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Sample records for air injection system

  1. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  2. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  3. Fuel injection system uses air-bled nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Gayler, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    A microprocessor-controlled fuel injection system known as ''Pijet'' has been developed by researchers at Piper FM Ltd. It is explained that air and fuel are mixed in the fuel injectors and the mixture is distributed to each cylinder via ''natural selection.'' The system consists of integrated primary pressure pump and pressure relief valve; control box, integrated with the throttle valve housing and containing throttle angle sensor and fuel metering slot valve; solenoid-operated fuel metering pulser and fuel accumulator; fuel injectors; electronic control module; engine speed sensor; and engine, air temperature, and barometric pressure sensors. It is pointed out that the Pijet system has been used successfully in a number of European and Japanese cars ranging from 1.1 to 2.0 L with operating mileage from 5000 to 30,000 miles. The application of inertia-ram tuned induction systems has shown maximum torque increases of 10-15% with a torque spread increase of 1200 rpm into the low speed range.

  4. The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

    1992-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

  5. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  6. Supercritical fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  7. Development of a real-time chemical injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chemical injection system is an effective method to minimize chemical waste and reduce the environmental pollution in pesticide spray applications. A microprocessor controlled injection system implementing a ceramic piston metering pump was developed to accurately dispense chemicals to be mixed wi...

  8. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  9. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  10. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    a function of the key variables. Next, the variables such as the slot geometry can be optimized using the build-in optimizer within JMP. Finally, a wind tunnel testing will be conducted using the optimized slot geometry and other key variables to verify the empirical statistical model. The long term goal for this effort is to assess the impacts of active flow control using air injection at system level as one of the task plan included in the NASAs URETI program with Georgia Institute of Technology.

  11. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  12. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  13. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  14. NIF injection laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisoff, Peter J.; Bowers, Mark W.; Erbert, Gaylen V.; Browning, Donald F.; Jedlovec, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-power, 192-beam laser facility being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The 192 laser beams that will converge on the target at the output of the NIF laser system originate from a low power fiber laser in the Master Oscillator Room (MOR). The MOR is responsible for generating the single pulse that seeds the entire NIF laser system. This single pulse is phase-modulated to add bandwidth, and then amplified and split into 48 separate beam lines all in single-mode polarizing fiber. Before leaving the MOR, each of the 48 output pulses are temporally sculpted into high contrast shapes using Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG). Each output pulse is then carried by optical fiber to the Preamplifier Module (PAM) where it is amplified to the multi-joule level using a diode-pumped regenerative amplifier and a multi-pass, flashlamp-pumped rod amplifier. Inside the PAM, the beam is spatially shaped to pre-compensate for the spatial gain profile in the main laser amplifiers. The output from the PAM is sampled by a diagnostic package called the Input Sensor Package (ISP) and then split into four beams in the Preamplifier Beam Transport System (PABTS). Each of these four beams is injected into one of NIF's 192 beam lines. The combination of the MOR, PAM, ISP and PABTS constitute the Injection Laser System (ILS) for NIF. This system has proven its flexibility of providing a wide variety of pulse shapes and energies during the first experiments utilizing four beam lines of NIF.

  15. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  16. Autoignition in a premixing-prevaporizing fuel duct using 3 different fuel injection systems at inlet air temperatures to 1250 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions were determined in a continuous-flow, premixing-prevaporizing duct at which autoignition occurred. Test conditions were representative of an advanced, regenerative-cycle, automotive gas turbine. The test conditions inlet air temperatures from 600 to 1250 K (a vitiated preheater was used), pressures from 170 to 600 kPa, air velocities of 10 to 30 m/sec, equivalence ratios from 0.3 to 1.0, mixing lengths from 10 to 60 cm, and residence times of 2 to 100 ms. The fuel was diesel number 2. The duct was insulated and had an inside diameter of 12 cm. Three different fuel injection systems were used: One was a single simplex pressure atomizer, and the other two were multiple-source injectors. The data obtained with the simplex and one of the multiple-source injectors agreed satisfactorily with the references and correlated with an Arrenhius expression. The data obtained with the other multiple source injector, which used multiple cones to improve the fuel-air distribution, did not correlate well with residence time.

  17. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Review of oblique water and fluorocarbon injection test results obtained in experimental studies of the effects of multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams. The results include the finding that maximum lateral penetration from such injections increases linearly with the square root of the jet-to-freestream dynamic-pressure ratio and is proportional to an equivalent orifice diameter.

  18. Evolution of injected air stream in granular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Ritwik; Das, Gargi; Das, Prasanta

    2015-11-01

    An air stream injected through an orifice into a granular bed creates intriguing but aesthetically exotic patterns. The interaction of air with an aggregate of cohesionless granules presents evolution of patterns from stationary bubble to meandering filament and finally to a floating canopy with the increase of air velocity.

  19. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3

  20. Gas injection apparatus. [Air or steam

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrov, A.A.

    1986-04-22

    A gas injection apparatus is described in combination with a lined vessel wherein the lined vessel includes a vessel wall and an inner liner. The inner liner consists of a series of parallel tubes radially joined together by web members, the inner liner being spaced apart from the vessel wall and having an inner surface and an outer surface. The gas injection apparatus consists of at least one plenum assembly sealably attached to the outer surface of the inner liner; the inner liner having openings positioned and arranged to provide communication between the interior of the vessel and the area defined by the plenum assembly and the inner liner for injection of gas into the interior of the vessel perpendicularly to the plane of the inner liner; the gas injection apparatus further comprising an expansible supply duct attached to and extending between the vessel wall and the plenum assembly.

  1. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  2. Co-injection of air and steam for the prevention of the downward migration of DNAPLs during steam enhanced extraction: an experimental evaluation of optimum injection ratio predictions.

    PubMed

    Kaslusky, Scott F; Udell, Kent S

    2005-05-01

    When steam is injected into soil containing a dense volatile non-aqueous phase liquid contaminant, the DNAPL vaporized within the heated soil region condenses and accumulates ahead of the steam condensation front. If enough DNAPL accumulates, gravitational forces can overcome trapping forces allowing the liquid contaminant to flow downward. By injecting air with steam, a portion of the DNAPL vapor remains suspended in equilibrium with the air, decreasing liquid contaminant accumulation ahead of the steam condensation front, and thus reducing the possibility of downward migration. In a previous work, a theoretical model was developed to predict the optimum injection ratio of air to steam that would eliminate accumulation of DNAPL ahead of the temperature front and thus minimize the potential for downward migration. In this work, the theoretical model is summarized, and an experiment is presented in order to evaluate the optimum injection ratio prediction. In the experiment, a two-dimensional water saturated sand pack is contaminated with a known mass of TCE (DNAPL). The system is then remediated by co-injecting air and steam at the predicted optimum injection ratio, calculated based on the average contaminant soil concentration in the sand pack. Results for the co-injection of air and steam are compared to results for the injection of pure steam or pure air. Injection at the predicted optimum injection ratio for a volumetric average NAPL saturation, reduced accumulation of the contaminant ahead of the condensation front by over 90%, as compared to steam injection alone. This indicates that the optimum injection ratio prediction is a valuable tool for limiting the spreading of DNAPL during steam-enhanced extraction. Injection at the optimum injection ratio resulted in earlier recovery of contaminant than for steam injection alone. Co-injection of steam and air is also shown to result in much higher recovery rates than air injection alone. PMID:15854722

  3. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8). PMID:22872998

  4. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    PubMed

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  5. CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR FOR ENHANCED PCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to use preferential flow of air to improve the dynamics of cosolvent displacement in order to enhance DNAPL displacement and dissolution. The concurrent injection of cosolvent and air was evaluated in a glass micromodel for a DNAPL remediation technolog...

  6. Well injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksev, A.G.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a well system. It comprises: a casing in the well, the casing having perforations opposite and earth formation; a flow conduit in the casing; a packer on the flow conduit. The packer set in the casing above the formation; perforations below the packer in the casing, the perforations communicating the formation with the inside of the casing; a landing nipple in the flow conduit below the packer, the nipple having therein upper profile grooving, a seal bore below the grooving, a no-go landing shoulder below the bore, orienting pins below the shoulder, wall flow openings in the nipple below the pins, and smaller seal bore below the openings, the orienting pins above the lower seal bore; and mandrel means.

  7. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  8. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  9. Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bishai, M.N.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

  10. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  11. Simultaneous inversion of air-injection tests in fractured unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Tsang, Y. W.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    1999-08-01

    Air-injection tests are being used to characterize the flow characteristics of the fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. As the air component flows mainly in the heterogeneous fracture system, air-injection tests can be used to determine the hydrological properties and parameters of the fracture networks. In situ air-injection tests have been carried out in 30 boreholes drilled in a fractured rock block of 13 × 21.5 × 18 m3 in the underground facility at Yucca Mountain. These in situ field tests consist of a constant rate flow injection in one of the boreholes, while the pressure response is monitored in all 30 boreholes of the rock block. This paper presents a simultaneous inversion for 21 air-injection tests in 21 separate boreholes using TOUGH2, a three-dimensional numerical code for multiphase, multicomponent transport [Pruess, 1991; Pruess et al., 1996]. Spatially variable fracture permeability is used as an adjustable parameter to fit the measured pressure responses. For most of the pneumatic experiments the calculated pressure changes match the measured data well. Estimated permeabilities range over 5 orders of magnitude, from 10-15 to 8 × 10-11 m2, indicating large spatial variability in permeability of the heterogeneous fracture system.

  12. Reducing Water/Hull Drag By Injecting Air Into Grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed technique for reduction of friction drag on hydrodynamic body involves use of grooves and combinations of surfactants to control motion of layer on surface of such body. Surface contains many rows of side-by-side, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves. Dimensions of grooves and sharpnesses of tips in specific case depends on conditions of flow about vessel. Requires much less air than does microbubble-injection method.

  13. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections. PMID:27440854

  14. Design and Testing of Trace Contaminant Injection and Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig D.; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In support of the Carbon dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) testing, a contaminant injection system as well as a contaminant monitoring system has been developed by the Johnson Space Center Air Revitalization Systems (JSC-ARS) team. The contaminant injection system has been designed to provide trace level concentrations of contaminants generated by humans in a closed environment during space flight missions. The contaminant injection system continuously injects contaminants from three gas cylinders, two liquid reservoirs and three permeation ovens. The contaminant monitoring system has been designed to provide real time gas analysis with accurate flow, humidity and gas concentration measurements for collection during test. The contaminant monitoring system consists of an analytical real time gas analyzer, a carbon monoxide sensor, and an analyzer for ammonia and water vapor.

  15. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, E.; Steinwart, J.; Will, P.

    1981-01-06

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes an air suction pipe, a throttle valve located in the pipe, and a member, upstream of the throttle valve, which is actuatable by air flowing through the suction pipe so as to move a piston valve to dose a quantity of fuel to a fuel injection nozzle. The system includes a duct which bypasses the throttle valve, the duct having a valve which closes the duct when the throttle valve is closed and when the engine is above the idling speed. Dosing of fuel is thereby stopped during coasting of a vehicle, leading to decreased fuel consumption.

  16. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  17. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  18. Corrosion control in water injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

  19. Hot air injection for removal of dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid contaminants from low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.C.

    1996-08-01

    The performance of soil vapor extraction systems for the recovery of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is potentially enhanced by the injection of heated air to increase soil temperatures. The soil temperature increase is expected to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) performance by increasing target compound vapor pressures and by increasing soil permeability through drying. The vapor pressure increase due to temperature rise relieves the vapor pressure limit on the feasibility of soil vapor extraction. However, the system still requires an air flow through the soil system to deliver heat and to recover mobilized contaminants. Although the soil permeability can be increased through drying, very low permeability soils and low permeability soils adjacent to high permeability air flow pathways will be treated slowly, if at all. AR thermal enhancement methods face this limitation. Heated air injection offers advantages relative to other thermal techniques, including low capital and operation costs. Heated air injection is at a disadvantage relative to other thermal techniques due to the low heat capacity of air. To be effective, heated air injection requires that higher air flows be established than for steam injection or radio frequency heating. Heated air injection is not economically feasible for the stratified soil system developed as a standard test for this document. This is due to the inability to restrict heated air flow to the clay stratum when a low-resistance air flow pathway is available in the adjoining sand. However, the technology should be especially attractive, both technically and economically, for low-volatile contaminant recovery from relatively homogeneous soil formations. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Air cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air cleaning system comprising: a motor housing; a motor mounted within the housing; a fan attached to and rotatably driven by the motor; a fan chamber surrounding the fan and having an air inlet and outlet; a separator housing means mounted adjacent to and in spaced relation with the motor housing, the separator housing means having an inlet disposed in communication with a chamber within separator housing means; an outlet disposed in communication with the fan chamber; an air driven separator means mounted in chamber of the separator housing means to receive airflow from inlet for rotation of the separator means and removal of foreign matter from airflow by centrifugal force responsive to rotation of the separator means; the airflow is further directed through the outlet of separator housing means to the fan chamber to be ejected by the fan.

  1. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  2. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  3. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  4. High-Pressure Air Injection on a Low-Head Francis Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Fellenberg, S.; Häussler, W.; Michler, W.

    2014-03-01

    Birecik is a Turkish hydroelectric power plant located at the Euphrat River in the southeast of Turkey. During commissioning of the units, a vibration phenomenon was discovered, restricted to a small power band. The cone which supports the thrust bearing and which is braced against the turbine head cover started to vibrate at its natural frequency. Investigations showed the vibrations to be innocuous to the lifetime of the machine. Exhaustive vibration measurements on site pointed to hydraulic source for the vibration. Detailed flow simulations by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were carried out. They permitted the detailed analysis of a variety of transient flow phenomena happening inside the machine. They revealed the presence of interblade vortices in the power and head range where the vibrations occurred. As a consequence, it was suggested to inject air downstream of the wicket gates through the head cover. In 2012, one unit of the Birecik power plant was equipped with such an air injection system. As soon as the air injection was turned on, the machine operated calmly in the small power band where vibrations had been observed before. The necessary air volume was considerably smaller than expected to be necessary for a calm operation.

  5. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.

  6. Instability of an interface between air and a low conducting liquid subjected to charge injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicón, Rafael; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2006-10-01

    We study the linear stability of an interface between air and a low conducting liquid in the presence of unipolar injection of charge. As a consequence of charge injection, a volume charge density builds up in the air gap and a surface charge density on the interface. Above a certain voltage threshold the electrical stresses may destabilize the interface, giving rise to a characteristic cell pattern known as rose-window instability. Contrary to what occurs in the classical volume electrohydrodynamic instability in insulating liquids, the typical cell size is several times larger than the liquid depth. We analyze the linear stability through the usual procedure of decomposing an arbitrary perturbation into normal modes. The resulting homogeneous linear system of ordinary differential equations is solved using a commercial software package. Finally, an analytical method is developed that provides a solution valid in the limit of small wavenumbers.

  7. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6. PMID:3778403

  8. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Takano, Mizuki; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2015-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, for the suppression of surge phenomenon resulting in the extension of the stable operating range of centrifugal compressor to lower flow rate, the compressed air at the compressor exit was re-circulated and injected into the impeller inlet by using the double injection nozzle system. The experiments were performed to find out the optimum circumferential position of the second nozzle relative to the fixed first one and the optimum inner diameter of the injection nozzles, which are able to most effectively reduce the flow rate of surge inception. Moreover, in order to examine the universality of these optimum values, the experiments were carried out for two types of compressors.

  9. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  10. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  11. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  12. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  13. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  15. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  16. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  17. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  18. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  19. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  2. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  3. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  4. Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

  5. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  6. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  7. The orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillje, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Air data parameters are required during Orbiter atmospheric entry for use by the autoguidance, navigation, and flight control systems, and for crew displays. Conventional aircraft calibrations of the Orbiter air data system were not practicable for the Space Shuttle, therefore extensive wind tunnel testing was required to give confidence in the preflight calibrations. Many challenges became apparent as the program developed; in the overall system design, in the wind tunnel testing program, in the implementation of the air data system calibration, and in the use of the flight data to modify the wind tunnel results. These challenges are discussed along with the methods used to solve the problems.

  8. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  9. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  10. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  11. Saltwater injection systems can tolerate higher velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.M. )

    1993-07-12

    The API erosional velocity limit is overly conservative for saltwater injection systems constructed from corrosion-resistant material and containing no solids in the water. Under such conditions and providing that pressure drop is not of concern, a flow velocity of 50 fps can be safely used without concern for erosion. The paper discusses the selection of flow velocity, the API criterion, velocity limits, and a calculation example.

  12. STEAM INJECTION INTO FRACTURED LIMESTONE AT LORING AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project on steam injection for the remediation of spent chlorinated solvents from fractured limestone was recently undertaken at the former Loring AFB in Limestone, ME. Participants in the project include the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, EPA Region I,...

  13. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  14. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  15. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  16. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  17. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  18. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  19. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  20. The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Dilek K.; Dikmen, Yurdanur; Kokturk, Furuzan; Dedeoglu, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of air-lock technique (ALT) on pain of intramuscular (IM) injection delivered to the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal site (DS). Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used to assess the pain intensity associated with IM injections administered using 2 different methods and injection sites. Recruitment of patients was carried out between April and August 2013 at the Department of Brain Surgery, Cekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. The sample comprised 60 patients who developed no complications at the IM site, and had no illness that could affect their perception of pain. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Patients in the first group received injections in the ventrogluteal site (VS), while the DS was used for injections in the second group. Patients in each group received 2 injections, one using ALT and one not using the technique. After each injection, the pain felt by patients during the injection was immediately assessed using a visual analog scale. Results: The mean pain score after injections to the DS by the ALT was 3.30 ± 2.70, while the mean pain score after injections to the VS using the same technique was 2.53 ± 2.52. Conclusion: Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivered to the DS. PMID:26905354

  1. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  2. A study on supersonic mixing by circular nozzle with various injection angles for air breathing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, S.; Inoue, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tani, Y.

