call, meaning that virulence genes of the anthrax bacillus are present. This report describes results from AOAC Method Developer (MD) and Independent Laboratory Validation (ILV) studies, which include matrix, inclusivity/exclusivity, environmental interference, upper and lower LOD of DNA, robustness, product consistency and stability, and instrument variation testing. In the MD studies, the system met the acceptance criteria for sensitivity and specificity, and the performance was consistent, stable, and robust for all components of the system. For the matrix study, the acceptance criteria of 95/96 expected calls was met for three of four matrixes, clean dry filters being the exception. Ninety-four of the 96 clean dry filter samples tested gave the expected calls. The nucleic acid limit of detection was 5-fold lower than AOAC's acceptable minimum detection limit. The system demonstrated no tendency for false positives when tested with Bacillus cereus. Environmental substances did not inhibit accurate detection of B. anthracis. The ILV studies yielded similar results for the matrix and inclusivity/exclusivity studies. The ILV environmental interference study included environmental substances and environmental organisms. Subsoil at a high concentration was found to negatively interfere with the pXO1 reaction. No interference was observed from the environmental organisms. The

  5. Air Force Officer Evaluation System Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    supervisor-subordinate relationships, and most private sector organizations ti"-n supervisors to give such feedback. AIR FORCE CULTURE o There exists...Alternative OER designs should reflect and sustain the larger Air Force culture ; 0 Within the Air Force, the alternative OER designs should encourage change...given the Air Force history and culture favoring "firewalling*, there is substantial risk that this approach would meet considerable resistance to

  6. Equivalent ambipolar carrier injection of electrons and holes with Au electrodes in air-stable field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Ikeda, Susumu; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Shimotani, Hidekazu E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Shang, Hui; Tanigaki, Katsumi E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-07-27

    Carrier injection from Au electrodes to organic thin-film active layers can be greatly improved for both electrons and holes by nano-structural surface control of organic semiconducting thin films using long-chain aliphatic molecules on a SiO{sub 2} gate insulator. In this paper, we demonstrate a stark contrast for a 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)bithiophene (BP2T) active semiconducting layer grown on a modified SiO{sub 2} dielectric gate insulator between two different modifications of tetratetracontane and poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Important evidence that the field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are independent of electrode metals with different work functions is given by the observation of a conversion of the metal-semiconductor contact from the Schottky limit to the Bardeen limit. An air-stable light emitting FET with an Au electrode is demonstrated.

  7. Overview of the International Space Station System Level Trace Contaminant Injection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, James D.; Perry, Jay L.; Franks, Gerald D.

    1997-01-01

    Trace contaminant control onboard the International Space Station will be accomplished not only by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly but also by other Environmental Control and Life Support System subassemblies. These additional removal routes include absorption by humidity condensate in the Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchanger and adsorption by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. The Trace Contaminant Injection Test, which was performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, investigated the system-level removal of trace contaminants by the International Space Station Atmosphere Revitalization, and Temperature/Humidity Control Subsystems, (November-December 1997). It is a follow-on to the Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Test conducted in 1996. An estimate for the magnitude of the assisting role provided by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and the Temperature and Humidity Control unit was obtained. In addition, data on the purity of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly carbon dioxide product were obtained to support Environmental Control and Life Support System Air Revitalization Subsystem loop closure.

  8. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd

    2016-05-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  9. FAST INJECTION SYSTEM R&D FOR THE APS UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.; Carwardine, J.; Cours, A.; Decker, G.; Morrison, L.; Sun, X.; Westferro, F.; Yao, C. Y.; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    The MBA upgrade for the APS will operate with bunch swap out and on axis injection. The planned 324 bunch fill pattern places difficult demands on the injection and extraction kickers. The present concept uses dual stripline kickers driven by high Voltage pulsers. Minimizing perturbation on adjacent bunches requires very fast rise and fall times with relatively narrow ~20 nsec, 15 kV pulses. To achieve these requirements we have initiated a multifaceted R&D program. The R&D includes the HV pulser, stripline kicker and HV feedthrough. We have purchased a commercial dual channel HV pulser and are evaluating its performance and reliability. In addition, we are investigating the feasibility of using nonlinear ferrite loaded coaxial cables (shockwave transmission line) to sharpen the leading and trailing edges of high voltage pulses. We are also developing a prototype kicker and high voltage feedthrough. The requirements for injection and extraction, progress on prototype development and results of our HV pulser investigations will be reported.

  10. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes.

  11. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  12. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  13. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  14. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  15. TATR: A Prototype Expert System for Tactical Air Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    TATR: A Prototype Expert System for Tactical Air Targeting Monti Callero , Donald A. Waterman, James R. Kipps Report Documentation Page Form...8217Techniques. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Callero , Monti. TATR--a prototype expert system for tactical air targeting. "R-3096-ARPA...Prototype Expert System for Tactical Air Targeting Monti Callero , Donald A. Waterman, James R. Kipps August 1984 Prepared for the Defense

  16. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  17. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  18. Minesweeping for Pressure Actuated Mines by Air Injection into a Water Column

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    at a separation height of 14 inches from the pressure sensor. However, The installed gantry crane system and yellow stanchion would not allow for data...wide (Y Direction) and 7 feet deep (Z direction). Along the top of this tank is a computer-operated gantry system operated by a simple computer system...incorporated to protect the entire system as well as any gear that may be attached to the gantry . Figure 9 provides a visual image of how the rail

  19. Enhanced detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapors combining solid-phase extraction-air sampling, supercritical fluid extraction, and large-volume injection-GC.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Ramón; Carlsson, Håkan; Tollbäck, Petter; Colmsjö, Anders; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2003-07-01

    A complete method for sampling and analyzing of energetic compounds in the atmosphere is described. The method consists of the hyphenation of several techniques: active air sampling using a solid-phase extraction cartridge to collect the analytes, extraction of the sorbed analytes by toluene/methyl tert-butyl ether modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and analysis of the extract by large-volume injection GC-nitrogen/phosphorus detection. The GC system is equipped with a loop-type injection interface with an early solvent vapor exit, a utilizing concurrent solvent evaporation technique. Chemometric approaches, based on a Plackett-Burman screening design and a central composite design for response surface modeling, were used to determine the optimum SFE conditions. The relative standard deviations of the optimized method were determined to be 4.3 to 7.7%, giving raise to method detection limits ranging from 0.06 to 0.36 ng in the sampling cartridge, equivalent to 6.2-36.4 pg/L in the atmosphere, standard sampling volume 10 L. The analytical method was applied to characterize headspace composition above military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT). Results confirm that 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) constitute the largest vapor flux, but TNT, 2,6-DNT, and trinitrobenzene TNB were also consistently detected in all the samples.

  20. Fault injection via on-chip debugging in the internal memory of systems-on-chip processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekmarev, S. A.; Khanov, V. Kh

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an on-chip debugging method for the injection of single faults in the processor cores of systems-on-chip. The method consists in the placement of faults injection infrastructure in a system-on-chip as an intellectual property core. This simplifies the fault injection environment, reduces delays injection and improves the performance, as well as allows doing long autonomous campaign for injection of faults without the use of external devices.

  1. Development of neutral beam injection system by use of washer gun plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Heizo; Kajiya, Hirotaka; Nemoto, Yuichi; Azuma, Akiyoshi; Asai, Tomoaki; Yamada, Takuma; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2008-11-01

    For the past ten years, we have been investigating high-beta Spherical Tokamaks (ST) formation using reconnection heating of their axial merging in the TS-4 experiment, University of Tokyo. The produced ST was observed to have the maximum beta of 50-60% right after the merging of two STs. A key issue after the formation is to maintain the produced high-beta ST over 100 Alfven times for its stability check. A new low-cost pulsed neutral beam injection (NBI) system has been arranged for its sustainment experiment. Its advantages are 1) low voltage (15kV for low-field side of ST) and high current (20A), 2) maintenance-free, 3) low-cost. The conventional filament plasma source was replaced by the washer gun to realize air-cooled and maintenance free NBI system. In its startup experiment, we already extracted the maximum beam current of 3.7A for then acceleration voltage of 10kV successfully. This result suggests that the increase in the acceleration voltage and several conditioning work will realize its designed beam parameters of 15kV, 20A.

  2. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45{degree} to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the Highland Rim. The Highland Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Quantification of the evaporative cooling in an ethanol spray created by a gasoline direct-injection system measured by multiline NO-LIF gas-temperature imaging.