    2009-09-01

    SCRAM-jet engine is considered to be one of the useful system propulsion for super/hypersonic transportation vehicle and various researches were made to develop the engine. However, there are a lot of problems to be solved to develop it and one of them is the problem of supersonic mixing. In the SCRAM-jet engine combustor, main airflow is supersonic and residence time of the air is very short (about 1 ms). Hence rapid mixing of air and fuel is necessary. However, usually it is quite difficult to mix fuel with air in very short distance. Also total pressure loss occurs by flow interaction the air and fuel. Total pressure loss is not preferable because it causes the thrust loss. Therefore, supersonic mixing with very rapid mixing and lower total pressure loss ratio is highly requested. In order to develop the supersonic mixing, it is very important to understand the effect of injection angle. In present study, we investigate the effect of injection angle with circular sonic nozzle by changing the injection angle. Experimental and computational studies on supersonic mixing phenomena of two-dimensional slot injector with various injection angles were conducted. Supersonic wind tunnel was used for the experiments. The free stream Mach number is 3.8, total pressure is 1.1 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. As a secondary gas, helium gas was injected at sonic speed from the circular nozzle. The injection angle is 30°, 90° and 150°. Its total pressure is 0.4 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. The same flow field was also simulated by solving three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equation with AUSM-DV scheme [Y. Wada, M.S. Liou, A flux splitting scheme with high-resolution and robustness for discontinuities, AIAA Paper 94-0083, 1994] for convective terms and full implicit LU-ADI factorization method [S. Obayashi, K. Matsushima, K. Fujii, K. Kuwahara, Improvements in efficiency and reliability for Navier-Stokes computations using the LU

  3. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application.

  4. Reducing Ultrafine Particle Emissions Using Air Injection in Wood-Burning Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Vi H; Caubel, Julien J; Wilson, Daniel L; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. The results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking. PMID:27348315

  5. An experimental study on the effect of air bubble injection on the flow induced rotational hub

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.M.; Sarreshtehdari, A.

    2009-01-15

    Modification of shear stress due to air bubbles injection in a rotary device was investigated experimentally. Air bubbles inject to the water flow crosses the neighbor of the hub which can rotate just by water flow shear stresses, in this device. Increasing air void fraction leads to decrease of shear stresses exerted on the hub surface until in high void fractions, the hub motion stopped as observed. Amount of skin friction decrease has been estimated by counting central hub rotations. Wall shear stress was decreased by bubble injection in all range of tested Reynolds number, changing from 50,378 to 71,238, and also by increasing air void fraction from zero to 3.06%. Skin friction reduction more than 85% was achieved in this study as maximum measured volume of air fraction injected to fluid flow while bubbles are distinct and they do not make a gas layer. Significant skin friction reduction obtained in this special case indicate that using small amount of bubble injection causes large amount of skin friction reduction in some rotary parts in the liquid phases like as water. (author)

  6. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.22 Fuel-injection system. This system shall be so constructed that the quantity of fuel injected can be controlled at a desired maximum value and shall be...

  7. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  8. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  9. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  10. Air-fuel ratio control system for an automotive engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ohishi, H.

    1988-04-19

    An air-fuel ratio control system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a first lookup table storing basic fuel injection pulse widths from which one of pulse widths is derived in accordance with engine operating conditions; a second lookup table storing maximum correcting quantities for correcting a derived basic fuel injection pulse width in order to correct deviation of air-fuel ratio due to change of a characteristic of a device used in the engine; first means for producing a necessary correcting quantity by multiplying a learning coefficient and a maximum correcting quantity derived from the second lookup table; second means for producing a desired fuel injection pulse width in accordance with the necessary correcting quantity and the derived basic fuel injection pulse width.

  11. Shuttle Entry Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III

    1978-01-01

    The SEADS system (Shuttle Entry Air Data System) is being developed to provide research quality hypersonic (M greater than 3.5) air data. SEADS will accomplish this through the instrumentation of the orbiter's baseline nose cap. The SEADS development program consists of (1) the design and testing program required to define a reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) nose cap penetration concept which will not degrade nose cap performance, (2) the definition of analytical techniques and design criteria for array definition and flight data analysis, (3) the verification of these analytical techniques and array criteria through a comprehensive wind-tunnel test program, (4) the demonstration of the system concept through detailed testing, and (5) the analyses and tests required to flight-certify the SEADS system.

  12. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  13. Air quality data systems integration

    SciTech Connect

    Row, V.K.; Wilson, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    Traditionally, data used for compliance with air quality programs are obtained from various sources within the plant, on site lab, or perhaps from a product movement accounting program. For the most part, the data processing and subsequent calculations and reports were handled individually, thus generating huge spreadsheets and mounds of process data in paper format. The natural reaction to this overwhelming data management problem is to search for an off-the-shelf software package that will hopefully cover all of the plant`s needs for compliance with air quality regulations. Rather than searching for or trying to custom build a single electronic system, the authors suggest using internet browsing software to create links between existing repositories of air quality data and related information.

  14. Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical

  15. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  16. Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S.

    1995-09-01

    This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

  17. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  18. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  19. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  20. Pachymetry-guided intrastromal air injection ("pachy-bubble") for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ramon C; Ghanem, Marcielle A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate an innovative technique for intrastromal air injection to achieve deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with bare Descemet membrane (DM). Thirty-four eyes with anterior corneal pathology, including 27 with keratoconus, underwent DALK. After 400 μm trephination with a suction trephine, ultrasound pachymetry was performed 0.8 mm internally from the trephination groove in the 11 to 1 o'clock position. In this area, a 2-mm incision was created, parallel to the groove, with a micrometer diamond knife calibrated to 90% depth of the thinnest measurement. A cannula was inserted through the incision and 0.5 mL of air was injected to dissect the DM from the stroma. After peripheral paracentesis, anterior keratectomy was carried out to bare the DM. A 0.25-mm oversized graft was sutured in place. Overall, 94.1% of eyes achieved DALK. Bare DM was achieved in 30 eyes, and a pre-DM dissection was performed in 2 eyes. Air injection was successful in detaching the DM (achieving the big bubble) in 88.2% of the eyes. In keratoconus eyes, the rate was 88.9%. All cases but one required a single air injection to achieve DM detachment. Microperforations occurred in 5 cases: 3 during manual layer-by-layer dissection after air injection failed to detach the DM, 1 during removal of the residual stroma after big-bubble formation, and 1 during the diamond knife incision. Two cases (5.9%) were converted to penetrating keratoplasty because of macroperforations. The technique was reproducible, safe, and highly effective in promoting DALK with bare DM. PMID:22367050

  1. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  2. Monitoring of binder removal from injection molded ceramics using air-coupled ultrasound at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Wright, W D; Hutchins, D A

    1999-01-01

    A pair of capacitance-type air-coupled ultrasonic transducers have been constructed that were capable of operating in air at temperatures of 500 to 600 degrees C. These devices were then used to monitor the pyrolytic removal of organic binder from injection molded silicon nitride ceramic components using air-coupled ultrasound inside a furnace at elevated temperatures. Through-thickness waveforms were obtained in the ceramic and compared with simultaneous measurements of the mass of the sample. Both the ultrasonic velocity and signal amplitudes could be used to monitor the change in mass of the injection molded ceramic, and other phenomena (such as softening and redistribution of the binder) were observed. PMID:18238465

  3. The HIV/AIDS epidemic and changes in injecting drug use in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Pawlowicz, María Pía; Rangugni, Victoria; Singh, Dhan Zunino; Goltzman, Paula; Cymerman, Pablo; Vila, Marcelo; Touzé, Graciela

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the changes in injecting drug use from 1998 to 2003 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Rapid Situation Assessment and Response methodology was used to obtain the information. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were triangulated: 140 current IDUs and 35 sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) were surveyed; 17 in-depth interviews with the surveyed IDUs and 2 focus groups were held, as well as ethnographic observations. The way in which risk and care practices among injecting drug users changed and the influence of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on this process are described. In recent years, the frequency of injection practices and sharing of injecting equipment has decreased, while injecting drug use is a more hidden practice in a context of increasing impact of the disease in the injecting drug use social networks and changes in the price and quality of drugs. Knowledge about these changes helps build harm reduction activities oriented to IDUs in their particular social context. PMID:16612428

  4. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  5. [Steam and air co-injection in removing TCE in 2D-sand box].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Peng, Sheng; Chen, Jia-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a newly developed and promising soil remediation technique for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in vadose zone. In this study, in order to investigate the mechanism of the remediation process, trichloroethylene (TCE) removal using steam and air co-injection was carried out in a 2-dimensional sandbox with different layered sand structures. The results showed that co-injection perfectly improved the "tailing" effect compared to soil vapor extraction (SVE), and the remediation process of steam and air co-injection could be divided into SVE stage, steam strengthening stage and heat penetration stage. Removal ratio of the experiment with scattered contaminant area was higher and removal speed was faster. The removal ratios from the two experiments were 93.5% and 88.2%, and the removal periods were 83.9 min and 90.6 min, respectively. Steam strengthened the heat penetration stage. The temperature transition region was wider in the scattered NAPLs distribution experiment, which reduced the accumulation of TCE. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed in the experiment with TCE initially distributed in a fine sand zone. And such downward movement of TCE reduced the TCE removal ratio. PMID:25244869

  6. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  7. Analytical steam injection model for layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

  8. Injection system of teh SSC Medium Energy Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.; Gerig, R.; McGill, J.; Brown, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Medium Energy Booster (MEB) is the third of the SSCL accelerators and the largest of the resistive magnet synchrotrons. It accelerates protons from an injection momentum of 12 GeV/c to a top momentum of 200 GeV/c. A beam injection system has been designed to inject the beam transferred from the Low Energy Booster onto the MEB closed orbit in the MEB injection insertion region. The beam is injected via a vertical bending Lambertson septum magnet and a horizontal kicker with appropriate matching and very little beam loss and emittance dilution. The beam optics of the injection system is described in this paper. The required parameters of the Lambertson septum magnet and the injection kicker are given.

  9. Active waste-injection systems in Florida, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John; McKenzie, D.J.; Pascale, C.A.; Wilson, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    As of the end of 1976, seven systems were injecting liquid wastes into Florida 's subsurface environment at a combined average rate of 15 million gallons per day. This report presents for each of these systems information on the kind and amount of waste injected and type of pretreatment, construction characteristics of the injection and monitor wells, type of test and monitoring data available, and brief discussion of any operational problems experienced. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John; Klemm, Jim; Abbott, Royce; Overman, Nick; Pack, Spencer; Winebrenner, Audra

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  11. A PIV Study of Slotted Air Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented for single and dual-stream jets with fluidic injection on the core stream. The fluidic injection nozzles delivered air to the jet through slots on the interior of the nozzle at the nozzle trailing edge. The investigations include subsonic and supersonic jet conditions. Reductions in broadband shock noise and low frequency mixing noise were obtained with the introduction of fluidic injection on single stream jets. Fluidic injection was found to eliminate shock cells, increase jet mixing, and reduce turbulent kinetic energy levels near the end of the potential core. For dual-stream subsonic jets, the introduction of fluidic injection reduced low frequency noise in the peak jet noise direction and enhanced jet mixing. For dual-stream jets with supersonic fan streams and subsonic core streams, the introduction of fluidic injection in the core stream impacted the jet shock cell structure but had little effect on mixing between the core and fan streams.

  12. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  13. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  14. Compressed air energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    1981-07-28

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  15. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  16. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  19. Air Force Training for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Ronald R.

    Detailed information is provided about the Air Force Instructional System Development (ISD) Model to supplement the 1979 AECT presentation made in New Orleans. Information of interest to instructional systems designers includes (1) a short overview of the Air Force ISD model, (2) an extended example which demonstrates the Air Training Command…

  20. INJECTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE BSNS/RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; TANG, J.Y.; CHEN, Y.; CHI, Y.L.; JIANG, Y.L.; KANG, W.; PANG, J.B.; QIN, Q.; QIU, J.; SHEN, L.; WANG, W.

    2006-06-23

    The BSNS injection system is designed to take one uninterrupted long drift in one of the four dispersion-free straight sections to host all the injection devices. Painting bumper magnets are used for both horizontal and vertical phase space painting. Closed-orbit bumper magnets are used for facilitating the installation of the injection septa and decreasing proton traversal in the stripping foil. Even with large beam emittance of about 300 {pi}mm.mrad used, BSNS/RCS still approaches the space charge limit during the injection/trapping phase for the accumulated particles of 1.9*10{sup 13} and at the low injection energy of 80 MeV. Uniform-like beam distribution by well-designed painting scheme is then obtained to decrease the tune shift/spread. ORBIT code is used for the 3D simulations. Upgrading to higher injection energy has also been considered.

  1. Research on machine vision system of monitoring injection molding processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fan; Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Yuebing; Wang, Cheng; Liao, Si'an

    2016-01-01

    With the wide development of injection molding process, the embedded monitoring system based on machine vision has been developed to automatically monitoring abnormality of injection molding processing. First, the construction of hardware system and embedded software system were designed. Then camera calibration was carried on to establish the accurate model of the camera to correct distortion. Next the segmentation algorithm was applied to extract the monitored objects of the injection molding process system. The realization procedure of system included the initialization, process monitoring and product detail detection. Finally the experiment results were analyzed including the detection rate of kinds of the abnormality. The system could realize the multi-zone monitoring and product detail detection of injection molding process with high accuracy and good stability.

  2. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  3. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  4. [Development of a novel liquid injection system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Lv, Yong-Gui

    2009-11-01

    A liquid jet injector employs compressed gas or spring to produce a high-velocity stream to deliver liquid drug into human body through skin. There are many clinical jet injection products available, none of which is domestic. A new liquid jet injector is designed based on a comprehensive analysis of the current products. The injector consists of an ejector, trigger and a re-positioning mechanism. The jets characteristics of sample injector are tested, and the results show that the maximum exit pressure is above 15 MPa, a threshold value for penetrating into the skin. PMID:20352911

  5. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Doctor, J R; Solanki, S L; Patil, V P; Divatia, J V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  6. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure.

  7. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. PMID:23962760

  8. Novel use of epidural catheter: Air injection for neuroprotection during radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, JR; Solanki, SL; Patil, VP; Divatia, JV

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor, with a male-female ratio of approximately 2:1 and mainly affecting long bones. Ten percent of the lesions occur in the spine, mostly within the posterior elements. Treatment options for OO include surgical excision and percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Lesions within the spine have an inherent risk of thermal damage to the vital structure because of proximity to the neural elements. We report a novel use of the epidural catheter for air injection for the neuroprotection of nerves close to the OO of the spine. A 12-year-old and 30 kg male child with an OO of the L3 vertebra was taken up for RFA. His preoperative examinations were within normal limits. The OO was very close to the L3 nerve root. Under general anesthesia, lumbar epidural catheter was placed in the L3-L4 space under imaging guidance. Ten ml of aliquots of air was injected under imaging guidance to avoid injury to the neural structures due to RFA. The air created a gap between neural elements and the tumor and served as an insulating material thereby protecting the neural elements from damage due to the RFA. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop any neurological deficit. PMID:27375396

  9. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  10. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  11. The stability of a horizontal interface between air and an insulating liquid subjected to charge injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicón, Rafael; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the linear stability analysis of an interface between air and an insulating liquid subjected to a perpendicular electric field, in the presence of unipolar injection of charge. Depending on the characteristics of the liquid and the depth of the liquid layer two different instability thresholds may be found. One of them is characterized by a wavelength of the order of the liquid layer thickness and corresponds to the well-known volume instability of a liquid layer subjected to charge injection. The other one is characterized by a wavelength some ten times the liquid layer thickness and corresponds to the so-called rose-window instability, an instability associated to the balance of surface stresses.

  12. Air-stepping in neonatal rats: A comparison of L-dopa injection and olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jamon, M; Maloum, I; Riviere, G; Bruguerolle, B

    2002-12-01

    The kinematic parameters of air-stepping induced by 2 methods known to elicit locomotion (olfactory stimulation vs. L-dopa injection) were compared in 3-day-old rats. In the 1st stage, suspended pups were induced to step with an olfactory stimulus of soiled shavings from the nest. In the 2nd stage, they received a subcutaneous injection of L-dopa. Their movements were faster, with a larger amplitude and a phase delay in ipsilateral coupling. Third, the olfactory stimulus was presented in conjunction with L-dopa. The characteristics of locomotion returned to the same level as with the olfactory stimulus alone. These results suggest that olfactory stimulation involves higher nerve centers able to modulate the dopaminergic pathways. They are discussed in relation to the neural structure involved in locomotion. PMID:12492300

  13. Blast furnace coal injection system design for high rates

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden, B.

    1994-12-31

    Coal injection into blast furnaces is now well established as a basic technology. However, high rates of coal injection between 300 and 500 lb/thm (160 to 250 kg/thm) are a rarity. Special consideration must be given to the overall concept regarding strategic coal storage, expected equipment reliability, and back-up available to prevent furnace problems, should any of the coal feeding systems fail. British Steel and Simon Macawber now have considerable operational experience at high rates for sustained periods. The paper will discuss the points to be considered and describe the ATSI-Simon Macawber approach to providing a high level of confidence in the coal injection system.

  14. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  15. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  16. Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundong; NBI Team

    2012-06-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.