    PubMed

    Kronemayer, Helmut; Omerbegovic, Kemal; Schulz, Christof

    2007-12-01

    Two-dimensional gas-phase temperature fields were quantitatively measured in an evaporating ethanol spray with multiline excitation thermometry based on laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO-LIF). This technique yields absolute temperature fields without calibration and simultaneously detects the spray position. The accuracy of the presented temperature measurements is +/-1 K. Systematic errors of the scanned multiline thermometry approach due to time averaging in turbulent systems were investigated and found to be negligible. The pulsed spray was generated by a gasoline direct-injection nozzle with swirl injecting ethanol into air in a flow cell at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The gas temperature inside the spray cloud was found to decrease by 10 K at approximately 5-10 ms after injection. Different injection pressures influence the evaporation behavior.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Flow Evolution in a Helium Jet Injected into Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satti, Rajani P.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational model to study the stability characteristics of an evolving buoyant helium gas jet in ambient air environment is presented. Numerical formulation incorporates a segregated approach to solve for the transport equations of helium mass fraction coupled with the conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum using a staggered grid method. The operating parameters correspond to the Reynolds number varying from 30 to 300 to demarcate the flow dynamics in oscillating and non-oscillating regimes. Computed velocity and concentration fields were used to analyze the flow structure in the evolving jet. For Re=300 case, results showed that an instability mode that sets in during the evolution process in Earth gravity is absent in zero gravity, signifying the importance of buoyancy. Though buoyancy initiates the instability, below a certain jet exit velocity, diffusion dominates the entrainment process to make the jet non-oscillatory as observed for the Re=30 case. Initiation of the instability was found to be dependent on the interaction of buoyancy and momentum forces along the jet shear layer.

  7. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  8. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  9. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  10. Injection, atomization, ignition and combustion of liquid fuels in high-speed air streams. Annual scientific report 1 December 81-31 December 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schetz, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation approach to studying hot flow subsonic cross-stream fuel injection problems in a less complex and costly cold flow facility was developed. A typical ramjet combustion chamber fuel injection problem was posed where ambient temperature fuel (Kerosene) is injected into a hot airstream. This case was transformed through two new similarity parameters involving injection and freestream properties to a simulated case where a chilled injectant is injected into an ambient temperature airstream. Experiments for the simulated case using chilled Freon-12 injected into the Va. Tech 23 x 23 cm. blow-down wind tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 0.44 were run. The freestream stagnation pressure and temperature were held at 2.5 atm. and 300 degrees K respectively. Results showed a clear picture of the mechanisms of jet decomposition in the presence of rapid vaporization. Immediately after injection a vapor cloud was formed in the jet plume, which dissipated downstream leaving droplets on the order of 8 to 10 microns in diameter for the conditions examined. This represents a substantial reduction compared to baseline tests run at the same conditions with water which had little vaporization. The desirability of using slurry fuels for aerospace application has long been recognized, but the problems of slurry combustion have delayed their use. The present work is an experimental and numerical investigation into the break-up and droplet formation of laminar slurry jets issuing into quiescent air.

  11. Lambertson magnet with shortened loop for nuclotron injection and extraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeev, A. V.; Butenko, A. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Goncharov, I. N.; Donets, D. E.; Kozlov, O. S.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Monchinsky, V. A.; Novikov, S. A.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. L.; Romanov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Systems of beam injection from the Booster and fast beam extraction for injection into the collider will be developed in order for the Nuclotron to operate in the framework of the NICA accelerator complex. All systems are based on the Lambertson magnets. The shortened superconducting loop is used for compensating scattered fields in the circulating beam chamber. The finite weld resistance (on an order of several nΩ) results in gradual current storage in the loop, which influences the beam upon injection. To eliminate this effect, a heater for converting the loop into the normal conducting state in the pause between cycles is applied.

  12. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  13. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.

  14. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  15. DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We requested equipment necessary to build an electrokinetic injection and separation system for the analysis of protein...Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of...Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal Report Title We requested

  16. The relationship between fuel lubricity and diesel injection system wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Paul I.

    1992-01-01

    Use of low-lubricity fuel may have contributed to increased failure rates associated with critical fuel injection equipment during the 1991 Operation Desert Storm. However, accurate quantitative analysis of failed components from the field is almost impossible due to the unique service history of each pump. This report details the results of pump stand tests with fuels of equal viscosity, but widely different lubricity. Baseline tests were also performed using reference no. 2 diesel fuel. Use of poor lubricity fuel under these controlled conditions was found to greatly reduce both pump durability and engine performance. However, both improved metallurgy and fuel lubricity additives significantly reduced wear. Good correlation was obtained between standard bench tests and lightly loaded pump components. However, high contact loads on isolated components produced a more severe wear mechanism that is not well reflected by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator.

  17. Operations Research in a New Spanish Air Force Planning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Until nowadays, when any Air Force felt that a weapon system was obsolete, they studied the potential market , or they built up a system that fulfilled...for a new weapons system which will cover all the requirements. If the weapon system already exists in the national or foreign market , then the system...medium transport. This can be an important factor to be considered but, sometimes, the Spanish Air Force has to look at the for- eign markets for the

  18. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  19. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  1. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  2. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  3. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  4. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  5. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  6. Investigation of the mechanism in RIJKE pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Progress report, August 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract No. DE-AS04-85AL31881. This three year investigation started in August 1989 and its objective was to elucidate the mechanisms that control the driving of pulsations in the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustor developed under a preceding DOE contracts. It was demonstrated in that contract that the developed Rijke type pulse combustor can burn a variety of light and heavy liquid fuel oils with high combustion efficiencies while using low excess air, which produces high thermal efficiencies. Since the elucidation of the driving mechanism in the Rijke pulse combustor required the use of optical diagnostics (e.g., radiation measurements), it was decided to perform these investigations in a Rijke pulse combustor that burned propane instead of a liquid fuel in order to avoid difficulties that are often encountered due to the presence of liquid droplets in the combustion region. Consequently, an effort was made to develop a Rijke pulse combustor that is similar to the one developed in the preceding program and demonstrated similar performance characteristics. Such a pulse combustor was developed in the early phases of this program. The developed experimental setup was provided with capabilities for measuring steady combustor temperature distributions, the characteristics of the excited pressure oscillations, the exhaust flow composition, the characteristics of the flow field and the reaction rates. This pulse combustor consists of a cylindrical tube that is attached to a decoupling chamber at each end. Fuel and air are supplied via a tangential air/fuel injection system that is located at a distance of L/4 from the combustor entrance, where L is the combustor length. Part of the combustor tube, where combustion occurs, is water cooled. This section is also equipped with flat quartz windows to permit optical diagnostics.

  7. Air quality early-warning system for cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Yang, Wendong; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become a serious issue in many developing countries, especially in China, and could generate adverse effects on human beings. Air quality early-warning systems play an increasingly significant role in regulatory plans that reduce and control emissions of air pollutants and inform the public in advance when harmful air pollution is foreseen. However, building a robust early-warning system that will improve the ability of early-warning is not only a challenge but also a critical issue for the entire society. Relevant research is still poor in China and cannot always satisfy the growing requirements of regulatory planning, despite the issue's significance. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid air quality early-warning system was successfully developed, composed of forecasting and evaluation. First, a hybrid forecasting model was proposed as an important part of this system based on the theory of "decomposition and ensemble" and combined with the advanced data processing technique, support vector machine, the latest bio-inspired optimization algorithm and the leave-one-out strategy for deciding weights. Afterwards, to intensify the research, fuzzy evaluation was performed, which also plays an indispensable role in the early-warning system. The forecasting model and fuzzy evaluation approaches are complementary. Case studies using daily air pollution concentrations of six air pollutants from three cities in China (i.e., Taiyuan, Harbin and Chongqing) are used as examples to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed air quality early-warning system. Experimental results demonstrate that both the accuracy and the effectiveness of the developed system are greatly superior for air quality early warning. Furthermore, the application of forecasting and evaluation enables the informative and effective quantification of future air quality, offering a significant advantage, and can be employed to develop rapid air quality early-warning systems.

  8. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  9. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  10. Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R.D.

    1994-10-20

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027.