  17. Discharge characteristics of a simulated unit injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Edred T

    1938-01-01

    Rate-of-discharge curves that show the discharge characteristics of an injection system having a very short fuel passage are presented. The rate of discharge closely follows the rate of displacement of the injection-pump plunger for open nozzles in which the maximum calculated pressures at the orifice do not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the particular injection pump. With small orifices and high pump speeds, the rate of discharge does not follow the rate of plunger displacement because the higher discharge pressure results in increased leakage with corresponding decrease in discharge rate. The rate of discharge is not directly related to the rate of plunger displacement with automatic injection valves having closed nozzles. The types of pump check valve tested did not control the rate of cut-off or the discharge rate but they did affect the injection lag. Use of the short fuel passage eliminated the formation of secondary discharges.

  18. Coanda injection system for axially staged low emission combustors

    DOEpatents

    Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; ElKady, Ahmed Mostafa; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-05-15

    The low emission combustor includes a combustor housing defining a combustion chamber having a plurality of combustion zones. A liner sleeve is disposed in the combustion housing with a gap formed between the liner sleeve and the combustor housing. A secondary nozzle is disposed along a centerline of the combustion chamber and configured to inject a first fluid comprising air, at least one diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to a downstream side of a first combustion zone among the plurality of combustion zones. A plurality of primary fuel nozzles is disposed proximate to an upstream side of the combustion chamber and located around the secondary nozzle and configured to inject a second fluid comprising air and fuel to an upstream side of the first combustion zone. The combustor also includes a plurality of tertiary coanda nozzles. Each tertiary coanda nozzle is coupled to a respective dilution hole. The tertiary coanda nozzles are configured to inject a third fluid comprising air, at least one other diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to one or more remaining combustion zones among the plurality of combustion zones.

  19. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025

  20. Availability of high-pressure safety injection system in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.H.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of typical variations in configuration of the design of the High Pressure Injection (HPSI) System on system unavailability. The HPSI systems in seventeen nuclear power plants were reviewed for variations in design, systems operation, testing and maintenance policies, and possible sources for common cause failures. The power plants reviewed include PWRs with two, three and four loop Reactor Coolant Systems and cover all three PWR vendors. As a result of this effort, the following five representative configurations (along with some variations) were identified and their unavailability to initiate injection was estimated.

  1. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  2. Maintenance requirements in solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lof, G.O.G.; Junk, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    The maintenance requirements of a well designed and constructed solar air-heating system are comparable to those of conventional, forced warm air heating systems. One of the major reasons for this low maintenance is the absence of problems associated with corrosion, freezing, boiling, and leakage often encountered in solar liquid systems. Experience shows that most problems are due to overly complex designs, control problems, faulty installation, and adjustment of the moving parts in the system. Operational histories show negligible requirements for maintenance of air collectors, pebble-bed heat-storage bins, and system ducts and connections. Good quality control in the manufacture and installation of airtight collectors, heat-storage bins, and interconnecting ductwork is essential, however. The paper includes a description of solar air-heating systems and their characteristics, an evaluation of the various maintenance requirements, and several case histories illustrating the handling of solar air system maintenance.

  3. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  4. SNS INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS ? ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Beam loss is higher than expected in the Ring injection section and in the injection dump beam line. The primary causes are fairly well understood, and we have made some equipment modifications to reduce the loss. In the ring extraction beam line the beam distribution exhibits cross-plane coupling (tilt), and the cause has been traced to a large skew-quadrupole component in the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we will discuss the issues surrounding the ring injection and extraction systems, the solutions we have implemented to date, and our plans for future improvements.

  5. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  6. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  7. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  8. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  9. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  10. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  11. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation.

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  13. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Barron, Benigno; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Benitez-Rangel, Juan P.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.

    2012-01-01

    The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected. PMID:23202036

  14. FPGA-based multiprocessor system for injection molding control.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barron, Benigno; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Benitez-Rangel, Juan P; Osornio-Rios, Roque A

    2012-01-01

    The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected. PMID:23202036

  15. Innovations in high-pressure liquid injection technique for gas chromatography: pressurized liquid injection system.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Gras, Ronda; Tymko, Richard

    2003-01-01

    In gas chromatography (GC), highly volatile liquefied hydrocarbons are commonly injected using devices such as high-pressure syringes, piston valves, liquid rotary sampling valves, or vaporizing regulators. Although these techniques are adequate in some cases, there are known deficiencies. A new generation of sampling valve has been recently innovated and commercialized. Some of the highlights of the pressurized liquid injection system (PLIS) include compact size, the capability to directly couple to an injection port without the need for preinjection vaporization and transfer lines, and sample sizes ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 micro L. Although the valve has a specification of helium leak-free rating of 82.7 bar (1200 psig), the valve passes a hydrostatic pressure test of up to 414 bar (6000 psig). In the unheated version of PLIS, vaporization of solutes occur mainly because of the sheering effect of carrier gas in combination with thermal energy drawn from an injection port or a heated adaptor. This was found to be adequate for solutes with high to medium volatility of up to nC14 hydrocarbon. A higher molecular weight range of up to nC44 hydrocarbon can be achieved with the implementation of a heated version of PLIS, in which the channel of the shaft can be resistively heated at a rate of up to 400 degrees C/s. With its first introduction in May 2002, PLIS has gained acceptance amongst practitioners in GC because it addresses a key unarticulated need in sample introduction/enrichment and by specifically targeting many deficiencies encountered in contemporary high-pressure injection devices. In this paper, the design and performance of the various valve systems of PLIS, as well as industrial chromatographic applications, is presented. PMID:14629794

  16. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  17. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  18. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  19. System and method for injecting fuel

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2012-12-04

    According to various embodiments, a system includes a staggered multi-nozzle assembly. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly includes a first fuel nozzle having a first axis and a first flow path extending to a first downstream end portion, wherein the first fuel nozzle has a first non-circular perimeter at the first downstream end portion. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly also includes a second fuel nozzle having a second axis and a second flow path extending to a second downstream end portion, wherein the first and second downstream end portions are axially offset from one another relative to the first and second axes. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly further includes a cap member disposed circumferentially about at least the first and second fuel nozzles to assemble the staggered multi-nozzle assembly.

  20. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  1. Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

  2. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  3. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  4. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  5. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) EXECUTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  6. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM - AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  7. The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

    1988-01-01

    The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

  8. Electric Field Effects on an Injected Air Bubble at Detachment in a Low Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacona, Estelle; Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static and uniform electric field. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized and recorded in microgravity using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement, and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.

  9. Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.

  10. Testing Air-Filtering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Joseph R.; Sullivan, James F.; Hurd, James W.

    1963-01-01

    A procedure was developed for evaluating high-efficiency filters mounted in exhaust ducts at the National Animal Disease Laboratory. An aerosol of the test organism, Escherichia coli B T3 bacteriophage, was generated in a chamber attached to a ceiling exhaust register in concentrations of at least 1000 viable organisms per ft3 of air. Samples were collected from both the pre- and postfilter areas, and the number of organisms per ft3 of air was determined. The efficiency of the filter was calculated from these figures. A total of 269 high-efficiency filters were tested. Of these, 249 had efficiencies of 98% or greater. The remaining 20, with efficiencies of less than 98%, were repaired and retested. No filter was accepted with an efficiency of less than 98%. Images Fig. 2 PMID:14063779

  11. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations. PMID:18529171

  12. Radiation analysis of the ITER pellet injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J. ); Gomes, I.C.; Gomes, L.T.; Stevens, P.N, )

    1991-03-01

    The results of neutronics calculations for the pellet injection system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are described. Hands-on maintenance of components in the pellet injection room results in a considerable simplification of maintenance support equipment and in greater system availability. The basic configuration of the pellet injection system includes small-diameter guide tubes with which the pellet may have several small-angle collisions before reaching the plasma. The pellet injector port through which the guide tubes pass will be shared with ITER plasma diagnostics, so the calculation takes into account penetrations to accommodate numerous channels for a neutron spectrometer and neutron and gamma-ray cameras. The conservative assumption of steady-state operation of ITER for 1000 days was taken as the baseline for calculating the activation of components in the pellet injection room. The plasma configuration is based on the current ITER guidelines, the first wall configuration is based on the most recently updated configuration, and the blanket configuration is based on the US proposal for the blanket. The plasma, coils, and blanket regions were analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The transport of neutrons through the penetrations was also performed with MCNP. The pellet injection room was modeled with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT, which was also used for the transport of neutrons during operation and of gamma rays caused by activation. The activation calculations were carried out with the REBATE code. Results from this study indicate that restricted personnel access to the pellet injection room is possible, so limited hands-on maintenance can be performed on the majority of the components in the room.

  13. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  14. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements...

  15. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements...

  16. Injection molding of ceramics using a polyacetal based binder system

    SciTech Connect

    Ebenhoech, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    Among the production routes to small complex ceramic parts, powder injection molding is the most attractive alternative. It combines near net shape capability with good surface finish and is easy to automate. With the development of the catalytic debinding process for polyacetal binders, the main impediments for the acceptance of ceramic injection molding as a mass production method can be overcome. The use of this system ensures short molding cycle times, high green strength and fast debinding without deformation. Ready to mold compounds are commercially available for various oxide and non-oxide ceramic materials as well as the equipment needed for this process.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Different Scramjet Hydrogen Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, K.; Martinez Schramm, J.; Karl, S.; Steelant, J.

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic combustion experiments of a complete scramjet configuration consisting of intake, combustor and nozzle were performed in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Center in the framework of the European Commission funded LAPCAT (Long term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies) project [1]. The test campaigns in HEG focused on two scramjet configurations used during the HyShot flight experiments ([2], [3]). In addition to the wall normal hydrogen fuel injection of the HyShot II configuration, a second fuel injection technique referred to as the hypermixer injector was investigated. The latter was proposed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) for the HyShot IV flight experiment. Wind tunnel models equipped with wall pressure and heat flux gauges and providing optical access for high speed flow visualisation were designed, built and utilised. The performance characteristic of both injector types was analysed based on the comparison of surface pressure data obtained from experiments with hydrogen / air combustion with those data obtained by injecting the same amount of hydrogen into a nitrogen flow.

  18. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  19. Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection system for the ISX tokamak.

    PubMed

    Milora, S L; Foster, C A

    1979-04-01

    We describe the design and operation of the solid hydrogen pellet injection system used in plasma refueling experiments on the ISX tokamak. The gun-type injector operates on the principle of gas dynamic acceleration of cold pellets confined laterally in a tube. The device is cooled by flowing liquid helium refrigerant, and pellets are formed in situ. Room temperature helium gas at moderate pressure is used as the propellant. The prototype device injected single hydrogen pellets into the tokamak discharge at a nominal 330 m/s. The tokamak plasma fuel content was observed to increase by (0.5-1.2) x10(19) particles subsequent to pellet injection. A simple modification to the existing design has extended the performance to 1000 m/s. At higher propellant operating pressures (28 bars), the muzzle velocity is 20% less than predicted by an idealized constant area expansion process. PMID:18699536

  20. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  1. The Injection Laser System on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M; Burkhart, S; Cohen, S; Erbert, G; Heebner, J; Hermann, M; Jedlovec, D

    2006-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also precompensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with precompensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed.

  2. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  3. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    PubMed

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. PMID:27012440

  4. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  5. System for controlling air-fuel ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Morozumi, T.

    1982-09-14

    A system for controlling the air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine having an induction passage, an exhaust passage , a choke valve in the induction passage, an automatic choke device comprising a positive temperature coefficient (Ptc) heater and a bimetal element connected to the choke valve, a detector for detecting the concentration of a constituent of exhaust gases passing through the exhaust passage, an electronic control circuit, an on-off type electromagnetic valve actuated by the output signal from the electronic control circuit for correcting the air-fuel ratio of the air-fuel mixture supplied by an airfuel mixture supplier, and means for actuating the on-off type electromagnetic valve at a fixed duty ratio during cold engine operation. The electronic control circuit comprises a vacuum sensor for converting the amount of the induced air to an electric quantity, an engine temperature detector for converting the engine temperature to an electric quantity, a first calculating circuit for producing a proper desired air-fuel mixture ratio signal from the output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the engine temperature detector, and a second calculation circuit for producing an actual air-fuel ratio signal from output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the ptc heater. A summing circuit for summing the proper air-fuel ratio signal and the actual air-fuel ratio signal produces a pulse duty ratio correcting signal which is applied to the electronic control circuit for correcting the fixed duty ratio.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  11. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  12. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  13. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  14. Supra-Descemet’s Fluid Drainage with Simultaneous Air Injection: An Alternative Treatment for Descemet’s Membrane Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffariyeh, Alireza; Honarpisheh, Nazafarin; Chamacham, Tooraj

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we present an alternative technique to manage Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD). We call the technique supra-Descemet’s fluid drainage with intracameral air injection. Under topical anesthesia, we injected air through the stab incision to fill 2/3 of the anterior chamber. Then we inserted the tip of a curved 10/0 needle through the corneal surface (entry angle at 45 degrees) into the supra-Descemet’s area 3 times to drain this fluid. In our method, we neither injected expanding gas or viscoelastic nor used a suture. Consequently, there was little chance for suture-induced astigmatism or increased intraocular pressure. This technique may be considered a relatively safe and simple surgical method for the management of postoperative DMD. PMID:21731334

  15. Nonlinear control of rotating stall and surge with axisymmetric bleed and air injection on axial flow compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chung-Hei (Simon)

    The study of compressor instabilities in gas turbine engines has received much attention in recent years. In particular, rotating stall and surge are major causes of problems ranging from component stress and lifespan reduction to engine explosion. In this thesis, modeling and control of rotating stall and surge using bleed valve and air injection is studied and validated on a low speed, single stage, axial compressor at Caltech. Bleed valve control of stall is achieved only when the compressor characteristic is actuated, due to the fast growth rate of the stall cell compared to the rate limit of the valve. Furthermore, experimental results show that the actuator rate requirement for stall control is reduced by a factor of fourteen via compressor characteristic actuation. Analytical expressions based on low order models (2--3 states) and a high fidelity simulation (37 states) tool are developed to estimate the minimum rate requirement of a bleed valve for control of stall. A comparison of the tools to experiments show a good qualitative agreement, with increasing quantitative accuracy as the complexity of the underlying model increases. Air injection control of stall and surge is also investigated. Simultaneous control of stall and surge is achieved using axisymmetric air injection. Three cases with different injector back pressure are studied. Surge control via binary air injection is achieved in all three cases. Simultaneous stall and surge control is achieved for two of the cases, but is not achieved for the lowest authority case. This is consistent with previous results for control of stall with axisymmetric air injection without a plenum attached. Non-axisymmetric air injection control of stall and surge is also studied. Three existing control algorithms found in literature are modeled and analyzed. A three-state model is obtained for each algorithm. For two cases, conditions for linear stability and bifurcation criticality on control of rotating stall are

  16. Integral optical system design of injection molded optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Stefan M.; Shulepova, Lena; Willemse, Jan; Renkema, Kor

    2003-11-01

    Injection molded optics are frequently applied in many high volume applications. Bar code scanners, CD / DVD systems, CMOS cameras are a few examples. In all of these applications cost effective and fast design cycles are essential. At Philips High Tech Plastics we developed a design system that touches on all different aspects of the system design. Starting with traditional lens design (sequential ray tracing) and tolernacing we transport the initial design into mechanical solid modeling. During mechanical modeling, tolerances, injection molding design rules and integration of mechanical features, reference marks, etc. are incorporated as well. Here the full advantage of injection molding can be utilized. After the opto - mechanical modeling the system is ported back to non - sequential ray tracing for ghost - and stray light analysis. Finally extended tolerancing is performed in order to come to a robust high volume product. If necessary all or several steps in this design process are repeated in order to arrive at the final design. As an additional requirement the metrology possibilities for the design are checked in at an early stage. This integral system approach to optical design, including optical modeling (sequential and non-sequential) combined with mechanical solid modeling is presented using some recent examples.

  17. Anisotropic injection molding of strontium ferrite powder using a PP/PEG binder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Jeung, W. Y.

    2001-05-01

    In this study, new binder system for anisotropic injection molding of Sr-ferrite was developed and a process for injection molding of Sr-ferrite was optimized. The developed binder system is composed of 30 vol% PP, 60 vol% PEG-20 000 and 10 vol% PEG-4000. The extraction by water was applied to remove the major binder components PEGs and the minor binder component, PP, was subsequently burned out in air. Behaviors of extraction and thermal debinding with time and debinding atmosphere and variations of the magnetic properties with sintering temperature were studied. The sintered magnets made by PIM process showed residual carbon content of 230 ppm and a maximum energy product of 4.2 MGOe.

  18. Atomization and Dispersion of a Liquid Jet Injected Into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seay, J. E.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, environmental regulations have become more stringent, requiring lower emissions of mainly nitrogen oxides (NOx), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). These regulations have forced the gas turbine industry to examine non-conventional combustion strategies, such as the lean burn approach. The reasoning behind operating under lean conditions is to maintain the temperature of combustion near and below temperatures required for the formation of thermal nitric oxide (NO). To be successful, however, the lean processes require careful preparation of the fuel/air mixture to preclude formation of either locally rich reaction zones, which may give rise to NO formation, or locally lean reaction zones, which may give rise to inefficient fuel processing. As a result fuel preparation is crucial to the development and success of new aeroengine combustor technologies. A key element of the fuel preparation process is the fuel nozzle. As nozzle technologies have developed, airblast atomization has been adopted for both industrial and aircraft gas turbine applications. However, the majority of the work to date has focused on prefilming nozzles, which despite their complexity and high cost have become an industry standard for conventional combustion strategies. It is likely that the new strategies required to meet future emissions goals will utilize novel fuel injector approaches, such as radial injection. This thesis proposes and demonstrates an experiment to examine, on a mechanistic level (i.e., the physics of the action), the processes associated with the atomization, evaporation, and dispersion of a liquid jet introduced, from a radial, plain-jet airblast injector, into a crossflow of air. This understanding requires the knowledge not only of what factors influence atomization, but also the underlying mechanism associated with liquid breakup and dispersion. The experimental data acquired identify conditions and geometries for improved

  19. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  20. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  1. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  2. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  3. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  4. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  5. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system....