  11. Air Pollution Information System, Increasing Usability Through Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Fred; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The conversion of an information system containing air pollution related documents from manual to automatic computer-based operation is outlined with emphasis on the increased services to system users which resulted from the conversion. (Author)

  12. Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Clear Air Force Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ballistic Missile Early Warning System - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  14. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  15. A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong; Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang

    2002-07-01

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

  16. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  17. A Probabilistic Assessment of Failure for Air Force Building Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    desired end state for the community is an enterprise-wide asset management framework which can objectively assess an asset’s condition state and lead to...Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air...Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering Management

  18. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  19. Target Acquisition Involving Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles: Interfaces for Small Unmanned Air Systems (ISUS) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    03/12/09; 88ABW-09-0990. 14. ABSTRACT The use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) in military reconnaissance...unmanned aerial systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Target acquisition, reconnaissance/surveillance, micro air vehicles 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...more than doubled its use of drones between January and October 2007 while the number of unmanned flight hours for DoD systems soared to over

  20. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  1. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    injected, turbo- charged, air- water intercooled engine which employs a fuel- lubricated high pressure common rail pump , and piezo- electric fuel injectors...military fuels. Many of these modern HPCR systems utilize fuel-lubricated high pressure pumps , and can generate upwards of 2000-bar fuel rail pressures...steps were allowed to meet their own steady state temperatures. In addition, engine oil sump temperature was dictated by an internal jacket water

  2. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  3. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  4. Intake system for an electronic control fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, T.; Okabayashi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sugimoto, K.

    1988-02-02

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine provided with a first camshaft for operating intake valves and a second camshaft for operating exhaust valves, the camshafts being covered by respective covers which form a recess therebetween is described comprising: a tubular throttle body; a throttle valve arranged in the throttle body for controlling an amount of air introduced into the engine; a surge tank having intake pipes extending therefrom and connected to respective cylinders of the engine; one end of a connection pipe being connected to the throttle body to receive air from the throttle body, the other end of the connection pipe being connected to the surge tank; at least one attachment member connected to the throttle valve; the throttle body together with at least one attachment member being bounded by a region formed between opposite longitudinal side portions of the respective covers and at least partially arranged in the recess between the covers of the respective camshafts.

  5. Design, testing, and evaluation of a water injection grouting system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The necessity of grouting vertical ground heat exchanger boreholes is well established. The use of chip bentonite was investigated as an alternative to slurry grouting methods for backfilling geothermal bores. Grouting a geothermal bore with chip bentonite has many potential benefits if the bore can be completely grouted from bottom to top. High solids content grouts that are possible with chip bentonite could increase the thermal conductivity of the grout and make it less susceptible to performance reductions associated with drying of the grout. The lower price of chip bentonite compared to powder bentonite grouts would reduce the cost of grouting. Chip bentonites would also have an advantage over powder bentonite grouts by reducing the amount of dust created during the grouting process. The proposed grouting system would use water to transport chip bentonite through a tremie pipe into the bore. The properties of chip bentonite grouts were first examined by pouring chip bentonite into a standing column of water. Chip bentonite grouts had percent solids ranging from 50% to 60% and thermal conductivity from 0.46 to 0.52 Btu/hr ft F. Tests were also performed with a thermal additive mixed with the bentonite chips. Additives tested included pea rock, masonry sand, and crushed quartzite. The additive in the wet grout accumulated in pockets, creating possible avenues for hydraulic movement. Total percent solids of bentonite and additive mixtures ranged from 60% to 80%. Thermal conductivity results were varied, but generally increased with increasing percentages of additive. The feasibility of transporting bentonite chips with water through a tremie pipe was studied with two types of water injection systems. Both systems incorporated a pressurized solids tank to keep water from hydrating the chips prior to entering the water stream. A low pressure system was able to transfer pea rock successfully through a short length of tremie pipe. The use of bentonite chips caused

  6. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - in situ air sparging system (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Health, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Air sparging is the process of injecting clean air directly into an aquifer for remediation of contaminated groundwater. For removing contaminants, air sparging relies on two basic mechanisms working either alone or in tandem: biodegradation and volatilization. The objective of air sparging is to force air through contaminated aquifer materials to provide oxygen for bioremediation and/or to strip contaminants out of the aquifer.

  7. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  8. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  9. Prevention and management of air in an IV infusion system.

    PubMed

    von Jürgensonn, Silke

    When air enters the circulatory system of the human body it can cause an air embolism. Air in the venous circulation will enter the right side of the heart where it may cause right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and acute pulmonary hypertension from pulmonary vasoconstriction. This compromises the pulmonary venous return to the left side of the heart, resulting in significant reduction in cardiac output and cardiovascular collapse. Air can pass into the left side of the heart via a patent foramen ovale or a septal defect. From the left side of the heart air will then enter the arterial circulation where it may embolize cerebral or coronary arteries with fatal consequences. Prevention of air embolism is therefore of utmost importance.

  10. Investigation of a hybrid PVT air collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, S.; Touafek, K.; Mordjaoui, M.; Khelifa, A.; Tabet, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic thermal hybrid (PVT) collectors, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat, are an alternative to photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately. Indeed, the heat extracted from the solar cell is used to heat water or air, thereby cooling the cell, and thus increasing its energy efficiency. This paper deals with a hybrid PVT air collector in which a new design has been proposed and tested. Its principle is based on the return of the preheating air to a second heating. The air thus passes twice under the solar cells before being evacuated to the outside of the collector (for space heating). The system is modular and expandable to cover large spaces to be heated. The experimental results of this novel design are presented and discussed under both normal and forced circulation. This technique of air return shows favorable results in terms of the quality of the heated air and electric power generation.

  11. Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator and system

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert P.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Anderson, Thomas N.; Bougher, Thomas L.

    2007-10-09

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) and systems are provided. The OPO has a non-linear optical material located between two optical elements where the product of the reflection coefficients of the optical elements are higher at the output wavelength than at either the pump or idler wavelength. The OPO output may be amplified using an additional optical parametric amplifier (OPA) stage.

  12. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  13. Multipurpose Fiber Injected-micro-spherical LIDAR System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelayem, Hossin; Jamison, Tracee

    2005-01-01

    A technological revolution is occurring in the field of fiber lasers. Over the past two years, the level of power has increased from approx. 100 watts to nearly 1 kilowatt. We are developing a novel fiber laser system, which is a satellite-based LIDAR transmitter of multi-lines. The system is made of a hollow fiber filled with micro-spheres doped with lasing materials. Each sphere has its inherent optical cavity, which makes the system a cavity free and in the same time, emits multi-laser lines for simultaneous multi-task operations. The system is also rugged, compact, lightweight, and durable. Our earlier studies on micro-spheres doped with different laser dyes demonstrated the emission of extremely fine laser lines of less than 3 A line-width, which are of interest for spectroscopic applications, sensing, imaging, and optical communications. Individual dye-doped micro-spheres demonstrated a lasing resonance peaks phenomenon in their fluorescence spectra of linear and nonlinear features that do not exist in the bulk dye solutions. Each individual micro-sphere acts as a laser system with inherent cavity, where the fluorescence line suffers multiple internal reflections within the micro-sphere and gains enough energy to become a laser line. Such resonance peaks are dependent on the sphere's morphology, size, shape, and its refractive index. These resonance peaks are named structural resonance, whispering modes or whispering gallery modes, creeping waves, circumferential waves, surfaces modes, and virtual modes. All of these names refer to the same phenomenon of morphology dependent resonance (MDR), which has already been described and predicted precisely by electromagnetic theory and Lorentz-Mie theory since 1908. The resonance peaks become more obvious when the particle size approaches and exceeds the wavelength of the laser used and the relative index of the particle is greater than that of the surrounding medium. Additional information is included in the original

  14. Film effectiveness over a flat surface with air and CO{sub 2} injection through compound angle holes using a transient liquid crystal image method

    SciTech Connect

    Ekkad, S.V.; Zapata, D.; Han, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents detailed film effectiveness distributions over a flat surface with one row of injection holes inclined streamwise at 35 deg for three blowing ratios (M = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0). Three compound angles of 0, 45, and 90 deg with air (D.R. = 0.98) and CO{sub 2} (D.R. = 1.46) as coolants are tested at an elevated free-stream turbulence condition (Tu {approx} 8.5%). A transient liquid crystal technique is used to measure local heat transfer coefficients and film effectiveness. Detailed film effectiveness results are presented near and around film injection holes. Compound angle injection provides higher film effectiveness than simple angle injection for both coolants. Higher density injectant produces higher effectiveness for simple injection. However, lower density coolant produces higher effectiveness obtained using the transient liquid crystal technique, particularly in the near-hole region, provided a better understanding of the film cooling process in gas turbine components.

  15. A micro spot injection system for studing the effects of carbonation on fumigant dispersion in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigant transport to deep soils is needed to control plant parasitic nematodes and soil borne pathogens for perennial crops. Using carbonated fumigants and carbon dioxide (CO2)-pressurized fumigant injection systems may achieve this target when compared to conventional fumigation systems pressurize...

  16. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  17. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  18. Droplet-based microfluidic flow injection system with large-scale concentration gradient by a single nanoliter-scale injection for enzyme inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Cai, Long-Fei; Zhu, Ying; Du, Guan-Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2012-01-03

    We described a microfluidic chip-based system capable of generating droplet array with a large scale concentration gradient by coupling flow injection gradient technique with droplet-based microfluidics. Multiple modules including sample injection, sample dispersion, gradient generation, droplet formation, mixing of sample and reagents, and online reaction within the droplets were integrated into the microchip. In the system, nanoliter-scale sample solution was automatically injected into the chip under valveless flow injection analysis mode. The sample zone was first dispersed in the microchannel to form a concentration gradient along the axial direction of the microchannel and then segmented into a linear array of droplets by immiscible oil phase. With the segmentation and protection of the oil phase, the concentration gradient profile of the sample was preserved in the droplet array with high fidelity. With a single injection of 16 nL of sample solution, an array of droplets with concentration gradient spanning 3-4 orders of magnitude could be generated. The present system was applied in the enzyme inhibition assay of β-galactosidase to preliminarily demonstrate its potential in high throughput drug screening. With a single injection of 16 nL of inhibitor solution, more than 240 in-droplet enzyme inhibition reactions with different inhibitor concentrations could be performed with an analysis time of 2.5 min. Compared with multiwell plate-based screening systems, the inhibitor consumption was reduced 1000-fold.

  19. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  20. A Rule-Based System for Shipboard Air Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    EXPERT SYSTEM ....................... 24 C. WHO IS INVOLVED IN EXPERT SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION ?... 25 D. STAGES OF EXPERT SYSTEM BUILDING...supersonic speed. Expert systems have been successfully constructed for applications to a wide range of problems such as medical diagnosis, industrial...process control, and air traffic control. It is desirable that one be constructed to advise the Officer in Tactical Commend (OTC) in critical

  1. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  2. Single vessel air injection estimates of xylem resistance to cavitation are affected by vessel network characteristics and sample length.

    PubMed

    Venturas, Martin D; Rodriguez-Zaccaro, F Daniela; Percolla, Marta I; Crous, Casparus J; Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon

    2016-10-01

    Xylem resistance to cavitation is an important trait that is related to the ecology and survival of plant species. Vessel network characteristics, such as vessel length and connectivity, could affect the spread of emboli from gas-filled vessels to functional ones, triggering their cavitation. We hypothesized that the cavitation resistance of xylem vessels is randomly distributed throughout the vessel network. We predicted that single vessel air injection (SVAI) vulnerability curves (VCs) would thus be affected by sample length. Longer stem samples were predicted to appear more resistant than shorter samples due to the sampled path including greater numbers of vessels. We evaluated the vessel network characteristics of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), English oak (Quercus robur L.) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray), and constructed SVAI VCs for 5- and 20-cm-long segments. We also constructed VCs with a standard centrifuge method and used computer modelling to estimate the curve shift expected for pathways composed of different numbers of vessels. For all three species, the SVAI VCs for 5 cm segments rose exponentially and were more vulnerable than the 20 cm segments. The 5 cm curve shapes were exponential and were consistent with centrifuge VCs. Modelling data supported the observed SVAI VC shifts, which were related to path length and vessel network characteristics. These results suggest that exponential VCs represent the most realistic curve shape for individual vessel resistance distributions for these species. At the network level, the presence of some vessels with a higher resistance to cavitation may help avoid emboli spread during tissue dehydration.

  3. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  4. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  5. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  6. The Air Operations Simulation Centre Audio System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    The Enable Retrigger feature enables the user to specify whether the selected sound is to be treated as a one-shot edge- triggered sound which plays...to completion once triggered , or a level-sensitive sound which restarts and plays only while its control variable is non-zero. See Appendix B...mock-up are well advanced. Aircraft noises are modelled and include engine turbine whine, afterburner roar, air- conditioning and wind noises

  7. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  8. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  9. Implementing Automated Information Systems in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    phased development approach. V. Recommendations: The new Air Staff organization must exert creative leadership so the rest of the Air Force can benefit...ment - System design strategy, strike a new balance between machine efficiency and system effectiveness - Management control strategy. control the...cost- effectiveness (2s2-11 - 2-12). Viewing information as a resource has caused Federal agencies to reassess the way they have managed information in

  10. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  11. Air data system optimization using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Samir M.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    An optimization method for flush-orifice air data system design has been developed using the Genetic Algorithm approach. The optimization of the orifice array minimizes the effect of normally distributed random noise in the pressure readings on the calculation of air data parameters, namely, angle of attack, sideslip angle and freestream dynamic pressure. The optimization method is applied to the design of Pressure Distribution/Air Data System experiment (PD/ADS) proposed for inclusion in the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). Results obtained by the Genetic Algorithm method are compared to the results obtained by conventional gradient search method.

  12. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related toCO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of coupled hydrological and geomechanical processes during a deep underground injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} in a hypothetical brine aquifer. We consider a multilayer system in which the injection zone is situated below a sequence of caprock and aquifer layers that are intersected by a vertical fault zone. The fault zone consists of highly fractured shale across the first caprock layers that are located just above the injection zone. Initially, the fractured shale zones are considered sealed with minerals, but we allow fractures (and the fractured zones) to open as a result of injection induced reductions in effective stresses. Our results indicate that even when assuming a very sensitive relationship between effective stress and fractured-zone permeability, the injection-induced changes in permeability across are only moderate with largest changes occurring in the first caprock layer, just above the injection zone. As a result, the upward leakage rate remains relatively small and therefore changes in fluid pressure and hydromechanical effects in overlying zones are also relatively small for the case studied in this paper.

  13. Recovery of injected freshwater from a brackish aquifer with a multiwell system.

    PubMed

    Miotliński, Konrad; Dillon, Peter J; Pavelic, Paul; Barry, Karen; Kremer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Herein we propose a multiple injection and recovery well system strategically operated for freshwater storage in a brackish aquifer. With the system we call aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) by using four injection and two production wells, we are capable of achieving both high recovery efficiency of injected freshwater and attenuation of contaminants through adequately long residence times and travel distances within the aquifer. The usual aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) scheme, in which a single well is used for injection and recovery, does not warrant consistent treatment of injected water due to the shorter minimum residence times and travel distances. We tested the design and operation of the system over 3 years in a layered heterogeneous limestone aquifer in Salisbury, South Australia. We demonstrate how a combination of detailed aquifer characterization and solute transport modeling can be used to maintain acceptable salinity of recovered water for its intended use along with natural treatment of recharge water. ASTR can be used to reduce treatment costs and take advantage of aquifers with impaired water quality that might locally not be otherwise beneficially used.

  14. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  15. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine

  16. Robust Central Nervous System Pathology in Transgenic Mice following Peripheral Injection of α-Synuclein Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Jacob I; Brooks, Mieu M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Howard, Jasie K; Sorrentino, Zachary A; Riffe, Cara J; Giasson, Benoit I

    2017-01-15

    Misfolded α-synuclein (αS) is hypothesized to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS) by neuronal connectivity leading to widespread pathology. Increasing evidence indicates that it also has the potential to invade the CNS via peripheral nerves in a prion-like manner. On the basis of the effectiveness following peripheral routes of prion administration, we extend our previous studies of CNS neuroinvasion in M83 αS transgenic mice following hind limb muscle (intramuscular [i.m.]) injection of αS fibrils by comparing various peripheral sites of inoculations with different αS protein preparations. Following intravenous injection in the tail veins of homozygous M83 transgenic (M83(+/+)) mice, robust αS pathology was observed in the CNS without the development of motor impairments within the time frame examined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of αS fibrils in hemizygous M83 transgenic (M83(+/-)) mice resulted in CNS αS pathology associated with paralysis. Interestingly, injection with soluble, nonaggregated αS resulted in paralysis and pathology in only a subset of mice, whereas soluble Δ71-82 αS, human βS, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control proteins induced no symptoms or pathology. Intraperitoneal injection of αS fibrils also induced CNS αS pathology in another αS transgenic mouse line (M20), albeit less robustly in these mice. In comparison, i.m. injection of αS fibrils was more efficient in inducing CNS αS pathology in M83 mice than i.p. or tail vein injections. Furthermore, i.m. injection of soluble, nonaggregated αS in M83(+/-) mice also induced paralysis and CNS αS pathology, although less efficiently. These results further demonstrate the prion-like characteristics of αS and reveal its efficiency to invade the CNS via multiple routes of peripheral administration.