  10. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  11. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  12. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  13. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  14. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  15. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  16. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-07-01

    Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

  17. Recalculation of the HIRFL-SSC injection and extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Feng

    2013-04-01

    In order to further improve beam transmission efficiency at the SSC, the beam center trajectory and injection and extraction system are recalculated based on the program group used in the final design of the GANIL accelerator, with some necessary changes and the addition of some auxiliary programs. The two different types of injection and extraction elements (the bending magnet and the inductive septum) are distinguished, and their interaction with the ambient field is considered. More focus is placed on considering the differences in the magnet field inhomogeneity of the ambient field in the located area of the inductive septum where the ends are situated in the ambient field (between the main magnet poles). Thus the gradient magnetic field problem of the inductive septum is solved perfectly. As well as preparing the necessary auxiliary programs and taking the structural integration of the SSC magnetic field maps, the measured magnet field correction is completed. Therefore, the trajectory and a variety of injection and extraction system parameters are obtained. According to the recalculation results, the SSC beam transmission efficiency will be enhanced significantly.

  18. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s.

  19. Air Pressure Controlled Mass Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruilin; Wang, Jian; Cai, Changqing; Yao, Hong; Ding, Jin'an; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaolei

    Mass measurement is influenced by air pressure, temperature, humidity and other facts. In order to reduce the influence, mass laboratory of National Institute of Metrology, China has developed an air pressure controlled mass measurement system. In this system, an automatic mass comparator is installed in an airtight chamber. The Chamber is equipped with a pressure controller and associate valves, thus the air pressure can be changed and stabilized to the pre-set value, the preferred pressure range is from 200 hPa to 1100 hPa. In order to keep the environment inside the chamber stable, the display and control part of the mass comparator are moved outside the chamber, and connected to the mass comparator by feed-throughs. Also a lifting device is designed for this system which can easily lift up the upper part of the chamber, thus weights can be easily put inside the mass comparator. The whole system is put on a marble platform, and the temperature and humidity of the laboratory is very stable. The temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide content inside the chamber are measured in real time and can be used to get air density. Mass measurement cycle from 1100 hPa to 200 hPa and back to 1100 hPa shows the effective of the system.

  20. Injection mode-locking Ti-sapphire laser system

    DOEpatents

    Hovater, James Curtis; Poelker, Bernard Matthew

    2002-01-01

    According to the present invention there is provided an injection modelocking Ti-sapphire laser system that produces a unidirectional laser oscillation through the application of a ring cavity laser that incorporates no intracavity devices to achieve unidirectional oscillation. An argon-ion or doubled Nd:YVO.sub.4 laser preferably serves as the pump laser and a gain-switched diode laser serves as the seed laser. A method for operating such a laser system to produce a unidirectional oscillating is also described.

  1. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  2. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  3. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  4. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  5. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  6. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  7. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Neves, Nuno; Campos, Bruno B; Almeida, Isabel F; Costa, Paulo C; Cabral, Abel Trigo; Barbosa, Mário A; Ribeiro, Cristina C

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium(Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35%w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N.Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. PMID:26652437

  8. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  9. Self-sustaining fuel purging fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.R.; Koblish, T.R.

    1994-01-11

    A fuel injector system for a combustor of a gas turbine engine includes first and second fuel injectors rendered operative to discharge fuel to the combustor during a high power regime of engine operation and rendered non-operative during a lower power regime of engine operation. The first and second fuel injectors include respective first and second fuel discharge passages in fuel flow communication to one another and to the combustor via associated fuel discharge lips to sustain a flame region. The first and second fuel injectors are operatively associated with respective first and second air discharge means having air discharge lips for discharging air to the combustor for sustaining the flame region therein. When the fuel injectors are rendered non-operative, different pneumatic pressures are established at the fuel discharge lips to purge fuel from the fuel injectors to the combustor. 26 figs.

  10. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  11. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  12. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  13. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-12-31

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  14. Solar powered desiccant air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    A solar-powered desiccant air conditioning system using silica gel was developed, and modifications to the existing unit and additional testing are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the unit. Conversion from a rotating bed to a fixed bed of silica gel is proposed. Some general plans for commercialization are briefly discussed.

  15. Tomorrows' Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss tomorrow's air transportation system. Section of this presentation includes: chair comments; other general comments; surface congestion alleviation; runway productivity; enhanced arrival/departure tools; integrated airspace decision support tools; national traffic flow management, runway independent operations; ATM TFM weather; and terminal weather.

  16. CONTROLLING AIR TOXICS: AN ADVISORY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development and use of a computerized advisory system for the control of air toxics. The program, is written for the IBM PC using Microsoft C V3.0 compiler and Windows for Data Library V1.0 for screen and keyboard interaction. The permit reviewer inputs in...

  17. Testing the Patriot air defense weapon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. L.; McClay, L. F.

    1983-11-01

    A summary of the overall test program of the Patriot air defense weapon system is presented, including preparations for system integration tests and surveillance tests, with particular emphasis placed on the guidance flight test program. The major components of the system are described, and subsystem tests consisting of static and dynamic plume tests, static propulsion tests, dynamic propulsion test firings, and control system test firings are discussed. A series of system-level preflight guidance tests which consisted of a captive carry flight test program and other tests is considered. Tests on more sophisticated missions such as ECM, jamming, and combinations of ECM and chaff are addressed. Test data collection techniques are covered.

  18. The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

    1991-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

  19. Gas distribution through injection manifolds in vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theil, Jeremy A.

    1995-03-01

    When injecting gas into a vacuum system, quite often the gas is distributed through a gas injection manifold. However, designs normally rely upon practical experience. By considering the manifold arrangement as a network of flow restrictions it is possible to optimize the distribution of gas throughout the manifold. The methodology for determining the flow distribution through the two simplest topologies of gas manifold, single- and double-opening manifolds from a single-gas injection point, is derived in this article. It is shown that the double-opening manifold topology tends to provide more uniform flow distribution than the single-opening manifold topology for similar conductance ratios. The results of this work include a summation formula for the single-opening manifold. In addition, guidelines for one type of tailored flow manifold are given. Finally, three basic design rules are presented: (1) use as few holes in the manifold as possible; (2) use a double opening manifold when possible; and (3) specify tube dimensions such that the tube/spray hole conductance ratio is maximized.

  20. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  1. Clear air turbulence - An airborne alert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, L. P.; Caracena, F.; Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An infrared radiometer system has been developed that can alert a pilot of an aircraft 2 to 9 minutes in advance of an encounter with clear air turbulence. The time between the warning and the clear air turbulence event varies with the flight altitude of the aircraft. In turbulence-free areas, the incidence of false alarms is found to be less than one in 3.4 hours of flight time compared to less than one per 10 hours of flight time in areas with turbulence.

  2. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  3. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  4. Bubble-size distributions produced by wall injection of air into flowing freshwater, saltwater and surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc

    2004-12-01

    As air is injected into a flowing liquid, the resultant bubble characteristics depend on the properties of the injector, near-wall flow, and flowing liquid. Previous research has shown that near-wall bubbles can significantly reduce skin-friction drag. Air was injected into the turbulent boundary layer on a test section wall of a water tunnel containing various concentrations of salt and surfactant (Triton-X-100, Union Carbide). Photographic records show that the mean bubble diameter decreased monotonically with increasing salt and surfactant concentrations. Here, 33 ppt saltwater bubbles had one quarter, and 20 ppm Triton-X-100 bubbles had one half of the mean diameter of freshwater bubbles.

  5. A study of fault injection in multichannel spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements to be studied are the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study are being applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard. Some of the reactions of the breadboard to some of the faults which have been encountered are presented along with the results of this study.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  9. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  10. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  11. Pressurized air injection in an axial hydro-turbine model for the mitigation of tip leakage cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Tip leakage vortex cavitation in axial hydro-turbines may cause erosion, noise and vibration. Damage due to cavitation can be found at the tip of the runner blades on the low pressure side and the discharge ring. In some cases, the erosion follows an oscillatory pattern that is related to the number of guide vanes. That might suggest that a relationship exists between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex cavitating core that induces this kind of erosion. On the other hand, it is known that air injection has a beneficial effect on reducing the damage by cavitation. In this paper, a methodology to identify the interaction between guide vanes and tip vortex cavitation is presented and the effect of air injection in reducing this particular kind of erosion was studied over a range of operating conditions on a Kaplan scale model. It was found that air injection, at the expense of slightly reducing the efficiency of the turbine, mitigates the erosive potential of tip leakage cavitation, attenuates the interaction between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex and decreases the level of vibration of the structural components.

  12. Piezoceramic multilayer actuators for fuel injection systems in automotive area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Carsten; Steinkopff, Thorsten; Wolff, Andreas; Lubitz, Karl

    2000-06-01

    Cofired multilayer piezoceramic actuators as extremely fast valve driving elements will lead to a significant progress in the field of fuel injection systems. A careful adaptation of the component performance to the system demands, an extraordinary high reliability, and competitive low production costs are prerequisites for this large-scale industrial application. With proper material selection as basis, conventional multilayer technology has to be substantially extended in order to achieve large stack volumes, to avoid degradation effects during cofiring and nevertheless to meet the target costs. Under large-signal driving conditions, the static and dynamic behavior of the component is essentially influenced by driving pulse shape, clamping force, and stiffness of the load. Linear FE methods are employed to calculate the performance criteria of different actuator designs. Moreover, a FE-implementation using a micromechanical domain switching model was developed in order to describe the strongly nonlinear material behavior. Together with a quantitative estimation of crack initiation and propagation by means of fracture mechanics, these methods can give valuable hits for controlling the effects of fatigue and deterioration which may limit the operating life time. In order to optimize the interaction of the electrical and mechanical parts in the injection system, dynamic models of piezoelectric components must be provided. A nonlinear model of the stack actuator has been developed for the analysis software MATLAB/SIMULINK. Special attention has been paid to the hysteresis properties.

  13. Observing System Simulation Experiments for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; Curier, R. L.; Edwards, D. P.; Eskes, H. J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    2015-08-01

    This review paper provides a framework for the application of the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology to satellite observations of atmospheric constituents relevant for air quality. The OSSEs are experiments used to determine the potential benefit of future observing systems using an existing monitoring or forecasting system and by this can help to define optimal characteristics of future instruments. To this end observations from future instruments are simulated from a model representing the realistic state of the atmosphere and an instrument simulator. The added value of the new observations is evaluated through assimilation into another model or model version and comparison with the simulated true state and a control run. This paper provides an overview of existing air quality OSSEs focusing on ozone, CO and aerosol. Using illustrative examples from these studies we present the main elements of an air quality OSSE and associated requirements based on evaluation of the existing studies and experience within the meteorological community. The air quality OSSEs performed hitherto provide evidence of their usefulness for evaluation of future observations although most studies published do not meet all the identified requirements. Especially the evaluation of the OSSE set-up requires more attention; the differences between the assimilation model and the simulated truth should approximate differences between models and real observations. Although this evaluation is missing in many studies, it is required to ensure realistic results. Properly executed air quality OSSEs are a valuable and cost effective tool to space agencies and instrument builders when applied at the start of the development stage to ensure future observations provide added value to users of Earth Observation data.

  14. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  15. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  16. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  17. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  18. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  19. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  20. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; TANG,J.

    2001-06-18

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed.

  1. Integrated gasification iron-air electrical system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.T.

    1988-05-17

    An integrated, gasification, iron-air electrical system, capable of generating electrical energy from a carbonaceous material is described comprising: (A) a gasification means for carbonaceous materials comprising at least one gasification reactor, where a carbonaceous material is contacted and reacted with a gaseous medium containing steam and air, at a temperature and for a time effective to gasify the carbonaceous material and produce a hot gaseous reaction product comprising CO and H/sub 2/; (B) an iron-air cell containing at least one discharged iron electrode; (C) means to remove the discharged iron electrode from the cell of (B), and contact it with the gaseous reaction product produced in (A); (D) the discharged iron electrode removed from the cell of (B), containing material consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/, which electrode is contacted with the hot gaseous reaction product produced in the gasification reactor of (A), directly, at a temperature of from about 450/sup 0/C to about 700/sup 0/C, for a time effective to convert, by reduction, discharged iron compounds consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/ to charge iron compounds in the electrode and provide a recharged iron electrode; (E) an iron-air cell into which the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) is placed; (F) means to transport the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) to the iron-air cell of (E); and (G) electrical connection means attached to the iron-air cell of (E), providing the cell with capability of generating electrical energy.

  2. HEDL air filter examination system software

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    This document describes the system software and operation of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) air filter sample counting systems. Included are a description of how each program functions with flow charts, sample printouts, program listings and a listing with comments of test routines that exercise the hardware. This effort is a result of a work order from HEDL Operational Safety to the Instrument Calibration and Evaluations section of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to upgrade the HEDL counting systems to include standardization, radon subtraction, and detector cooling.

  3. Study of Injection of Helium into Supersonic Air Flow Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the transverse injection of helium into a Mach 3 crossflow is presented. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to measure penetration and helium mole fraction in the mixing region. The method is based on planar molecular Rayleigh scattering using an injection-seeded, frequency-doubled ND:YAG pulsed laser and a cooled CCD camera. The scattered light is filtered with an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light. Preliminary data are presented for helium mole fraction and penetration. Flow visualization images obtained with a shadowgraph and wall static pressure data in the vicinity of the injection are also presented.

  4. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  5. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasas, S.; Alonso, L.; Jacquet, P.; Adamcik, J.; Haeberli, C.; Dietler, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A LANDFILL PRACTICING LEACHATE RECIRCULATION AND AIR INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently research has begun on operating bioreactor landfills. The bioreactor process involves the injection of liquid into the waste mass to accelerate waste degradation. Arcadis and EPA conducted a fugitive emissions characterization study at the Three Rivers Solid Waste Techno...

  7. Air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Tomobe, N.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes an air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine having a choke valve and a throttle valve in an intake air passage. The system is adapted to supply an air intake side secondary air into an intake air passage downstream of the throttle valve by a control valve and in response to an operating condition of the engine during a cold operation of the engine. The improvement described here comprises means for detecting a no-load operating state of the engine during the cold operation of the engine in which the choke valve is actuated to close the intake air passage, and means for stopping a supply of the air intake side secondary air upon detection of the non-load operating state so as to enrich an air-fuel mixture supplied to the engine.

  8. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  15. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  16. Hydrologic characteristics of the Bandelier Tuff as determined through an injection well system

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Enyart, E.A.; McLin, S.G.

    1989-08-01

    Injection wells were used to determine some of the hydrologic transmitting characteristics of the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff. At site 1, a 60-ft injection well with a 5-ft injection zone was used to conduct four tests. These preliminary tests were made in order to design an injection-well monitoring system that could track the movement of fluids in the tuff. At site 2, a second injection well with a 10-ft injection zone and seven observation holes was used to monitor the movement of 335,000 gal. of water injected into the tuff. The initial injection rate at site 2 was 5.8 gallons per minute (gpm), but that rate gradually declined to 0.4 gpm after 89 days of the test; 289 days after the test ended, the pear-shaped nephol (the shape of moisture injected into the tuff) reached a maximum depth of 210 ft and had a diameter of about 120 ft. A second test at site 2 indicated that intermittent use of an injection system would allow for short periods of higher injection rates, thereby extending the life of the system. Finally, a third test at site 2 was made using a 50-ft injection zone, which resulted in an injection rate of 15.8 gpm, or about 3 times the initial rate achieved when a 10-ft injection zone was used. 8 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  18. Air-Stable, Cross-Linkable, Hole-Injecting/Transporting Interlayers for Improved Charge Injection in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li,J.; Marks, T.

    2008-01-01

    Modification of inorganic electrode surfaces has attracted great attention in the quest to optimize organic optoelectronic devices. An air-stable, cross-linkable trimethoxysilane functionalized hole-transporting triarylamine (4,4'-bis[(p-trimethoxysilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl, TPD-[Si(OMe)3]2) has been synthesized and self-assembled or spin-coated onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anode surfaces to form monolayers or multilayer siloxane films, respectively. The modified ITO surfaces were characterized by advancing aqueous contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Increased surface work function and enhanced ITO-hole transport layer (HTL) contact via robust covalent bonding are expected to facilitate hole injection from the ITO anode, resulting in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance enhancement versus that of a device without such interlayers. For a device having the structure ITO/spin-coated-TPD-[Si(OMe)3]2 from aqueous alcohol + acetic acid blend solution (40 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/Alq (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), a maximum light output of 32800 cd/m2, a 4.25 V turn-on voltage, and a maximum current efficiency of 5.8 cd/A is achieved. This performance is comparable to or superior to that of analogous devices prepared with analogous trichorosilyl precursors. The air-stable interlayer material developed here is also applicable to large-area coating techniques.

  19. Performance of the RHIC Injection Line Instrumentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Ryan, W. A.; Smith, G.; Zitvogel, E.

    1997-05-01

    The beam injection line from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) transports proton and heavy ion bunches. This line and the RHIC first sextant currently contain thefollowing complement of beam instrumentation: stripline position monitors, ionization loss monitors, video profile monitors, and commercial current transformers. Over several years, these systems have been designed and bench tested to assure a desired performance level. The design criteria will be briefly reviewed. Then, using data from laboratory tests and the recent single pass beam tests, desired performance and attained performance will be compared. Finally, experience from the beam based tests will be applied to the design criteria for the future collider ring instrumentation.

  20. Propellant Feed System for Swirl-Coaxial Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant feed system for swirl-coaxial injection of a liquid propellant includes a reservoir having a bottom plate and at least one tube originating in the bottom plate and extending therefrom. The tube has rectangular slits defined in and distributed tangentially and evenly about a portion of the tube that is disposed in the bottom plate. Drain holes are provided in the bottom plate and tunnels are defined in the bottom plate. Each tunnel fluidly couples one of the drain holes to a corresponding one of the rectangular slits. Each tunnel includes (i) a bend of at least 90.degree., and (ii) a straight portion leading to its corresponding rectangular slit wherein the straight portion is at least five times as long as a hydraulic diameter of the corresponding rectangular slit.

  1. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  2. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73989, Dec. 9, 2013... steel, tin-plated steel, or aluminum, or shall be listed Class 0, Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class...

  4. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  5. Numerical simulation of a turbulent flow with droplets injection in annular heated air tube using the Reynolds stress model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merouane, H.; Bounif, A.; Abidat, M.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of single-phase and two-phase flow. The droplets are injected in annular heated air tube. The numerical simulation is performed by using a commercial CFD code witch uses the finite-volume method to discretize the equations of fluid flow. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Reynolds stress model were used in the computation. The governing equations are solved by using a SIMPLE algorithm to treat the pressure terms in the momentum equations. The results of prediction are compared with the experimental data.

  6. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  7. Air and sea rescue via satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W. C.; Swanson, R.

    1984-03-01

    Two approaches to a satellite system for air and sea rescue to be put into use by the 1990s, one employing polar-orbiting satellites and the other using fixed geosynchronous satellites over the equator, are discussed. A battery-powered transmitter on a ship or aircraft would be activated in an accident to emit a low-power omnidirectional signal that would be relayed by a satellite to an earth station. The polar-orbiting approach, now being evaluated on a small-scale with the Cospas-Sarsat system, allows complete coverage of the earth, including the poles, and provides a fix on the origin of the distress signals by means of the Doppler shift. A parallel effort for the testing of geostationary satellites to measure system sensitivity to various interference sources, to optimize design, and to measure land and sea performance is reviewed.

  8. A scriptable DSP-based system for dynamic conductance injection.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh P C

    2008-04-30

    A variety of software and hardware systems have been developed to inject controlled electrical conductances into excitable cells, to investigate the physiological mechanisms of action potential generation. These systems face several challenges: the need to model complex conductances, including voltage-gated ion channels, synaptic conductances controlled by electrical models of entire cells or even networks of cells, to do so rapidly and stably, with precisely controlled update intervals of 20micros or less, and to present an easy and flexible interface to the user, allowing new experiments to be designed and executed easily. In this paper I describe a new software system (SM-2) which is designed to meet these requirements, and which runs on the current generation of digital-signal-processing (DSP) analog input-output I/O boards, hosted in Windows PCs. Its key innovation is its configurability by simple user-written text scripts, or "scriptability", which gives it a high flexibility of purpose, and allows non-programmers the capacity to rapidly design and use new Hodgkin-Huxley-type active conductances, conductances with arbitrary current-voltage relationships, Markov process conductance mechanisms with user-specified rate matrices, and hybrid networks of virtual cells. At the same time, the hardware platform allows this to be achieved with a fast and accurately timed input-computation-output cycle. PMID:18076997

  9. ENHANCED CONTACT OF COSOLVENT AND DNAPL IN POROUS MEDIA BY CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sites contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) is a major
    environmental problem and cosolvent flooding is proposed as a remedial alternative. The
    efficacy of cosolvent flooding is a function of the degree of mixing between the injected
    remed...

  10. Modeling and investigation of refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection in a scroll compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rui

    Vapor compression cycles are widely used in heating, refrigerating and air-conditioning. A slight performance improvement in the components of a vapor compression cycle, such as the compressor, can play a significant role in saving energy use. However, the complexity and cost of these improvements can block their application in the market. Modifying the conventional cycle configuration can offer a less complex and less costly alternative approach. Economizing is a common modification for improving the performance of the refrigeration cycle, resulting in decreasing the work required to compress the gas per unit mass. Traditionally, economizing requires multi-stage compressors, the cost of which has restrained the scope for practical implementation. Compressors with injection ports, which can be used to inject economized refrigerant during the compression process, introduce new possibilities for economization with less cost. This work focuses on computationally investigating a refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection, developing a better understanding of the impact of injected refrigerant quality on refrigeration system performance as well as evaluating the potential COP improvement that injection provides based on refrigeration system performance provided by Copeland.

  11. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  12. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  13. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface. PMID:24514197

  14. Internal combustion engine system with fog injection and heat exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, M.

    1987-10-27

    An improved turbine apparatus is described comprising: a turbine power generator, including a source of input air, and a source of fuel, a compressor which receives the input air, a combustion chamber which receives air from the output of the compressor and fuel from the source of fuel, a turbine which receives exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and an electrical generator mechanically coupled with the turbine; a fogging device communicating with the input air. The fogging device is adapted to receive a fogger air supply and a fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the input air, an adjustable heat exchanger for exchanging heat from the exhaust of the turbine to the input air to be fogged; and means for adjusting the level of heat exchange of the heat exchanger in accordance with properties of the input air and the level of fog being generated.

  15. A 1-Joule laser for a 16-fiber injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J

    2004-04-06

    A 1-J laser was designed to launch light down 16, multi-mode fibers (400-{micro}m-core dia.). A diffractive-optic splitter was designed in collaboration with Digital Optics Corporation (DOC), and was delivered by DOC. Using this splitter, the energy injected into each fiber varied <1%. The spatial profile out of each fiber was such that there were no ''hot spots,'' a flyer could successfully be launched and a PETN pellet could be initiated. Preliminary designs of the system were driven by system efficiency where a pristine TEM{sub 00} laser beam would be required. The laser is a master oscillator, power amplifier (MOPA) consisting of a 4-mm-dia. Nd:YLF rod in the stable, q-switched oscillator and a 9.5-mm-dia. Nd:YLF rod in the double-passed amplifier. Using a TEM{sub 00} oscillator beam resulted in excellent transmission efficiencies through the fibers at lower energies but proved to be quite unreliable at higher energies, causing premature fiber damage, flyer plate rupture, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Upon further investigation, it was found that both temporal and spatial beam formatting of the laser were required to successfully initiate the PETN. Results from the single-mode experiments, including fiber damage, SRS and SBS losses, will be presented. In addition, results showing the improvement that can be obtained by proper laser beam formatting will also be presented.

  16. Experiments on Plasma Injection into a Centrifugally Confined System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Elton, R.; Young, W.; Teodorescu, C.; Morales, C. H.; Ellis, R. F.

    2009-11-01

    We describe the cross-field injection of plasma into a centrifugally-confined system. Two different types of plasma railgun have been installed on the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) in an attempt to drive that plasma's rotation. The initial gun was a coaxial device designed to mitigate the blowby instability. The second one was a MiniRailgun with a rectangular bore oriented so that the MCX magnetic field augments the railgun's internal magnetic field. Tests at HyperV indicate this MiniRailgun reaches much higher densities than the original gun, although muzzle velocity is slightly reduced. We discuss the impact of these guns on MCX for various conditions. Initial results show that even for a 2 kG field, firing the MiniRailgun modifies oscillations of the MCX diamagnetic loops and can impact the core current and voltage. The gun also has a noticeable impact on MCX microwave emissions. These observations suggest plasma enters the MCX system. We also compare diagnostic data collected separately from MCX for these and other guns, focussing primarily on magnetic measurements.

  17. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  18. Research on Air Flow Measurement and Optimization of Control Algorithm in Air Disinfection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing-jie, Li; Jia-hong, Zhao; Xu, Wang; Amuer, Mohamode; Zhi-liang, Wang

    2013-01-01

    As the air flow control system has the characteristics of delay and uncertainty, this research designed and achieved a practical air flow control system by using the hydrodynamic theory and the modern control theory. Firstly, the mathematical model of the air flow distribution of the system is analyzed from the hydrodynamics perspective. Then the model of the system is transformed into a lumped parameter state space expression by using the Galerkin method. Finally, the air flow is distributed more evenly through the estimation of the system state and optimal control. The simulation results show that this algorithm has good robustness and anti-interference ability

  19. The injection of air/oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber of rabbits as a treatment for hyphema in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ayintap, Emre; Keskin, Uğurcan; Sadigov, Fariz; Coskun, Mesut; Ilhan, Nilufer; Motor, Sedat; Semiz, Hilal; Parlakfikirer, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 8), there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (n = 8), both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (n = 8), and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (n = 8). Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD) for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout. PMID:24808955

  20. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  1. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  2. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  3. Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.L.; Rahn, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    We have designed and tested a compact injection seeding system consisting of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator and a permanent-magnet Faraday isolator. With active resonator frequency stabilization, this system permits highly reliable single-axial-mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser over a period of hours. The system is capable of injection seeding both stable and unstable resonator designs and is suitable for injection seeding commercial lasers with only minor modifications.

  4. Gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, J.R.; Bennett, G.H.; Lee, L.A.

    1984-01-17

    A gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system are disclosed in which the air intake system comprises a generally horizontally extending duct through which an airflow is induced by an ejector pump powered by the engine. A portion of the air passing through the duct is directed through a second duct to the air inlet of the engine. The second duct is connected to the first duct in such a manner that the air directed to the engine air inlet is derived from a vertically upper region of the first duct. The arrangement is intended to reduce the amount of airborne particulate material ingested by the gas turbine engine.

  5. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  6. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  7. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Liquid Air Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. D.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, X. L.; Cui, C.; Chen, L. B.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    In this study, a novel liquid air energy storage system for electrical power load shifting application is introduced. It is a combination of an air liquefaction cycle and a gas turbine power generation cycle without fuel combustion. Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to investigate the performance of this system. The results show that liquid air energy storage systems could be very effective systems for electrical power storage with high efficiency, high energy density and extensive application prospects.

  9. A new closed-system using partially frozen injectate for thermodilution cardiac output determinations.

    PubMed

    Maruta, H; Usuda, Y; Okutsu, Y; Numata, K

    1989-03-01

    The FI (partially frozen injectate) system, a new closed-system devised by the authors for thermodilution cardiac output determinations, has two major features: 1) it needs no ice-filled receptacle to keep injectate cold because it uses partially frozen injectate, and 2) it can go without monitoring the injectate temperatures during the whole process of cardiac output determinations. The author evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of cardiac output determinations with the FI system in 10 critically ill patients, as compared with another closed-system (which is commercially available) and the standard open method. The injectate temperatures in the FI system were also measured in vitro. The mean injectate temperature in the FI system was 0.71 +/- 0.26 degrees C and 80% of the injectate temperatures were lower than 1.0 degrees C. Even when no monitoring of injectate temperatures was made, the predicated error in the calculated cardiac output resulted as low as 2% with the FI system. The mean cardiac output values were not statistically different between the FI system and the other two systems. PMID:15236053

  10. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  11. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  12. CFD modeling could optimize sorbent injection system efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-01-15

    Several technologies will probably be needed to remove mercury from coal-plant stack emissions as mandated by new mercury emission control legislation in the USA. One of the most promising mercury removal approaches is the injection of a sorbent, such as powdered activated carbon (PAC), to make it much more controllable. ADA-ES recently simulated field tests of sorbent injection at New England Power Company's Brayton Point Power Plant in Somerset, Mass., where activated carbon sorbent was injected using a set of eight lances upstream of the second of two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Consultants from Fluent created a computational model of the ductwork and injection lances. The simulation results showed that the flue gas flow was poorly distributed at the sorbent injection plane, and that a small region of reverse flow occurred, a result of the flow pattern at the exit of the first ESP. The results also illustrated that the flow was predominantly in the lower half of the duct, and affected by some upstream turning vanes. The simulations demonstrated the value of CFD as a diagnostic tool. They were performed in a fraction of the time and cost required for the physical tests yet provided far more diagnostic information, such as the distribution of mercury and sorbent at each point in the computational domain. 1 fig.

  13. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  14. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  16. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  17. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  18. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  19. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  20. Status of the NSLS-II Injection System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Shaftan,T.

    2008-06-23

    The NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3rd generation 3 GeV light source that will be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its design is well under way. The requirements for the compact injector complex, which will continuously provide 3 GeV electrons for top-off injection into the storage ring, are demanding: high reliability, relatively high charge and low losses. The injector consists of a linear accelerator, a full-energy booster, as well as transport lines, and an injection straight section. In this paper we give an overview of the NSLS-II injector, discuss its status, specifications, and the design challenges.

  1. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office. PMID:25084413

  2. Equivalent ambipolar carrier injection of electrons and holes with Au electrodes in air-stable field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Ikeda, Susumu; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Shimotani, Hidekazu E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Shang, Hui; Tanigaki, Katsumi E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-07-27

    Carrier injection from Au electrodes to organic thin-film active layers can be greatly improved for both electrons and holes by nano-structural surface control of organic semiconducting thin films using long-chain aliphatic molecules on a SiO{sub 2} gate insulator. In this paper, we demonstrate a stark contrast for a 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)bithiophene (BP2T) active semiconducting layer grown on a modified SiO{sub 2} dielectric gate insulator between two different modifications of tetratetracontane and poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Important evidence that the field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are independent of electrode metals with different work functions is given by the observation of a conversion of the metal-semiconductor contact from the Schottky limit to the Bardeen limit. An air-stable light emitting FET with an Au electrode is demonstrated.

  3. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  4. Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

  5. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  6. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  7. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  8. Urban air quality simulation with community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, D.; Young, J.; Gipson, G.; Schere, K.; Godowitch, J.

    1998-11-01

    In an effort to provide a state-of-the-science air quality modeling capability, US EPA has developed a new comprehensive and flexible Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The authors demonstrate CMAQ simulations for a high ozone episode in the northeastern US during 12-15 July 1995 and discuss meteorological issues important for modeling of urban air quality.

  9. Factors affecting air sparging remediation systems using field data and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Benner, Michael L; Mohtar, Rabi H; Lee, Linda S

    2002-12-01

    Field data from five air sparging sites were used to assess the effect of several soil, contaminant, and air sparging system factors on the removal time and associated costs required to reach specified clean-up criteria. Numerical simulations were also performed to better assess the field data and to expand the data sets beyond the five field sites. Ten factors were selected and evaluated individually over a range of values based on information from practitioners and the literature. Trends in removal time and removal cost to reach a specified clean-up criterion were analyzed to ascertain the conditions controlling contaminant removal with variations in each factors' value. A linear sensitivity equation was used to quantify system dynamics controlling the observed contaminant removal trends for each factor. Factors found most critical across all field sites in terms of removal time and/or cost were contaminant type, sparge pulsing schedule, number of wells, maximum biodecay rate, total soil porosity, and aquifer organic carbon content. Factors showing moderate to low effect included the depth of the sparge point below the water table, air injection rate/pressure, horizontal air conductivity, and anisotropy ratio. At each field site, subsurface coverage of sparged air, sparged air residence time, contaminant equilibrium in the system, contaminant phase distribution, oxygen availability to microbes, and contaminant volatility seem to control the system responses and were affected by one or more of the 10 factors evaluated. PMID:12423944

  10. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  11. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  13. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  14. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Position of the hyaluronic acid injected and the effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System were confirmed by ultrasonography in one of the cases. Results: Sonogram images demonstrated the location of the injected hyaluronic acid and pressure effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System, confirming the ability to manipulate the superficial musculoaponeurotic System by this injection technique. The lifting result of this Single injection technique was immediately visible and maintained for at least 26 weeks. Conclusion: This is a less invasive, reproducible method that provides a sustained face lifting result. The authors propose the term “supraSMAS lift” for this novel injection technique. PMID:27047633

  15. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  16. Overview of the International Space Station System Level Trace Contaminant Injection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, James D.; Perry, Jay L.; Franks, Gerald D.

    1997-01-01

    Trace contaminant control onboard the International Space Station will be accomplished not only by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly but also by other Environmental Control and Life Support System subassemblies. These additional removal routes include absorption by humidity condensate in the Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchanger and adsorption by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. The Trace Contaminant Injection Test, which was performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, investigated the system-level removal of trace contaminants by the International Space Station Atmosphere Revitalization, and Temperature/Humidity Control Subsystems, (November-December 1997). It is a follow-on to the Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Test conducted in 1996. An estimate for the magnitude of the assisting role provided by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and the Temperature and Humidity Control unit was obtained. In addition, data on the purity of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly carbon dioxide product were obtained to support Environmental Control and Life Support System Air Revitalization Subsystem loop closure.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Flow Evolution in a Helium Jet Injected into Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satti, Rajani P.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational model to study the stability characteristics of an evolving buoyant helium gas jet in ambient air environment is presented. Numerical formulation incorporates a segregated approach to solve for the transport equations of helium mass fraction coupled with the conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum using a staggered grid method. The operating parameters correspond to the Reynolds number varying from 30 to 300 to demarcate the flow dynamics in oscillating and non-oscillating regimes. Computed velocity and concentration fields were used to analyze the flow structure in the evolving jet. For Re=300 case, results showed that an instability mode that sets in during the evolution process in Earth gravity is absent in zero gravity, signifying the importance of buoyancy. Though buoyancy initiates the instability, below a certain jet exit velocity, diffusion dominates the entrainment process to make the jet non-oscillatory as observed for the Re=30 case. Initiation of the instability was found to be dependent on the interaction of buoyancy and momentum forces along the jet shear layer.