  17. Mechanism and Performance of CO2 Snow Jet in Co-Axial Type Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi-Jun; Wang, Muh-Rong

    This paper describes the characteristics of CO2 snow formation with co-axial type injection systems. The injection of CO2 snow flow is controlled by a co-axial type nitrogen auxiliary nozzle. Five cases of co-axial nitrogen nozzle with different diameters and injection types of auxiliary nitrogen are presented. Flow field visualization and spray characteristics are performed by the particle image velocimetry (PIV). Result shows that the CO2 snow particles would collide with each other and generate lager particles in the recirculation zone of the formation chamber. Results also show that the particle size distribution is influenced by the geometry of the injection device. The length of the formation chamber influence the region and strength of recirculation flow. In the region after reattach zone of recirculation flow, the fine particles deposit on the chamber wall and form a deposition layer. The particles in the main stream further impinge onto the deposition layer and result in the snowballs. It turns out that the mean particle size becomes larger as the length of chamber is increased. Results also show that CO2 snow jet has higher velocity and the flow-focusing takes place with nitrogen auxiliary gas. Furthermore, the mist layer of the jet flow caused by lower temperature of CO2 snow is eliminated when co-axial nitrogen flow is injected. The velocity of CO2 snow jet is increased under higher injection pressure of co-axial nitrogen flow. Furthermore, smaller diameter of nitrogen auxiliary nozzle results in higher injection velocity of CO2 snow jet. Hence the injection power of the CO2 snow jet can be controlled by the design of the nitrogen auxiliary nozzle. It will be useful in the medical applications of cryotherapy treatment and the dry cleaning of the semiconductor and solar cell manufacturing processes.

  18. Comprehensive characterizations of nanoparticle biodistribution following systemic injection in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Li, Hui-Jing; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tang, Alan C. L.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2013-10-01

    Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological conditions improved large NP (200-500 nm) distribution in brain tissue. These results reveal the importance of selecting analytic tools and physiological environment when characterizing NP biodistribution for future nanoscale toxicology, therapeutics and diagnostics.Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological

  19. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  20. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  1. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  2. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  3. Air cushion landing system stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, T. D.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of an inelastic ACLS plunge mode dynamic model is presented. The ACLS has unrestrained side elements and frozen end elements. The model exhibits unstable behavior at certain operating conditions for which the side elements are in contact with the ground. A linear analysis showed this instability to be due mainly to the altitude sensitivities of the cushion to atmosphere airflows and the attendant influence on the dynamic pressure forces on the vehicle. The model instability can be alleviated by isolating side and end elements so that they are all unrestrained and by simultaneously venting the air cushion directly to atmosphere.

  4. Air Force Environmental Management System Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Key to ~:ning the environn ental portion of lbiJ vi ’lion i3 copcrot:oll41iling cnvirorunentlll monagcmcnt Air Force-wide. Operotiooa:tzl.o...approach for addressing environmental aspects of internal agency operations and activities”  For the AF, “appropriate facilities” equates to “major...y y y Authority 7. Communication y y y 16. Internal EMS Audit y y y 8. Documentation & y y y 17. Management Review y y y Doc Control 9

  5. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  6. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  7. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Yehia; Peltola, Esa; Sipila, Kari; Vaatainen, Anne

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were estimated, and this information was used to calculate the economics of CAES. An analysis of the different possible systems is given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with CAES system. In the second system wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straightforward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  8. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  9. Ultrasonic system for accurate distance measurement in the air.

    PubMed

    Licznerski, Tomasz J; Jaroński, Jarosław; Kosz, Dariusz

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a system that accurately measures the distance travelled by ultrasound waves through the air. The simple design of the system and its obtained accuracy provide a tool for non-contact distance measurements required in the laser's optical system that investigates the surface of the eyeball.

  10. Continuing Studies of Air Traffic Control System Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The goals of the work are: To define the capacity of an ATC system and its major elements; To find quantitative relations between capacity and the...overall performance of the air transportation system; and To find quantitative relations between capacity and the specifications, operating parameters, and environment of the ATC system.

  11. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  12. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  13. Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems and Air Traffic Management Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A new ICAO Policy on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems is needed, which recognizes it to be an integrated part of the air traffic management system's safety defences; and that should be fully included in hazard analyses for the total system's design safety targets.

  14. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  15. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

  16. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  17. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  18. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  19. Future Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation discusses: AvSTAR Future System Effort Critically important; Investment in the future; Need to follow a systems engineering process; and Efforts need to be worked in worldwide context

  20. Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser System Configured for Picosecond Scale Advanced Radiographic Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-23

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  1. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of

  2. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  3. Communication: Evidence of hydrated electrons injected by a metallic electrode in a high voltage system.

    PubMed

    Perles, Carlos Eduardo; Volpe, Pedro Luiz Onófrio

    2010-12-28

    In this work it a strong evidence of the hydrated electrons production was shown in a film of condensed water, by directing the injection of electrons in localized and/or delocalized water electronic states using a system of high voltage made in laboratory. The results show that the water layers on the silica particles are electrically charged by injection of electrons from a metal electrode when silica is placed in high electric field. This charging process also appears to depend on the thickness of these water layers and of the spatial arrangement required by the silica surface.

  4. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  5. Fan Electricity Consumption for Variable-Air-Volume Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Be Reduced in Air Handling Systems," .- Specifying Engineer (March 1981); R. Haines, "Fan Energy - P vs. PI Control ," Heating - Piping - Air...much higher humidity. Minneapolis has the highest heating requirements of all sites studied. 1.0 i. - P CONTROL OF ACINV PI CONTROL OF ACINV...load performance data. 15115 :. .- ’-- .... . .. .... .. .. ....---.- .-.-. -. .’"o , 1.0 I I I I - P CONTROL OF ACINV,- PI CONTROL OF ACINV 0.8

  6. Electrical spin injection and detection in high mobility 2DEG systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciorga, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this review paper we present the current status of research related to the topic of electrical spin injection and detection in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems, formed typically at the interface between two III-V semiconductor compounds. We discuss both theoretical aspects of spin injection in case of ballistic transport as well as give an overview of available reports on spin injection experiments performed on 2DEG structures. In the experimental part we focus particularly on our recent work on all-semiconductor structures with a 2DEG confined at an inverted GaAs/(Al,Ga)As interface and with a ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As employed as a source of spin-polarized electrons.

  7. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOEpatents

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  9. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  10. [Clinical characteristics research of shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system in real world].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Chun; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Lian-Xin; Tang, Hao; Zhuang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The study was to research the clinical characteristics of Shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system, including the characteristics of the age, the sex, the dosage, the course of the treatment and the combination drugs. The data of tumor patients injected with Shenmai injection was analyzed. The information was collected from the hospital information system (HIS) in twenty hospitals of grade III-A. The method of frequencies and association rules was used in this reaearch. The patients over 45 years old were up to 3 338, about 79.36% of the whole. The ratio of male and female was 1.73: 1. The hospitalization day between 15 and 28 was most. The complications of the hypertension and coronary heart disease happened most. The support was 5.939% and 5.099% respectively. Fifty-five patients had the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome of Qi-Yin deficiency, about 14.78% of the whole. There were 8 491 patients treated with the single dose of 81 to 100 mL, about 48.70% of the whole. The main combination drugs were dexamethasone, tropisetron and maxolon. The confidence was 44.63%, 31.22% and 20.53% respectively. The information from HIS showed that tumor patients used Shenmai injection were most quinquagenarian with smooth condition. The dose of the Shenmai injection sometimes was higher than that of the drug use instructions in clinical. Shenmai injection was most often combined with glucocorticoid, antemetic and nutritional support medicine when treating tumor in clinical.