  18. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  19. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

  20. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455

  1. Estimation of the heterogeneity of fracture permeability by simultaneous modeling of multiple air-injection tests in partially saturated fractured tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Y. W.; Huang, K.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    Air-injection tests were used to investigate the flow characteristics of the fractured volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Because the tuff matrix pores are saturated over 90% with water and the matrix permeability is on the order of microdarcies, the air component of flow is mainly in the fractures. Air-injection tests can therefore help to determine the flow characteristics and heterogeneity structure of the densely fractured welded tuff. The tests were carried out in the Exploratory Studies Facility, an 8 km long underground tunnel at the Yucca Mountain site, in twelve 40 m long boreholes, forming three clusters within a cubic rock volume of approximately 40 meters on each edge. Each borehole in the test block was packed off (or isolated) into four sections (or zones) by inflatable packers. The in situ field tests consisted of constant-rate air injection into one of the isolated borehole zones while the pressure response was monitored in all the isolated zones. The pressure data showed an almost universal response in all monitored zones to injection into any borehole-zone, indicating that the fractures are well connected for airflow. Air-injection tests were performed in succession for all isolated zones. A simultaneous inversion was performed for the pressure response of all the monitoring zones for all the injection tests in the test block. TOUGH2, a 3D numerical code for multiphase, multicomponent transport, was used for this purpose. Spatially variable fracture permeability was used as an adjustable parameter to fit the simulated pressure responses to those measured, assuming fixed fracture porosity. For most of the pneumatic experiments, the calculated pressure changes matched the data well, and the estimated permeability ranged over four orders of magnitude, from 10-15 m2 to 10-11 m2.

  2. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  3. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  4. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  5. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  6. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  7. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  8. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  9. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  10. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  11. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  12. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  13. [Air decontamination and the fine filtration system "Potok 150MK"].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, E A; Volodina, E V

    2004-01-01

    Longevity of space stations is dependent on efficiency and robustness of the life support systems. The article describes the principle of operation of air decontamination system Potok 150MK intended for providing microbial safety of the orbital station environment. High quality of air disinfection and decontamination has been demonstrated aboard SS Mir and the International space station. PMID:15233040

  14. Multiphasic changes in systemic VEGF following intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in a child

    PubMed Central

    Shao, E H; Sivagnanavel, V; Dabbagh, A; Dave, R; Tempest-Roe, S; Tam, F W K; Taylor, S R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether intravitreal ranibizumab injections administered to a child alter systemic plasma levels of total and free VEGF 165. Methods A 9-year-old child sustained a choroidal rupture from blunt trauma. He subsequently developed a secondary choroidal neovascular membrane, which was treated with five ranibizumab injections over a period of 8 months. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken at each visit over a period of 12 months and plasma was extracted. Plasma VEGF 165 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were assayed both pre- and post-immunodepletion to remove complexed VEGF. Results Plasma VEGF 165 levels proved labile following intravitreal injection of ranibizumab. Levels increased by 30% above baseline following the first intravitreal ranibizumab injection, but then returned to baseline despite two subsequent injections. There was then a rebound increase of 67% in total plasma VEGF levels following a further injection, which remained above baseline for 12 weeks despite two further intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Baseline levels were re-attained 26 weeks after the final injection. Conclusions These results suggest intravitreal ranibizumab injections can cause significant, multiphasic changes in systemic VEGF levels. This may be of particular clinical significance in children as VEGF is known to be vital in the development of major organs, in addition to its role in the maintenance of normal organ function in adults. PMID:25657041

  15. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  16. Higher efficiency of CO2 injection into seawater by a venturi than a conventional diffuser system.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong; Lin, Junda; Zuercher, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Mass production of microalgae generally requires the injection of CO(2) into open ponds or photo-bioreactors. The present study compares the CO(2) injection efficiency into seawater of a porous stone air diffuser and a venturi. CO(2) was injected at flow rates of 400, 700 and 1000 standard mL/min and 4, 7 and 10 standard L/min into a small and a large pond, respectively until the pH decreased from 7.8 to 6.8. No significant differences in CO(2) injection efficiency between the three CO(2) flow rates (p>0.05) were observed; however, CO(2) injection efficiency with venturi was about 100% (p<0.05) higher than that of the air diffuser. Therefore, it is possible to both reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness of CO(2) dissolution in seawater by using venturi operated at a lower flow rate, i.e. 400 standard mL/min in a small pond and 4 standard L/min in a large pond. PMID:22209441

  17. Air Pollution Information System, Increasing Usability Through Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Fred; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The conversion of an information system containing air pollution related documents from manual to automatic computer-based operation is outlined with emphasis on the increased services to system users which resulted from the conversion. (Author)

  18. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  19. Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R.D.

    1994-10-20

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027.

  20. Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, R L; Rahn, L A

    1986-03-01

    We have designed and tested a compact injection seeding system consisting of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator and a permanent-magnet Faraday isolator. With active resonator frequency stabilization, this system permits highly reliable single-axial-mode operation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser over a period of hours. The system is capable of injection seeding both stable and unstable resonator designs and is suitable for injection seeding commercial lasers with only minor modifications. PMID:18231224

  1. Fault injection via on-chip debugging in the internal memory of systems-on-chip processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekmarev, S. A.; Khanov, V. Kh

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an on-chip debugging method for the injection of single faults in the processor cores of systems-on-chip. The method consists in the placement of faults injection infrastructure in a system-on-chip as an intellectual property core. This simplifies the fault injection environment, reduces delays injection and improves the performance, as well as allows doing long autonomous campaign for injection of faults without the use of external devices.

  2. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  3. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.

  4. Flow characteristics of spray impingement in PFI injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panão, M. R. O.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2005-08-01

    The present paper addresses an experimental study of the dynamic exchanges between the impact of an intermittent spray and the liquid film formed over the target, based on detailed phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size, velocity and volume flux in the vicinity of the impact. The flow configuration is that of a pulsed injector spraying gasoline onto a flat disc to simulate the port fuel injection (PFI) of an internal combustion engine operating at cold-start conditions. The measurements evidence that the outcome of impact cannot be accurately predicted based on the characteristics of the free spray, but requires precise knowledge of the flow structure, induced by the target. The implications for spray wall interaction modelling are then discussed based on the application of conservation equations to the mass, momentum and energy exchanged between the impinging droplets and the liquid film. The results show that the liquid film starts to form in the vicinity of the stagnation region at early stages of injection and a non-negligible proportion of droplets impinging at outer regions splash after interaction with the film. Film disruption is mainly driven by the intermittent axial momentum of impinging droplets, which enhances the vertical oscillations. The radial momentum imparted to the liquid film at the stagnation region is fed back onto secondary droplets emerging later during the injection cycle at outwards locations, where momentum of impacting droplets is much smaller. As a consequence, although the number of splashed droplets is enhanced by normal momentum, their size and ejection velocity depends more on the radial spread induced onto the liquid film and, hence, on the radial momentum at impact. The analysis further shows that existing spray wall interaction models can be improved if the dynamic exchanges between the impacting spray and the liquid film are accounted.

  5. THE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTION KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.

    1999-06-28

    IN THIS PAPER, RESULTS FROM IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS ON THE RHIC INJECTION KICKERS ARE REPORTED. THE KICKER IS CONFIGURED AS A ''C'' CROSS SECTION MAGNET WITH INTERLEAVED FERRITE AND HIGH-PERMITTIVITY DIELECTRIC SECTIONS TO ACHIEVE A TRAVELLING WAVE STRUCTURE. THE IMPEDANCE WAS MEASURED USING THE WIRE METHOD, AND ACCURATE RESULTS ARE OBTAINED BY INTERPRETING THE FORWARD SCATTERING COEFFICIENT VIA THE LONG-FORMULA. THE FOUR KICKERS WITH THEIR CERAMIC BEAM TUBES CONTRIBUE AT Z/N-0.22 OMEGA/RING IN THE INTERESTING FREQUENCY RANGE FROM 0.1 TO 1 BHZ, AND LESS ABOVE.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the Highland Rim. The Highland Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  8. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  9. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  10. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  11. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  12. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  13. Development of a multiple-microhole aerostatic air bearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Ho, Chi-Chung; Mou, Jong-I.

    2002-09-01

    New types of aerostatic air bearing and linear slide systems have been developed. The prototype of a multiple-microhole, instead of a porous-type, air bearing was developed and the surface roughness was improved by finished process. Instead of the conventional drilling process, the air bearing pads were fabricated by using microfabrication technology in this research. The spectral element method was employed to simulate the pressure distribution of air bearing and a comparison was made with experimental results. A granite straight edge was used as linear slide to guide the moving table that was supported by the developed air bearing system. A laser interferometer system was used to assess the performance of the stage.

  14. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  15. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  16. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  17. COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (ONE ATMOSPHERE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task supports ORD's strategy by providing responsive technical support of EPA's mission and provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance. This research effort is to develop and improve the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, a mu...

  18. TAPAS: Topographic air pollution analysis system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Riebau, A.; Fox, D.A.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1987-05-01

    This report presents information on the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), currentlu under development by the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and Colorado State University. TAPAS is designed to provide resource managers with air quality dispersion modeling tools to accomplish more efficient and economical air resource studies. TAPAS consists of a group of interactive air quality computer models that can be operated independently, or in combination for more detailed applications. TAPAS applications include support for resource management plans, environmental impact statements, siting of remote automatic weather stations, PSD permit evaluations, and smoke management for prescribed burns.

  19. Test results of lithium pool-air reaction suppression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1987-02-01

    Engineered reaction suppression systems were demonstrated to be effective in suppressing lithium pool-air reactions for lithium quantities up to 100 kg. Lithium pool-air reaction suppression system tests were conducted to evaluate suppression system effectiveness for potential use in fusion facilities in mitigating consequences of postulated lithium spills. Small-scale perforated and sacrificial cover plate suppression systems with delayed inert gas purging proved effective in controlling the lithium-air interaction for lithium quantities near 15 kg at initial temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C. A large-scale suppression system with a sacrificial cover, a diverter plate, an inert gas atmosphere, and remotely retrievable catch pans proved effective in controlling lithium pool-air interaction for a 100-kg lithium discharge at an initial temperature of 550/sup 0/C. This suppression system limited the maximum pool temperature to about 600/sup 0/C less than that expected for a similar lithium pool-air reaction without a suppression system. Lithium aerosol release from this large-scale suppression system was a factor of about 10,000 less than that expected for a lithium pool-air reaction with no suppression system. Remote retrieval techniques for lithium cleanup, such as (1) in-place lithium siphoning and overhead crane dismantling, and (2) lithium catch pan removal by use of an overhead crane, were demonstrated as part of this large-scale test.

  20. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  1. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  2. Preferential delivery of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system to livers of mice by hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jason B; Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Aronovich, Elena L; Belur, Lalitha R; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2008-01-01

    Nonviral, DNA-mediated gene transfer is an alternative to viral delivery systems for expressing new genes in cells and tissues. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system combines the advantages of viruses and naked DNA molecules for gene therapy purposes; however, efficacious delivery of DNA molecules to animal tissues can still be problematic. Here we describe the hydrodynamic delivery procedure for the SB transposon system that allows efficient delivery to the liver in the mouse. The procedure involves rapid, high-pressure injection of a DNA solution into the tail vein. The overall procedure takes <1 h although the delivery into one mouse requires only a few seconds. Successful injections result in expression of the transgene in 5−40% of hepatocytes 1 d after injection. Several weeks after injection, transgene expression stabilizes at ∼1% of the level at 24 h, presumably owing to integration of the transposons into chromosomes. PMID:18079715

  3. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - in situ air sparging system (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Health, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Air sparging is the process of injecting clean air directly into an aquifer for remediation of contaminated groundwater. For removing contaminants, air sparging relies on two basic mechanisms working either alone or in tandem: biodegradation and volatilization. The objective of air sparging is to force air through contaminated aquifer materials to provide oxygen for bioremediation and/or to strip contaminants out of the aquifer.

  4. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  5. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  6. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  7. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  8. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  9. Reduction of dioxin-like compound emissions from a Waelz plant with adsorbent injection and a dual baghouse filter system.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2008-03-15

    Previous study indicates that the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentration measured in the stack gas of the Waelz plant investigated reached 194 ng-TEQ/(N m3) (TEQ = toxic equivalence), due to the relatively high potential of PCDD/F formation and a low PCDD/F removal efficiency (<70%) achieved with the baghouse filter (BF). In September 2006, the Taiwan government setthe PCDD/F emission limit for existing Waelz plants as 1.0 ng-I-TEQO/(N m3). The retrofit technology for reducing PCDD/F emissions from the existing Waelz plant was evaluated at the same time. Carbon-type adsorbent injection technology was adopted in early 2006 to reduce the emission of dioxin-like compounds at the Waelz plant investigated. Flue gases and ambient air samplings were conducted during the two stages of retrofit to evaluate the removal efficiency of dioxin-like compounds at the Waelz plant investigated. At stage 1, by applying adsorbent injection + single baghouse filter (SBF), the PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations measured in the stack gas at the Waelz plant were 4.62 ng-TEQ/(N m3) and 0.08 ng-TEQ(WHO)/(N m3) (TEQ(WHO) = World Health Organization TEQ), respectively, as the adsorbent injection rate was controlled at 40 kg/h (or 540 mg/ (N m3)). At stage 2, the PCDD/F and PCB concentration measured at stack gas, achieved with adsorbent injection + dual baghouse filter (DBF) system, were further reduced to 0.235 + 0.04 ng-I-TEQ/(N m3) (I-TEQ = International TEQ) and 0.004 + 0.002 ng-TEQ(WHO)/(N m3) with the adsorbent injection rate at 16 kg/h (or 215 mg/(N m3)). In the meantime, the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations measured in the vicinity area of the Waelz plant were greatly reduced from 568-1465 to 48.9-130 fg-I-TEQ/m3. Higher removal efficiency (>99.8%) achieved at a lower adsorbent injection rate (16 kg/h) of the adsorbent injection + DBF system also significantly reduced the total PCDD/-F and PCB emission flows (per kg of

  10. A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong; Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang

    2002-07-01

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

  11. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  12. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  13. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  14. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  15. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  16. Updated Design of the Italian SuperB Factory Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Guiducci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Chance, A.; Brossard, J.; Dadoun, O.; Lepercq, P.; Rimbault, C.; Variola, A.; Seeman, J.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfill the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electrons and positrons in both High Energy Ring (HER) and Low Energy Ring (LER) is necessary to keep the average luminosity at a high level. An updated version of the injection system, optimized at higher repetition frequency is presented. This scheme includes a polarized electron gun, a positron production scheme with electron/positron conversion at low energy 0.6 GeV, and a 1 GeV damping ring to reduce the injected emittance of the positron beam.

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving. PMID:14727304

  19. Future Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation discusses: AvSTAR Future System Effort Critically important; Investment in the future; Need to follow a systems engineering process; and Efforts need to be worked in worldwide context

  20. An automated injection system for sub-micron sized channels used in shear-driven-chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Malsche, Wim; Clicq, David; Eghbali, Hamed; Fekete, Veronika; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes a method to automatically and reproducibly inject sharply delimited sample plugs in the shallow (i.e., sub-micron) channels typically used in shear driven chromatography. The formation of asymmetric plugs, which typically occurs during loading of the sample in wide channels, is circumvented by etching a slit in the middle of the channel that is connected to a micro-well and a vacuum system with syringes for the supply of both the analyte and the mobile phase. The design of the injection slit was supported by a series of CFD simulations to optimize its shape and that of the corresponding injection well. The system was intensively tested experimentally and showed good reproducibility, both for the width and the area of the injected peaks (relative standard deviations are max. 4 and 6%, respectively). The concentration of the injected plug was found to be approximately 80% of the original sample concentration. It was also observed that with the current setup the lower limit of the peak width was about 120 microm. This is a consequence of the fact that the peak width originating from the convection filling step becomes negligible to the contribution of diffusion during the filling and flushing time. Being fully automated and perfectly closed, the presently proposed injection system also paves the way to integrate other functionalities in shear driven chromatography, i.e. gradient elution and parallelization. PMID:17102846

  1. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  2. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  3. PACTEL experiments for the investigation of passive safety injection systems of advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tuunanen, J.; Munther, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    1996-07-01

    An important aspect of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) decay heat removal concerns the plant response under Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. In ALWRs, e.g. Westinghouse AP600, pump driven Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) are replaced by passive safety injection systems, which are gravity driven. It is therefore important that in such accidents, the ALWR coolant system pressure can be controlled to allow gravity fed injection to take place. The safety issue here is whether undesirable system responses could occur in any circumstances. Additionally, it is necessary to prove that the plant always depressurizes sufficiently for the ECCS to operate efficiently. Two experimental series have been carried out with the PACTEL integral test facility on the simulation of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs in accidental conditions. The safety system investigated was a passive core make-up tank (CMT), which was connected to the downcomer of the test facility. This paper starts with a short description of the PACTEL test facility and a summary of the results of the passive safety injection tests on PACTEL. Also included is a summary of the results of the computer simulations of the tests. The second part of the paper consists of a description of the planned third passive safety injection test series and the results of the pre-test simulations of the planned tests.

  4. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  5. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  6. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  7. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine

  8. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine

  9. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  10. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  11. Hot metal runner system with air pollution controls

    SciTech Connect

    La Bate, M.D.