  11. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  12. One-man electrochemical air revitalization system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schbert, F. H.; Marshall, R. D.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A program to evaluate the performance of a one man capacity, self contained electrochemical air revitalization system was successfully completed. The technology readiness of this concept was demonstrated by characterizing the performance of this one man system over wide ranges in cabin atmospheric conditions. The electrochemical air revitalization system consists of a water vapor electrolysis module to generate oxygen from water vapor in the cabin air, and an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air. A control/monitor instrumentation package that uses the electrochemical depolarized concentrator module power generated to partially offset the water vapor electrolysis module power requirements and various structural fluid routing components are also part of the system. The system was designed to meet the one man metabolic oxygen generation and carbon dioxide removal requirements, thereby controlling cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kN/sq m and cabin pressure of carbon dioxide at 400 N/sq m over a wide range in cabin air relative humidity conditions.

  13. An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and Air Temperatures in Planning an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold air distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures for a cold air distribution system, and that the influence of supply air temperature is larger than that of supply water temperature on the long-term economics.

  14. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  15. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman's uterus while she is pregnant), breast cancer, lung cancer, certain cancers of the head and neck; certain ... Methotrexate injection is also used along with rest, physical therapy and ... treat rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing the activity of the immune system.

  16. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  17. Dual-injection system with multiple injections for determining bidimensional retention indexes in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Stefan; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    A new instrumental approach for collection of retention index data in the first (1D) and second (2D) dimensions of a comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GCxGC) experiment has been developed. First-dimension indexes were determined under conventional linear programmed temperature conditions (Van den Dool indexes). To remove the effect that the short secondary column imposes on derived 1D indexes, as well as to avoid handling of pulsed GCxGC peaks, the proposed approach uses a flow splitter to divert part of the primary column flow to a supplementary detector to simultaneously generate a conventional 1D chromatogram, along with the GCxGC chromatogram. The critical 2D indexes (KovAts indexes) are based upon isovolatility curves of normal alkanes in 2D space, providing a reference scale against which to correlate each individual target peak throughout the entire GCxGC run. This requires the alkanes to bracket the analytes in order to allow retention interpolation. Exponential curves produced in the 2D separation space require a novel approach for delivery of alkane standards into the 2D column by using careful solvent-free solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling. Sequential introduction of alkane mixtures during GCxGC runs was performed by thermal desorption in a second injector which was directly coupled through a short transfer line to the entrance of the secondary column, just prior to the modulator so that they do not have to travel through the 1D column. Thus, each alkane mixture injection was quantitatively focused by the cryogenic trap, then launched at predetermined times onto the 2D column. The system permitted construction of an alkane retention map upon which bidimensional indexes of a 25-perfume ingredient mixture could be derived. Comparison of results with indexes determined in temperature-variable one-dimensional (1D) GC showed good correlation. Plotting of the separation power in the second dimension was possible by mapping

  18. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  19. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  20. Vertical migration of municipal wastewater in deep injection well systems, South Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliva, Robert G.; Guo, Weixing; Missimer, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Deep well injection is widely used in South Florida, USA for wastewater disposal largely because of the presence of an injection zone (“boulder zone” of Floridan Aquifer System) that is capable of accepting very large quantities of fluids, in some wells over 75,000 m3/day. The greatest potential risk to public health associated with deep injection wells in South Florida is vertical migration of wastewater, containing pathogenic microorganisms and pollutants, into brackish-water aquifer zones that are being used for alternative water-supply projects such as aquifer storage and recovery. Upwards migration of municipal wastewater has occurred in a minority of South Florida injection systems. The results of solute-transport modeling using the SEAWAT program indicate that the measured vertical hydraulic conductivities of the rock matrix would allow for only minimal vertical migration. Fracturing at some sites increased the equivalent average vertical hydraulic conductivity of confining zone strata by approximately four orders of magnitude and allowed for vertical migration rates of up 80 m/year. Even where vertical migration was rapid, the documented transit times are likely long enough for the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms.

  1. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  2. Effects of thermoacoustic oscillations on spray combustion dynamics with implications for lean direct injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishty, Wajid Ali

    Thermoacoustic instabilities in modern high-performance, low-emission gas turbine engines are often observable as large amplitude pressure oscillations and can result in serious performance and structural degradations. These acoustic oscillations can cause oscillations in combustor through-flows and given the right phase conditions, can also drive unsteady heat release. To curb the potential harms caused by the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities, recent efforts have focused on the active suppression of these instabilities. Intuitively, development of effective active combustion control methodologies is strongly dependent on the knowledge of the onset and sustenance of thermoacoustic instabilities. Specially, non-premixed spray combustion environment pose additional challenges due to the inherent unstable dynamics of sprays. The understanding of the manner in which the combustor acoustics affect the spray characteristics, which in turn result in heat release oscillation, is therefore, of paramount importance. The experimental investigations and the modeling studies conducted towards achieving this knowledge have been presented in this dissertation. Experimental efforts comprise both reacting and non-reacting flow studies. Reacting flow experiments were conducted on a overall lean direct injection, swirl-stabilized combustor rig. The investigations spanned combustor characterization and stability mapping over the operating regime. The onset of thermoacoustic instability and the transition of the combustor to two unstable regimes were investigated via phase-locked chemiluminescence imaging and measurement and phase-locked acoustic characterization. It was found that the onset of the thermoacoustic instability is a function of the energy gain of the system, while the sustenance of instability is due to the in-phase relationship between combustor acoustics and unsteady heat release driven by acoustic oscillations. The presence of non-linearities in the system

  3. Investigation of work parameters of SI engine dedicated to energetics aggregates with pneumatic injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the possibilities of alternative fuel combustion in the engine four- stroke spark ignition engines. Power of the motor was carried out pneumatic fuel injection system using a hot gas developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz. Presented made the position of the measuring system with the power and results. The engine experimental at the time of the study was powered by a blend of alcohol and gasoline. The main aim of the study was the question of control fuel dosage, taking into account the energy needs of forcing the engine load. During the tests carried load characteristics control the motor using the power control quality. Another issue was the elimination of penetration of fuel to the engine lubrication system, a problem occurred in the initial study on the issue of the pneumatic fuel injection using the hot exhaust gases. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  4. Enzymatic Microreactors for the Determination of Ethanol by an Automatic Sequential Injection Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cos, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valdman, Belkis; Valero, Francisco

    A sequential injection analysis system with two enzymatic microreactors for the determination of ethanol has been designed. Alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase were separately immobilized on glass aminopropyl beads, and packed in 0.91-mL volume microreactors, working in line with the sequential injection analysis system. A stop flow of 120 s was selected for a linear ethanol range of 0.005-0.04 g/L±0.6% relative standard deviation with a throughput of seven analyses per hour. The system was applied to measure ethanol concentrations in samples of distilled and nondistilled alcoholic beverages, and of alcoholic fermentation with good performance and no significant difference compared with other analytical procedures (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography).

  5. A hybrid WDM transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry Perot laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Ma, Hsien-Li; Chuang, Yao-Wei

    2007-08-01

    A hybrid wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) for CATV, 256-QAM and OC-48 transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Mutually injection-locked FP LDs as broadband light source could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. The proposed hybrid WDM transport system employs four filtered wavelengths (modes) to transmit 111 AM-VSB channels, four 256-QAM digital passband channels, and one OC-48 digital baseband channel simultaneously. Since our proposed system does not use multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages.

  6. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  7. Sericin/Dextran Injectable Hydrogel as an Optically Trackable Drug Delivery System for Malignant Melanoma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Chao; Tao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Luming; Jiang, Xulin; Zhang, Yunti; Huang, Lei; Li, Qilin; Xie, Hongjian; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Severe side effects of cancer chemotherapy prompt developing better drug delivery systems. Injectable hydrogels are an effective site-target system. For most of injectable hydrogels, once delivered in vivo, some properties including drug release and degradation, which are critical to chemotherapeutic effects and safety, are challenging to monitor. Developing a drug delivery system for effective cancer therapy with in vivo real-time noninvasive trackability is highly desired. Although fluorescence dyes are used for imaging hydrogels, the cytotoxicity limits their applications. By using sericin, a natural photoluminescent protein from silk, we successfully synthesized a hydrazone cross-linked sericin/dextran injectable hydrogel. This hydrogel is biodegradable and biocompatible. It achieves efficient drug loading and controlled release of both macromolecular and small molecular drugs. Notably, sericin's photoluminescence from this hydrogel is directly and stably correlated with its degradation, enabling long-term in vivo imaging and real-time monitoring of the remaining drug. The hydrogel loaded with Doxorubicin significantly suppresses tumor growth. Together, the work demonstrates the efficacy of this drug delivery system, and the in vivo effectiveness of this sericin-based optical monitoring strategy, providing a potential approach for improving hydrogel design toward optimal efficiency and safety of chemotherapies, which may be widely applicable to other drug delivery systems.