    1982-10-26

    A runner for hot metal as from a blast furnace is formed of a series of interconnected modular units which are prefabricated, preferably from refractory based materials. A plurality of flat slab-like covers are positioned continuously on the runners formed of the interconnected modular units so as to confine fumes , gas, smoke and other air pollutants. Live steam is introduced at selected locations along the runners to collect, absorb and mix with the fumes, gases and air pollutants. Vacuum devices in communication with the covered runners remove the air, steam and pollutants and direct them through scrubbers and/or precipitron equipment to remove the air pollutants before the air entrained in the system is released to the atmosphere.

  12. Pan Air Geometry Management System (PAGMS): A data-base management system for PAN AIR geometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    A data-base management system called PAGMS was developed to facilitate the data transfer in applications computer programs that create, modify, plot or otherwise manipulate PAN AIR type geometry data in preparation for input to the PAN AIR system of computer programs. PAGMS is composed of a series of FORTRAN callable subroutines which can be accessed directly from applications programs. Currently only a NOS version of PAGMS has been developed.

  13. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  14. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  15. Design, testing, and evaluation of a water injection grouting system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The necessity of grouting vertical ground heat exchanger boreholes is well established. The use of chip bentonite was investigated as an alternative to slurry grouting methods for backfilling geothermal bores. Grouting a geothermal bore with chip bentonite has many potential benefits if the bore can be completely grouted from bottom to top. High solids content grouts that are possible with chip bentonite could increase the thermal conductivity of the grout and make it less susceptible to performance reductions associated with drying of the grout. The lower price of chip bentonite compared to powder bentonite grouts would reduce the cost of grouting. Chip bentonites would also have an advantage over powder bentonite grouts by reducing the amount of dust created during the grouting process. The proposed grouting system would use water to transport chip bentonite through a tremie pipe into the bore. The properties of chip bentonite grouts were first examined by pouring chip bentonite into a standing column of water. Chip bentonite grouts had percent solids ranging from 50% to 60% and thermal conductivity from 0.46 to 0.52 Btu/hr ft F. Tests were also performed with a thermal additive mixed with the bentonite chips. Additives tested included pea rock, masonry sand, and crushed quartzite. The additive in the wet grout accumulated in pockets, creating possible avenues for hydraulic movement. Total percent solids of bentonite and additive mixtures ranged from 60% to 80%. Thermal conductivity results were varied, but generally increased with increasing percentages of additive. The feasibility of transporting bentonite chips with water through a tremie pipe was studied with two types of water injection systems. Both systems incorporated a pressurized solids tank to keep water from hydrating the chips prior to entering the water stream. A low pressure system was able to transfer pea rock successfully through a short length of tremie pipe. The use of bentonite chips caused

  16. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  17. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  18. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  19. Low emittance pre-injection system for Iranian Light Source Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghipanah, A.; Feghhi, A. H.; Rahighi, J.; Ghasem, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) pre-injection system. The optimized parameters of its components, the related beam dynamics issues and the expected performance of the designed system have been described with detail. This paper explains fabrication procedures of some main components and gives the low power microwave measurement results of the constructed RF electron gun. The outcome bunches at the end of the ILSF pre-injection system will have the normalized emittance of 6 mm mrad, length of 1.55 ps and energy spread of 0.06%.

  20. The advantages of fluoropolymer encapsulation of the lines installed with continuous downhole injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goodson, J. ); Fox, B. )

    1989-01-01

    Dealing with corrosion has evolved from the early days of {und rust and replace} and now corrosion is effectively controlled by continuous chemical injection systems. A critical component of all continuous injection systems is the line. The line serves the purpose of transporting the chemical inhibitor downhole to the packer. Protecting the line during installation as well as its service life requires use of an encapsulation material to ensure integrity of the line and, therefore effectiveness of the entire system. Design criteria for the line and properties or encapsulation materials, including ECTFE fluoropolymer are discussed.

  1. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  2. Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator and system

    DOEpatents

    Lucht, Robert P.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Anderson, Thomas N.; Bougher, Thomas L.

    2007-10-09

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) and systems are provided. The OPO has a non-linear optical material located between two optical elements where the product of the reflection coefficients of the optical elements are higher at the output wavelength than at either the pump or idler wavelength. The OPO output may be amplified using an additional optical parametric amplifier (OPA) stage.

  3. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  4. Establishment of urban air quality prediction system

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Jei Tsuang; Jime-Ming Huang

    1996-12-31

    By using the data of Taipei metropolitan and Taichung city, it was found that the concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} were strongly associated with wind speed, rain, surface layer stability and their initial concentrations. Among these factors, stability in the atmospheric surface layer was not fully addressed in traditional box model. A new box model formula was derived to include the stability parameter. After analysis of exchange/removal mechanisms operating in the PBL by using this new model, we find that the near ground pollutant concentration after reaching steady state is dose to q{sub 0}l/2ul{sub e} under stable, low wind speed and rainless day, where q{sub 0} is emission rate, 1 length of a city, u wind speed and l{sub e} stability scale length. Under calm wind speed in addition to the aforementioned conditions, the air quality became most deteriorated and close to q{sub 0}/V{sub d}, where V{sub d} is dry deposition rate. This formula works well in simulating PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} concentration of Pancho and Taichung city. In addition, this formula also can handle most of the deteriorated days.

  5. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  6. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  7. On the design of distributed air quality monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Alejandro; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, the air quality is considered a key point, and its monitoring is not only suggested but it is even required in many countries. Since traditional standard monitors for air quality are very expensive, the use of a low-cost distributed network of sensors represents a valid complementary approach. This paper discusses the benefits of a distributed approach and analyzes the main elements that should be taken into account during the design of a distributed system for the air quality monitoring. This paper aims at representing a valuable aid for researchers and practitioners interested in the topic.

  8. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  9. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  10. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  11. Monoclonal antibody imaging of human melanoma. Radioimmunodetection by subcutaneous or systemic injection.

    PubMed Central

    Lotze, M T; Carrasquillo, J A; Weinstein, J N; Bryant, G J; Perentesis, P; Reynolds, J C; Matis, L A; Eger, R R; Keenan, A M; Hellström, I

    1986-01-01

    Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to melanoma, radiolabeled with 131I, were evaluated as diagnostic reagents to determine their ability to localize systemic--MoAb injected intravenously (IV)--or nodal metastatic disease--injected subcutaneously (SQ) at a site proximal to draining lymph nodes. Sixty-one scans were performed (40 IV, 21 SQ) in 59 patients who had injections of 0.2-50 mg of 131I coupled (0.2-12 mCi) antibody. These included 48.7, which identifies a high molecular weight antigen (HMW), or 96.5, which identifies a transferrin like molecule, p97. 125I coupled nonspecific Fab 1.4, reacting with murine leukemia virus, or the whole antibody BL3, reactive with a human B cell idiotypic determinant, was generally used in tandem with the patients injected SQ as a nonspecific control. All patients had immunohistochemical studies performed on biopsied lesions and demonstrated binding to the antibodies injected. Of the IV patients, 22/38 (58%) had (+) scans, 13 at SQ or nodal sites, four at visceral sites, and five at visceral and SQ sites. Patients with clinical stage II disease had SQ injection of MoAb, including 11 additional patients injected with the whole antibody 9.2.27 (anti-HMW) labeled with 111In (6 patients) or 131I (5 patients). Nodal dissection was performed 2-4 days later. All 111In coupled antibodies demonstrated excellent nodal delineation without specific identification of tumor deposits. Of the 21 patients injected SQ with MoAb, 17 had confirmed tumor in nodes. Of patients injected with Fab fragments, 4/8 (50%) had specific uptake of MoAb, although only two were successfully imaged. Increased uptake of antimelanoma antibodies was observed in some patients in lymph nodes not containing tumor and was possibly related to antigen shedding. Clearance of labeled antibody from the injection site occurred with a half life of 16-50 hours. Toxicity was limited to local discomfort at the site of SQ injection. Melanoma metastases can be identified

  12. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  13. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  14. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak. PMID:22852685

  15. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  16. Inhaling one hundred percent oxygen eliminates the systemic arterial hypoxemic response of broilers to intravenous microparticle injections.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, A G; Wideman, R F

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) includes the development of systemic arterial hypoxemia (reduction in the saturation of hemoglobin with O(2), HbO(2)), which can be mimicked in clinically healthy broilers by i.v. injections of microparticles (MP). In experiment 1, arterial blood samples were collected from clinically healthy broilers before and after i.v. MP injections, and during a subsequent 100% O(2) inhalation period. The arterial samples were analyzed for HbO(2), partial pressure of O(2) and CO(2), and pH using a blood gas analyzer. In experiment 2, broilers that initially averaged > or =75% HbO(2) were assigned to a "high O(2)" group, whereas those that initially averaged < 75% HbO(2) were assigned to a "low O(2)" group. The HbO(2) and heart rate (HR) were measured using a pulse oximeter before, during, and after broilers in both groups inhaled 100% O(2). In experiment 3, HbO(2) and HR were measured using a pulse oximeter before, during, and after broilers inhaled 100% O(2), after i.v. MP injections, and during a second period of 100% O(2) inhalation. The HbO(2) rapidly decreased after i.v. MP injections, and subsequently providing 100% O(2) to breathe increased the HbO(2) above preinjection control levels in experiments 1 and 3. In experiment 2, inhaling 100% oxygen eliminated the initial spontaneous differences in HbO(2) between the high O(2) and low O(2) groups, whereas the return to breathing ambient air restored the initial group differences in HbO(2). These experiments indicate that MP-induced and spontaneous hypoxemia can be attributed to a diffusion limitation rather than to arterial-venous shunts, because the hypoxemia resulting from arterial-venous shunts cannot be wholly eliminated by providing 100% O(2) to inhale. PMID:18079464

  17. One-man electrochemical air revitalization system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schbert, F. H.; Marshall, R. D.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A program to evaluate the performance of a one man capacity, self contained electrochemical air revitalization system was successfully completed. The technology readiness of this concept was demonstrated by characterizing the performance of this one man system over wide ranges in cabin atmospheric conditions. The electrochemical air revitalization system consists of a water vapor electrolysis module to generate oxygen from water vapor in the cabin air, and an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air. A control/monitor instrumentation package that uses the electrochemical depolarized concentrator module power generated to partially offset the water vapor electrolysis module power requirements and various structural fluid routing components are also part of the system. The system was designed to meet the one man metabolic oxygen generation and carbon dioxide removal requirements, thereby controlling cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kN/sq m and cabin pressure of carbon dioxide at 400 N/sq m over a wide range in cabin air relative humidity conditions.

  18. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air...

  19. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related toCO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of coupled hydrological and geomechanical processes during a deep underground injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} in a hypothetical brine aquifer. We consider a multilayer system in which the injection zone is situated below a sequence of caprock and aquifer layers that are intersected by a vertical fault zone. The fault zone consists of highly fractured shale across the first caprock layers that are located just above the injection zone. Initially, the fractured shale zones are considered sealed with minerals, but we allow fractures (and the fractured zones) to open as a result of injection induced reductions in effective stresses. Our results indicate that even when assuming a very sensitive relationship between effective stress and fractured-zone permeability, the injection-induced changes in permeability across are only moderate with largest changes occurring in the first caprock layer, just above the injection zone. As a result, the upward leakage rate remains relatively small and therefore changes in fluid pressure and hydromechanical effects in overlying zones are also relatively small for the case studied in this paper.

  20. Impact of injection system design on ISCO performance with permanganate — mathematical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Ki Young; Borden, Robert C.

    2012-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using permanganate (MnO 4-) can be a very effective technique for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. However, many ISCO projects are less effective than desired because of poor delivery of the chemical reagents to the treatment zone. In this work, the numerical model RT3D was modified and applied to evaluate the effect of aquifer characteristics and injection system design on contact and treatment efficiency. MnO 4- consumption was simulated assuming the natural oxidant demand (NOD) is composed of a fraction that reacts instantaneously and a fraction that slowly reacts following a 2nd order relationship where NOD consumption rate increases with increasing MnO 4- concentration. MnO 4- consumption by the contaminant was simulated as an instantaneous reaction. Simulation results indicate that the mass of permanganate and volume of water injected has the greatest impact on aquifer contact efficiency and contaminant treatment efficiency. Several small injection events are not expected to increase contact efficiency compared to a single large injection event, and can increase the amount of un-reacted MnO 4- released down-gradient. High groundwater flow velocities can increase the fraction of aquifer contacted. Initial contaminant concentration and contaminant retardation factor have only a minor impact on volume contact efficiency. Aquifer heterogeneity can have both positive and negative impacts on remediation system performance, depending on the injection system design.

  1. Modeling of geomechanical proceses during injection in amultilayered reservoir-caprock system and implications on sitecharacterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present results of a numerical simulationof the potential for fault reactivation and hydraulic fracturingassociated with CO2 injection in a multilayered reservoir-caprock system,and discuss its implications on site characterization. The numericalsimulation is performed using the coupled processes simulator TOUGH-FLAC(Rutqvist et al. 2002, Rutqvist and Tsang, 2003), and is an extension ofearlier numerical studies of a single caprock system (Rutqvist and Tsang,2002). In this study, CO2 is injected for 30 years in a 200 meter thickpermeable saline water formation located at 1600 meters depth (Figure 1).The injection formation is overlaid by several layers of caprocks, whichare intersected by a permeable fault zone allowing upward migration ofthe CO2 within the multilayered system (see Table 1 for materialproperties). The potential for fault slip or fracturing are calculated,based on the time-dependent evolution and local distribution of fluidpressure and the three-dimensional stress field, including importantporo-elastic stresses.The numerical results are discussed with respect tothe site-characterization strategy that would be recommended forevaluation of maximum sustainable injection pressure at an industrial CO2injection site.

  2. Timing system for neutral beam injection on the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bramson, G.

    1991-11-01

    Eight neutral beam (NB) long pulse sources mounted on four beamlines are in use on the D3-D tokamak, a magnetic confinement fusion experiment at General Atomics. The main purpose of NB injection is to heat the bulk plasma with high energy injected neutral particles which undergo ionizing collisions with plasma ions and electrons. NB injection is also used as a diagnostic tool for charge exchange recombination spectrometry to determine ion temperatures and rotation velocities and for neutral particle exchange spectrometry to determine spatial distributions of beam ions. This paper describes recent modifications to the D3-D central timing system hardware and software to allow more flexible and complex timing waveforms than previously available to control NB injection. In the past, for each plasma discharge, the start time and the pulse duration for each NB source could be set. The new NB timing system allows the experimental session leader to specify more than one pulse for each NB source to make efficient use of multiple physics experiments in a single discharge. Also, pulse trains with programmable duty cycles can be independently specified for each NB source to make NB injection a more useful diagnostic tool. Experimental results using features of the new NB timing system are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Optimization of parameters for the inline-injection system at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.; Ko, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    We present some of our parameter optimization results utilizing code PARMLEA, for the ATF Inline-Injection System. The new solenoid-Gun-Solenoid -- Drift-Linac Scheme would improve the beam quality needed for FEL and other experiments at ATF as compared to the beam quality of the original design injection system. To optimize the gain in the beam quality we have considered various parameters including the accelerating field gradient on the photoathode, the Solenoid field strengths, separation between the gun and entrance to the linac as well as the (type size) initial charge distributions. The effect of the changes in the parameters on the beam emittance is also given.

  4. Mechanism and Performance of CO2 Snow Jet in Co-Axial Type Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi-Jun; Wang, Muh-Rong

    This paper describes the characteristics of CO2 snow formation with co-axial type injection systems. The injection of CO2 snow flow is controlled by a co-axial type nitrogen auxiliary nozzle. Five cases of co-axial nitrogen nozzle with different diameters and injection types of auxiliary nitrogen are presented. Flow field visualization and spray characteristics are performed by the particle image velocimetry (PIV). Result shows that the CO2 snow particles would collide with each other and generate lager particles in the recirculation zone of the formation chamber. Results also show that the particle size distribution is influenced by the geometry of the injection device. The length of the formation chamber influence the region and strength of recirculation flow. In the region after reattach zone of recirculation flow, the fine particles deposit on the chamber wall and form a deposition layer. The particles in the main stream further impinge onto the deposition layer and result in the snowballs. It turns out that the mean particle size becomes larger as the length of chamber is increased. Results also show that CO2 snow jet has higher velocity and the flow-focusing takes place with nitrogen auxiliary gas. Furthermore, the mist layer of the jet flow caused by lower temperature of CO2 snow is eliminated when co-axial nitrogen flow is injected. The velocity of CO2 snow jet is increased under higher injection pressure of co-axial nitrogen flow. Furthermore, smaller diameter of nitrogen auxiliary nozzle results in higher injection velocity of CO2 snow jet. Hence the injection power of the CO2 snow jet can be controlled by the design of the nitrogen auxiliary nozzle. It will be useful in the medical applications of cryotherapy treatment and the dry cleaning of the semiconductor and solar cell manufacturing processes.

  5. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  6. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of

  7. Comprehensive characterizations of nanoparticle biodistribution following systemic injection in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Li, Hui-Jing; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tang, Alan C. L.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2013-10-01

    Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological conditions improved large NP (200-500 nm) distribution in brain tissue. These results reveal the importance of selecting analytic tools and physiological environment when characterizing NP biodistribution for future nanoscale toxicology, therapeutics and diagnostics.Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological

  8. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  9. Comprehensive characterizations of nanoparticle biodistribution following systemic injection in mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Li, Hui-Jing; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tang, Alan C L; Hoffman, Allan S; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2013-11-21

    Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological conditions improved large NP (200-500 nm) distribution in brain tissue. These results reveal the importance of selecting analytic tools and physiological environment when characterizing NP biodistribution for future nanoscale toxicology, therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:24072256

  10. Monoclonal antibody imaging of human melanoma. Radioimmunodetection by subcutaneous or systemic injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze, M.T.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Weinstein, J.N.; Bryant, G.J.; Perentesis, P.; Reynolds, J.C.; Matis, L.A.; Eger, R.R.; Keenan, A.M.; Hellstroem, Ie.