  8. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  9. Subcritical and supercritical fuel injection and mixing in single and binary species systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arnab

    Subcritical and supercritical fluid injection using a single round injector into a quiescent atmosphere comprising single and binary species was investigated using optical diagnostics. Different disintegration and mixing modes are expected for the two cases. In the binary species case, the atmosphere comprised an inert gas of a different composition than that of the injected fluid. In single species case, the atmosphere consisted of the same species as that of the injected fluid. Density values were quantified and density gradient profiles were inferred from the experimental data. A novel method was applied for the detection of detailed structures throughout the entire jet center plane. Various combinations of injectant and chamber conditions were tested and a wide range of density ratios were covered. The subcritical cases demonstrated the importance of surface tension and inertial forces, while the supercritical cases showed no signs of surface tension and, in most situations, resembled the mixing characteristics of a gaseous jet injected into a gaseous environment. A comparison between the single and binary species systems has also been provided. A detailed laser calibration procedure was undertaken to account for the laser absorption through the gas and liquid phases and for fluorescence in the non-linear excitation regime for high laser pulse energy. Core lengths were measured for binary species cases and correlated with visualization results. An eigenvalue approach was taken to determine the location of maximum gradients for determining the core length. Jet divergence angles were also calculated and were found to increase with chamber-to-injectant density ratio for both systems. A model was proposed for the spreading angle dependence on density ratio for both single and binary species systems and was compared to existing theoretical studies and experimental work. Finally, a linear stability analysis was performed for the jet injected into both subcritical and

  10. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  11. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  12. Automated Air Information Production System - Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    PATH 2. AREA 3. FIXED TEXT 2-69 4. VARIABLE TEXT 5. STANDARD SYMBOL REFERENCE 6. USER SYMBOL REFERENCE PATH and AREA (boundary) data are both lineal in...version of the Lineal Input System currently in operation at both DMA centers. The special hardware inter- face between the NOVA 4/S and the GMA 102A

  13. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  14. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  15. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  16. Experimental and Analytical Determination of the Motion of Hydraulically Operated Valve Stems in Oil Engine Injection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

  17. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  18. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    PETZOLDT,R.W; ALEXANDER,N.B; DRAKE,T.J; GOODIN,D.T; JONESTRACK,K; VERMILLION,B.A

    2003-09-01

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-} 150 {micro}m for indirect drive and {+-} 20 {micro}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented.

  19. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors.

  20. 60-WATT HYDRAZINE-AIR FUEL CELL SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell system as presented in our Design Plan. Prior to preparation of the Design Plan, a systems analysis of the basic electrochemical system was made. From the results of this analysis, the operating parameters of the support equipment were defined and an initial selection of components made. System components defined were: the cell stack, electrolyte tank, hydrazine feed system, cooling and chemical air blowers, voltage regulator, and thermal control system. A package design was then made for these components and the final detail design completed.

  1. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  2. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  3. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  4. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  5. [Professional psychological selection system in the Air Force - 50 years].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiĭ, B L

    2014-08-01

    Given the data about the establishment of the professional psychological selection system in the Air Force in 1958-1964 in the NIIIAM Air Force by the team psychological department under the leadership of K.K.Platonova. Given the names of the developers of this system and given the results of their research. The result of all made work the order of Air Force Commander about the introduction of the psychological selection in Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots, starting from a set of 1964 became. Recommendations for professional psychological selection of a wide range of aviation professionals in various fields, and in the future - and other professionals of the Armed Forces, became the results of future work.

  6. An application of the focused liquid jet: needle free drug injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyama, Akihito; Katsuta, Chihiro; Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Endo, Nanami; Tanaka, Akane; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    Recently, a focused liquid jet draws great attention since it can be applied to various applications (e. g. Ink jet printing, medical devices). In our research, in order to discuss its applicability for a needle-free drug injection system, we shoot a focused liquid jet to an animal skin with very high-speed. Previously, the penetration of this jet into a gelatin and an artificial skin has been performed in order to model of the jet penetration process. However, experiment for jet injection into the animal skin has not been conducted yet. In this presentation, we inject ink as the liquid jet into the skin of the hairless rat. We observe the top/back view and the cross-sectional view of the injected (ink-stained) skin. We capture the stained area of the skin in order to find characteristics of the jet penetration. We discuss the criteria for the jet penetration into the skin. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26709007, JP16J08521.

  7. Design optimisation of a nanofluid injection system for LOCA events in a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Călimănescu, I.; Stan, L. C.; Velcea, D. D.

    2016-08-01

    The safety issues inside a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are encompassing their capacity to ensure the heat sink, meaning the capacity of the systems to release the heat from the rector to the environment. The nanofluids having good heat transfer properties, are recommended to be used in such applications. The paper is solving the following scenario: considering the Safety Injection tank and the Nanofluid injection Tank, and considering the Nanofluid injection Tank filled with a 10% alumina-water nanofluid, how can we select the best design of the connecting point between the pipes of the SIT and the Nanofluid Tank and the pressures inside of any of these tanks in order to have the biggest density of nanoparticles leaving the tanks toward the cold leg. In conclusion the biggest influence over the rate of disposal of the nanofluid inside ECCS is that of the pressure inside the SIT followed in order by the injection pipe diameter and the pressure inside the nanofluid tank. The optimum balance of these three design parameters may be reached following the procedure shown in this paper.

  8. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  9. COMPUTATIONAL BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES FOR IMPROVING THE RING INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS IN SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Plum, Michael A; Wang, Jian-Guang

    2008-01-01

    The ring injection and extraction systems must function as designed in order for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to achieve its specified performance. In commissioning and early operations we have encountered problems that have been traced to these systems. We experienced high beam losses in and around the injection dump, the rectification of which has necessitated ongoing study and development by a multidisciplinary team. Results already include a number of enhancements of existing features and the addition of new elements and diagnostics. The problem in the extraction region stems from tilted beam distributions observed in the ring-to-target beam transport line (RTBT) and on the target, thus complicating the control of the beam-on-target distribution. This indicates the inadvertent introduction of x-y beam coupling somewhere upstream of the RTBT. The present paper describes computational studies, using the ORBIT Code, addressed at the detailed understanding and solution of these problems.

  10. Beam transport channels and beam injection and extraction systems of the NICA accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenko, A. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Kolesnikov, S. Yu.; Meshkov, I. N.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Rabtsun, S. V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.; Topilin, N. D.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Fateev, A. A.; Shvetsov, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    A new accelerator complex is being constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research as a part of the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) project. The goal is to conduct experiments with colliding ion beams (at the first stage of the project) and colliding polarized proton/deuteron beams (at the second stage). Transport beam channels and the systems of beam injection and extraction for synchrotrons and collider rings are an important connecting link for the whole accelerator facility. The design of the primary beam-transport channels and injection/extraction systems are presented. Special attention is paid to various aspects of dynamics of beams in their transfer between the NICA accelerators.

  11. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  12. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  13. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  14. EXEIS - Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    on Artificial Intellegence , Vol. I, pp. 246-249. 7. Johnston, D.M., 1985, Diagnosis of Wastewater Treatment Processes, Computer Applications in Water...Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based techniques and tools. By emulating human...modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the aquifer. Cost of installing and

  15. EXEIS Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    problems in their fields of expertise. Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based...immediate site. Methods of modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the...aquifer. Cost of installing and maintaining the different types of artificial barriers varies greatly, as does their reliability. This 2 study

  16. Collimation system for beam loss localization with slip stacking injection in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce C.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Slip stacking injection for high intensity operation of the Fermilab Main Injector produces a small fraction of beam which is not captured in buckets and accelerated. A collimation system has been implemented with a thin primary collimator to define the momentum aperture at which this beam is lost and four massive secondary collimators to capture the scattered beam. The secondary collimators define tight apertures and thereby capture a fraction of other lost beam. The system was installed in 2007 with commissioning continuing in 2008. The collimation system will be described including simulation, design, installation, and commissioning. Successful operation and operational limitations will be described.