    1986-09-01

    Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to melanoma, radiolabeled with /sup 131/I, were evaluated as diagnostic reagents to determine their ability to localize systemic--MoAb injected intravenously (IV)--or nodal metastatic disease--injected subcutaneously (SQ) at a site proximal to draining lymph nodes. Sixty-one scans were performed (40 IV, 21 SQ) in 59 patients who had injections of 0.2-50 mg of /sup 131/I coupled (0.2-12 mCi) antibody. These included 48.7, which identifies a high molecular weight antigen (HMW), or 96.5, which identifies a transferrin like molecule, p97. 125I coupled nonspecific Fab 1.4, reacting with murine leukemia virus, or the whole antibody BL3, reactive with a human B cell idiotypic determinant, was generally used in tandem with the patients injected SQ as a nonspecific control. All patients had immunohistochemical studies performed and demonstrated binding to the antibodies injected. Of the IV patients, 22/38 (58%) had (+) scans, 13 at SQ or nodal sites, four at visceral sites, and five at visceral and SQ sites. Patients with clinical stage II disease had SQ injection of MoAb, including 11 additional patients injected with the whole antibody 9.2.27 (anti-HMW) labeled with 111In (6 patients) or /sup 131/I (5 patients). Nodal dissection was performed 2-4 days later. All 111In coupled antibodies demonstrated excellent nodal delineation without specific identification of tumor deposits. Of the 21 patients injected SQ with MoAb, 17 had confirmed tumor in nodes. Of patients injected with Fab fragments, 50% had specific uptake of MoAb, although only two were successfully imaged. Increased uptake of antimelanoma antibodies was observed in some patients in lymph nodes not containing tumor. Clearance of labeled antibody from the injection site occurred with a half life of 16-50 hours. Toxicity was limited to local discomfort at the site of SQ injection.

  11. Utilizing air purge to reduce water contamination of lube systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lubrication systems are exposed to contaminants including dirt, process dilutants and water. Water contamination of lubricating oil is commonly experienced by users of machinery such as steam and gas turbines, compressors, pumps, motors, generators and others. Poorly designed or maintained turbomachinery features such as bearing housing seals and shaft packing do not prevent moisture laden air, the primary source of water, from entering the lube system. This paper presents a case history where a mechanical drive steam turbine and boiler feed pump was experiencing severe water contamination of the lube system. Bearing and control system component failures resulted from water induced corrosion. Various systems and approaches for dealing with this contamination are reviewed. Installation of a very simple and cost effective system using low pressure air applied directly to the bearing housing oil seals proved a most effective method for eliminating measurable water contamination of the lubrication system and can be applied to machinery of all types.

  12. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  13. Stability limit of room air temperature of a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kamimura, Kazuyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Kimbara, Akiomi; Kurosu, Shigeru; Murasawa, Itaru; Hashimoto, Yukihiko

    1998-12-31

    To control heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, it has been necessary to accept an analog system controlled mainly by proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) action. However, when conventional PID controllers are replaced with new digital controllers by selecting the same PID parameters as before, the control loops have often got into hunting phenomena, which result in undamped oscillations. Unstable control characteristics (such as huntings) are thought to be one of the crucial problems faced by field operators. The PID parameters must be carefully selected to avoid instabilities. In this study, a room space is simulated as a thermal system that is air-conditioned by a variable-air-volume (VAV) control system. A dynamic room model without infiltration or exfiltration, which is directly connected to a simple air-handling unit without an economizer, is developed. To explore the possible existence of huntings, a numerical system model is formulated as a bilinear system with time-delayed feedback, and a parametric analysis of the stability limit is presented. Results are given showing the stability region affected by the selection of control and system parameters. This analysis was conducted to help us tune the PID controllers for optimal HVAC control.

  14. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  15. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  16. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  17. Innovative coal gasification system with high temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, K.; Katsushima, H.; Kasahara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, R.; Ootsuka, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper proposes innovative coal gasification power generation systems where coal is gasified with high temperature air of about 1300K produced by gasified coal fuel gas. The main features of these systems are high thermal efficiency, low NO{sub x} emission, compact desulfurization and dust removal equipment and high efficiency molten slag removal with a very compact gasifier. Recent experimental results on the pebble bed coal gasifier appropriate for high temperature air coal gasification are reported, where 97.7% of coal ash is successfully caught in the pebble bed and extracted without clogging. A new concept of high temperature air preheating system is proposed which is characterized by its high reliability and low cost.

  18. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  19. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  20. Evaluation of an Optimized Injection System for Retinal Gene Therapy in Human Patients.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik; Hickey, Doron G; Singh, Mandeep S; MacLaren, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    Many retinal gene therapy clinical trials require subretinal injections of small volumes of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector solutions in patients with retinal dystrophies, using equipment not specifically designed for this purpose. We therefore evaluated an optimized injection system in order to identify variables that might influence the rate of injection and final dose of vector delivered. An optimized injection system was assembled with a 41G polytetrafluoroethylene tip for retinal gene therapy. Flow rate was recorded at relevant infusion pressures (2-22 psi [14-152 kPa]), different target pressures (0.02-30 mm Hg [0.003-4 kPa]) and temperatures (18°C vs. 36°C) using a semiautomated Accurus(®) Surgical System. Retention of AAV2/8 and AAV2/8(Y733F) vector was quantified after simulating loading/injection with or without 0.001% Pluronic(®) F-68 (PF-68). The optimized injection system provided a linear flow rate (μl/s)-to-infusion pressure (psi) relationship (y = 0.62x; r(2) = 0.99), independent of temperature and pressure changes relevant for intraocular surgery (18-36°C, 0.02-30 mm Hg). Differences in length of 41G polytetrafluoroethylene tips caused significant variation in flow rate (p < 0.001). Use of PF-68 significantly (p < 0.001) reduced loss of vector genomes in the injection system by 55% (AAV2/8) and 52% (AAV2/8(Y733F)). A customized subretinal injection system assembled using equipment currently available in the operating room can deliver a controlled volume of vector at a fixed rate across a range of possible clinical parameters encountered in vitreoretinal surgery. The inclusion of 0.001% PF-68 had a significant effect on the final dose of vector genomes delivered. The described technique is currently used successfully in a clinical trial. PMID:27480111

  1. A Well-Controlled Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture System with Injection Port for Evaluating Regenerative Therapies.

    PubMed

    Arkesteijn, Irene T M; Mouser, Vivian H M; Mwale, Fackson; van Dijk, Bart G M; Ito, Keita

    2016-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue regeneration would be useful, but current systems for NP culture are not ideal for injections. The aim of this study was to develop a long-term culture system for NP tissue that allows injections of regenerative agents. Bovine caudal NPs were harvested and placed in the newly designed culture system. After equilibration of the tissue to 0.3 MPa the volume was fixed and the tissue was cultured for 28 days. The cell viability and extracellular matrix composition remained unchanged during the culture period and gene expression profiles were similar to those obtained in earlier studies. Furthermore, to test the responsiveness of bovine caudal NPs in the system, samples were cultured for 4 days and injected twice (day 1 and 3) with (1) PBS, (2) Link-N, for regeneration, and (3) TNF-α, for degeneration. It was shown that TNF-α increased COX2 gene expression, whereas no effect of Link-N was detected. In conclusion, the newly designed system allows long-term culture of NP tissue, wherein tissue reactions to injected stimulants can be observed. PMID:26294008

  2. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  3. Fuel-Air Mixing Effect on Nox Emissions for a Lean Premixed-Prevaporized Combustion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Chun, Kue S.; Locke, Randy J.

    1995-01-01

    The lean premixed-prevaporized (LPP) concept effectively meets low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission requirements for combustors with the high inlet temperature and pressure typical of the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). For the LPP system fuel-air mixture uniformity is probably the most important factor for low NOx emissions. Previous studies have suggested that the fuel-air mixture uniformity can be severely affected by changing the number and configuration of fuel injection points. Therefore, an experimental study was performed to determine how the number of fuel injection points and their arrangement affect NOx emissions from an LPP system. The NOx emissions were measured by a gas-sampling probe in a flame-tube rig at the following conditions: inlet temperature of 810 K (1000 F), rig pressure of 10 atm, reference velocity of 150 ft/s, and residence time near 0.005 s. Additionally, a focused Schlieren diagnostic technique coupled with a high speed camera was used to provide a qualitative description of the spatial flow field.

  4. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  5. Feasibility of Injection/Extraction Systems for Muon FFAG Rings in the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J.; Aslaninejad, M.; Kelliher, D.; Machida, S.

    2010-12-01

    Non-scaling FFAG rings have been proposed for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory. In order to achieve small orbit excursion and small time of flight variation, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry places very challenging constraints on the injection/extraction systems. The feasibility of injection/extraction is discussed and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. The injection and extraction systems in the nonscaling FFAG for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory were studied in the ring based on FODO lattice. The vertical direction was found to be preferential for both injection and extraction, which allows for lower kicker strengths and facilitates the distribution of kickers due to a lower phase advance per cell in comparison with the horizontal plane. It is possible to design mirror-symmetric schemes in which the kickers can be reused for both signs of muons. The disadvantage of these solutions is a need for special magnets with large aperture in the injection/extraction region due to the large kicked beam oscillations. The strengths of the required kickers are still very challenging and the fields in the septum magnets dictates the need for a superconducting design.

  6. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  7. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  8. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  9. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  10. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  11. Elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pimao; Zhang, Youtong; Li, Tieshuan; Xie, Lizhe

    2015-03-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73% at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92% at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  12. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  13. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  14. Simulation of the secondary air system of aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, K. J.; Speer, T. M.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a computer program for the simulation of secondary air systems. Typical flow system elements are presented, such as restrictors, tappings, seals, vortices, and coverplates. Two-phase flow as occurring in bearing chamber vent systems is briefly discussed. An algorithm is described for the solution of the resulting nonlinear equations. The validity of the simulation over the engine operation envelope is demonstrated by a comparison with test results.

  15. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  16. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  17. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  18. Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser System Configured for Picosecond Scale Advanced Radiographic Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-23

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  19. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-12-01

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  20. Sterilization of slide sheath anesthetic injection systems placed within sharps containers.

    PubMed

    Palenik, C J; Burke, F J; Bose, M; Altweis, M L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that two steam autoclaves and an unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizer had on killing bacterial endospores present on commercial spore strips or applied to sterile anesthetic injection systems placed within sharps containers. Three types of sterilizers were used: a gravity steam autoclave, a high vacuum steam autoclave and an unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizer. The microbial challenge for the sterilizers were Bacillus stearothermophilus spores present on commercial spore strips or drawn into and applied onto sliding sheath anesthetic injection systems with anesthetic carpules attached. Spore-soiled items were placed into the middle of sharps containers three-quarters-filled with representative clinical waste and sterilized. If, after culturing, sterilization of all test items in a group was not achieved, additional sterilization time was applied. Spore strips were killed within a single cycle of each sterilizer. Spore-soiled injection systems and carpules could not be routinely sterilized in the gravity steam autoclave or unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizers, even after three consecutive sterilization cycles. These items, however, were sterilized by exposure to a single-treatment cycle in a high-vacuum steam autoclave. Results indicate that routine sterilization of spore contaminated anesthetic carpules or injection systems could not be accomplished in a reasonable amount of time using sterilizers commonly found in dental offices. PMID:9517339

  1. [Martin high pressure common rail diesel engine injection system]. Technical progress report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    We have a contract with Diesel Recerche of Trieste, Italy, and the Fincantier Group in Italy. They are naval ship builders. Our contract is to work with Diesel Recerche to design the `Martin` fuel injection system for their first test engine for a naval ship. Tiby Martin has been working in the design and detailed layout of the application drawings for Diesel Recerche.

  2. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  3. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  4. Liquid and gelled sprays for mixing hypergolic propellants using an impinging jet injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mark D.

    The characteristics of sprays produced by liquid rocket injectors are important in understanding rocket engine ignition and performance. The includes, but is not limited to, drop size distribution, spray density, drop velocity, oscillations in the spray, uniformity of mixing between propellants, and the spatial distribution of drops. Hypergolic ignition and the associated ignition delay times are also important features in rocket engines, providing high reliability and simplicity of the ignition event. The ignition delay time is closely related to the level and speed of mixing between a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer, which makes the injection method and conditions crucial in determining the ignition performance. Although mixing and ignition of liquid hypergolic propellants has been studied for many years, the processes for injection, mixing, and ignition of gelled hypergolic propellants are less understood. Gelled propellants are currently under investigation for use in rocket injectors to combine the advantages of solid and liquid propellants, although not without their own difficulties. A review of hypergolic ignition has been conducted for selected propellants, and methods for achieving ignition have been established. This research is focused on ignition using the liquid drop-on-drop method, as well as the doublet impinging jet injector. The events leading up to ignition, known as pre-ignition stage are discussed. An understanding of desirable ignition and combustion performance requires a study of the effects of injection, temperature, and ambient pressure conditions. A review of unlike-doublet impinging jet injection mixing has also been conducted. This includes mixing factors in reactive and non-reactive sprays. Important mixing factors include jet momentum, jet diameter and length, impingement angle, mass distribution, and injector configuration. An impinging jet injection system is presented using an electro-mechanically driven piston for injecting liquid

  5. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  6. Merging Air Quality and Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Bales, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    The New Mexico Air Quality Mapper (NMAQM) is a Web-based, open source GIS prototype application that Earth Data Analysis Center is developing under a NASA Cooperative Agreement. NMAQM enhances and extends existing data and imagery delivery systems with an existing Public Health system called the Rapid Syndrome Validation Project (RSVP). RSVP is a decision support system operating in several medical and public health arenas. It is evolving to ingest remote sensing data as input to provide early warning of human health threats, especially those related to anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and airborne pathogens. The NMAQM project applies measurements of these atmospheric pollutants, derived from both remotely sensed data as well as from in-situ air quality networks, to both forecasting and retrospective analyses that influence human respiratory health. NMAQM provides a user-friendly interface for visualizing and interpreting environmentally-linked epidemiological phenomena. The results, and the systems made to provide the information, will be applicable not only to decision-makers in the public health realm, but also to air quality organizations, demographers, community planners, and other professionals in information technology, and social and engineering sciences. As an accessible and interactive mapping and analysis application, it allows environment and health personnel to study historic data for hypothesis generation and trend analysis, and then, potentially, to predict air quality conditions from daily data acquisitions. Additional spin off benefits to such users include the identification of gaps in the distribution of in-situ monitoring stations, the dissemination of air quality data to the public, and the discrimination of local vs. more regional sources of air pollutants that may bear on decisions relating to public health and public policy.

  7. Development of bioactive and biodegradable chitosan-based injectable systems containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniela S; Hong, Zhongkui; Mano, João F

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of new tissue engineering strategies to deliver cells and bioactive agents encapsulated in a biodegradable matrix through minimally invasive procedures. The present work proposes to combine chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate salt formulations with bioactive glass nanoparticles in order to conceive novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogels for orthopaedic reconstructive and regenerative medicine applications. The initial rheological properties and the gelation points of the developed organic-inorganic in situ thermosetting systems were revealed to be adequate for intracorporal injection. In vitro bioactivity tests, using incubation protocols in simulated body fluid (SBF), allowed the observation of bone-like apatite formation in the hydrogel formulations containing bioactive nanoparticles. The density of the apatite formed increased with increasing bioactive glass content and soaking time in SBF. These results indicate that the stimuli-responsive hydrogels could potentially be used as temporary injectable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18835230

  8. Intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF and diagnosis of primary intraocular central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gambrelle, J; Missotten, G; Delhoum, S; Desjardins, L

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of primary intraocular central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma in a patient previously treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). An 88-year-old woman, with past medical history significant for bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections for 1 year, was referred to our department for bilateral vitritis diagnosed 10 days after the last anti-VEGF injection. A complete uveitis work-up including aqueous humour analysis, brain MRI and vitreous biopsy enabled us to confirm the diagnosis of primary intraocular CNS lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the diagnosis of primary intraocular CNS lymphoma in a patient treated with anti-VEGF for AMD. The differential diagnosis of vitritis in elderly patients is relatively broad. Endophthalmitis and uveitis have been described after anti-VEGF injections. In such a situation, there is actually a risk of missing the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma in the mistaken belief that the observed vitritis may be a reaction to administered anti-VEGFs. If no direct time-relationship with the anti-VEGF injections can be found, a classic vitritis work-up should be performed. Our observation suggests that ranibizumab, at the dosage used for AMD, does not impede the spread of CNS lymphoma in the eye nor interfere with cytological diagnosis. PMID:23306179

  9. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOEpatents

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  11. Air Revitalization System Enables Excursions to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Paragon Space Development Corporation, based in Tucson, Arizona has had a long history of collaboration with NASA, including developing a modular air purification system under the Commercial Crew Development Program, designed to support the commercial space sector. Using that device and other NASA technology, startup company World View is now gearing up to take customers on helium balloon rides to the stratosphere.

  12. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  13. Compressed air system upgrade results in substantial energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights a compressed air system upgrade at BWX Technologies manufacturing plant in Lynchburg, Virginia, which replaced antiquated compressors and dryers and implemented an improved control strategy, resulting in improved energy efficiency and savings in energy and maintenance costs.

  14. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  15. 15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM USED IN BERYLLIUM PRODUCTION. (3/30/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  20. APPCD - INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS)COST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language which is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It was developed over the past several years...