  17. Modeling and Control Systems Design for Air Intake System of Diesel Engines for Improvement of Transient Characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Arata; Sasaki, Jun; Kinoshita, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Junya; Maruyama, Tsugito; Shimotani, Keiji

    For the purpose of contributing to global environment protection, several research studies have been conducted involving clean-burning diesel engines. In recent diesel engines with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems and a Variable Nozzle Turbocharger (VNT), mutual interference between EGR and VNT has been noted. Hence, designing and adjusting control of the conventional PID controller is particularly difficult at the transient state in which the engine speed and fuel injection rate change. In this paper, we formulate 1st principal model of air intake system of diesel engines and transform it to control oriented model including an engine steady state model and a transient model. And we propose a model-based control system with the LQR Controller, Saturation Compensator, the Dynamic Feed-forward and Disturbance Observer using a transient model. Using this method, we achieved precise reference tracking and emission reduction in transient mode test with the real engine evaluations.

  18. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  19. Development of mediated BOD biosensor system of flow injection mode for shochu distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oota, Shinichi; Hatae, Yuta; Amada, Kei; Koya, Hidekazu; Kawakami, Mitsuyasu

    2010-09-15

    Although microbial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensors utilizing redox mediators have attracted much attention as a rapid BOD measurement method, little attempts have been made to apply the mediated BOD biosensors to the flow injection analysis system. In this work, a mediated BOD sensor system of flow injection mode, constructed by combining an immobilized microbial reactor with an electrochemical flow cell of three electrodes configuration, has been developed to estimate BOD of shochu distillery wastewater (SDW). It was demonstrated consequently that the mediated sensing was realized by employing phosphate buffer containing potassium hexacyanoferrate as the carrier. The output current was found to yield a peak with a sample injection, and to result from reoxidation of reduced mediator at the electrode. By employing the peak area as the sensor response, the effects of flow rate and pH of the carrier on the sensitivity were investigated. The sensor system using a microorganism of high SDW-assimilation capacity showed good performance and proved to be available for estimation of BOD of SDW.

  20. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  1. Local and systemic toxicity of intraoral submucosal injections of phentolamine mesylate (OraVerse).

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Bruce; Zeller, Jillynne R; Thake, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    OraVerse, an injectable formulation of phentolamine mesylate (PM), was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for reversal of anesthesia of the lip and tongue and associated functional deficits resulting from an intraoral submucosal injection of a local anesthetic containing a vasoconstrictor. Because PM had not been approved previously for submucosal administration, 2 Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) studies in dogs designed to investigate systemic toxicity and the local effects of single and repeated dosing of OraVerse on the inferior alveolar nerve and branches of the superior alveolar nerve and adjacent soft tissues after local administration were conducted. Systemic toxicity was measured by preinjection and postinjection clinical examinations, clinical chemistry, and gross and microscopic examinations of major organs after necropsy. No evidence of systemic toxicity was detected. Local nerve and adjacent tissue damage was assessed by conventional histopathology. Nerve degeneration was evident in 1 animal. Mild perineural inflammation adjacent to the inferior alveolar nerve and inflammatory exudates were observed in submucosal tissues in several animals. No changes were observed in the nerves at injection sites of dogs from any dose group that were considered directly related to the test articles. These data reveal that single and repeated intraoral administrations of OraVerse are well tolerated in beagle dogs.

  2. A Review of Injectable Polymeric Hydrogel Systems for Application in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kondiah, Pariksha J; Choonara, Yahya E; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Marimuthu, Thashree; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-11-21

    Biodegradable, stimuli-responsive polymers are essential platforms in the field of drug delivery and injectable biomaterials for application of bone tissue engineering. Various thermo-responsive hydrogels display water-based homogenous properties to encapsulate, manipulate and transfer its contents to the surrounding tissue, in the least invasive manner. The success of bioengineered injectable tissue modified delivery systems depends significantly on their chemical, physical and biological properties. Irrespective of shape and defect geometry, injectable therapy has an unparalleled advantage in which intricate therapy sites can be effortlessly targeted with minimally invasive procedures. Using material testing, it was found that properties of stimuli-responsive hydrogel systems enhance cellular responses and cell distribution at any site prior to the transitional phase leading to gelation. The substantially hydrated nature allows significant simulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), due to its similar structural properties. Significant current research strategies have been identified and reported to date by various institutions, with particular attention to thermo-responsive hydrogel delivery systems, and their pertinent focus for bone tissue engineering. Research on future perspective studies which have been proposed for evaluation, have also been reported in this review, directing considerable attention to the modification of delivering natural and synthetic polymers, to improve their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

  3. Effect of semiconductor-controlled voltage injection by UPFC and ULTC on power system stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavian Mehr, Alireza

    Commercial availability of various power semiconductor switches indicates proliferation of power electronic based apparatus in utility power systems. Furthermore, existing power system apparatus, e.g. mechanical phase shifters and mechanical tap changing transformers, will be retrofitted to utilize higher switching speed of semiconductor switches. A group of these apparatus, i.e., unified power flow controller (UPFC), static phase shifter (SPS), under-load tap-changing (ULTC) transformer and static series capacitor (SSC), perform their respective functions by means of injecting series controlled voltages in power systems. This thesis demonstrates that fast series voltage injection, for dynamic power flow regulation, can result in voltage dynamics and even voltage instability. This indicates that fast voltage injection by means of power electronic based apparatus can couple voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. To investigate this coupling phenomena, the voltage dependency of the load must be adequately represented in the load model. The reported studies in this work are based on representing the load by a combination of static and dynamic loads. This thesis primarily investigates impacts of UPFC and semiconductor-controlled ULTC on voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. An eigen analysis approach is used for the studies. The eigen analysis results are validated by digital time-domain simulations using a transient stability software. Both the eigen analysis and the transient stability software tools are tailored to account for angle and voltage stability phenomena.

  4. The osteogenic response of mesenchymal stem cells to an injectable PLGA bone regeneration system.

    PubMed

    Curran, Judith M; Fawcett, Sandra; Hamilton, Lloyd; Rhodes, Nicholas P; Rahman, Cheryl V; Alexander, Morgan; Shakesheff, Kevin; Hunt, John A

    2013-12-01

    The enrichment of substrates/surfaces with selected functional groups, methyl (-CH3), allyl amine (-NH2), allyl alcohol (-OH) and acrylic acid (-COOH), can be used to trigger mesenchymal stem (MSC) cell differentiation into specified lineages, minimising the need for exogenous biological supplementation. We present the successful translation of this research phenomenon to an injectable two phase injectable PLGA system, utilising plasma techniques, for the repair of bone defects. Modified microspheres were characterised using water contact angel (WCA), X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When cultured in contact with MSCs in vitro, the ability of the modified particles, within the 2 phase system, to induce differentiation was characterised using quantitative assays for cell viability and histological analysis for key markers of differentiation throughout the entirety of the three dimensional scaffold. Biological analysis proved that selected modified microspheres have the ability to induce MSC osteogenic (-NH2 modified scaffolds) and chondrogenic (-OH modified scaffolds) differentiation throughout the entirety of the formed scaffold. Therefore optimised plasma modification of microspheres is an effective tool for the production of injectable systems for the repair of bone and cartilage defects.

  5. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  6. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  8. Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.

    PubMed

    Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J

    2007-10-15

    Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.

  9. Advanced Bio-Energy Systems for Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface...base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a

  10. 15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM USED IN BERYLLIUM PRODUCTION. (3/30/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Chief of Naval Air Training Resource Planning System (RPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodak, Gary W.; And Others

    The Resource Planning System (RPS) provides the Chief of Naval Air Training (CNATRA) with the capability to determine the resources required to produce a specified number of Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers (NAs/NFOs) quickly and efficiently. The training of NAs and NFOs is extremely time consuming and complex. It requires extensive…

  12. Air Revitalization System Enables Excursions to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Paragon Space Development Corporation, based in Tucson, Arizona has had a long history of collaboration with NASA, including developing a modular air purification system under the Commercial Crew Development Program, designed to support the commercial space sector. Using that device and other NASA technology, startup company World View is now gearing up to take customers on helium balloon rides to the stratosphere.

  13. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  14. Novel air-based system transfers large salmon during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, near the end of our last harvest of 4-6 kg Atlantic salmon, we evaluated an exciting new fish transport technology from Whooshh Innovations (Bellevue, WA) that uses air to move live Atlantic salmon from our growout tank to a finishing/purging tank. The Whooshh system uses a combina...

  15. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  16. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  17. Maximum surface charge density for triboelectric nanogenerators achieved by ionized-air injection: methodology and theoretical understanding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-22

    For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces is introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of the output of triboelectric nanogenerators by surface modification.

  18. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  19. Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F. )

    1993-03-01

    This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

  20. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing