Science.gov

Sample records for air inlet port

  1. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  2. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  3. 47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. Development and Characterization Testing of an Air Pulsation Valve for a Pulse Detonation Engine Supersonic Parametric Inlet Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornabene, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In pulse detonation engines, the potential exists for gas pulses from the combustor to travel upstream and adversely affect the inlet performance of the engine. In order to determine the effect of these high frequency pulses on the inlet performance, an air pulsation valve was developed to provide air pulses downstream of a supersonic parametric inlet test section. The purpose of this report is to document the design and characterization tests that were performed on a pulsation valve that was tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center 1x1 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) test facility. The high air flow pulsation valve design philosophy and analyses performed are discussed and characterization test results are presented. The pulsation valve model was devised based on the concept of using a free spinning ball valve driven from a variable speed electric motor to generate air flow pulses at preset frequencies. In order to deliver the proper flow rate, the flow port was contoured to maximize flow rate and minimize pressure drop. To obtain sharp pressure spikes the valve flow port was designed to be as narrow as possible to minimize port dwell time.

  5. The effect of inlet air vitiation on combustion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Zuomin, F.; Yijun, J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results of the effect of inlet air vitiation produced by a vitiating preheater on combustion efficiency of a turbojet combustor and a model ramjet combustor are presented in this paper. An empirical correlation and a calculation method based on stirred reactor theory are derived to correct the vitiation effect. Results obtained by means of these two methods are in good agreement with test data.

  6. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook...

  7. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook...

  8. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook...

  9. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook...

  10. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook...

  11. Environmental continuous air monitor inlet with combined preseparator and virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2007-06-19

    An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls. A plurality of receiver nozzles are located in the base of the manifold coaxial with the accelerator jets, and a plurality of matching flow restrictor elements are located in the plurality of receiver nozzles for balancing and equalizing the total minor flow among all the plurality of receiver nozzles, through which a lower, fractional flow extracts large particle constituents of the air for collection on a sample filter after passing through the plurality of receiver nozzles and the plurality of matching flow restrictor elements.

  12. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  13. Optimization of Simplex Atomizer Inlet Port Configuration through Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Study for Aero-Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marudhappan, Raja; Chandrasekhar, Udayagiri; Hemachandra Reddy, Koni

    2016-06-01

    The design of plain orifice simplex atomizer for use in the annular combustion system of 1100 kW turbo shaft engine is optimized. The discrete flow field of jet fuel inside the swirl chamber of the atomizer and up to 1.0 mm downstream of the atomizer exit are simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The Euler-Euler multiphase model is used to solve two sets of momentum equations for liquid and gaseous phases and the volume fraction of each phase is tracked throughout the computational domain. The atomizer design is optimized after performing several 2D axis symmetric analyses with swirl and the optimized inlet port design parameters are used for 3D simulation. The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used in the simulation. The orifice exit diameter is 0.6 mm. The atomizer is fabricated with the optimized geometric parameters. The performance of the atomizer is tested in the laboratory. The experimental observations are compared with the results obtained from 2D and 3D CFD simulations. The simulated velocity components, pressure field, streamlines and air core dynamics along the atomizer axis are compared to previous research works and found satisfactory. The work has led to a novel approach in the design of pressure swirl atomizer.

  14. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  15. 28. Main engine air pump located to port side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main engine air pump located to port side of main engine cylinder beside engine bed. Dynamo lies aft of air pump (at right), pipe at extreme left of image carries lake water to condenser valves. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  16. Assessment of ambient air quality in the port of Naples.

    PubMed

    Prati, Maria Vittoria; Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Quaranta, Franco; Murena, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Two experimental monitoring campaigns were carried out in 2012 to investigate the air quality in the port of Naples, the most important in southern Italy for traffic of passengers and one of the most important for goods. Therefore, it represents an important air pollution source located close to the city of Naples. The concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) in the air were measured at 15 points inside the Naples port area through the use of passive samplers. In addition, a mobile laboratory was positioned in a fixed point inside the port area to measure continuous concentration of pollutants together with particulate matter, ambient parameters, and wind direction and intensity. The pollution levels monitored were compared with those observed in the urban area of Naples and in other Mediterranean ports. Even though the observation time was limited, measured concentrations were also compared with limit values established by European legislation. All the measured pollutants were below the limits with the exception of nitrogen dioxide: its average concentration during the exposition time exceeded the yearly limit value. A spatial analysis of data, according to the measured wind direction and intensity, provided information about the effects that ship emissions have on ambient air quality in the port area. The main evidence indicates that ship emissions influence sulfur dioxide concentration more than any other pollutants analyzed. PMID:26029862

  17. Experimental study of a cylindrical air inlet designed on the basis of plane flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vnuchkov, D. A.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Nalivaichenko, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    Results of an experimental study of a cylindrical air inlet designed for high flight speeds on the basis of plane flows are reported. For an air inlet intended for Mach number M = 4, the flow-rate characteristics at M = 2.85, 3.83, and 4.95 for angles of attack ranging from 0 to 9 degrees have been measured. The results of tests have shown that at free-stream Mach number M = 3.83, close to the design Mach number, the mass rate of the air flow captured by the air inlet was 96 % of its design value, and this rate increased to 99 % as the Mach number was increased to 4.95. At a lower, in comparison with the design value, free-stream Mach number, M = 2.85, the mass rate of the air flow captured by the inlet installed under zero angle of attack has decreased to 68 %. For all the examined Mach numbers, an increase in the angle of attack from 0 to 9 degrees resulted in an 8-14 % decrease of the mass rate of inlet-captured air flow. For comparison, numerical calculation of the air-inlet flow at Mach number M = 3.83 was performed. The obtained data were found to be in a qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  18. Acceptance test report, inlet air filter and control station pressure decay leak test

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, J.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-11

    This is the acceptance test report for pressure decay leak tests performed on Tank Farm primary ventilation system inlet air filter and control stations, following their installation in the field and prior to acceptance for beneficial use.

  19. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  20. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  1. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  2. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  3. 46 CFR 116.433 - Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. 116... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.433 Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. (a) Windows or air ports must be of tempered or laminated glass of at least 6.5 millimeters (0.25 inches)...

  4. 46 CFR 116.433 - Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. 116... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.433 Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. (a) Windows or air ports must be of tempered or laminated glass of at least 6.5 millimeters (0.25 inches)...

  5. 46 CFR 116.433 - Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. 116... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.433 Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. (a) Windows or air ports must be of tempered or laminated glass of at least 6.5 millimeters (0.25 inches)...

  6. 46 CFR 116.433 - Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. 116... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.433 Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. (a) Windows or air ports must be of tempered or laminated glass of at least 6.5 millimeters (0.25 inches)...

  7. Effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas-turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen from a gas-turbine combustor. Combustor inlet-air temperature ranged from 450 F to 1050 F. The tests were run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NO sub x emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet-air humidity at a constant exponential rate of 19 percent per mass percent water vapor in the air. This decrease of NO sub x emission index with increasing humidity was found to be independent of inlet-air temperature.

  8. Unimpeded air velocity profiles of air-assisted five-port sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capability that relies on tree structure information to control liquid and air flow rates is the preferential design in the development of variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers. Unimpeded air jet velocities from an air assisted, five-port sprayer in an open field were measured at four height...

  9. Air velocity distributions from air-assisted five-port sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capability to control both liquid and air flow rates based on tree structures would be one of the advantages of future variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers. Air jet velocity distributions from an air assisted, five-port sprayer which was under the development to achieve variable-rate functions...

  10. Improving the performance of a compression ignition engine by directing flow of inlet air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemper, Carlton

    1946-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the results of tests performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effect on engine performance of directing the flow of the inlet air to a 5-inch by 7-inch cylinder, solid injection, compression ignition engine, After a few preliminary tests, comparative runs were made at a speed of 1500 r.p.m. with and without directed air flow. It was found that directing the flow of the inlet air toward the fuel injection valve gave steadier engine operation, and an appreciable increase in power, and decreased fuel consumption. The results indicate the possibility of improving the performance of a given type of combustion chamber without changing its shape and with no change in valve timing. They would also seem to prove that directional turbulence, set up before the inlet valve of a four-stroke cycle engine, continues in the engine cylinder throughout the compression stroke.

  11. Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air Temperature Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a Variable Inlet/Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air temperature a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a variable inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured temperature, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in temperature value using at least one temperature measurement and prior temperature measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air temperature value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle, determining an air temperature at the vehicle from prior air temperature measurements, determining a change in temperature value using the air temperature at the vehicle and the at least one air temperature measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in temperature value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow temperature changes within the inlet.

  12. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter, was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces.

  13. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22910

  14. Influence of the inlet air in efficiency of photocatalytic devices for mineralization of VOCs in air-conditioning installations.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, a large proportion of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) devices are being implemented in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. However, no systematic studies have been carried out regarding the influence of inlet air preconditioning. To analyse the impact of the inlet air-conditions into photocatalytic efficiency, a simulated air-conditioning duct with flowing gas through inside was designed. Isobutylene was chosen as the target VOCs. The concentration in the gas phase was monitored using a photoionization detector. The influence of flow rate, relative humidity and temperature on the VOC removal efficiency was analysed. Experimental results were presented in terms of gas-removal efficiency (η) and clean air delivery rate (CADR) and analysed on a kinetic basis. From them, the weight of each parameter in the global process has been determined, from bigger to smaller contribution, flow>temperature>relative humidity. Also, the relevance of the inlet air conditions has been illustrated in a model room in order to determinate the time necessary to obtain a threshold value accomplishing with enough air quality and the energy consumption of the device. Additionally, the photocatalytic decontamination has been assimilated to the "air exchange rate", a parameter commonly used in indoor air quality studies. The results show that preconditioning of air can improve the efficiency of photocatalytic devices and bring important energy savings.

  15. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-12-01

    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.

  16. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniak, Z. I.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-12-01

    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20 percent cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20 percent more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5 percent when compared to larger gas turbines.

  17. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  18. Operational test report for 241-AW tank inlet air control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Minteer, D.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    This document reports the results of operational testing on tank inlet air control stations in 241-AW tank farm. An air control station was installed on each of the six AW tanks. Operational testing consisted of a simple functional test of each station`s air flow controller, aerosol testing of each station`s HEPA filter, and final ventilation system balancing (i.e., tank airflows and vacuum level) using the air control stations. The test was successful and the units were subsequently placed into operation.

  19. Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.0

    1987-09-10

    Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point requirement, because of the build-up of vegetative fibers in the cyclone type separator. Therefore, we developed a new PM-10 inlet (patent applied for) to meet our needs, and especially one that is adaptable to our existing 60 surveillance air samplers at minimum cost. The inlet utilizes a modified slotted impactor design. This device is directly adaptable to existing EPA high-volume samplers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Role of Design-of-Experiments in Managing Flow in Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Gridley, Marvin C.; Agrell, Johan

    2003-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate the viability and economy of Design-of-Experiments methodologies to arrive at microscale secondary flow control array designs that maintain optimal inlet performance over a wide range of the mission variables and to explore how these statistical methods provide a better understanding of the management of flow in compact air vehicle inlets. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the robustness properties of low unit strength micro-effector arrays. Low unit strength micro-effectors are micro-vanes set at very low angles-of-incidence with very long chord lengths. They were designed to influence the near wall inlet flow over an extended streamwise distance, and their advantage lies in low total pressure loss and high effectiveness in managing engine face distortion. The term robustness is used in this paper in the same sense as it is used in the industrial problem solving community. It refers to minimizing the effects of the hard-to-control factors that influence the development of a product or process. In Robustness Engineering, the effects of the hard-to-control factors are often called noise , and the hard-to-control factors themselves are referred to as the environmental variables or sometimes as the Taguchi noise variables. Hence Robust Optimization refers to minimizing the effects of the environmental or noise variables on the development (design) of a product or process. In the management of flow in compact inlets, the environmental or noise variables can be identified with the mission variables. Therefore this paper formulates a statistical design methodology that minimizes the impact of variations in the mission variables on inlet performance and demonstrates that these statistical design concepts can lead to simpler inlet flow management systems.

  1. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings on a Streamline Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V

    1951-01-01

    In connection with the general problem of providing air flow to an aircraft power plant located within a fuselage, an investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the effect on external drag and pressure distribution of air inlet openings located at the nose of a streamline body. Air outlet openings located at the tail and at the 21-percent and 63-percent stations of the body were also investigated. Boundary layer transition measurements were made and correlated with the force and the pressure data. Individual openings were investigated with the aid of a blower and then practicable combinations of inlet and outlet openings were tested. Various modifications to the internal duct shape near the inlet opening and the aerodynamic effects of a simulated gun in the duct were also studied. The results of the tests suggested that outlet openings should be designed so that the static pressure of the internal flow at the outlet would be the same as the static pressure of the external flow in the vicinity of the opening.

  2. A Community-Scale Modeling System to Assess Port-Related Air Quality Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-port air pollution has been identified by numerous organizations as a potential public health concern. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission sources at the ports may impact local air quality within several hun...

  3. 46 CFR 116.433 - Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by Underwriters Laboratories may be used in B-Class bulkheads. (f) Windows in doors in fire control... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. 116... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.433 Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries....

  4. Design of an air ejector for boundary-layer bleed of an acoustically treated turbofan engine inlet during ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    An air ejector was designed and built to remove the boundary-layer air from the inlet a turbofan engine during an acoustic ground test program. This report describes; (1) how the ejector was sized; (2) how the ejector performed; and (3) the performance of a scale model ejector built and tested to verify the design. With proper acoustic insulation, the ejector was effective in reducing boundary layer thickness in the inlet of the turbofan engine while obtaining the desired acoustic test conditions.

  5. Report on Lincoln Electric System gas turbine inlet air cooling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, J.A.; Buecker, B.J.; Kitchen, B.J.; Lukas, H.; Mackie, E.I.

    1993-12-01

    As a result of increased electric power demand, the Lincoln Electric System (LES) of Lincoln, Nebraska (USA) decided to upgrade the generating capacity of their system. Based on capacity addition studies, the utility elected to improve performance of a GE MS7001B combustion turbine located at their Rokeby station. The turbine is used to meet summer-time peak loads, and as is common among combustion turbines, capacity declines as ambient air temperature rises. To improve the turbine capacity, LES decided to employ the proven technique of inlet air cooling, but with a novel approach: off-peak ice generation to be used for peak-load air cooling. EPRI contributed design concept definition and preliminary engineering. The American Public Power Association provided co-funding. Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, under contract to Lincoln Electric System, provided detailed design and construction documents. LES managed the construction, start-up, and testing of the cooling system. This report describes the technical basis for the cooling system design, and it discusses combustion turbine performance, project economics, and potential system improvements. Control logic and P&ID drawings are also included. The inlet air cooling system has been available since the fall of 1991. When in use, the cooling system has increased turbine capacity by up to 17% at a cost of less than $200 per increased kilowatt of generation.

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  7. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  9. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  10. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  11. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  12. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  13. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  14. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  15. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  16. C-PORT: A Community-Scale Near-Source Air Quality System to Assess Port-Related Air Quality Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing activity in global trade, there has been increased activity in transportation by rail, road and ships to move cargo. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission source at the ports may impact local air qu...

  17. [Superposition impact character of air pollution from decentralization docks in a freshwater port].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-chang; Li, Xing-hua; Xu, Hong-lei; Cheng, Jin-xiang; Wang, Zhong-dai; Xiao, Yang

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution from freshwater port is mainly caused by dust pollution, including material loading and unloading dust, road dust, and wind erosion dust from stockpile, bare soil. The dust pollution from a single dock characterized in obvious difference with air pollution from multiple scattered docks. Jining Port of Shandong Province was selected as a case study to get superposition impact contribution of air pollution for regional air environment from multiple scattered docks and to provide technical support for system evaluation of port air pollution. The results indicate that (1) the air pollution from freshwater port occupies a low proportion of pollution impact on regional environmental quality because the port is consisted of serveral small scattered docks; (2) however, the geometric center of the region distributed by docks is severely affected with the most superposition of the air pollution; and (3) the ADMS model is helpful to attain an effective and integrated assessment to predict a superposition impact of multiple non-point pollution sources when the differences of high-altitude weather conditions was not considered on a large scale.

  18. Diode laser-based air mass flux sensor for subsonic aeropropulsion inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael F.; Kessler, William J.; Allen, Mark G.

    1996-08-01

    An optical air mass flux sensor based on a compact, room-temperature diode laser in a fiber-coupled delivery system has been tested on a full-scale gas turbine engine. The sensor is based on simultaneous measurements of O 2 density and Doppler-shifted velocity along a line of sight across the inlet duct. Extensive tests spanning engine power levels from idle to full afterburner demonstrate accuracy and precision of the order of 1 2 of full scale in density, velocity, and mass flux. The precision-limited velocity at atmospheric pressure was as low as 40 cm s. Multiple data-reduction procedures are quantitatively compared to suggest optimal strategies for flight sensor packages.

  19. Effect of Fuel-Air Ratio, Inlet Temperature, and Exhaust Pressure on Detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E S; Leary, W A; Diver, J R

    1940-01-01

    An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.

  20. The comparative performance of an aviation engine at normal and high inlet air temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W; Schey, Oscar W

    1928-01-01

    This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the effect of high inlet air temperature on the performance of a Liberty 12 aviation engine. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain, for normal service carburetor adjustments and a fixed ignition advance, the relation between power and temperature for the range of carburetor air temperatures that may be encountered when supercharging to sea level pressure at altitudes of over 20,000 feet and without intercooling when using plain aviation gasoline and mixtures of benzol and gasoline. The results show that for the conditions of test, both the brake and indicated power decrease with increase in air temperature at a faster rate than given by the theoretical assumption that power varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature. On a brake basis, the order of the difference in power for a temperature difference of 120 degrees F. Is 3 to 5 per cent. The observed relation between power and temperature when using the 30-70 blend was found to be linear. But, although these differences are noted, the above theoretical assumption may be considered as generally applicable except where greater precision over a wide range of temperatures is desired, in which case it appears necessary to test the particular engine under the given conditions. (author)

  1. Measurement and Modeling of Near Road & Near-Port Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution from mobile sources has been identified by numerous organizations as a potential public health concern. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission sources at ports can significantly impact local air qualit...

  2. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and...

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and...

  4. Development of Wing Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racisz, Stanley F.

    1946-01-01

    Lift, drag, internal flow, and pressure distribution measurements were made on a low-drag airfoil incorporating various air inlet designs. Two leading-edge air inlets are developed which feature higher lift coefficients and critical Mach than the basic airfoil. Higher lift coefficients and critical speeds are obtained for leading half of these inlet sections but because of high suction pressures near exist, slightly lower critical speeds are obtained for the entire inlet section than the basic airfoil.

  5. Air Traffic Forecasting at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Procedures for conducting air traffic forecasts with specific application to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey are discussed. The procedure relates air travel growth to detailed socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the U.S. population rather than to aggregate economic data such as Gross National Product, personal income, and industrial production. Charts are presented to show the relationship between various selected characteristics and the use of air transportation facilities.

  6. 48 CFR 47.305-6 - Shipments to ports and air terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... can be loaded in a car, truck, or other conveyance of the size normally used (specify type and size... remote from the port that normally serves the overseas destination to be competitive as far as... Transportation Control Movement Document (TCMD) must be dispatched to the appropriate DOD air or water...

  7. 48 CFR 47.305-6 - Shipments to ports and air terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... can be loaded in a car, truck, or other conveyance of the size normally used (specify type and size... remote from the port that normally serves the overseas destination to be competitive as far as... Transportation Control Movement Document (TCMD) must be dispatched to the appropriate DOD air or water...

  8. 48 CFR 47.305-6 - Shipments to ports and air terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... can be loaded in a car, truck, or other conveyance of the size normally used (specify type and size... remote from the port that normally serves the overseas destination to be competitive as far as... Transportation Control Movement Document (TCMD) must be dispatched to the appropriate DOD air or water...

  9. 48 CFR 47.305-6 - Shipments to ports and air terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... can be loaded in a car, truck, or other conveyance of the size normally used (specify type and size... remote from the port that normally serves the overseas destination to be competitive as far as... Transportation Control Movement Document (TCMD) must be dispatched to the appropriate DOD air or water...

  10. Investigation of X24C-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor. 2; Effect of Inlet-Air Pressure and Temperature of Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Harold B.; Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard Jr.

    1947-01-01

    Effect of inlet-air pressure and temperature on the performance of the X24-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was evaluated. Speeds of 80, 89, and 100 percent of equivalent design speed with inlet-air pressures of 6 and 12 inches of mercury absolute and inlet-air temperaures of approximately 538 degrees, 459 degrees,and 419 degrees R ( 79 degrees, 0 degrees, and minus 40 degrees F). Results were compared with prior investigations.

  11. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  12. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  13. Effect of inlet-air humidity, temperature, pressure, and reference Mach number on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a gas turbine combustor. Combustor inlet air temperature ranged from 506 K (450 F) to 838 K (1050 F). The tests were primarily run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NOx emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet air humidity at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx0e-19H (where H is the humidity and the subscript 0 denotes the value at zero humidity). the emission index increased exponentially with increasing normalized inlet air temperature to the 1.14 power. Additional tests made to determine the effect of pressure and reference Mach number on NOx showed that the NOx emission index varies directly with pressure to the 0.5 power and inversely with reference Mach number.

  14. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  15. Heat transfer to two-phase air/water mixtures flowing in small tubes with inlet disequilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, J. M.; Florschuetz, L. W.; Fiszdon, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The cooling of gas turbine components was the subject of considerable research. The problem is difficult because the available coolant, compressor bleed air, is itself quite hot and has relatively poor thermophysical properties for a coolant. Injecting liquid water to evaporatively cool the air prior to its contact with the hot components was proposed and studied, particularly as a method of cooling for contingency power applications. Injection of a small quantity of cold liquid water into a relatively hot coolant air stream such that evaporation of the liquid is still in process when the coolant contacts the hot component was studied. No approach was found whereby heat transfer characteristics could be confidently predicted for such a case based solely on prior studies. It was not clear whether disequilibrium between phases at the inlet to the hot component section would improve cooling relative to that obtained where equilibrium was established prior to contact with the hot surface.

  16. Optimal Micro-Vane Flow Control for Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Addington, Gregory A.; Agrell, Johan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study on micro-vane secondary flow control is to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimally design micro-vane secondary flow control arrays, and to establish that the aeromechanical effects of engine face distortion can also be included in the design and optimization process. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the design characteristics of "low unit strength" micro-effector arrays. "Low unit strength" micro-effectors are micro-vanes set at very low angles-of-incidence with very long chord lengths. They were designed to influence the near wall inlet flow over an extended streamwise distance, and their advantage lies in low total pressure loss and high effectiveness in managing engine face distortion. Therefore, this report examines optimal micro-vane secondary flow control array designs for compact inlets through a Response Surface Methodology.

  17. Management of Total Pressure Recovery, Distortion and High Cycle Fatigue in Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Baust, Henry D.; Agrell, Johan

    2002-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methods (RSM) and Robustness Design Concepts (RDC) to arrive at micro-secondary flow control installation designs that maintain optimal inlet performance over a range of the mission variables. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the robustness properties of 'low unit strength' micro-effector installations. 'Low unit strength' micro-effectors are micro-vanes set at very low angles-of-incidence with very long chord lengths. They were designed to influence the near wall inlet flow over an extended streamwise distance, and their advantage lies in low total pressure loss and high effectiveness in managing engine face distortion.

  18. Shock position sensor for supersonic inlets. [measuring pressure in the throat of a supersonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Static pressure taps or ports are provided in the throat of a supersonic inlet, and signals indicative of the pressure at each of the ports is fed to respective comparators. Means are also provided for directing a signal indicative of the total throat pressure to the comparators. A periodic signal is superimposed on the total throat pressure so that the signal from the static pressure tabs is compared to a varying scan signal rather than to total throat pressure only. This type of comparison causes each comparator to provide a pulse width modulated output which may vary from 0% 'time on' to 100% 'time on'. The pulse width modulated outputs of the comparators are summed, filtered, and directed to a controller which operates a bypass valve such as a door whereby air is dumped from the inlet to prevent the shock wave from being expelled out the front.

  19. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor. [air pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures in the range 1100 to 1400 K. The combustion efficiency was calculated from measurements of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions and reactor pressure drop were also measured. At a reference velocity of 10 m/s, the CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions, and, therefore, the combustion efficiency, were independent of inlet temperature. At an inlet temperature of 1000 K, they were independent of reference velocity. Nitrogen oxides emissions resulted from conversion of the small amount (135 ppm) of fuel-bound nitrogen in the fuel. Up to 90 percent conversion was observed with no apparent effect of any of the test variables. For typical gas turbine operating conditions, all three pollutants were below levels which would permit the most stringent proposed automotive emissions standards to be met.

  20. Vertical distribution of juvenile chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, in relation to a thermal discharge into Port Moody Arm, Burrard Inlet, British Columbia. Canadian technical report of fisheries and aquatic sciences Number 2235

    SciTech Connect

    Birtwell, I.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is one of a series of reports that describe results of field and laboratory studies on the effect of heated sea water on juvenile chum salmon. The studies were initiated in response to potential increases in the thermal discharge from BC Hydro`s Burrard Generating Station into the marine waters of Port Moody Arm, Burrard Inlet. The report presents results of the second of two 1997 studies, in which preference/avoidance cages in Port Moody Arm were used to examine the vertical distribution of chum salmon at a reference location and at sites 70, 250, and 1,200 metres from the heated cooling water discharge. The results were related to the ambient aquatic conditions to reveal differences or similarities in the vertical distribution of salmon with proximity to discharge location, and to identify variables that accounted for these changes.

  1. Numerical simulation for the influence of laser-induced plasmas addition on air mass capture of hypersonic inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian

    2012-03-01

    The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.

  2. Optimal Micro-Jet Flow Control for Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Addington, Gregory A.; Agrell, Johan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study on micro-jet secondary flow control is to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimally design micro-jet secondary flow control arrays, and to establish that the aeromechanical effects of engine face distortion can also be included in the design and optimization process. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the design characteristics of "low mass" micro-jet array designs. The term "low mass" micro-jet may refers to fluidic jets with total (integrated) mass flow ratios between 0.10 and 1.0 percent of the engine face mass flow. Therefore, this report examines optimal micro-jet array designs for compact inlets through a Response Surface Methodology.

  3. 48 CFR 47.305-6 - Shipments to ports and air terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation costs are concerned. (d) Unless logistics requirements limit the ports of loading to the ports... between the ports involved, unless the acquiring activity has given other specific instructions....

  4. 41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE ACCUMULATOR, AIR FLASK, CONTROL VALVE, WITH CONTROL RAM, SHEAVES AND WIRES UNDERNEATH ENGINE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Estimation of air pollutant emission loads from construction and operational activities of a port and harbour in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshy; Patil, R S; Gupta, S K

    2009-12-01

    Port causes environmental and health concerns in coastal cities if its operation and development are not made environmentally compatible and sustainable. An emission inventory is necessary to assess the impact of port projects or growth in marine activity as well as to plan mitigation strategies. In this study, a detailed emission inventory of total suspended particulate (TSP) matter, respirable particulate matter (PM(10)), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) for a port having operation and construction activities in parallel is compiled. The study has been done for 1 year. Results show that the maximum contribution of emission of air pollutants in the port area was from TSP (68.5%) and the minimum was from SO(2) (5.3%) to the total pollutants considered in this study. Total TSP emission from all activities of the port was 4,452 tyr(-1) and PM(10) emission was 903 tyr(-1) in the year 2006. Re-suspension of dust from paved roads was the major contributor of TSP and PM(10) in the road transport sector. Construction activities of the port had contributed 3.9% of TSP and 7.4% of PM(10) to total emission of particulate matter. Of the total particulate emissions from various port activities approximately 20% of TSP could be attributed to PM(10). The sectoral composition indicates that major contribution of SO(2) emission in the port was from maritime sector and major contribution of NO(x) was from road transport sector.

  6. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  7. Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the

  8. Inlet technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschenreuter, Paul

    1992-01-01

    At hypersonic flight Mach numbers, particularly above Mo = 10, the inlet compression process is no longer adiabatic, real gas chemistry takes on extra importance, and the combined effects of entropy layer and viscous effects lead to highly nonuniform flow profile characteristics at the combustor entrance. Under such conditions, traditional inlet efficiency parameters can be unnecessarily cumbersome and/or lacking in the ability to appropriately characterize the inlet flow and to provide insight into propulsion system performance. Recent experience suggests that the use of inlet entropy increases inlet efficiency in hypersonic applications.

  9. Spatial variations of particulate matter and air toxics in communities adjacent to the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Lau, Virginia; Martien, Philip T

    2013-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) sponsored the West Oakland Monitoring Study (WOMS) to provide supplemental air quality monitoring that will be used by the BAAQMD to evaluate local-scale dispersion modeling of diesel emissions and other toxic air contaminants for the area within and around the Port of Oakland. The WOMS was conducted during two seasonal periods of 4 weeks in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Monitoring data showed spatial patterns of pollutant concentrations that were generally consistent with proximity to vehicle traffic. Concentrations of directly emitted pollutants were highest on heavily traveled roads with consistently lower concentrations away from the roadways. Pollutants that have higher emission rates from diesel trucks (nitric oxide, black carbon) tended to exhibit sharper gradients than pollutants that are largely associated with gasoline vehicles, such as carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX concentrations in West Oakland were similar to those measured at the three air toxics monitoring network sites in the Bay Area (San Francisco, Fremont, and San Jose). Aldehyde levels were higher in Fremont and San Jose than in West Oakland, reflecting greater contributions from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons downwind of the Bay Area. A 2005 modeling-based health risk assessment of diesel particulate matter concentrations is consistent with aerosol carbon concentrations measured during the WOMS after adjusting for recent mitigation measures and improved estimates of heavy-duty truck traffic volumes.

  10. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  11. Measuring the Impact of Port of Charleston Activities on Local Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ports are a critical feature of the nation’s economy; port commerce supports 13 million jobs and contributes $3.15 trillion to the economy. The value of goods shipped through seaports represents 11% of the GDP. The US has 360 commercial ports, including 150 deep-draft seaports....

  12. Estimation of air pollutant emission loads from construction and operational activities of a port and harbour in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshy; Patil, R S; Gupta, S K

    2009-12-01

    Port causes environmental and health concerns in coastal cities if its operation and development are not made environmentally compatible and sustainable. An emission inventory is necessary to assess the impact of port projects or growth in marine activity as well as to plan mitigation strategies. In this study, a detailed emission inventory of total suspended particulate (TSP) matter, respirable particulate matter (PM(10)), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) for a port having operation and construction activities in parallel is compiled. The study has been done for 1 year. Results show that the maximum contribution of emission of air pollutants in the port area was from TSP (68.5%) and the minimum was from SO(2) (5.3%) to the total pollutants considered in this study. Total TSP emission from all activities of the port was 4,452 tyr(-1) and PM(10) emission was 903 tyr(-1) in the year 2006. Re-suspension of dust from paved roads was the major contributor of TSP and PM(10) in the road transport sector. Construction activities of the port had contributed 3.9% of TSP and 7.4% of PM(10) to total emission of particulate matter. Of the total particulate emissions from various port activities approximately 20% of TSP could be attributed to PM(10). The sectoral composition indicates that major contribution of SO(2) emission in the port was from maritime sector and major contribution of NO(x) was from road transport sector. PMID:19030999

  13. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  14. Investigation at supersonic and subsonic Mach numbers of auxiliary inlets supplying secondary air flow to ejector exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, Donald P; Cubbison, Robert W

    1956-01-01

    The results indicated increases in auxiliary-inlet pressure recovery with increases in scoop height relative to the boundary-layer thickness. The pressure recovery increased at about the same rate as theoretically predicted for an inlet in a boundary layer having a one-seventh power profile, but was only about 0.68 to 0.75 of the theoretically obtainable values. Under some operating conditions, flow from the primary jet was exhausted through the auxiliary inlet. This phenomenon could be predicted from the ejector pumping characteristics.

  15. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  16. The effect of different inlet conditions of air in a rectangular channel on convection heat transfer: Turbulence flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtbas, Irfan

    2008-10-15

    Theoretical and empirical correlations for duct flow are given for hydrodynamically and thermally developed flow in most of previous studies. However, this is commonly not a realistic inlet configuration for heat exchanger, in which coolant flow generally turns through a serpentine shaped passage before entering heat sinks. Accordingly, an experimental investigation was carried out to determine average heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated rectangular channel with 45 and 90 turned flow, and with wall mounted a baffle. The channel was heated through bottom side with the baffle. In present work, a detailed study was conducted for three different height of entry channel (named as the ratio of the height of entry channel to the height of test section (anti H{sub c}=h{sub c}/H)) by varying Reynolds number (Re{sub Dh}). Another variable parameter was the ratio of the baffle height to the channel height (anti H{sub b}=h{sub b}/H). Only one baffle was attached on the bottom (heating) surface. The experimental procedure was validated by comparing the data for the straight channel with no baffle. Reynolds number (Re{sub Dh}) was varied from 2800 to 30,000, so the flow was considered as only turbulent regime. All experiments were conduced with air accordingly; Prandtl number (Pr) was approximately fixed at 0.71. The results showed that average Nusselt number for {theta}=45 and {theta}=90 were 9% and 30% higher, respectively, than that of the straight channel without baffle. Likewise, the pressure drop increased up to 4.4 to 5.3 times compare to the straight channel. (author)

  17. Measurement and Modeling of Near-Road & Near-Port Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of mobile monitoring assessment studies conducted on major interstates in Detroit, Michigan and Phoenix, Arizona along with a near-port assessment focusing on the Port of Charleston in South Carolina, USA. We will also present our mobile measu...

  18. Attic inlet technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising fuel costs have driven development of alternative heat sources for poultry growers. Attic inlets are employed to pre-heat incoming ventilation air to reduce fuel usage. Attic temperatures are at least 10 °F warmer than the outside temperature at least 80% of the time and offers a source of...

  19. Investigation of the impact of imposed air inlet velocity oscillations on the formation and oxidation of soot using simultaneous 2-Colour-TIRE-LII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Suntz, R.; Bockhorn, H.

    2015-05-01

    The response of non-premixed swirling flames to acoustic perturbations at various frequencies (0-350 Hz) and the impact of imposed air inlet velocity oscillations on the formation and oxidation of soot are investigated. The results obtained from these flames are of special interest for "rich-quenched-lean" (RQL) combustion concepts applied in modern gas turbines. In RQL combustion, the fuel is initially oxidized by air under fuel-rich conditions in a first stage followed by a fuel-lean combustion step in a second stage. To mimic soot formation and oxidation in RQL combustion, soot particle measurements in highly turbulent, non-premixed swirling natural gas/ethylene-confined flames at imposed air inlet velocity oscillations are performed using simultaneous 2-Colour-Time-Resolved-Laser-Induced Incandescence (simultaneous 2-Colour-TIRE-LII). The latter technique is combined with line-of-sight averaged OH*-chemiluminescence imaging, measurements of the velocity field by high-speed particle imaging velocimetry under reactive combustion conditions and measurements of the mean temperature field obtained by a thermocouple. A natural gas/ethylene mixture (Φ = 1.56, 42 % C2H4, 58 % natural gas, P th = 17.6 kW at atmospheric pressure) is used as a fuel, which is oxidized by air under fuel-rich conditions in the first combustion chamber.

  20. Experimental Investigation of an Air-Cooled Turbine Operating in a Turbojet Engine at Turbine Inlet Temperatures up to 2500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Reeves P.; Dengler, Robert P.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of an air-cooled turbine at average turbine inlet temperatures up to 2500 F. A modified production-model 12-stage axial-flow-compressor turbojet engine operating in a static sea-level stand was used as the test vehicle. The modifications to the engine consisted of the substitution of special combustor and turbine assemblies and double-walled exhaust ducting for the standard parts of the engine. All of these special parts were air-cooled to withstand the high operating temperatures of the investigation. The air-cooled turbine stator and rotor blades were of the corrugated-insert type. Leading-edge tip caps were installed on the rotor blades to improve leading-edge cooling by diverting the discharge of coolant to regions of lower gas pressure toward the trailing edge of the blade tip. Caps varying in length from 0.15- to 0.55-chord length were used in an attempt to determine the optimum cap length for this blade. The engine was operated over a range of average turbine inlet temperatures from about 1600 to about 2500 F, and a range of average coolant-flow ratios of 0.012 to 0.065. Temperatures of the air-cooled turbine rotor blades were measured at all test conditions by the use of thermocouples and temperature-indicating paints. The results of the investigation indicated that this type of blade is feasible for operation in turbojet engines at the average turbine inlet temperatures and stress levels tested(maximums of 2500 F and 24,000 psi, respectively). An average one-third-span blade temperature of 1300 F could be maintained on 0.35-chord tip cap blades with an average coolant-flow ratio of about 0.022 when the average turbine inlet temperature was 2500 F and cooling-air temperature was about 260 F. All of the leading-edge tip cap lengths improved the cooling of the leading-edge region of the blades, particularly at low average coolant-flow ratios. At high gas temperatures, such parts as the turbine stator and the combustor

  1. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  2. Correlation of Forced-convection Heat-transfer Data for Air Flowing in Smooth Platinum Tube with Long-approach Entrance at High Surface and Inlet-air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmon, Leland G; Sams, Eldon W

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air in an electrically heated platinum tube with long-approach entrance, inside diameter of 0.525 inch, and effective heat-transfer length of 24 inches over ranges of Reynolds number up to 320,000, average inside-tube-wall temperature up to 3053 degrees R, and inlet-air temperature up to 1165 degrees R. Correlation of data by the conventional Nusselt relation resulted in separation of data with tube-wall temperature. Good correlation was obtained, however, by use of a modified Reynolds number.

  3. A Computational and Experimental Study of Coflow Laminar Methane/Air Diffusion Flames: Effects of Fuel Dilution, Inlet Velocity, and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, S.; Ma, B.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Giassi, D.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Long, M. B.; Smooke, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The influences of fuel dilution, inlet velocity, and gravity on the shape and structure of laminar coflow CH4-air diffusion flames were investigated computationally and experimentally. A series of nitrogen-diluted flames measured in the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) on board the International Space Station was assessed numerically under microgravity (mu g) and normal gravity (1g) conditions with CH4 mole fraction ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 and average inlet velocity ranging from 23 to 90 cm/s. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the reactive gaseous mixture, and soot evolution was modeled by sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on a two-dimensional computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting set of fully coupled, strongly nonlinear equations was solved simultaneously at all points using a damped, modified Newton's method. Experimentally, flame shape and soot temperature were determined by flame emission images recorded by a digital color camera. Very good agreement between computation and measurement was obtained, and the conclusions were as follows. (1) Buoyant and nonbuoyant luminous flame lengths are proportional to the mass flow rate of the fuel mixture; computed and measured nonbuoyant flames are noticeably longer than their 1g counterparts; the effect of fuel dilution on flame shape (i.e., flame length and flame radius) is negligible when the flame shape is normalized by the methane flow rate. (2) Buoyancy-induced reduction of the flame radius through radially inward convection near the flame front is demonstrated. (3) Buoyant and nonbuoyant flame structure is mainly controlled by the fuel mass flow rate, and the effects from fuel dilution and inlet velocity are secondary.

  4. CFD Analysis to Study Effect of Circular Vortex Generator Placed in Inlet Section to Investigate Heat Transfer Aspects of Solar Air Heater

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Vipin B.; Dhoble, A. S.; Zodpe, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  5. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  6. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate.

  7. Wind tunnel tests of a zero length, slotted-lip engine air inlet for a fixed nacelle V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.; Beck, W. E., Jr.; Glasgow, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Zero length, slotted lip inlet performance and associated fan blade stresses were determined during model tests using a 20 inch diameter fan simulator in the NASA-LeRC 9 by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel. The model configuration variables consisted of inlet contraction ratio, slot width, circumferential extent of slot fillers, and length of a constant area section between the inlet throat and fan face. The inlet performance was dependent on slot gap width and relatively independent of inlet throat/fan face spacer length and slot flow blockage created by 90 degree slot fillers. Optimum performance was obtained at a slot gap width of 0.36 inch. The zero length, slotted lip inlet satisfied all critical low speed inlet operating requirements for fixed horizontal nacelles subsonic V/STOL aircraft.

  8. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following factors: (1) Any data or documents available to the airline which presented a receipt for the transit air cargo, and available to the importing airline relating to the description and value of...

  9. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engine with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 5 percent of the upper limit at maximum air flow, as specified by the engine manufacturer for a clean air cleaner. A system... Section 89.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  10. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 5 percent of the upper limit at maximum air flow, as specified by the engine manufacturer for a clean air cleaner. A system... Section 89.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  11. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine with an air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 5 percent of the upper limit at maximum air flow, as specified by the engine manufacturer for a clean air cleaner. A system... Section 89.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  12. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 2; Sub-Scale Air Flow Simulation of Port Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. P.; Ramandran, N.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The injection-flow issuing from a porous medium in the cold-flow simulation of internal port flows in solid rocket motors is characterized by a spatial instability termed pseudoturbulence that produces a rather non-uniform (lumpy) injection-velocity profile. The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction between the injection- and the developing axial-flows. The findings show that this interaction generally weakens the lumpy injection profile and affects the subsequent development of the axial flow. The injection profile is found to depend on the material characteristics, and the ensuing pseudoturbulence is a function of the injection velocity, the axial position and the distance from the porous wall. The flow transition (from laminar to turbulent) of the axial-flow is accelerated in flows emerging from smaller pores primarily due to the higher pseudoturbulence produced by the smaller pores in comparison to that associated with larger pores. In flows with rather uniform injection-flow profiles (weak or no pseudoturbulence), the axial and transverse velocity components in the porous duct are found to satisfy the sine/cosine analytical solutions derived from inviscid assumptions. The transition results from the present study are compared with previous results from surveyed literature, and detailed flow development measurements are presented in terms of the blowing fraction, and characterizing Reynolds numbers.

  13. Effects of the sniffing port air makeup in gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, K; Sieffermann, J M; Giampaoli, P

    2000-06-01

    A time-intensity gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) apparatus was developed to study some aerodynamic parameters that may influence odor detection and intensity measurements by the subjects. The addition of humidified air at the elution place of the compounds is generally recommended for several reasons (essentially to prevent nasal mucosa dehydration and to improve chromatographic effluent carriage out of the column), but clues about these effects are yet to be published. This question is studied through two complementary experiments using synthetic solutions of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol, hexan-2-one, octanal, nonanal, furfural, citronellal, benzaldehyde, octan-1-ol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, guaiacol, 2-phenylethanol, and vanillin. This work demonstrates the need for an air makeup to increase odor detection frequency and intensity rating. With the conditions tested, a minimum makeup air flow rate of 50 L.min(-)(1) is necessary. On the contrary, humidification of the makeup is useless for the sniffers comfort and to improve the quantitative GCO results.

  14. Actuated Attic Inlets: A Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attic inlets are being widely employed by poultry growers to alleviate high fuel costs during the brooding period. Pre-heated inlet air can reduce fuel usage and estimates for fuel savings were derived from field reports. Fuel usage was estimated for both large and small bird flocks for one year’...

  15. Supersonic inlet contour interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    A method for designing supersonic inlet contours is described which consists in the interpolation of the contours of two known inlets designed for different Mach numbers, thereby determining the contours for a third inlet at an intermediate design Mach number. Several similar axisymmetric inlet contours were interpolated from known inlets with design Mach numbers ranging from 2.16 to 4.0 and with design Mach numbers differing by as much as 1.0. The flowfields were calculated according to Sorensen's (1965) computer program. Shockwave structure and pressure distribution characteristics are shown for the interpolated inlets. The validity of the interpolation is demonstrated by comparing the plots of the flowfield properties across the throat station of the interpolated inlet with the known inlets which were designed iteratively. It seems possible to write a computer program so that a matrix of known inlet contours can be interpolated.

  16. Performance study for inlet installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingaman, Donald C.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design trade study was conducted by McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) and NASA LARC PAB to determine the impact of inlet design features incorporated for reduced detectability on inlet performance, weight, and cost, for both fighter and attack-type aircraft. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) techniques were used to prioritize trade study issues, and select 'best' air induction system configurations for each of two notional aircraft, the Multi-Role Fighter (MRF) and the Advanced Medium Attack (AMA) bomber. Database deficiencies discovered in the trade study process were identified, and technology roadmaps were developed to address these deficiencies. Finally, two high speed inlet wind tunnel model concepts were developed for follow-on wind tunnel investigations.

  17. Scavenging a Piston-ported Two-stroke Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, A R; Bouchard, C L

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was made with a specially designed engine to determine the scavenging characteristics of a large number of inlet-port shapes and arrangements and the optimum port arrangement and timing for this particular type of engine. A special cylinder construction permitted wide variations in timing for this particular type of engine. A special cylinder construction permitted wide variations in timing as well as in shape and arrangement of both the inlet and exhaust ports. The study of the effect of port shape combinations and timings on engine performance was made using illuminating gas as a fuel. Through variations in inlet-port arrangement and port timings, the value of the scavenging efficiency was increased from an original 44 percent to approximately 67 percent with a corresponding increase in power. With the optimum port arrangement and timing determined, a large number of performance runs were made under both spark-ignition and compression-ignition operation.

  18. Tests of Hypersonic Inlet Oscillatory Flows in a Shock Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhufei; Gao, Wenzhi; Jiang, Hongliang; Yang, Jiming

    For efficient operation, hypersonic air breathing engine requires the inlet to operate in a starting mode [1]. High backpressure induced by the combustion may cause the inlet to unstart in the engine actual operation [2].When unstarted, shock wave oscillations are typically observed in the inlet, a phenomenon known as buzz.

  19. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must....407 Section 90.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. Supplemental air injection method and devices for carburetors of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Coberley, L.E.

    1986-03-11

    A supplemental air injection means for carburetors of internal combustion engines is described consisting of: a coupling provided with an air inlet port for receiving air under pressure and at least one air outlet port for exhausting the air under pressure; a nozzle means comprising a hose connected at one end to the outlet port and a nozzle at the other end of the hose for selectively directing the air under pressure issuing therefrom; and clamp means for selectively positioning the nozzle for directing air under pressure issuing therefrom into the venturi of a carburetor of the associated engine; the clamp means comprising an apertured strip of metal for mounting in an associated air filter of the associated engine for supporting and selectively positioning the nozzle means.

  1. Performance of passively automatic ventilation inlets for agricultural buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, K.J.; Hosni, M.H.; Heber, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    Good air distribution is needed in livestock buildings to remove moisture and pollutants without chilling animals during cold weather and to assist in evaporative and convective cooling during warm weather. Passively automatic inlets are intended to provide nearly constant air velocity into buildings as ventilation airflow rates are automatically adjusted. The airflow rate, average exit air velocity, and velocity profile of eight commercially available ceiling and wall ventilation inlets were tested under various configurations and static pressures. Only one inlet supplied the airflow rate claimed by the manufacturer, and only one wall inlet developed a nearly constant exit air velocity.

  2. Cloud-Droplet Ingestion in Engine Inlets with Inlet Velocity Ratios of 1.0 and 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J

    1957-01-01

    The paths of cloud droplets into two engine inlets have been calculated for a wide range of meteorological and flight conditions. The amount of water in droplet form ingested by the inlets and the amount and distribution of water impinging on the inlet walls are obtained from these droplet-trajectory calculations. In both types of inlet, a prolate ellipsoid of revolution represents either part or all of the forebody at the center of an annular inlet to an engine. The configurations can also represent a fuselage of an airplane with side ram-scoop inlets. The studies were made at an angle of attack of 0 degree. The principal difference between the two inlets studied is that the inlet-air velocity of one is 0.7 that of the other. The studies of the two velocity ratios lead to some important general concepts of water ingestion in inlets.

  3. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  4. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  5. Investigation of the air-flow regulation characteristics of a translating-spike inlet with two oblique shocks from Mach 1.6 to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, J C

    1956-01-01

    The pressure recovery of an axially symmetric translating-spike inlet was essentially the same as for a single cone with the same total angle. In order to match a turbojet engine over the Mach range of 1.6 to 2.0, the spike translation must be larger than it is for a single cone.

  6. Testing and Analysis of Sensor Ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M.; Frendi, A.; Thompson, W.; Casiano, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    This Technical Publication summarizes the work focused on the testing and analysis of sensor ports. The tasks under this contract were divided into three areas: (1) Development of an Analytical Model, (2) Conducting a Set of Experiments, and (3) Obtaining Computational Solutions. Results from the experiment using both short and long sensor ports were obtained using harmonic, random, and frequency sweep plane acoustic waves. An amplification factor of the pressure signal between the port inlet and the back of the port is obtained and compared to models. Comparisons of model and experimental results showed very good agreement.

  7. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91.407 Section 91.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  8. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  9. [Attempt to reduce the formaldehyde concentration by blowing cooled fresh air down in to the breathing zone of medical students from an admission port on the ceiling during gross anatomy class].

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Masaaki; Sakai, Makoto; Ishikawa, Youichi; Murakami, Kunio; Kimura, Akihiko; Kakuta, Sachiko; Sato, Fumi

    2008-09-01

    Cadavers in gross anatomy laboratories at most medical schools are conventionally embalmed in formaldehyde solution, which is carcinogenic to humans. Medical students and instructors are thus exposed to formaldehyde vapors emitted from cadavers during dissection. To reduce high formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone above cadavers being examined by anatomy medical students provisionally, dissection beds were located under existing admission ports on the ceiling to supply cooled fresh air from the admission port blowing downward on to the cadaver. In all cases, compared to normal condition, the downward flow of cooled fresh air from an admission port reduced formaldehyde concentrations by 0.09-0.98 ppm and reduced to 12.6-65.4% in the air above a cadaver in the breathing zone of students. The formaldehyde concentrations above cadavers under admission ports were not more than the formaldehyde concentrations between beds representing the indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Although the application of an existing admission port on the ceiling in this study did not remove formaldehyde, the downflow of cooled fresh air using this system reduced the formaldehyde concentration in the air above cadavers being attended by anatomy students during dissections. These results suggest the need for reducing formaldehyde levels in gross anatomy laboratories using fundamental countermeasures in order to satisfy the guidelines of 0.08 ppm established by the World Health Organization and the Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

  10. Attic Inlet Technology Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attic inlets are a popular addition for new construction and energy saving retrofits. Proper management of attic inlets is necessary to get maximum benefits from the system and reduce the likelihood of moisture-related problems in the structure. Solar energy levels were determined for the continen...

  11. Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.

  12. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  13. Port wine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2011-01-01

    Port wine is a fortified wine with its origin in the Douro Demarcated Region but also includes Oporto city and the Entreposto of Gaia. Soil, climate, and viticultural conditions are important parameters used to classify and select the best vineyards to produce port wine. Taking into account the winemaking process, two major groups of wines can be distinguished: The wood ports and the bottle-aged ports. These distinct conditions and processes ensure that there is not an unique port wine but, several ports, whose colors range from white to deep purple and that present a wide variety of flavors: vintage, late-bottled vintage, crusted, indication of age, colheita, reserve, white, tawny, ruby, and rosé. PMID:21867894

  14. Port wine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2011-01-01

    Port wine is a fortified wine with its origin in the Douro Demarcated Region but also includes Oporto city and the Entreposto of Gaia. Soil, climate, and viticultural conditions are important parameters used to classify and select the best vineyards to produce port wine. Taking into account the winemaking process, two major groups of wines can be distinguished: The wood ports and the bottle-aged ports. These distinct conditions and processes ensure that there is not an unique port wine but, several ports, whose colors range from white to deep purple and that present a wide variety of flavors: vintage, late-bottled vintage, crusted, indication of age, colheita, reserve, white, tawny, ruby, and rosé.

  15. 30. STARBOARD REFUELING STATION STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. STARBOARD REFUELING STATION - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING RIGGING, FUEL RISER, SHUT-OFF VALVE, TEST COCK AND PRESSURE GAUGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. FORWARD PORT VIEW OF THE ISLAND WITH FLIGHT DECK GUN MOUNTS, TAKEN FROM FORWARD FLIGHT DECK. APRIL 1945, (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 80-G-469299) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 82. STARBOARD CATAPULT CENTERLINE LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. STARBOARD CATAPULT - CENTERLINE LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING ENGINE CYLINDER, CABLE EQUALIZER AND STARBOARD CAT MURAL. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING COFFEE MAKER, ICE CREAM FREEZER, TABLES AND SCUTTLEBUTTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 35. PILOT HOUSE PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING HELM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PILOT HOUSE - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING HELM, ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH, SPEED INDICATOR, AFT GYRO REPEATER AND FORWARD GYRO REPEATER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 71. CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS' LOUNGE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS' LOUNGE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING COFFEE MESS, ICE CREAM COOLER, ICE MACHINE AND SCUTTLEBUTT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. 113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING MASTER GYRO AND INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 93. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC PUMP PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC PUMP - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ONE OF THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC USED TO OPERATE THE CATAPULT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. 49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING VARIOUS TYPES OF RADAR UNITS, PLOT TABLES AND PLOTTING BOARDS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Future anthropogenic pollutant emissions in a Mediterranean port city with emphasis on the maritime sector emissions - Study of the impact on the city air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Markakis, Konstantinos; Giannaros, Theodoros; Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Melas, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    traffic changes as foreseen for the year 2020 by the Port Authority Investment Plan and by the reduction of the sulfur content in fuels used by ships in cruising mode to 0.5% m/m according to a revision of the MARPOL Annex VI. Based on the above, an approximately 60% increase in the future maritime sector PM10 emissions is expected due to the high increase of the traffic of vessels. The impact of future emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the modelling system WRF-CAMx applied with 2km spatial resolution over the study area. Simulations of the modelling system are performed for a summertime (July 2011) and a wintertime (15 November to 15 December 2011) period accounting for present time (scenario A) and future time (scenario B) pollutant emissions. The differences in pollutant levels (mainly PM) between the scenarios examined are presented and discussed.

  6. Means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    A piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; an insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; an inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve, the piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inlet gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal.

  7. Means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection

    DOEpatents

    Wright, K.E.

    1994-08-23

    A piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; an insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; an inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve, the piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inlet gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal. 3 figs.

  8. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inlet and exhaust restrictions. 89.328 Section 89.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.328 Inlet and...

  9. 40 CFR 89.328 - Inlet and exhaust restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inlet and exhaust restrictions. 89.328 Section 89.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.328 Inlet and...

  10. Improving commercial broiler attic inlet ventilation thorugh CFD analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of solar heated attic air is an area of increasing interest in commercial poultry production. Attic inlets satisfy the demand for alternative heating while being simple to implement in an existing poultry house. A number of demonstration projects have suggested that attic inlets may decrease...

  11. Perforations in jet engine supersonic inlet increase shock stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppler, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    Modification of a conventional jet engine internal compression supersonic inlet results in increased shock stability and thus, engine instantaneous response to changes in inlet air properties. This technique provides a large amount of bleed near the maximum pressure recovery at the expense of minor bleed flow during critical operation.

  12. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  13. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  14. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  15. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  16. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  17. Inlet Performance Characteristics from Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 0.10-Scale Air-Induction System Model of the YF-108A Airplane at Mach Numbers of 2.50, 2.76, and 3.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackaby, James R.; Lyman, E. Gene; Altermann, John A., III

    1959-01-01

    Inlet-performance and external-drag-coefficient characteristics are presented without analysis. Effects are shown of variations of fuselage boundary-layer diverter profile, bleed-surface porosity, bleed-exit area, and inlet ramp, and lip angle.

  18. CFD numerical simulation of Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wei, L.; Chang, B. H.; Xing, J. L.; Jia, K.

    2013-12-01

    For traditional linear type inlet, hydrocyclone has an unstable inner field, high turbulence intensity and low separation efficiency, this paper proposes an inlet mode that uses an Archimedes spiral hydrocyclone. A Mixture liquid-solid multiphase flow model combined with the kinetic theory of granular flow was used to simulate the high concentration water-sand-air three-phase flow in a hydrocyclone. We analyzed the pressure field, velocity field and turbulent kinetic energy and compared with traditional linear type inlet hydrocyclone inner field. The results show that Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone's pressure field is evenly distributed. The Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone can guide and accelerate the mixture flow and produce small forced vortex and less short circuit flow. The particles easily go to the outer vortex and are separated. The Archimedes spiral inlet hydrocyclone has effectively improved the stability of inner flow field and separation efficiency.

  19. Hypersonic Inlet for a Laser Powered Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrland, Alan; Doolan, Con; Wheatley, Vincent; Froning, Dave

    2011-11-01

    Propulsion within the lightcraft concept is produced via laser induced detonation of an incoming hypersonic air stream. This process requires suitable engine configurations that offer good performance over all flight speeds and angles of attack to ensure the required thrust is maintained. Stream traced hypersonic inlets have demonstrated the required performance in conventional hydrocarbon fuelled scramjet engines, and has been applied to the laser powered lightcraft vehicle. This paper will outline the current methodology employed in the inlet design, with a particular focus on the performance of the lightcraft inlet at angles of attack. Fully three-dimensional turbulent computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a variety of inlet configurations. The performance of the lightcraft inlets have been evaluated at differing angles of attack. An idealized laser detonation simulation has also been performed to validate that the lightcraft inlet does not unstart during the laser powered propulsion cycle.

  20. 77 FR 22218 - Safety Zone; Temporary Change for Air and Water Shows Within the Captain of the Port Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... published an NPRM (see 76 FR 30072) for the annual events listed in 33 CFR 165.929. When the NPRM was made... paragraphs (pp), (qq), and (lll); and 0 b. Add paragraphs (sss), (ttt), and (uuu) to read as follows: Sec... zone. * * * * * (sss) Gary Air and Water Show; Gary, IN. (i) Location. All waters of Lake...

  1. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R.

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  2. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  3. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  4. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  5. 9 CFR 93.703 - Ports designated for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, only through the following ports: (1) Air and ocean... Houston, TX; and Seattle, Spokane, and Tacoma, WA. (2) Canadian border ports. Eastport, ID; Houlton...

  6. 9 CFR 93.703 - Ports designated for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, only through the following ports: (1) Air and ocean... Houston, TX; and Seattle, Spokane, and Tacoma, WA. (2) Canadian border ports. Eastport, ID; Houlton...

  7. 9 CFR 93.703 - Ports designated for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, only through the following ports: (1) Air and ocean... Houston, TX; and Seattle, Spokane, and Tacoma, WA. (2) Canadian border ports. Eastport, ID; Houlton...

  8. Utilization of a multimembrane inlet and a cyclic sudden sampling introduction mode in membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viktorova, O S; Kogan, V T; Manninen, S A; Kotiaho, T; Ketola, R A; Dubenskii, B M; Parinov, S P; Smirnov, O V

    2004-06-01

    Sudden sampling introduction into a membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) considerably improves the selectivity of the membrane inlet and is therefore applicable even for compounds with low permeabilities through a silicone membrane. In this study the basics of cyclic non-steady-state sudden increase sample injection were studied using a three-membrane inlet and a portable sector double-focusing mass spectrometer. The operational parameters of the inlet system providing the most efficient enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air were defined. Simulation of the diffusion process following sudden sample introduction into the three-membrane inlet was also carried out. Experimental testing of the three-membrane inlet system with the cyclic sudden sample injection mode for benzene, toluene, styrene, and xylene in air was performed. The simulation and the experimental results demonstrated that, when this mode is used, the VOCs/nitrogen relative enrichment factor of samples introduced into the mass spectrometer equipped with a three-membrane inlet is increased by a factor of approximately 10(5) compared with a direct introduction method. This effect may be used to decrease detection limits of compounds obtained with mass spectrometry to decrease matrix flow through the inlet at the same detection limits.

  9. Experimental Results of Performance Tests on a Four-Port Wave Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John; Welch, Gerard E.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    A series of tests has been performed on a four-port wave rotor suitable for use as a topping stage on a gas turbine engine, to measure the overall pressure ratio obtainable as a function of temperature ratio, inlet mass flow, loop flow ratio, and rotor speed. The wave rotor employed an open high pressure loop that is the high pressure inlet flow was not the air exhausted from the high pressure outlet, but was obtained from a separate heated source, although the mass flow rates of the two flows were balanced. This permitted the choice of a range of loop-flow ratios (i.e., ratio of high pressure flow to low pressure flow), as well as the possibility of examining the effect of mass flow imbalance. Imbalance could occur as a result of leakage or deliberate bleeding for cooling air. Measurements of the pressure drop in the high pressure loop were also obtained. A pressure ratio of 1.17 was obtained at a temperature ratio of 2.0, with an inlet mass flow of 0.6 lb/s. Earlier tests had given a pressure ratio of less than 1.12. The improvement was due to improved sealing between the high pressure and low pressure loops, and a modification to the movable end-wall which is provided to allow for rotor expansion.

  10. Inlet design studies for a Mach 2.2 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, K. M.; Welge, H. R.; Lee, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Various inlet-engine combinations have been studied to find a preferred inlet concept for integration with an advanced technology Mach 2.2 cruise vehicle having a cruise lift-to-drag ratio of 9.6. For the purposes of this study, the range capability for a fixed takeoff gross weight was used to assess the various inlet-engine combinations. Inlet concept selection studies are described which indicated that an axisymmetric, mixed compression inlet was preferred. This study considered four inlet and three engine cycle combinations where the engine airflow was tailored to the inlet airflow delivery capability. Detailed design studies of two mixed compression inlet types are discussed. These were a translating centerbody inlet and a collapsing centerbody bicone inlet. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of each inlet is described. These inlets were also matched to different engine cycles tailored to the inlet airflow capability. The range increments favored the bicone inlet concept primarily because of lighter weight, reduced bleed air, and greater transonic airflow/thrust capability.

  11. 19 CFR 122.120 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... § 122.120 Transportation to another port for exportation. (a) Application. Air cargo may be transferred as transit air cargo at the port of arrival for transportation to another port in the U.S. and...

  12. 19 CFR 122.119 - Transportation to another U.S. port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation to another U.S. port. 122.119... Transportation to another U.S. port. (a) Application. Air cargo shipments may be transferred for transportation as transit air cargo from the port of arrival to another port in the U.S. under this section....

  13. 19 CFR 122.120 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... § 122.120 Transportation to another port for exportation. (a) Application. Air cargo may be transferred as transit air cargo at the port of arrival for transportation to another port in the U.S. and...

  14. 19 CFR 122.120 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... § 122.120 Transportation to another port for exportation. (a) Application. Air cargo may be transferred as transit air cargo at the port of arrival for transportation to another port in the U.S. and...

  15. 19 CFR 122.119 - Transportation to another U.S. port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation to another U.S. port. 122.119... Transportation to another U.S. port. (a) Application. Air cargo shipments may be transferred for transportation as transit air cargo from the port of arrival to another port in the U.S. under this section....

  16. 19 CFR 122.119 - Transportation to another U.S. port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation to another U.S. port. 122.119... Transportation to another U.S. port. (a) Application. Air cargo shipments may be transferred for transportation as transit air cargo from the port of arrival to another port in the U.S. under this section....

  17. 19 CFR 122.119 - Transportation to another U.S. port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation to another U.S. port. 122.119... Transportation to another U.S. port. (a) Application. Air cargo shipments may be transferred for transportation as transit air cargo from the port of arrival to another port in the U.S. under this section....

  18. 19 CFR 122.119 - Transportation to another U.S. port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation to another U.S. port. 122.119... Transportation to another U.S. port. (a) Application. Air cargo shipments may be transferred for transportation as transit air cargo from the port of arrival to another port in the U.S. under this section....

  19. 19 CFR 122.120 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... § 122.120 Transportation to another port for exportation. (a) Application. Air cargo may be transferred as transit air cargo at the port of arrival for transportation to another port in the U.S. and...

  20. 19 CFR 122.120 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... § 122.120 Transportation to another port for exportation. (a) Application. Air cargo may be transferred as transit air cargo at the port of arrival for transportation to another port in the U.S. and...

  1. 5. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AND IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 38. FLAG/ADMIRAL BRIDGE PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING RADAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. FLAG/ADMIRAL BRIDGE - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING RADAR SCOPE, ADMIRAL'S CHAIR, GYRO REPEATER AND VARIOUS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Supplemental air valve for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, C.W.

    1987-12-29

    A valve for attachment in the PCV system of an internal combustion engine for regulating the admission of supplemental air to the crank case blow-by return, comprising: (a) a valve body defining a bore, the body having an inlet and an outlet connection defining a passageway through the valve for the blow-by return, the body further defining a port for air; (b) a valve member reciprocal within the bore having a piston member dividing at least a portion of the bore into two pressure chambers, the pressure chambers having means for connection of each to a source of engine vacuum; (c) the valve member being shiftable from and open position permitting air to enter through the port to the passageway and having a closed position blocking admission of air through the port to the passageway; and (d) resilient means normally urging the valve body to the closed position, the resilient means being selectively adjustable to provide a predetermined biasing force whereby the piston is shiftable to the open position in response to changes in engine vacuum to admit supplemental air to the engine.

  4. Traffic-related air pollution in the community of San Ysidro, CA, in relation to northbound vehicle wait times at the US-Mexico border Port of Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Dumbauld, Jill J.; Garnica, Lynelle; Chowdhury, M. Zohir; Velascosoltero, José; Mota-Raigoza, Arturo; Flores, David; Rodríguez, Edgar; Panagon, Nicolas; Gamble, Jamison; Irby, Travis; Tran, Cuong; Elder, John; Galaviz, Vanessa E.; Hoffman, Lisa; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The San Diego/Tijuana US-Mexico border crossing at the San Ysidro Port of Entry (POE) is the world's busiest international land border crossing (GSA, 2013). San Ysidro, California, is the US community immediately adjacent to the border crossing. More than 90% of San Ysidro residents are Hispanic, and the average household income is less than 60% of the San Diego regional average. This study investigated the San Ysidro POE as a source of traffic-related air pollutants in San Ysidro, especially in relation to wind direction and northbound vehicle wait times. The pollutants ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), black carbon (BC), and particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were periodically sampled through the course of 2010 at four rooftop locations: one commercial establishment near the POE, two elementary schools in San Ysidro, and a coastal estuary reference site. Weather data from two nearby sites and northbound border wait times were also collected. Results indicate consistently higher daytime BC and UFP concentrations at the measurement sites near the POE. Pollution concentrations were higher during low wind speeds or when wind was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro. In February, March and November measurements, black carbon pollution appeared to be significantly positively associated with the POE northbound wait times when the wind direction was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro or during low wind speeds, but not when the wind direction was from the west/northwest towards the POE. This pilot study is the first to investigate the potential effect of the POE, especially the long northbound traffic delays, on the nearby community of San Ysidro. Disparities in traffic exposures are an environmental justice issue and this should be taken into account during planning and operation of POEs.

  5. A means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.E.

    1993-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system which includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; and insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; and inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve. The piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inelt gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal.

  6. Port-Wine Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Port-Wine Stain A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a three-month-old infant with a port-wine stain. Overview A port-wine stain is a ...

  7. Air-cooled overhead-valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air-cooled overhead-valve internal combustion engine. The engine is composed of a crankcase with a crankshaft, a cylinder block with a cylinder head and a combustion chamber mounted in the crankcase. At least a pair of intake and exhaust valves installed in intake and exhaust ports are formed in the cylinder head. A valve drive system mounted adjacent to the cylinder block drives the intake and exhaust valves through cam-driven push rods. An intake pipe is connected at one end of the intake port and at its opposite end to an air cleaner and a carburetor. An exhaust duct is connected at one end of the exhaust port. A flywheel is joined to the crankshaft at the other end of the output side end of the crankshaft and a cooling fan mounted on the flywheel. The improvements are where the cooling fan is housed, together with the crankcase and flywheel, in a fan casing having a pair of inlet and outlet openings bored in opposite walls. The inlet opening is located at the flywheel side of the crankshaft, while the outlet opening is located at the opposite side of the crankshaft from the flywheel. The cam-driven push rods are located in the crankcase on that side of the cylinder block far remote from where the intake pipe is connected to the intake port. The cooling fan is mounted in the fan casing in such a manner that the cooling air from the cooling fan is allowed to flow in a direction substantially parallel with the axis of the crankshaft, along the surface of the cylinder block and cylinder head.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet

  9. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were

  10. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were

  11. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to

  12. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the

  13. An experimental study of high contraction ratio, subsonic wind tunnel inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, M. J.; Batill, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The inlet or contraction section has significant impact on the performance and operating characteristics of any subsonic wind tunnel. Previous experimental studies have been conducted to examine specific aspects of inlet performance and design. This work builds on this earlier experience by performing a comprehensive experimental analysis of a member of a family of high contraction ratio inlets used on indraft type wind tunnels. Quantitative flow field measurements were made using wall static ports, a five-hole pressure probe, and a hot wire anemometry system. Smoke flow visualization techniques were used to examine the inlet flow in a more qualitative manner and to correlate with quantitative measurements. This experimental investigation has provided insight into some of the many problems associated with inlet flows.

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 LOOKING PORT TO STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 LOOKING PORT TO STARBOARD, THREE MINECRAFT MORRED ALONGSIDE ON PORT AFT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS IN BACKGROUND, PUGET SOUND NAVEL SHIPYARD TO LEFT SIDE OF PHOTO. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  16. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  17. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  18. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  19. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  20. Experimental Investigation of Actuators for Flow Control in Inlet Ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, John; Elimelech, Yossef; Amitay, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Attractive to aircraft designers are compact inlets, which implement curved flow paths to the compressor face. These curved flow paths could be employed for multiple reasons. One of which is to connect the air intake to the engine embedded in the aircraft body. A compromise must be made between the compactness of the inlet and its aerodynamic performance. The aerodynamic purpose of inlets is to decelerate the oncoming flow before reaching the engine while minimizing total pressure loss, unsteadiness and distortion. Low length-to-diameter ratio inlets have a high degree of curvature, which inevitably causes flow separation and secondary flows. Currently, the length of the propulsion system is constraining the overall size of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), thus, smaller more efficient aircrafts could be realized if the propulsion system could be shortened. Therefore, active flow control is studied in a compact (L/D=1.5) inlet to improve performance metrics. Actuation from a spanwise varying coanda type ejector actuator and a hybrid coanda type ejector / vortex generator jet actuator is investigated. Special attention will be given to the pressure recovery at the AIP along with unsteady pressure signatures along the inlet surface and at the AIP.

  1. The Effect of the Inlet Mach Number and Inlet-boundary-layer Thickness on the Performance of a 23 Degree Conical-diffuser-tail-pipe Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persh, Jerome

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the inlet Mach number and entrance-boundary-layer thickness on the performance of a 23 degree 21-inch conical-diffuser - tail-pipe combination with a 2:1 area ratio. The air flows used in this investigation covered an inlet Mach number range from 0.17 to 0.89 and corresponding Reynolds numbers of 1,700,000 to 7,070,000. Results are reported for two inlet-boundary-layer thicknesses. Over the entire range of flows, the mean value of the inlet displacement thickness is about 0.034 inch for the thinner inlet boundary layer and about 0.170 inch for the case of the thicker inlet boundary layer. The performance of the diffuser - tail-pipe combination is presented together with examples of longitudinal static-pressure distribution and the results of boundary-layer pressure surveys made at six points along the diffuser wall. The results indicated a progressive diminution of the static-pressure recovery and a steady increase in the total-pressure losses as the inlet Mach number was increased for both inlet-boundary-layer thicknesses. The ratio of actual static-pressure rise to that theoretically possible was much less and the total-pressure losses were greater for the case of the thicker inlet boundary layer throughout the speed range investigated. With the thinner inlet boundary layer, flow separation occurred at the diffuser exit at all inlet Mach numbers.Unseparated flow alternating with separated flow was observed near the inlet at the higher velocities. For the case of the thicker inlet boundary layer, the origin of the separated region occurred in the vicinity of the inlet-duct-diffuser junction section at all Mach numbers.

  2. 50 CFR Table 14a to Part 679 - Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska 14a Table... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 14a Table 14a to Part 679—Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska Port Name NMFS Code ADF&G... Inlet 124 XIP False Pass 125 FSP Fairbanks 305 FBK Galena 306 GAL Glacier Bay 307 GLB Glennallen 308...

  3. 50 CFR Table 14a to Part 679 - Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska 14a Table... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 14a Table 14a to Part 679—Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska Port Name NMFS Code ADF&G... Inlet 124 XIP False Pass 125 FSP Fairbanks 305 FBK Galena 306 GAL Glacier Bay 307 GLB Glennallen 308...

  4. 50 CFR Table 14a to Part 679 - Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska 14a Table... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 14a Table 14a to Part 679—Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska Port Name NMFS Code ADF&G... Inlet 124 XIP False Pass 125 FSP Fairbanks 305 FBK Galena 306 GAL Glacier Bay 307 GLB Glennallen 308...

  5. 50 CFR Table 14a to Part 679 - Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska 14a Table... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 14a Table 14a to Part 679—Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska Port Name NMFS Code ADF&G... Inlet 124 XIP False Pass 125 FSP Fairbanks 305 FBK Galena 306 GAL Glacier Bay 307 GLB Glennallen 308...

  6. 76 FR 77996 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permits for Eni US Operating Co., Inc. and Port Dolphin Energy, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Eva Land, Air Permits Section, Air Planning Branch, Air... reached via electronic mail at land.eva@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 2, 2011, the...

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Multi-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Lewin, Keith F.

    1997-04-15

    A multi-port valve for regulating, as a function of ambient air having varying wind velocity and wind direction in an open-field control area, the distribution of a fluid, particularly carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) gas, in a fluid distribution system so that the control area remains generally at an elevated fluid concentration or level of said fluid. The multi-port valve generally includes a multi-port housing having a plurality of outlets therethrough disposed in a first pattern of outlets and at least one second pattern of outlets, and a movable plate having a plurality of apertures extending therethrough disposed in a first pattern of apertures and at least one second pattern of apertures. The first pattern of apertures being alignable with the first pattern of outlets and the at least one second pattern of apertures being alignable with the second pattern of outlets. The first pattern of apertures has a predetermined orientation with the at least one second pattern of apertures. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a low velocity from any direction, the movable plate is positioned to equally distribute the supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to the open-field control area. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a high velocity from a given direction, the movable plate is positioned to generally distribute a supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to that portion of the open-field control area located upwind.

  9. Multi-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Lewin, K.F.

    1997-04-15

    A multi-port valve is described for regulating, as a function of ambient air having varying wind velocity and wind direction in an open-field control area, the distribution of a fluid, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas, in a fluid distribution system so that the control area remains generally at an elevated fluid concentration or level of said fluid. The multi-port valve generally includes a multi-port housing having a plurality of outlets there through disposed in a first pattern of outlets and at least one second pattern of outlets, and a movable plate having a plurality of apertures extending there through disposed in a first pattern of apertures and at least one second pattern of apertures. The first pattern of apertures being alignable with the first pattern of outlets and the at least one second pattern of apertures being alignable with the second pattern of outlets. The first pattern of apertures has a predetermined orientation with the at least one second pattern of apertures. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a low velocity from any direction, the movable plate is positioned to equally distribute the supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to the open-field control area. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a high velocity from a given direction, the movable plate is positioned to generally distribute a supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to that portion of the open-field control area located upwind. 7 figs.

  10. Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, also showing mirror to reflect view of communications switchboard - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. A multiobjective shape optimization study for a subsonic submerged inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskinoglu, Ezgi S.

    The purpose of the present work is to summarize the findings of a multiobjective shape optimization study conducted for a subsonic submerged air vehicle inlet. The objective functions of the optimization problem are distortion and swirl indices defined by the distribution of flow parameters over the exit cross-section of the inlet. The geometry alteration is performed by placing a protrusion in the shape of a fin on the baseline inlet surface. Thus, the design variables of the optimization problem are chosen to be the geometrical parameters defining the fin protrusion; namely fin height, length and incidence angle. The Trade Off (also known as epsilon-constraint) method is employed for finding the Pareto optimal set formed by the nondominated solutions of the feasible design space. Since the flow domain solution is required for every step along the line search, an automated optimization loop is constructed by integrating the optimizer with a surface modeler, a mesh generator and a flow solver through which the flow parameters over the compressor face are computed. In addition, the trade study for fin protrusion, the analyses and the comparison of the baseline and Pareto optimal solutions are presented and observations concerning grid resolution and convergence behaviour are discussed. The results display an irregular and discontinuous Pareto optimal set. Optimum inlet designs are scattered in two regions from which one representative inlet design is chosen and analyzed. As a result, it is concluded that an inlet designer has two options within the framework of this optimization study: an inlet design with high swirl but low distortion or an inlet design with low swirl but higher distortion.

  12. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A LOW FLOW RATE INLET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several ambient air samplers that have been designated by the U. S. EPA as Federal Reference Methods (FRMs) for measuring particulate matter nominally less than 10 um (PM10) include the use of a particular inlet design that aspirates particulate matter from the atmosphere at 1...

  13. 19 CFR 122.164 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.164 Transportation to another port for exportation. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  14. 19 CFR 122.164 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.164 Transportation to another port for exportation. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  15. 19 CFR 122.164 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.164 Transportation to another port for exportation. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  16. 19 CFR 122.164 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.164 Transportation to another port for exportation. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  17. 19 CFR 122.164 - Transportation to another port for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation to another port for exportation... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.164 Transportation to another port for exportation. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  18. Experimental investigation of cavitation in pump inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Roman; Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The article deals with experimental research of cavitation development in inlet tube of hydraulic pump. The pressures in inlet and outlet tube of the pump and flow rate were measured. Mineral oil was used as working fluid. The cavitation was visually evaluated in transparent inlet tube. The inlet tube underpressure was achieved by throttle valve. The relationship between the generation of bubbles and the inlet pressure is evaluated.

  19. Design and Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Folk, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Computational tools are being developed for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets. The objective is to update existing tools and provide design and low-order aerodynamic analysis capability for advanced inlet concepts. The Inlet Tools effort includes aspects of creating an electronic database of inlet design information, a document describing inlet design and analysis methods, a geometry model for describing the shape of inlets, and computer tools that implement the geometry model and methods. The geometry model has a set of basic inlet shapes that include pitot, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and stream-traced inlet shapes. The inlet model divides the inlet flow field into parts that facilitate the design and analysis methods. The inlet geometry model constructs the inlet surfaces through the generation and transformation of planar entities based on key inlet design factors. Future efforts will focus on developing the inlet geometry model, the inlet design and analysis methods, a Fortran 95 code to implement the model and methods. Other computational platforms, such as Java, will also be explored.

  20. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  1. 9 CFR 93.503 - Ports designated for the importation of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the importation of swine. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection and...; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee (no live animals); Galveston and Houston, Texas; and...

  2. 9 CFR 93.503 - Ports designated for the importation of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the importation of swine. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection and...; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee (no live animals); Galveston and Houston, Texas; and...

  3. 9 CFR 93.503 - Ports designated for the importation of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the importation of swine. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection and...; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee (no live animals); Galveston and Houston, Texas; and...

  4. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. Operational test report for 241-AN primary tank inlet control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, J.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-11

    This is the operational test report for 241-AN Tank Farm primary ventilation system inlet air filter and control stations, following their installation in the field and prior to their acceptance for beneficial use.

  7. IPAC-Inlet Performance Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of analyses have been developed which permit the calculation of the performance of common inlet designs. The methods presented are useful for determining the inlet weight flows, total pressure recovery, and aerodynamic drag coefficients for given inlet geometric designs. Limited geometric input data is required to use this inlet performance prediction methodology. The analyses presented here may also be used to perform inlet preliminary design studies. The calculated inlet performance parameters may be used in subsequent engine cycle analyses or installed engine performance calculations for existing uninstalled engine data.

  8. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  9. Centrifugal pump inlet pressure site affects measurement.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Simon; Horton, Alison; Butt, Warwick; Bennett, Martin; Horton, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    During extracorporeal life support (ECLS), blood is exposed to a myriad of unphysiological factors that can affect outcome. One aspect of this is the sub-atmospheric pressure generated by the ECLS pump and imparted to blood elements along the pump inlet line. This pressure can be measured on the inlet line close to the pump head by adding a connector, or at the venous cannula connection site. We compared the two measurement sites located at both points; between the venous cannula-inlet tubing and inlet tubing-pump, with a range of cannulae and flows. We also investigated the effects on inlet pressure from pump afterload and increasing inlet tubing length.

  10. Analysis of an advanced ducted propeller subsonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iek, Chanthy; Boldman, Donald R.; Ibrahim, Mounir

    1992-01-01

    A time marching Navier-Stokes code called PARC (PARC2D for 2-D/axisymmetric and PARC3D for 3-D flow simulations) was validated for an advanced ducted propeller (ADP) subsonic inlet. The code validation for an advanced ducted propeller (ADP) subsonic inlet. The code validation was implemented for a non-separated flow condition associated with the inlet operating at angles-of-attack of 0 and 25 degrees. The inlet test data were obtained in the 9 x 15 ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center as part of a cooperative study with Pratt and Whitney. The experimental study focused on the ADP inlet performance for take-off and approach conditions. The inlet was tested at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, at angles-of-attack between O and 35 degrees, and at a maximum propeller speed of 12,000 RPM which induced a corrected air flow rate of about 46 lb/sec based on standard day conditions. The computational grid and flow boundary conditions (BC) were based on the actual inlet geometry and the funnel flow conditions. At the propeller face, two types of BC's were applied: a mass flow BC and a fixed flow properties BC. The fixed flow properties BC was based on a combination of data obtained from the experiment and calculations using a potential flow code. Comparison of the computational results with the test data indicates that the PARC code with the propeller face fixed flow properties BC provided a better prediction of the inlet surface static pressures than the predictions when the mass flow BC was used. For an angle-of-attack of 0 degrees, the PARC2D code with the propeller face mass flow BC provided a good prediction of inlet static pressures except in the region of high pressure gradient. With the propeller face fixed flow properties BC, the PARC2D code provided a good prediction of the inlet static pressures. For an angle-of-attack of 25 degrees with the mass flow BC, the PARC3D code predicted statis pressures which deviated significantly from the test data

  11. Experimental Investigation of Flow Control in a Compact Inlet Duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debronsky, Brian; Amitay, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Attractive to aircraft designers are compact inlets, which implement curved flow paths from the air intake of the engine to the compressor face. A compromise must be made between the compactness of the inlet and its aerodynamic performance. The aerodynamic purpose of inlets is to decelerate the oncoming flow before reaching the engine while minimizing total pressure loss, unsteadiness and distortion. Low length-to-diameter ratio inlets have a high degree of curvature, which inevitably causes flow separation and secondary flows. To address this issue, active flow control was implemented on a compact (L/D = 1.6) inlet to improve its performance metrics. The experiments were conducted at a Mach number of 0.44, where the actuation from an array of skewed and pitched jets produced streamwise vortices opposite to the secondary flow structures. The actuation resulted in an improved pressure recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP), where both the strength of the secondary structures and the flow unsteadiness were significantly reduced. Northrop Grumman Corporation.

  12. Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.

    2012-11-01

    Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

  13. Gaseous fuel and air proportioning device

    SciTech Connect

    Lassanske, G. G.; Poshlman, A. G.

    1984-01-10

    The device for proportioning a gaseous fuel and air for combustion in an internal combustion engine includes a plate-like first member having a peripheral edge portion and a second member cooperating with the first member having a peripheral edge portion and a second member cooperating with the first member to define a mixing chamber having an outlet adapted to be connected in communication with the air intake of the engine carburetor. The second member also includes an annular portion having an arcuate first wall which is convex to and spaced from the peripheral edge portion of the first member to define an annular venturi having an inlet in communication with the atmosphere and an annular outlet in communication with the mixing chamber. A base member or second wall cooperates with the arcuate wall to form a substantially closed, annular plenum chamber into which a gaseous fuel, such as natural gas, is admitted when the engine is to be operated on the gaseous fuel. The gaseous fuel is admitted into the mixing chamber from the plenum chamber through one or more ports in the arcuate wall at or in the vicinity of the throat of the annular venturi. A pair of circumferentially spaced radially extending partitions located on the opposite sides of each port define a radially extending venturi which has a throat located at or in the vicinity of the port and serves to induce flow of the gaseous fuel through the corresponding port. The proportioning device preferably is arranged to fit inside the housing of an existing air cleaner.

  14. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends.

  15. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends. PMID:26392622

  16. Self-regulating fuel staging port for turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Van Nieuwenhuizen, William F.; Fox, Timothy A.; Williams, Steven

    2014-07-08

    A port (60) for axially staging fuel and air into a combustion gas flow path 28 of a turbine combustor (10A). A port enclosure (63) forms an air path through a combustor wall (30). Fuel injectors (64) in the enclosure provide convergent fuel streams (72) that oppose each other, thus converting velocity pressure to static pressure. This forms a flow stagnation zone (74) that acts as a valve on airflow (40, 41) through the port, in which the air outflow (41) is inversely proportion to the fuel flow (25). The fuel flow rate is controlled (65) in proportion to engine load. At high loads, more fuel and less air flow through the port, making more air available to the premixing assemblies (36).

  17. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  18. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  19. Optimal control of a supersonic inlet to minimize frequency of inlet unstart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Zeller, J. R.; Geyser, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the use of modern control theory for the design of controls for a supersonic inlet is described. In particular, the task of controlling a mixed-compression supersonic inlet is formulated as a linear optimal stochastic control and estimation problem. An inlet can exhibit an undesirable instability due to excessive inlet normal shock motion. For the optimal control formulation of the inlet problem, a non quadratic performance index, which is equal to the expected frequency of inlet unstarts, is used. This physically meaningful performance index is minimized for a range of inlet disturbance and measurement noise covariances.

  20. Admiralty Inlet Advanced Turbulence Measurements: May 2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kilcher, Levi

    2015-05-18

    This data is from measurements at Admiralty Head, in Admiralty Inlet (Puget Sound) in May of 2015. The measurements were made using Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) equipped ADVs mounted on a 'StableMoor' (Manufacturer: DeepWater Buoyancy) buoy and a Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM). These platforms position ADV heads above the seafloor to make mid-depth turbulence measurements. The inertial measurements from the IMU allows for removal of mooring motion in post processing. The mooring and buoy motion has been removed from the stream-wise and vertical velocity signals (u, w). The lateral (v) velocity has some 'persistent motion contamination' due to mooring sway. The TTM was deployed with one ADV, it's position was: 48 09.145', -122 41.209' The StableMoor was deployed twice, the first time it was deployed in 'wing-mode' with two ADVs ('Port' and 'Star') at: 48 09.166', -122 41.173' The second StableMoor deployment was in 'Nose' mode with one ADV at: 48 09.166', -122 41.174' Units ----- - Velocity data (_u, urot, uacc) is in m/s. - Acceleration (Accel) data is in m/s^2. - Angular rate (AngRt) data is in rad/s. - The components of all vectors are in 'ENU' orientation. That is, the first index is True East, the second is True North, and the third is Up (vertical). - All other quantities are in the units defined in the Nortek Manual. Motion correction and rotation into the ENU earth reference frame was performed using the Python-based open source DOLfYN library (http://lkilcher.github.io/dolfyn/). Details on motion correction can be found there. Additional details on TTM measurements at this site can be found in the included Marine Energy Technology Symposium paper.

  1. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    Many treatments have been tried for port-wine stains, including freezing, surgery, radiation, and tattooing. Laser therapy is most successful in eliminating port-wine stains. It is the only method that can destroy the tiny blood vessels in the skin ...

  2. 33 CFR 165.705 - Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....705 Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida. (a) Security Zone A—East (Trident) Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Florida. All waters of the East Basin north of latitude 28°24′36″ N. (b) Security Zone B—Middle Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, adjacent to...

  3. 33 CFR 165.705 - Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....705 Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida. (a) Security Zone A—East (Trident) Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Florida. All waters of the East Basin north of latitude 28°24′36″ N. (b) Security Zone B—Middle Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, adjacent to...

  4. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection...

  5. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection...

  6. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  7. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  8. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  9. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  10. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  11. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS inspection...

  12. Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

  13. Euler Calculations at Off-Design Conditions for an Inlet of Inward Turning RBCC-SSTO Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, N.; Kothari, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    The inviscid performance of an inward turning inlet design is calculated computationally for the first time. Hypersonic vehicle designs based on the inward turning inlets have been shown analytically to have increased effective specific impulse and lower heat load than comparably designed vehicles with two-dimensional inlets. The inward turning inlets are designed inversely from inviscid stream surfaces of known flow fields. The computational study is performed on a Mach 12 inlet design to validate the performance predicted by the design code (HAVDAC) and calculate its off-design Mach number performance. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved for Mach 4, 8, and 12 using a software package called SAM, which consists of an unstructured mesh generator (SAMmesh), a three-dimensional unstructured mesh flow solver (SAMcfd), and a CAD-based software (SAMcad). The computed momentum averaged inlet throat pressure is within 6% of the design inlet throat pressure. The mass-flux at the inlet throat is also within 7 % of the value predicted by the design code thereby validating the accuracy of the design code. The off-design Mach number results show that flow spillage is minimal, and the variation in the mass capture ratio with Mach number is comparable to an ideal 2-D inlet. The results from the inviscid flow calculations of a Mach 12 inward turning inlet indicate that the inlet design has very good on and off-design performance which makes it a promising design candidate for future air-breathing hypersonic vehicles.

  14. Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, J Howard; Mccafferty, Richard J; Surine, Oakley W

    1947-01-01

    The combustion performance, and particularly the phenomenon of altitude operational limits, was studied by operating the annular combustor of a turbojet engine over a range of conditions of air flow, inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and fuel flow. Information was obtained on the combustion efficiencies, the effect on combustion of inlet variables, the altitude operational limits with two different fuels, the pressure losses in the combustor, the temperature and velocity profiles at the combustor outlet, the extent of afterburning, the fuel-injection characteristics, and the condition of the combustor basket.

  15. Radial inlet guide vanes for a combustor

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Simons, Derrick; York, William; Ziminsky, Willy S

    2013-02-12

    A combustor may include an interior flow path therethrough, a number of fuel nozzles in communication with the interior flow path, and an inlet guide vane system positioned about the interior flow path to create a swirled flow therein. The inlet guide vane system may include a number of windows positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles. The inlet guide vane system may also include a number of inlet guide vanes positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles and adjacent to the windows to create a swirled flow within the interior flow path.

  16. Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.

  17. Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

  18. Multiple-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Doody, Thomas J.

    1978-08-22

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable wih one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitted into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits.

  19. Analysis of Fuel Vaporization, Fuel-Air Mixing, and Combustion in Integrated Mixer-Flame Holders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Cline, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Requirements to limit pollutant emissions from the gas turbine engines for the future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) have led to consideration of various low-emission combustor concepts. One such concept is the Integrated Mixer-Flame Holder (IMFH). This report describes a series of IMFH analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. To meet the needs of this study, KIVA-II's boundary condition and chemistry treatments are modified. The study itself examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, and combustion. Parameters being considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube geometry (converging-diverging versus straight walls), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases are run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel-air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel-air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state. Results indicate that fuel-air mixing can be enhanced by a variety of means, the best being a combination of air inlet swirl and a converging-diverging mixer tube geometry. With the IMFH configuration utilized in the present study, flashback becomes more common as the mixer tube diameter is increased and is instigated by disturbances associated with the dilution hole flow.

  20. Development of an Ultra-rapid, Small Tissue-collecting Device for Endoscopic Surgery--the Lymph Node Carrier: Useful in Protecting the Air-sealing Valves of the Trocar for Endoscopic Surgery and in Preventing Port Site Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tokihisa; Ohdaira, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    In laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery for malignant tumors, it is often necessary to recognize intraoperative rapid diagnosis by sampling a small section of tissue that is suspected of the lymphatic or disseminated metastasis of malignant tumor cells, or of the direct invasion. However, sampling of the target tissue has to be carried out without dropping a section into the peritoneal or thoracic cavity and port-site tumor recurrence. We developed a device named the "lymph node carrier (LNC)" that is capable of instantaneously carrying a small piece of tissue out of the body after its insertion into the trocar for conventional laparoscopic surgery. LNC is composed of the following three parts: 1) the carrier container; 2) the external sheath that re-encloses the tissue, which protruded from the container, into the container; and 3) the air-sealing cap. In the in vivo study three sows were used to remove the sigmoid colon and to carry adipose tissue containing the dissected lymph nodes out of the body. Sliding of the external sheath and the LNC container allowed the re-enclosure of adipose tissue protruding from the container. Carriage time of the dissected lymph nodes out of three sows was 37.7±1.5 seconds in mean±SD. LNC was suggested to be a surgical device capable of allowing, in a very efficient manner and a very short period of time, the repeated collection of removed specimens out of the body without damaging the air-sealing valves of the trocar for endoscopic surgery.

  1. Low flight speed acoustic results for a supersonic inlet with auxiliary inlet doors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Glaser, F. W.; Lucas, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A model supersonic inlet with auxiliary inlet doors and bounday layer bleeds was acoustically tested in simulated low speed flight up to Mach 0.2 in the NASA Lewis 9x15 Anechoic Wind Tunnel and statically in the NASA Lewis Anechoic Chamber. A JT8D refan model was used as the noise source. Data were also taken for a CTOL inlet and for an annular inlet with simulated centerbody support struts. Inlet operation with open auxiliary doors increased the blade passage tone by about 10 dB relative to the closed door configuration although noise radiation was primarily through the main inlet rather than the doors. Numerous strong spikes in the noise spectra were associated with the bleed system, and were strongly affected by the centerbody location. The supersonic inlet appeared to suppress multiple pure tone (MPT) generation at the fan source. Inlet length and the presence of support struts were shown not to cause this MPT suppression.

  2. FLOW FIELDS IN SUPERSONIC INLETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program is designed to calculate the flow fields in two-dimensional and three-dimensional axisymmetric supersonic inlets. The method of characteristics is used to compute arrays of points in the flow field. At each point the total pressure, local Mach number, local flow angle, and static pressure are calculated. This program can be used to design and analyze supersonic inlets by determining the surface compression rates and throat flow properties. The program employs the method of characteristics for a perfect gas. The basic equation used in the program is the compatibility equation which relates the change in stream angle to the change in entropy and the change in velocity. In order to facilitate the computation, the flow field behind the bow shock wave is broken into regions bounded by shock waves. In each region successive rays are computed from a surface to a shock wave until the shock wave intersects a surface or falls outside the cowl lip. As soon as the intersection occurs a new region is started and the previous region continued only in the area in which it is needed, thus eliminating unnecessary calculations. The maximum number of regions possible in the program is ten, which allows for the simultaneous calculations of up to nine shock waves. Input to this program consists of surface contours, free-stream Mach number, and various calculation control parameters. Output consists of printed and/or plotted results. For plotted results an SC-4020 or similar plotting device is required. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode and has been implemented on a CDC 7600 with a central memory requirement of approximately 27k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  3. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  4. Depth-discrete sampling port

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, Bradley E.; May, Christopher P.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.; Nichols, Ralph L.

    1999-01-01

    A sampling port is provided which has threaded ends for incorporating the port into a length of subsurface pipe. The port defines an internal receptacle which is in communication with subsurface fluids through a series of fine filtering slits. The receptacle is in further communication through a bore with a fitting carrying a length of tubing there which samples are transported to the surface. Each port further defines an additional bore through which tubing, cables, or similar components of adjacent ports may pass.

  5. Depth-discrete sampling port

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, Bradley E.; May, Christopher P.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.; Nichols, Ralph L.

    1998-07-07

    A sampling port is provided which has threaded ends for incorporating the port into a length of subsurface pipe. The port defines an internal receptacle which is in communication with subsurface fluids through a series of fine filtering slits. The receptacle is in further communication through a bore with a fitting carrying a length of tubing there which samples are transported to the surface. Each port further defines an additional bore through which tubing, cables, or similar components of adjacent ports may pass.

  6. Wave and Wind Effects on Inlet Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubenheimer, B.; Wargula, A.; Orescanin, M. M.; Hopkins, J.; Elgar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and numerical simulations of the water circulation and morphological change in two separate, well-mixed inlets will be compared with each other. Tides, winds, waves, and currents were measured from May 1 to 28, 2012 in and near New River Inlet, NC. Offshore significant wave heights were 0 to 3 m, and wind speeds ranged from 0 to 16 m/s. The long, narrow inlet is about 1000 m wide where it opens onto the ebb shoal, narrows to 100 m wide about 1000 m inland, and connects to the Intracoastal Waterway (which connects to additional ocean inlets about 12 and 36 km north and south, respectively) about 3000 m inland. Tides in the inlet are progressive and inlet flows are in phase with water depths. Measurements also were collected during the summers of 2011-2014, including during Hurricanes Irene and Sandy (offshore significant wave heights > 5 m and winds > 15 m/s), in Katama Bay, MA, which connects to Vineyard Sound via Edgartown Channel and to the Atlantic Ocean via Katama Inlet. During this period, Katama Inlet migrated east about 1000 m, narrowed from 400 to 100 m wide, changed depth from 7 to 2 m, and lengthened from 200 to 1000 m. Tidal flows in Katama Inlet are forced by sea level gradients resulting from the 3-hr phase lag between tides in Vineyard Sound and the Atlantic Ocean. Analyses of the momentum balances suggest that waves drive flows into the mouths of the inlets during storms. The timing of the storms relative to ebb and flood, and wind effects, may affect the discharge and sediment transport through the inlet. Winds and waves also drive alongshore flows on the ebb shoals. Lateral flows at bends in New River Inlet, which may be important to the along-inlet transfer of momentum and to mixing, are affected by winds. The importance of connections to additional inlets in multi-inlet systems will be discussed. Funded by ONR, ASD(R&E), NSF, Sea Grant, and NDSEG.

  7. 6. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 FROM FORWARD PORT QUARTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 FROM FORWARD PORT QUARTER. REMOVABLE AIRCRAFT ELEVATOR (ELEVATOR REMOVAL ALLOWED PASSAGE THROUGH PANAMA CANAL) STOWED ON FORWARD FLIGHT DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five portsPort o...

  9. External-Compression Supersonic Inlet Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2011-01-01

    A computer code named SUPIN has been developed to perform aerodynamic design and analysis of external-compression, supersonic inlets. The baseline set of inlets include axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional single-duct, axisymmetric outward-turning, and two-dimensional bifurcated-duct inlets. The aerodynamic methods are based on low-fidelity analytical and numerical procedures. The geometric methods are based on planar geometry elements. SUPIN has three modes of operation: 1) generate the inlet geometry from a explicit set of geometry information, 2) size and design the inlet geometry and analyze the aerodynamic performance, and 3) compute the aerodynamic performance of a specified inlet geometry. The aerodynamic performance quantities includes inlet flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The geometry output from SUPIN includes inlet dimensions, cross-sectional areas, coordinates of planar profiles, and surface grids suitable for input to grid generators for analysis by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The input data file for SUPIN and the output file from SUPIN are text (ASCII) files. The surface grid files are output as formatted Plot3D or stereolithography (STL) files. SUPIN executes in batch mode and is available as a Microsoft Windows executable and Fortran95 source code with a makefile for Linux.

  10. Overview of the SAMPSON smart inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, James P.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Baumann, Erwin W.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.

    1999-07-01

    The SAMPSON program will demonstrate the application of Smart Materials and Structures to large-scale aircraft and marine propulsion systems and show that smart materials can be used to significantly enhance vehicle performance, thereby enabling new missions and/or expanding current missions. Two demonstrations will be executed in relevant environments and at scales representations of actual vehicle components. The demonstrations will serve to directly address questions of scalability and technology readiness, thereby improving the opportunities and reducing the risk for transitioning the technology into applications. The aircraft application to be examined is the in-flight structural variation of a fighter engine inlet. Smart technologies will be utilized to actively deform the inlet into predetermined configurations to improve the performance of the inlet at all flight conditions. The inlet configurations to be investigated consists of capture area control, compression ramp generation, leading edge blunting, and porosity control. The operation and demonstration of this Smart Inlet is described in detail.

  11. Aerodynamic analysis of VTOL inlets and definition of a short, blowing-lip inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Jones, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results indicated that, without boundary layer control, either a very long inlet or an inlet with a very high contraction ratio lip will be required to meet the stringent design requirements. It is shown that active boundary layer control is an effective means of preventing separation and that a significant reduction in inlet size can be achieved by removing only a small amount of bleed in the throat region of the inlet. A short, blowing-lip model was designed and fabricated. This model features an adjustable, blowing slot located near the hilite on the windward side of the inlet.

  12. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Ament, Frank

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  13. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and ocean...; Portland, Oregon; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee; Galveston and Houston, Texas; Seattle,...

  14. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and ocean...; Portland, Oregon; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee; Galveston and Houston, Texas; Seattle,...

  15. Performance of 19XB-2A Gas Turbine. 1; Effect of Pressure Ratio and Inlet Pressure on Turbine Performance for an Inlet Temperature of 800 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Robert C.; Larkin, Robert G.

    1946-01-01

    An investigation of the 19XB-2A gas turbine is being conducted at the Cleveland laboratory to determine the effect on turbine performance of various inlet pressures, inlet temperatures, pressure ratios, and wheel speeds. The engine of which this turbine is a component is designed to operate at an air flow of 30 pounds per second at a compressor rotor speed of 17,000 rpm at sea-level conditions. At these conditions the total-pressure ratio is 2.08 across the turbine and the turbine inlet total temperature is 2000 degrees R. Runs have been made with turbine inlet total pressures of 20, 30, 40, and 45 inches of mercury absolute for a constant total pressure ratio across the turbine of 2.40, the maximum value that could be obtained. Additional runs have been made with total pressure ratios of 1.50 and 2.00 at an inlet total pressure of 45 inches of mercury absolute. All runs were made with an inlet total temperature of 800 degrees R over a range of corrected turbine wheel speeds from 40 to 150 percent of the corrected speed at the design point. The turbine efficiencies at these conditions are presented.

  16. Research on Supersonic Inlet Bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Phase I data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments project at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are presented which include flow coefficient results for two single-hole boundary-layer bleed configurations. The bleed configurations tested are round holes at inclination angles of 90deg and 20deg both having length-to-diameter ratios of 2.0. Results were obtained at freestream Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92 and unit Reynolds numbers of 0.984, 1.89, and 2.46 10(exp 7)/m. Approach boundary-layer data are presented for each flow condition and the flow coefficient results are compared to existing multi-hole data obtained under similar conditions. For the 90deg hole, the single and multi-hole distributions agree fairly well with the exception that under supercritical operation, the multi-hole data chokes at higher flow coefficient levels. This behavior is also observed for the 20deg hole but to a lesser extent. The 20deg hole also shows a markedly different characteristic at subcritical operation. Also presented are preliminary results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of both configurations at the Mach 1.33 and a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m. Comparison of the results shows the agreement to be very good.

  17. Influence of the inlet velocity profiles on the prediction of velocity distribution inside an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Shah M.E.; Deev, A.V.; Subaschandar, N.; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K.

    2009-01-15

    The influence of the velocity profile at the inlet boundary on the simulation of air velocity distribution inside an electrostatic precipitator is presented in this study. Measurements and simulations were performed in a duct and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). A four-hole cobra probe was used for the measurement of velocity distribution. The flow simulation was performed by using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. Numerical calculations for the air flow were carried out by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the realizable k-{epsilon} turbulence model equations. Simulations were performed with two different velocity profiles at the inlet boundary - one with a uniform (ideal) velocity profile and the other with a non-uniform (real) velocity profile to demonstrate the effect of velocity inlet boundary condition on the flow simulation results inside an ESP. The real velocity profile was obtained from the velocity measured at different points of the inlet boundary whereas the ideal velocity profile was obtained by calculating the mean value of the measured data. Simulation with the real velocity profile at the inlet boundary was found to predict better the velocity distribution inside the ESP suggesting that an experimentally measured velocity profile could be used as velocity inlet boundary condition for an accurate numerical simulation of the ESP. (author)

  18. 51. Port elevation, in port. Note reduced turtle deck due ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Port elevation, in port. Note reduced turtle deck due to quarters expansion. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  19. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  20. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  1. Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Wall Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florea, Razvan Virgil (Inventor); Matalanis, Claude G. (Inventor); Stucky, Mark B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an inlet duct formed to have a shape with a first ellipse in one half and a second ellipse in a second half. The second half has an upstream most end which is smaller than the first ellipse. The inlet duct has a surface defining the second ellipse which curves away from the first ellipse, such that the second ellipse is larger at an intermediate location. The second ellipse is even larger at a downstream end of the inlet duct leading into a fan.

  2. Nonmarine upper cretaceous rocks, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Griesbach, F.B.; Egbert, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    A section of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) nonmarine sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with associated coal is exposed near Saddle mountain on the northwest flank of Cook Inlet basin, the only known surface exposure of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Cook Inlet area. The section, at least 83.3 m thick, unconformably overlies the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation and is unconformably overlain by the lower Tertiary West Foreland Formation. These upper Cretaceous rocks correlate lithologically with the second or deeper interval of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks penetrated in the lower Cook Inlet COST 1 well.

  3. Wind- and Tide-Driven Cross-Inlet Circulation at New River Inlet, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargula, A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cross-channel wind forcing to inlet circulation is examined using observations of winds, waves, water levels, and currents collected in and near New River Inlet, NC during May 2012. Although the direct effect of local wind forcing may be neglected in the subtidal along-inlet momentum balance, which is dominated by the pressure gradient, wave radiation stress gradient, and bottom friction, cross-inlet winds may have a significant effect on along-inlet dynamics by driving cross-inlet flows (approximately 0.1 to 0.3 m/s), which can mix lateral and vertical gradients in momentum and water properties. New River Inlet is 1000 m wide at the mouth and tapers to 100 m wide about 1000 m away from the mouth after two sharp 90° bends. Five colocated pressure gages and current profilers were deployed from the shallow (2-3 m water depth) ebb shoal outside the mouth through the deep (5-10 m depth) inlet channel to 200 m beyond the first 90° bend. The inlet is well mixed, and along-inlet tidal currents ranged from +/- 1.5 m/s, offshore significant wave heights from 0.5 to 2.5 m, and wind speeds from 0 to 16 m/s. Time series of currents and winds were lowpass-filtered to examine subtidal wind effects. At the first 90° bend, both surface and bottom cross-inlet flows were correlated (r2 = 0.6) with cross-inlet wind velocity. On the shallow ebb shoal, the cross-inlet flows also were correlated with cross-inlet wind velocity (r2 = 0.6). Cross-inlet flows exhibited a two-layer response to the wind inside the inlet and a depth-uniform response outside the mouth. The observations will be used to examine the momentum balance governing temporal and spatial variations in cross-inlet wind effects on inlet circulation. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  4. Shock Positioning Controls Designs for a Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The supersonic inlet design that is utilized to efficiently compress the incoming air and deliver it to the engine has many design challenges. Among those challenges is the shock positioning of internal compression inlets, which requires active control in order to maintain performance and to prevent inlet unstarts due to upstream (freestream) and downstream (engine) disturbances. In this paper a novel feedback control technique is presented, which emphasizes disturbance attenuation among other control performance criteria, while it ties the speed of the actuation system(s) to the design of the controller. In this design, the desired performance specifications for the overall control system are used to design the closed loop gain of the feedback controller and then, knowing the transfer function of the plant, the controller is calculated to achieve this performance. The innovation is that this design procedure is methodical and allows maximization of the performance of the designed control system with respect to actuator rates, while the stability of the calculated controller is guaranteed.

  5. The Origin of Inlet Buzz in a Mach 1.7 Low Boom Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Weir, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic inlets with external compression, having a good level performance at the critical operating point, exhibit a marked instability of the flow in some subcritical operation below a critical value of the capture mass flow ratio. This takes the form of severe oscillations of the shock system, commonly known as "buzz". The underlying purpose of this study is to indicate how Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) analysis of supersonic inlets will alter how we envision unsteady inlet aerodynamics, particularly inlet buzz. Presented in this paper is a discussion regarding the physical explanation underlying inlet buzz as indicated by DES analysis. It is the normal shock wave boundary layer separation along the spike surface which reduces the capture mass flow that is the controlling mechanism which determines the onset of inlet buzz, and it is the aerodynamic characteristics of a choked nozzle that provide the feedback mechanism that sustains the buzz cycle by imposing a fixed mean corrected inlet weight flow. Comparisons between the DES analysis of the Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMCO) N+2 inlet and schlieren photographs taken during the test of the Gulfstream Large Scale Low Boom (LSLB) inlet in the NASA 8x6 ft. Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) show a strong similarity both in turbulent flow field structure and shock wave formation during the buzz cycle. This demonstrates the value of DES analysis for the design and understanding of supersonic inlets.

  6. Plasma control of shock wave configuration in off-design mode of M = 2 inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falempin, Francois; Firsov, Alexander A.; Yarantsev, Dmitry A.; Goldfeld, Marat A.; Timofeev, Konstantin; Leonov, Sergey B.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the steering effect of a weakly ionized plasma on a supersonic flow structure in a two-dimensional aerodynamic configuration with a three-shock compression ramp in an off-design operational mode. Experiments were performed in wind tunnel T-313 of ITAM SB RAS, with the model air inlet designed for operation at a flow of Mach number M = 2. The inlet was tested at M = 2, 2.5, and 3 and with Re = (25-36) × 106/m and an angle of attack AoA = 0°, 5°, and 8°. For the regulation of the inlet characteristics, a plasma generator with electrical power W pl = 2-10 kW was flush-mounted upstream of the compression ramp. A significant plasma effect on the shock configuration at the inlet and on the flow parameters after air compression is considered. It is shown that the main shock wave angle is controllable by means of the plasma power magnitude and, therefore, can be accurately adjusted to the cowl lip of an inlet with a fixed geometry. An additional plasma effect has been demonstrated through a notable increase in the pressure recovery coefficient in a flowpass extension behind the inlet because of an nearly isentropic pattern of flow compression with the plasma turned on. Numerical simulation brings out the details of 3D distribution of the flow structure and parameters throughout the model at thermal energy deposition in inlet near the compression surfaces. We conclude that the plasma-based technique may be a feasible method for expanding supersonic inlet operational limits.

  7. Discharge coefficients of cooling holes with radiused and chamfered inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, N.; Spencer, A.

    1991-06-01

    The flow of cooling air within the internal passages of gas turbines is controlled and metered using holes in disks and casings. The effects of inlet radiusing and chamfering of these holes on the discharge coefficient are discussed. Experimental results for a range of radiusing and chamfering ratios for holes of different length to diameter ratios are presented, covering the range of pressure ratios of practical interest. The results indicate that radiusing and chamfering are both beneficial in increasing the discharge coefficient. Increases of 10-30 percent are possible. Chamfered holes give the more desirable performance characteristics in addition to being easier to produce than radiused holes.

  8. Icing Characteristics and Anti-Icing Heat Requirements for Hollow and Ternally Modified Gas-Heated Inlet Guide Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Vernon H.; Bowden, Dean T.

    1950-01-01

    A two-dimensional inlet-guide-vane cascade was investigated to determine the effects of ice formations on the pressure losses across the guide vanes and to evaluate the heated gas flow and temperature required to prevent Icing at various conditions. A gas flow of approximately 0.4 percent of the inlet-air flow was necessary for anti-icing a hollow guide-vane stage at an inlet-gas temperature of 500 F under the following icing conditions: air velocity, 280 miles per hour; water content, 0.9 gram per cubic meter; and Inlet-air static temperature, 00 F. Also presented are the anti-icing gas flows required with modifications of the hollow Internal gas passage, which show heatinput savings greater than 50 percent.

  9. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... upsetting for kids, especially if they're large, dark, or on the face. And any birthmark can take a toll on a child's self-confidence, no matter how large or small the mark might be. The good news is that lasers (highly concentrated light energy) can make many kids' port-wine stains much ...

  10. Computational analysis of ramjet engine inlet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Beverly; Thomas, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A computational analysis of a ramjet engine at Mach 3.5 has been conducted and compared to results obtained experimentally. This study focuses on the behavior of the inlet both with and without combustor backpressure. Increased backpressure results in separation of the body side boundary layer and a resultant static pressure rise in the inlet throat region. The computational results compare well with the experimental data for static pressure distribution through the engine, inlet throat flow profiles, and mass capture. The computational analysis slightly underpredicts the thickness of the engine body surface boundary layer and the extent of the interaction caused by backpressure; however, the interaction is observed at approximately the same level of backpressure both experimentally and computationally. This study demonstrates the ability of two different Navier-Stokes codes, namely RPLUS and PARC, to calculate the flow features of this ramjet engine and to provide more detailed information on the process of inlet interaction and unstart.

  11. The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)

  12. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOEpatents

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  13. Design and development of an F/A-18 inlet distortion rake: A cost and time saving solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.; Burley, Richard R.; Steenken, William G.; Lechtenberg, Leon; Thornton, Don

    1995-01-01

    An innovative inlet total pressure distortion measurement rake has been designed and developed for the F/A-18 A/B/C/D aircraft inlet. The design was conceived by NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines personnel. This rake has been flight qualified and flown in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The eight-legged, one-piece, wagon wheel design of the rake was developed at a reduced cost and offered reduced installation time compared to traditional designs. The rake features 40 dual-measurement ports for low- and high-frequency pressure measurements with the high-frequency transducer mounted at the port. This high-frequency transducer offers direct absolute pressure measurements from low to high frequencies of interest, thereby allowing the rake to be used during highly dynamic aircraft maneuvers. Outstanding structural characteristics are inherent to the design through its construction and use of lightweight materials.

  14. Effect of inlet disturbances on fan inlet noise during a static test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekofske, K. L.; Sheer, R. E., Jr.; Wang, J. C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of fan rotor inlet noise taken during static test situations are at variance with aircraft engine flight data. In particular, static tests generally yield a significantly higher tone at blade passage frequency than that measured during flight. To explain this discrepancy, the extent of the influence of inlet ground vortices and large-scale inlet turbulence on the forward-radiated fan noise measured at a static test facility was investigated. While such inlet disturbances were generated intentionally in an anechoic test chamber, far-field acoustic measurements and inlet flow-field hot-film mappings of a fan rotor were obtained. Experimental results indicate that the acoustic effect of such disturbances appears to be less severe for supersonic than for subsonic tip speeds. Further, a reverse flow that occurs on the exterior cowl in static test facilities appears to be an additional prime candidate for creating inlet disturbances and causing variance between flight and static acoustic data.

  15. Small inlet optical panel and a method of making a small inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; Slobodin, David

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel having a small inlet, and a method of making a small inlet optical panel, are disclosed, which optical panel includes a individually coating, stacking, and cutting a first plurality of stacked optical waveguides to form an outlet face body with an outlet face, individually coating, stacking, and cutting a second plurality of stacked optical waveguides to form an inlet face body with an inlet face, and connecting an optical coupling element to the first plurality and to the second plurality, wherein the optical coupling element redirects light along a parallel axis of the inlet face to a parallel axis of the outlet face. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the inlet face is disposed obliquely with and askew from the outlet face.

  16. Circulation exchange patterns in Sinclair Inlet, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Paulson, Anthony J.; Gartner, Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Navy, deployed three sets of moorings in Sinclair Inlet, which is a relatively small embayment on the western side of Puget Sound (fig. 1). This inlet is home to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. One purpose of the measurement program was to determine the transport pathways and fate of contaminants known to be present in Sinclair Inlet. Extensive descriptions of the program and the resultant information about contaminant pathways have been reported in Gartner and others (1998). This report primarily focused on the bottom boundary layer and the potential for resuspension and transport of sediments on the seabed in Sinclair Inlet as a result of tides and waves. Recently (2013), interest in transport pathways for suspended and dissolved materials in Sinclair Inlet has been rekindled. In particular, the USGS scientists in Washington and California have been asked to reexamine the datasets collected in the earlier study to refine not only our understanding of transport pathways through the inlet, but to determine how those transport pathways are affected by subtidal currents, local wind stress, and fresh water inputs. Because the prior study focused on the bottom boundary layer and not the water column, a reanalysis of the datasets could increase our understanding of the dynamic forces that drive transport within and through the inlet. However, the early datasets are limited in scope and a comprehensive understanding of these transport processes may require more extensive datasets or the development of a detailed numerical model of transport processes for the inlet, or both.

  17. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  18. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  19. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign... Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Port Directors at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry (other than the port...

  20. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign... Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Port Directors at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry (other than the port...

  1. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign... Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Port Directors at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry (other than the port...

  2. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign... Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Port Directors at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry (other than the port...

  3. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign... Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Port Directors at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry (other than the port...

  4. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  5. Human impacts in an urban port: The carbonate budget, Otago Harbour, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Wood, Anna C. L.; Liddy, Michelle F. A.; Shears, Amy E.; Fraser, Ceridwen I.

    2010-12-01

    Otago Harbour is a long (23 km), narrow (mean width = 2 km), shallow (mean water depth = 4.5 m) tidal inlet covering 46 km 2 on the southeast coast of South Island, New Zealand (45°50'S, 170°35'E). Development of the City of Dunedin (pop. 125,000) and its associated port at Port Chalmers has been associated with extensive dredging, land reclamation, and shoreline construction. Here we develop a carbonate sediment budget for Otago Harbour, with limits defined at Mean High Water Spring and the harbour entrance; from the water-air interface to a few cm below the sediment-water interface. Carbonate is added to this system primarily by in-situ production (˜10,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) and by transport though the harbour entrance from the longshore system (˜24,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1). Shellfishing (˜2 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), dredging (˜18,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), and early sea-floor processes such as abrasion and dissolution (˜2000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) remove carbonate from the system. The present-day carbonate budget results in ˜14,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1 sediment storage, equivalent to ˜0.14 mm y -1 accumulation. Two thousand years ago, the budget would have had nearly the same inputs but many fewer outputs, potentially resulting in storage twice what it is today; projected increases in human impacts suggest that carbonate storage may end within 100 years. Carbonate storage in sediments has a role in preserving environmental information and sequestering carbon, but the major value of a budget model is in clarifying the importance of human impacts. Urban harbours are not in a 'natural' state, and increasing human activity, both locally and globally, affects their overall health.

  6. Port and Harbor Security

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T; Guthmuller, H; DeWeert, M

    2004-12-15

    Port and Harbor Security is a daunting task to which optics and photonics offers significant solutions. We are pleased to report that the 2005 Defense and Security Symposium (DSS, Orlando, FL) will include reports on active and passive photonic systems operating from both airborne and subsurface platforms. In addition to imaging techniques, there are various photonic applications, such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), which can be used to ''sniff'' for traces of explosives or contaminants in marine. These non-imaging technologies are beyond the scope of this article, but will also be represented at DSS 2005. We encourage colleagues to join our technical group to help us to make our ports and harbors safer and more secure.

  7. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Interaction Between an Ultra-Compact Inlet and a Transonic Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Rabe, Douglas; Scribben, Angie

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, unsteady flow interaction between an ultra-compact inlet and a transonic fan stage is investigated. Future combat aircraft require ultra-compact inlet ducts as part of an integrated, advanced propulsion system to improve air vehicle capability and effectiveness to meet future mission needs. The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow interaction between two different ultra-compact inlets and a transonic fan for future design applications. Both URANS and LES approaches are used to calculate the unsteady flow field and are compared with the available measured data. The present study indicates that stall inception is mildly affected by the distortion pattern generated by the inlet with the current test set-up. The numerical study indicates that the inlet distortion pattern decays significantly before it reaches the fan face for the current configuration. Numerical results with a shorter distance between the inlet and fan show that counter-rotating vortices near the rotor tip due to the serpentine diffuser affects fan characteristics significantly.

  8. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  9. Liquefied Bleed for Stability and Efficiency of High Speed Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, J. David; Davis, David; Barsi, Stephen J.; Deans, Matthew C.; Weir, Lois J.; Sanders, Bobby W.

    2014-01-01

    A mission analysis code was developed to perform a trade study on the effectiveness of liquefying bleed for the inlet of the first stage of a TSTO vehicle. By liquefying bleed, the vehicle weight (TOGW) could be reduced by 7 to 23%. Numerous simplifying assumptions were made and lessons were learned. Increased accuracy in future analyses can be achieved by: Including a higher fidelity model to capture the effect of rescaling (variable vehicle TOGW). Refining specific thrust and impulse models ( T m a and Isp) to preserve fuel-to-air ratio. Implementing LH2 for T m a and Isp. Correlating baseline design to other mission analyses and correcting vehicle design elements. Implementing angle-of-attack effects on inlet characteristics. Refining aerodynamic performance (to improve L/D ratio at higher Mach numbers). Examining the benefit with partial cooling or densification of the bleed air stream. Incorporating higher fidelity weight estimates for the liquefied bleed system (heat exchange and liquid storage versus bleed duct weights) could be added when more fully developed. Adding trim drag or 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis for higher fidelity. Investigating vehicle optimization for each of the bleed configurations.

  10. Robotics for port security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, William; Freiburger, Lonnie A.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Mallon, Lawrence

    2004-09-01

    The capacity through the use of robots with on board visual, NBC and HAZMAT sensors to rapidly and continuously screen convoys and staged exposed assets would be a force multiplier and measurably improve base and force protection at both inbound and outbound DOD and commercial facilities. This paper chronicles our experiment with the ODIS robot at the Ports of Los Angeles (POLA) and Long Beach (POLB) in July of 2003. POLA & POLB are responsible for moving over 30% of the United States trade goods. Queues of 54" container trucks routinely exceed 100 trucks, extending for over a mile from the port entrances. Spotted equipment and convoys at staging areas are a high visibility and value assets to a terrorist incident. The POLA/POLB scenario is also representative of TRANSCOM operations at the port of Basra during current operation in Iraq. The California Highway Patrol is responsible for physically inspecting these vehicles for roadworthiness and contraband, a dangerous and dirty job. We will also discuss the use of ODIS robots for this task.

  11. Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Kevin

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water

  12. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Analysis of Buzz in a Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-stream, low-boom supersonic inlet designed for use on a small, Mach 1.6 aircraft was tested experimentally in the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The tests showed that the inlet had good recovery and stable operation over large mass flow range. The inlet went into buzz at mass flows well below that needed for engine operation, and the experiments generated a wealth of data during buzz. High frequency response pressure measurements and high-speed schlieren videos were recorded for many buzz events. The objective of the present work was to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict some of the experimental data taken during buzz, compare those predictions to the experimental data, and to use both datasets to explain the physics of the buzz cycle. The calculations were done with the Wind-US CFD code using a second-order time-accurate differencing scheme and the SST turbulence model. Computed Mach number contours were compared with schlieren images, and ensemble-averaged unsteady pressures were compared to data. The results showed that the buzz cycle consisted partly of spike buzz, an unsteady oscillation of the main shock at the spike tip while the inlet pressure dropped, and partly of choked flow while the inlet repressurized. Most of the results could be explained by theory proposed by Dailey in 1954, but did not support commonly used acoustic resonance explanations.

  14. Inlet contour and flow effects on radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ville, J. M.; Silcox, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation of sound radiation from inlets with different contours with and without flow is being conducted to study the possibility of reducing noise radiated by aircraft engines. For each inlet configuration, complex directivity patterns and complex pressure reflection coefficients are measured as a function of a single space-time structure of the wave (up to a frequency of 4000Hz and an azimuthal wave number 6) and of flow velocity (up to Mach number 0.4) in a cylindrical duct located downstream the inlet. Experimental results of radiation from an unflanged duct are compared with theory. Effect of inlet contour and flow are deduced by comparing respectively unflanged duct and bellmouth measurements and, no flow and flow measurements with the bellmouth. Results are presented which indicate that the contour effect is significant near the cut-on frequency of a mode and emphasize the necessity for taking into account the inlet geometry in a radiation prediction. These results show also that internal flow has a weak effect on the amplitude of the directivity pattern

  15. Inlet contour and flow effects on radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ville, J. M.; Silcox, R. J.

    1980-06-01

    An experimental investigation of sound radiation from inlets with different contours with and without flow is being conducted to study the possibility of reducing noise radiated by aircraft engines. For each inlet configuration, complex directivity patterns and complex pressure reflection coefficients are measured as a function of a single space-time structure of the wave (up to a frequency of 4000Hz and an azimuthal wave number 6) and of flow velocity (up to Mach number 0.4) in a cylindrical duct located downstream the inlet. Experimental results of radiation from an unflanged duct are compared with theory. Effect of inlet contour and flow are deduced by comparing respectively unflanged duct and bellmouth measurements and, no flow and flow measurements with the bellmouth. Results are presented which indicate that the contour effect is significant near the cut-on frequency of a mode and emphasize the necessity for taking into account the inlet geometry in a radiation prediction. These results show also that internal flow has a weak effect on the amplitude of the directivity pattern

  16. Mercury in Sediment, Water, and Biota of Sinclair Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington, 1989-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Keys, Morgan E.; Scholting, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    specimens, and caged mussels. Total mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of English sole from Sinclair Inlet ranked in the upper quarter and third, respectively, of Puget Sound locations. For other species, concentrations from Sinclair Inlet were within the mid-range of locations (for example, Chinook salmon). Total mercury concentrations of the long-lived and higher trophic rockfish in composites and individual specimens from Sinclair Inlet tended to be the highest in Puget Sound. For a given size, sand sole, graceful crab, staghorn sculpin, surf perch, and sea cucumber individuals collected from Sinclair Inlet had higher total mercury concentrations than individuals collected from non-urban estuaries. Total mercury concentrations in individual English sole and ratfish were not significantly different than in individuals of various sizes collected from either urban or non-urban estuaries in Puget Sound. Total mercury concentrations in English sole collected from Sinclair Inlet after the 2000-2001 dredging appear to have lower total mercury concentrations than those collected before (1996) the dredging project. The highest total mercury concentrations of mussels caged in 2002 were not within the Bremerton naval complex, but within the Port Orchard Marina and inner Sinclair Inlet.

  17. Characterization of lean premixed gas turbine burners as acoustic multi-ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschereit, C. O.; Polifke, W.

    1997-11-01

    Thermoacoustic combustion instabilities, involving a feedback cycle between fluctuations of velocity, pressure and heat release rate, are a cause for concern in many combustion applications. To model thermoacoustic oscillations, a combustion system can be described as a network of acoustic elements, representing for example fuel and air supply, burner and flame, combustor, cooling channels, suitable terminations, etc. For most of these elements, simple analytical models provide an adequate description of their (thermo-) acoustic properties. However, the complex response of burner and flame to acoustic perturbations has - at least in a first step - to be determined by experiment. In our approach, we describe the burner as an active acoustical two port, where the state variables pressure and velocity at the inlet and the outlet are coupled via a four element transfer matrix. To determine all four coefficients, two independent test states have to be created. This is achieved by using acoustic sources upstream and downstream of the burner, respectively. In application to a full size gas turbine burner, the method's accuracy was tested in a first step without combustion and the results were compared to an analytical model for the burner's acoustic properties. Then the method was used to determine the burner transfer matrix with combustion and to investigate the influence of various parameters such as acoustic amplitude and equivalence ratio.

  18. ITER Port Interspace Pressure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J; Van Hove, Walter A

    2016-01-01

    The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is equipped with 54 access ports. Each of these ports has an opening in the bioshield that communicates with a dedicated port cell. During Tokamak operation, the bioshield opening must be closed with a concrete plug to shield the radiation coming from the plasma. This port plug separates the port cell into a Port Interspace (between VV closure lid and Port Plug) on the inner side and the Port Cell on the outer side. This paper presents calculations of pressures and temperatures in the ITER (Ref. 1) Port Interspace after a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a pipe of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) with high temperature water. It is assumed that this DEGB occurs during the worst possible conditions, which are during water baking operation, with water at a temperature of 523 K (250 C) and at a pressure of 4.4 MPa. These conditions are more severe than during normal Tokamak operation, with the water at 398 K (125 C) and 2 MPa. Two computer codes are employed in these calculations: RELAP5-3D Version 4.2.1 (Ref. 2) to calculate the blowdown releases from the pipe break, and MELCOR, Version 1.8.6 (Ref. 3) to calculate the pressures and temperatures in the Port Interspace. A sensitivity study has been performed to optimize some flow areas.

  19. Investigation of Flow Instabilities in the Inlet Ducts of DP-1C VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of flow instabilities in the inlet ducts of a two-engine vertical takeoff and landing aircraft DP-1C is described in this report. Recent tests revealed that the engines stall during run ups while the aircraft is operating on the ground. These pop stalls occurred at relatively low power levels, sometimes as low as 60 percent of the engine full speed. Inability to run the engines up to the full speed level is attributed to in-ground effects associated with hot gas ingestion. Such pop stalls were never experienced when the aircraft was tested on a elevated grid platform, which ensured that the aircraft was operating in out-of-the-ground-effect conditions. Based on available information on problems experienced with other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft designs, it was assumed that the engine stalls were caused by partial ingestion of hot gases streaming forward from the main exit nozzle under the aircraft inlets, which are very close to the ground. It was also suggested that the nose wheel undercarriage, located between the inlets, may generate vortices or an unstable wake causing intense mixing of hot exit gases with incoming inlet flow, which would enhance the hot gas ingestion. After running a short three-day series of tests with fully instrumented engine inlets, it is now believed the most probable reason for engine pop stalls are random ingestions of a vortex generated between the two streams moving in opposite directions: outbound hot gas stream from the main nozzle close to the ground and inbound inlet flow above. Originally, the vortex is in a horizontal plane. However, at a certain velocity ratio of these two streams, the vortex attaches either to the ground or the aircraft surface at one end and the other end is swallowed by one of the aircraft inlets. Once the vortex enters the inlet duct, a puff of hot air can be sucked through the vortex core into the engine, which causes a serious inlet flow field distortion followed by an engine

  20. Turbofan blade stresses induced by the flow distortion of a VTOL inlet at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. C.; Diedrich, J. H.; Shaw, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 51-cm-diameter turbofan with a tilt-nacelle VTOL inlet was tested in the Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities up to 72 m/s and angles of attack up to 120 deg. Fan-blade vibratory stress levels were investigated over a full aircraft operating range. These stresses were due to inlet air flow distortion resulting from (1) internal flow separation in the inlet, and (2) ingestion of the exterior nacelle wake. Stress levels are presented, along with an estimated safe operating envelope, based on infinite blade fatigue life.

  1. Comparison of Inlet Geometry in Microfluidic Cell Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Tian, Yu; Pappas, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Cell separation based on microfluidic affinity chromatography is a widely used methodology in cell analysis research when rapid separations with high purity are needed. Several successful examples have been reported with high separation efficiency and purity; however, cell capture at the inlet area and inlet design has not been extensively described or studied. The most common inlets—used to connect the microfluidic chip to pumps, tubing, etc—are vertical (top-loading) inlets and parallel (in-line) inlets. In this work, we investigated the cell capture behavior near the affinity chip inlet area and compared the different performance of vertical inlet devices and parallel inlet devices. Vertical inlet devices showed significant cell capture capability near the inlet area, which led to the formation of cell blockages as the separation progressed. Cell density near the inlet area was much higher than the remaining channel, while for parallel inlet chips cell density at the inlet area was similar to the rest of the channel. In this paper, we discuss the effects of inlet type on chip fabrication, nonspecific binding, cell capture efficiency, and separation purity. We also discuss the possibility of using vertical inlets in negative selection separations. Our findings show that inlet design is critical and must be considered when fabricating cell affinity microfluidic devices. PMID:21207967

  2. Interactive calculation procedures for mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, Eli

    1983-01-01

    The proper design of engine nacelle installations for supersonic aircraft depends on a sophisticated understanding of the interactions between the boundary layers and the bounding external flows. The successful operation of mixed external-internal compression inlets depends significantly on the ability to closely control the operation of the internal compression portion of the inlet. This portion of the inlet is one where compression is achieved by multiple reflection of oblique shock waves and weak compression waves in a converging internal flow passage. However weak these shocks and waves may seem gas-dynamically, they are of sufficient strength to separate a laminar boundary layer and generally even strong enough for separation or incipient separation of the turbulent boundary layers. An understanding was developed of the viscous-inviscid interactions and of the shock wave boundary layer interactions and reflections.

  3. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

  4. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  5. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  6. Throat-bypass bleed systems for increasing the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.50 axisymmetric inlet with 40-percent internal contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, B. W.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation to increase the stable airflow range of a super sonic mixed-compression inlet are presented. Various throat-bypass bleeds were located on the inlet cowl. The bleed types were distributed porous normal holes, a forward slanted slot, or distributed educated slots. Large inlet stability margins were obtained with the inlet throat bleed systems if a constant pressure was maintained in the throat-bypass bleed plenum. Stability limits were determined for steady-state and limited transient internal air flow changes. Limited unstart angle-of-attack data are presented.

  7. Distribution and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in Woods Inlet, Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besse, Richard E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2005-01-01

    Woods Inlet is a flooded stream channel on the southern shore of Lake Worth along the western boundary of Air Force Plant 4 in Fort Worth, Texas, where elevated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in sediment were detected in a previous study. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, conducted a study in 2003 to map the extent of elevated PCB concentrations in Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources (or more specifically, source areas) of PCBs in the watershed of Woods Inlet. Three gravity cores (penetration to pre-reservoir sediment at three sites) and 17 box cores (surficial bottom sediment samples) were collected in Woods Inlet. Suspended sediment in stormwater runoff and streambed sediment were sampled in tributaries to Woods Inlet following storms. Assemblages of PCB congeners in surficial inlet sediments and suspended and streambed sediments were analyzed to indicate sources of PCBs in the inlet sediments on the basis of chemical signatures of PCBs. Woods Inlet receives runoff primarily from three tributaries: (1) Gruggs Park Creek, (2) the small unnamed creek that drains a Texas National Guard maintenance facility, called TNG Creek for this report, and (3) Meandering Road Creek. Twenty-seven of 209 possible PCB congeners were analyzed. The sum of the congeners was used as a measure of total PCB. The spatial distribution of total PCB concentrations in the inlet indicates that most PCBs are originating in the Meandering Road Creek watershed. Peak total PCB concentrations in the three gravity cores occurred at depths corresponding to sediment deposition dates of about 1960 for two of the cores and about 1980 for the third core. The magnitudes of peak total PCB concentrations in the gravity cores followed a spatial distribution generally similar to that of surficial bottom sediment concentrations. Total PCB concentrations in suspended and streambed sediment varied greatly between sites and indicated a likely

  8. Single port access surgery with a novel Port Camera system.

    PubMed

    Terry, Benjamin S; Schoen, Jonathan; Mills, Zachary; Rentschler, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the authors designed, built, and tested a novel port camera system for single port access (SPA) laparoscopic surgery. This SPA Port Camera device integrates the monitor, laparoscopic camera, and light source into an inexpensive, portable cannula port. The device uses a 2-channel SPA port inserted through an umbilical incision, similar to traditional SPA. After insertion into a channel, the device deploys a small camera module and LED lamp in vivo. An integrated, on-patient LCD provides the view of the surgical site. The design intent of the port camera is to enhance SPA by (a) reducing the size of the SPA port through the elimination of the dedicated laparoscope channel; (b) reducing equipment cost by integrating an inexpensive CMOS sensor and LED lamp at the port tip; (c) eliminating the need for an assistant who operates the laparoscope; and (d) mechanically coupling the camera, tool port, and on-patient LCD screen. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated by comparing the video performance with a leading industry laparoscope and by performing a user evaluation study and live porcine surgery with the device. Effectiveness of the device was mixed. Overall video system performance of the device is better than an industry standard high-definition laparoscope, implying that significant cost savings over a traditional system are possible. Participant study results suggest that simulated laparoscopic tasks are as efficient with the SPA Port Camera as they are with a typical SPA configuration. However, live surgery revealed several shortcomings of the SPA Port Camera.

  9. Effect of a part span variable inlet guide vane on TF34 fan performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, J.; Schneider, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic and performance data were obtained from a TF34 engine. Part span variable inlet guide vanes mounted in front of the fan on the TF34 engine were tested to demonstrate the feasibility of modulating air flow and thrust for vertical takeoff aircraft systems. The fan was mapped to stall for a range of speeds and variable inlet guide were settings. Modulated fan tip performance and unmodulated hub performance were evaluated with a without an extended fan bypass splitter. The effect of a crosswind distortion screen on performance was also evaluated.

  10. Experimental Investigation of a Hypersonic Inlet with Variable Sidewall for Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, T. C.; Lu, F. K.

    The main function of a scramjet inlet is to decelerate and compress the air for subsequent reaction with the fuel inside the combustor and, of course, contribute toward meeting the thrust requirement for the entire mission by providing adequate mass flow. It is desirable that the inlet be lightweight and that its geometry be capable of producing a uniform flow in an appropriate state to permit efficient mixing and subsequent combustion. Engine cycle analysis indicates that high contraction ratios CR are desirable for achieving high overall engine efficiency.

  11. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  12. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  13. Design and operation considerations for attic inlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving energy efficiency and environmental control in poultry facilities is essential for profitability. Increases in energy costs have prompted evaluation of solar energy systems and passive solar systems such as attic inlets have been adopted as a means to reduce fuel usage. Successful implem...

  14. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  15. Multi-ported, internally recuperated burners for direct flame impingement heating applications

    DOEpatents

    Abbasi, Hamid A.; Kurek, Harry; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Lisienko, Vladimir G.; Malikov, German K.

    2010-08-03

    A direct flame impingement method and apparatus employing at least one multi-ported, internally recuperated burner. The burner includes an innermost coaxial conduit having a first fluid inlet end and a first fluid outlet end, an outermost coaxial conduit disposed around the innermost coaxial conduit and having a combustion products outlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a combustion products inlet end proximate the first fluid outlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit, and a coaxial intermediate conduit disposed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit, whereby a second fluid annular region is formed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the intermediate coaxial conduit and a combustion products annular region is formed between the intermediate coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit. The intermediate coaxial conduit has a second fluid inlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a second fluid outlet end proximate the combustion products inlet end of the outermost coaxial conduit.

  16. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... port of arrival within 10 days from the date the exporting airline receives the cargo. After the 10-day... Customs. (1) Review copy. The importing airline shall file a copy of each transit air cargo manifest sheet... soon as the exporting airline has been chosen. The exporting airline need not give receipt on...

  17. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... port of arrival within 10 days from the date the exporting airline receives the cargo. After the 10-day... Customs. (1) Review copy. The importing airline shall file a copy of each transit air cargo manifest sheet... soon as the exporting airline has been chosen. The exporting airline need not give receipt on...

  18. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... port of arrival within 10 days from the date the exporting airline receives the cargo. After the 10-day... Customs. (1) Review copy. The importing airline shall file a copy of each transit air cargo manifest sheet... soon as the exporting airline has been chosen. The exporting airline need not give receipt on...

  19. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... port of arrival within 10 days from the date the exporting airline receives the cargo. After the 10-day... Customs. (1) Review copy. The importing airline shall file a copy of each transit air cargo manifest sheet... soon as the exporting airline has been chosen. The exporting airline need not give receipt on...

  20. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... port of arrival within 10 days from the date the exporting airline receives the cargo. After the 10-day... Customs. (1) Review copy. The importing airline shall file a copy of each transit air cargo manifest sheet... soon as the exporting airline has been chosen. The exporting airline need not give receipt on...

  1. Investigation of High-Subsonic Performance Characteristics of a 12 Degree 21-Inch Conical Diffuser, Including the Effects of Change in Inlet-Boundary-Layer Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copp, Martin R.; Klevatt, Paul L.

    1950-01-01

    Investigations were conducted of a 12 degree 21-inch conical diffuser of 2:l area ratio to determine the interrelation of boundary layer growth and performance characteristics. surveys were made of inlet and exit from, longitudinal static pressures were recorded, and velocity profiles were obtained through an inlet Reynolds number range, determined From mass flows and based on inlet diameter of 1.45 x 10(exp 6) to 7.45 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.11 to approximately choking. These investigations were made to two thicknesses of inlet boundary layer. The mean value, over the entire range of inlet velocities, of the displacement thickness of the thinner inlet boundary layer was approximately 0.035 inch and that of the thicker inlet boundary layer was approximately six times this value. The loss coefficient in the case of the thinner inlet boundary layer had a value between 2 to 3 percent of the inlet impact pressure over most of the air-flow range. The loss coefficient with the thicker inlet boundary layer was of the order of twice that of the thinner inlet boundary layer at low speeds and approximately three times at high speeds. In both cases the values were substantially less than those given in the literature for fully developed pipe flow. The static-pressure rise for the thinner inlet boundary layer was of the order of 95 percent of that theoretically possible over the entire speed range. For the thicker inlet boundary layer the static pressure rise, as a percentage of that theoretically possible, ranged from 82 percent at low speeds to 68 percent at high speeds.

  2. Effects of inlet conditions on dynamics of a thermal pulse combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Sirshendu; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sen, Swarnendu

    2012-02-01

    To increase the pulse combustor load, a higher amount of fuel-air mixture has to be supplied. This increases the flow rate or equivalently, the flow time is reduced. However, an increase in flow rate leads to an early extinction. This implies that obtaining pulsating combustion is difficult at higher loads. The objective of the present work is to explore the possibility of extending the regime of pulsating combustion at higher flow rates by preheating and diluting the reactants. In this work, the effects of preheating and dilution are examined by varying the inlet temperature and inlet fuel mass fraction. Varying these parameters, a map, presenting regime of pulsating combustion from steady combustion to extinction for each value of flow time considered, has been made. Lastly, Hopf bifurcation points of the system have been investigated by determining the eigenvalues of Jacobian matrix of the coupled non-linear system at the fixed point using a specialised package for bifurcation analysis, MATCONT. It has been found that at higher load, pulsating combustion can be achieved at higher inlet temperature and lower inlet fuel mass fraction. Comparing the Hopf points with mapping, it is found that existence of Hopf bifurcation agrees with the birth and death of pulsating combustion. The results indicate that altering the mixture condition at the inlet can be used for controlling chaos and stabilising periodic solutions in thermal pulse combustors and thus increase the range of pulsating combustion to higher power regimes.

  3. Influence of combustion-preheating vitiation on operability of a hypersonic inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, W.; Yang, J.; Jin, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Vitiation of the test flow with combustion products is inherent in combustion wind tunnels, and its effect on experimental results needs to be clarified. In this study, the influence of air vitiation on the startability and performance of a hypersonic inlet is investigated through two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation. The study examines the vitiation effects introduced by carbon dioxide and water vapor, on the basis of maintaining the static pressure, static temperature and Mach number of the incoming flow. The starting Mach number limits of the inlet are estimated, and it is found that both of these vitiation components lower the starting limit of the inlet. This suggests that the experimental results acquired by tests in combustion wind tunnels overestimate the startability of an inlet and, therefore, combustion-preheated facilities may not be completely trusted in this respect. Deviations in the inlet performance caused by the vitiation are also detected. These are nevertheless minor as long as the flow is at the same started or unstarted condition. A further analysis reveals that it is mainly the increase in the heat capacity, and the resulting weaker shock/compression waves and shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions that account for the aforementioned effects.

  4. Supersonic Inlet with Pylons Set and Star-Shaped Forebody for Mixing, Combustion and Thrust Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, M.; Gonor, A. L.; Khaikine, V. A.; Blankson, I. M.

    2003-01-01

    Two new approaches are discussed in this paper for application in the Scramjet inlet of an air-breathing propulsion system: 1) In the first approach, the pylon set is installed in the rectangular inlet near the cowl front edge. For a quasi-axisymmetric inlet, a similar set is installed along the Star-shaped forebody axis. This set contains 3 - 4 airfoil-shaped strips or cross-sectional rings depending on the type of inlet. The inlets: rectangular, axisymmetric or star-shaped, are located at different distances from the forebody. Fuel injection takes place through these pylons, which provides for uniform mixing downstream. The locations, sizes and angles of these pylons are very important for efficient application. Optimal values of geometrical parameters were determined from multi-parametric NSE-based numerical simulations of the laminar and turbulent external/internal flows. These simulations have shown significant benefits for mixing, combustion and thrust of the proposed approach by comparison with traditional well-known designs. Experimental tests will be conducted soon at the NASA LaRC and Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University. Preliminary estimates are very promising.

  5. Experimental investigation on flame pattern formations of DME-air mixtures in a radial microchannel

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Aiwu; Maruta, Kaoru; Nakamura, Hisashi; Kumar, Sudarshan; Liu, Wei

    2010-09-15

    Flame pattern formations of premixed DME-air mixture in a heated radial channel with a gap distance of 2.5 mm were experimentally investigated. The DME-air mixture was introduced into the radial channel through a delivery tube which connected with the center of the top disk. With an image-intensified high-speed video camera, rich flame pattern formations were identified in this configuration. Regime diagram of all these flame patterns was drawn based on the experimental findings in the equivalence ratio range of 0.6-2.0 and inlet velocity range of 1.0-5.0 m/s. Compared with our previous study on premixed methane-air flames, there are several distinct characteristics for the present study. First, Pelton-wheel-like rotary flames and traveling flames with kink-like structures were observed for the first time. Second, in most cases, flames can be stabilized near the inlet port of the channel, exhibiting a conical or cup-like shape, while the conventional circular flame was only observed under limited conditions. Thirdly, an oscillating flame phenomenon occurred under certain conditions. During the oscillation process, a target appearance was seen at some instance. These pattern formation characteristics are considered to be associated with the low-temperature oxidation of DME. (author)

  6. An Analysis of Microbial Pollution in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2005-09-21

    This assessment of fecal coliform sources and pathways in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets is part of the Project ENVironmental InVESTment (ENVVEST) being conducted by the Navy's Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, the Suquamish Tribe, Kitsap County, the City of Bremerton, the City of Port Orchard, and other local stakeholders. The goal of this study was to identify microbial pollution problems within the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and to provide a comprehensive assessment of fecal coliform (FC) contamination from all identifiable sources in the watershed. This study quantifies levels of contamination and estimated loadings from known sources within the watersheds and describes pollutant transport mechanisms found in the study area. In addition, the effectiveness of pollution prevention and mitigation measures currently in place within the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed are discussed. This comprehensive study relies on historical data collected by several cooperating agencies, in addition to data collected during the study period from spring 2001 through summer 2005. This report is intended to provide the technical information needed to continue current water quality cleanup efforts and to help implement future efforts.

  7. Numerical analysis of flow features and operation characteristics of a rocket-based combined-cycle inlet in ejector mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Liu, Xiaowei; He, Guoqiang; Qin, Fei; Wei, Xianggeng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A ready-made central strut-based rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine was numerically investigated in the ejector mode. The flow features in the RBCC inlet and the matching characteristics between the inlet and the embedded rocket during different flight regimes were examined in detail. It was necessary to perform integrated numerical simulations in the ejector mode within considerable pressure far fields around the inlet/exhaust system. The observed flow features and operation characteristics in the RBCC inlet were strongly correlated with the flight conditions, inlet configuration, and operation of the embedded rocket. It was further found that the integrated function status of multiple factors significantly influenced the performance of the RBCC engine in the ejector mode. The two parameters that macroscopically affected the performance most were the air entrainment mass and the drag of the RBCC inlet. To improve these parameters, it is vital to employ an appropriate design of the RBCC inlet and establish the optimal flight trajectory of the flight vehicle.

  8. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  9. Analysis of long-term, high time-resolution measurement of gaseous and particulate pollution near the Port of New York and New Jersey

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Port of New York and New Jersey is one of the largest and busiest ports in the United States and is located in close proximity to densely populated communities. To understand the local air quality impact of pollutant emission reduction activities at the port – including swit...

  10. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – ...

  11. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of aromatic and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for non-occupational indoor air application.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Kun-Ho

    2004-11-01

    The current study evaluated the technical feasibility of applying TiO2 photocatalysis to the removal of low-ppb concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly associated with non-occupational indoor air quality issues. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate five parameters (relative humidity (RH), hydraulic diameter (HD), feeding type (FT) for VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor material (RM), and inlet port size (IPS) of PCO reactor) in relation to the PCO destruction efficiencies of the selected target VOCs. None of the target VOCs exhibited any significant dependence on the RH, which is inconsistent with a previous study where, under conditions of low humidity and a ppm toluene inlet level, a drop in the PCO efficiency was reported with a decreasing humidity. However, the other four parameters (HD, RM, FT, and IPS) were found to be important for better VOC removal efficiencies as regards the application of TiO2 photocatalytic technology for cleansing non-occupational indoor air. The PCO destruction of VOCs at concentrations associated with non-occupational indoor air quality issues was up to nearly 100%, and the CO generated during PCO was a negligible addition to indoor CO levels. Accordingly, a PCO reactor would appear to be an important tool in the effort to improve non-occupational indoor air quality.

  12. Flow Control in a Compact Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, John C.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental investigation of flow control, via various control jets actuators, was undertaken to eliminate separation and secondary flows in a compact inlet. The compact inlet studied was highly aggressive with a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. A brand new facility was designed and built to enable various actuation methodologies as well as multiple measurement techniques. Techniques included static surface pressure, total pressure, and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Experimental data were supplemented with numerical simulations courtesy of Prof. Kenneth Jansen, Dr. Onkar Sahni, and Yi Chen. The baseline flow field was found to be dominated by two massive separations and secondary flow structures. These secondary structures were present at the aerodynamic interface plane in the form of two counter-rotating vortices inducing upwash along centerline. A dominant shedding frequency of 350 Hz was measured both at the aerodynamic interface plane and along the lower surface of the inlet. Flow control experiments started utilizing a pair of control jets placed in streamwise locations where flow was found to separate. Tests were performed for a range of inlet Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.44. Steady and unsteady static pressure measurements along the upper and lower walls of the duct were performed for various combinations of actuation. The parameters that were tested include the control jets momentum coefficient, their blowing ratio, the actuation frequency, as well as different combinations of jets. It was shown that using mass flux ratio as a criterion to define flow control is not sufficient, and one needs to provide both the momentum coefficient and the blowing ratio to quantify the flow control performance. A detailed study was undertaken on controlling the upstream separation point for an inlet Mach number of 0.44. Similar to the baseline flow field, the flow field associated with the activation of a two-dimensional control jet actuator was dominated by

  13. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. MOUTH OF OPEN SEGMENT, INLET CHANNEL FROM KACHESS LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MOUTH OF OPEN SEGMENT, INLET CHANNEL FROM KACHESS LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (Dam out of sight, approximately 1/4 mile south) - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  16. Experimentally determined aeroacoustic performance and control of several sonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aeroacoustic performance of several model sonic inlets. The results were analyzed to indicate how inlet aeroacoustic characteristics were affected by inlet design and operating conditions. A system for regulating sonic inlet noise reduction was developed and tested. Results indicate that pressure losses at forward velocity may be substantially less than those at static conditions. This is particularly true for translating centerbody inlets with the centerbody extended in the approach and landing position. Operation to simulated takeoff incidence angles of 50 degrees was demonstrated with good inlet performance. Inlet sound pressure level reduction was regulation was regulated to within approximately + or - 1 dB by controlling inlet surface static pressure measured at the diffuser exit.

  17. Testing of high-volume sampler inlets for the sampling of atmospheric radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Hammad; Su, Wei-Chung; Cheng, Yung S; Medici, Fausto

    2006-09-01

    Sampling of air for radioactive particles is one of the most important techniques used to determine the nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon test in the Earth's atmosphere or those particles vented from underground or underwater tests. Massive-flow air samplers are used to sample air for any indication of radionuclides that are a signature of nuclear tests. The International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization includes seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and gaseous xenon isotopes sampling technologies, in addition to radionuclide sampling, to monitor for any violation of the treaty. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute has developed a large wind tunnel to test the outdoor radionuclide samplers for the International Monitoring System. The inlets for these samplers are tested for their collection efficiencies for different particle sizes at various wind speeds. This paper describes the results from the testing of two radionuclide sampling units used in the International Monitoring System. The possible areas of depositional wall losses are identified and the losses in these areas are determined. Sampling inlet type 1 was tested at 2.2 m s wind speed for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles. The global collection efficiency was about 87.6% for 10-microm particles for sampling inlet type 1. Sampling inlet type 2 was tested for three wind speeds at 0.56, 2.2, and 6.6 m s for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles in two different configurations (sampling head lowered and raised). The global collection efficiencies for these configurations for 10-microm particles at 2.2 m s wind speed were 77.4% and 82.5%, respectively. The sampling flow rate was 600 m h for both sampling inlets.

  18. A Numerical Study of Hypersonic Forebody/Inlet Integration Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    1991-01-01

    A numerical study of hypersonic forebody/inlet integration problem is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are covered: physical/chemical modeling; solution procedure; flow conditions; mass flow rate at inlet face; heating and skin friction loads; 3-D forebogy/inlet integration model; and sensitivity studies.

  19. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  2. Investigation of "6X" Scramjet Inlet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This work represents an initial attempt to determine what, if any, issues arise from scaling demonstration supersonic combustion scramjets to a flight scale making the engine a viable candidate for both military weapon and civilian access to space applications. The original vehicle sizes tested and flown to date, were designed to prove a concept. With the proven designs, use of the technology for applications as weapon systems or space flight are only possible at six to ten times the original scale. To determine effects of scaling, computations were performed with hypersonic inlets designed to operate a nominal Mach 4 and Mach 5 conditions that are possible within the eight foot high temperature tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The total pressure recovery for these inlets is about 70%, while maintaining self start conditions, and providing operable inflow to combustors. Based on this study, the primary scaling effect detected is the strength of a vortex created along the cowl edge causing adverse boundary layer growth in the inlet.

  3. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  4. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  5. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  6. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  7. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon..., Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon Island, and Crystal River, Florida. (a) Location. The following areas, denoted by coordinates fixed using the North American Datum of 1983 (World Geodetic System 1984),...

  8. High tip speed fan inlet noise reduction using treated inlet splitters and accelerating inlets (quiet engine program fan C scale model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    A series of inlet suppression tests were run on a supersonic tip speed fan which employed an acoustically treated cowl wall, treated splitters and elevated average throat Mach numbers in various combinations. Results show appreciable fan noise reductions at high fan speeds; 15-18 PNdB. On the basis of inlet total pressure recovery loss per PNdb of noise reduction, an inlet with no splitters produced the most efficient design. However, greater reduction in noise was achieved with one splitter in the inlet. It was also noted that moderate increases in inlet Mach number increased noise in the acoustically treated inlets and that Mach numbers in excess of 0.65 were required before net noise reduction was realized.

  9. Deepwater ports study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The study for Congress was required by section 1004 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The study analyzes the relative environmental and operational risks of the four principal modes for waterborne delivery of crude oil to U.S. ports: direct vessel deliveries, lightering, deepwater ports, and offshore mooring stations; detailed descriptions of these modes are presented. The study finds that most spills are non-catastrophic (less than 1,000 barrels), but that all modes are potentially catastrophic under worst-case scenarios. However, the study determined that deepwater ports are the least-risky of the four modes because cargo operations take place well offshore where minor spills may disperse naturally before impinging upon sensitive ecosystems. Furthermore, seafloor pipeline transfer of oil does not expose it to the same risks encountered by surface ships (adverse weather, fire, collisions, groundings, etc.). The study also includes 1986-1990 crude oil casualty and import data for Gulf coast ports.

  10. 46 CFR 28.555 - Freeing ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeing ports. 28.555 Section 28.555 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.555 Freeing ports. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, each decked vessel fitted with bulwarks must be fitted with freeing ports. (b) Freeing ports must be...

  11. Contaminant Concentrations in Storm Water Entering the Sinclair/Dyes Inlet Subasin of the Puget Sound, USA, During Storm Event and Baseflow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; May, Christopher W.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Johnston, Robert K.; Leisle, D. E.; Beckwith, B.; Sherrell, Gerald; Mettallo, David; Pingree, Ryan

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) due to fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for the contaminant mass balance calculations conducted for the watershed. This paper summarizes the contaminant concentrations in representative streams and outfalls discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets during 18 storm events and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. This paper serves as a portion of the report titled, “Surface and Stormwater Quality Assessment for Sinclair and Dyes Inlet, Washington” (Brandenberger et al. 2007).

  12. Design and Experimental Verification of a Scram-Jet Inlet in Frame of ESA's LAPCAT Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henckels, A.; Gruhn, P.; Gülhan, A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 ESA started the coordination of a research program LAPCAT (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts And Technologies) to identify and assess innovative propulsion technologies to reduce the duration of long distance flights. One of the studied configurations features an RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine, propelling the vehicle from Mach 4 up to the cruise Mach number of 8 by an air-breathing SCRAM- jet. In frame of LAPCAT, the suitable air inlet has been designed by DLR Cologne. Subject of this paper is the description of the experimental verification of its design requirements. Thereby, a test campaign at the H2K blow down facility proved the complete functionality of this inlet. Further tests provided valuable information about off design operation and internal flow topologies for future design optimizations.

  13. Unstart coupling mechanism analysis of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.

  14. 19 CFR 142.52 - Port-wide and multiple port acceptance of Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port-wide and multiple port acceptance of Line... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.52 Port-wide and multiple port acceptance of Line Release. (a) Port-wide processing. If a C-4 Code has been approved by the...

  15. 19 CFR 142.52 - Port-wide and multiple port acceptance of Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port-wide and multiple port acceptance of Line... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.52 Port-wide and multiple port acceptance of Line Release. (a) Port-wide processing. If a C-4 Code has been approved by the...

  16. Advanced Technology Inlet Design, NRA 8-21 Cycle II: DRACO Flowpath Hypersonic Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Bobby W.; Weir, Lois J.

    1999-01-01

    The report outlines work performed in support of the flowpath development for the DRACO engine program. The design process initiated to develop a hypersonic axisymmetric inlet for a Mach 6 rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine is discussed. Various design parametrics were investigated, including design shock-on-lip Mach number, cone angle, throat Mach number, throat angle. length of distributed compression, and subsonic diffuser contours. Conceptual mechanical designs consistent with installation into the D-21 vehicle were developed. Additionally, program planning for an intensive inlet development program to support a Critical Design Review in three years was performed. This development program included both analytical and experimental elements and support for a flight-capable inlet mechanical design.

  17. Port Granby Project Overview - 13208

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David W.; Vandergaast, Gary; Sungaila, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is an integral part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), and is located approximately 14 kilometres west of the Municipality of Port Hope in the adjacent Municipality of Clarington, Ontario. The principal objective of the project is the excavation and relocation of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils, which were deposited at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility (PGWMF) by Eldorado Nuclear Limited during the period 1955 to 1988, to a new, highly engineered above-ground Long-term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be constructed on a nearby site. The Environmental Assessment for the Project was approved in 2009 August and the required Waste Nuclear Substance License was received in 2011 November. Once the detailed engineering design was completed, in 2011 March, the Port Granby Project was divided into three major contracts for construction implementation purposes. The first of these contracts was completed in late 2012 and the second is planned to start in early 2013. The contracting process for the third major contract is also expected to be completed during 2013. This paper provides an overview of the Port Granby Project as well as discussion on the status of the Project, including the regulatory approvals process, the approach to contracting the construction works and an update of work recently completed and soon to get underway. (authors)

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. Numerical simulation of turbulent mixing and combustion near the inlet of a burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used to simulate the flow field and turbulent mixing near the fuel and air inlets in a simplified burner that was proposed for experimental study at the Combustion Laboratory at the University of California at Irvine. Four cases are presented, with and without chemical reactions, with two different outflow boundary conditions, and with two different swirl numbers. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of COYOTE to simulate burners, and they illustrate some limitations and requirements of such modeling.

  20. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  1. Improving an Inlet for Underwater Volatile Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, E.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.; Kapit, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although the deep ocean remains a challenging place to study, recent progress in technologies such as advanced in situ chemical sensors is beginning to broaden the scope of ocean exploration by enabling more comprehensive measurements at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Such sensors are designed to be compatible with remotely and human operated vehicles and thus shed light on the geochemical composition of, and processes occurring in, seafloor environments. Among these sensors is a recently-developed in situ laser-based analyzer which utilizes Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS). This instrument is capable of measuring stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (δ13CCH4), making it a powerful tool for assessing biogeochemical activity in the deep sea. With the aim of improving the sensitivity of this membrane inlet-based chemical sensor, a Membrane Inlet Dissolved Gas Extractor (MIDGE) was developed. Recent work on the MIDGE focused on improving design elements with the aim of enhancing gas transport through the membrane and reducing water vapour in the gas stream. This was accomplished by implementing a newly-designed membrane flow-through inlet geometry, testing a variety of membrane materials, and incorporating an acidification module to evolve dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to gaseous CO2. We will report on results from a September 2014 research cruise, in which the MIDGE ICOS is to be deployed as part of an interdisciplinary mission conducting the first-ever in situ chemical and stable isotopic exploration of two seafloor sites in the Caribbean: the Barbados Mud Volcanoes and Kick 'em Jenny (KEJ). The goals of this project are to 1) use in situ measurements of methane and DIC carbon isotopes to enable biogeochemical exploration and mapping of methane seeps, and 2) measure the composition of bubble streams emanating from the crater of KEJ.

  2. Redistribution of an inlet temperature distortion in an axial flow turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. L.; Sharma, O. P.; Joslyn, H. D.; Dring, R. P.

    1986-06-01

    The results of an experimental program aimed at determining the extent of the redistribution of an inlet temperature distortion in an axial flow turbine stage are presented. The program was conducted in a large-scale, low speed, single stage turbine where air, seeded with CO2 was introduced at one circumferential location upstream of the inlet guide vane. The migration of the seeded air through the turbine was determined by sensing CO2 concentration inside the stage. A temperature distortion was introduced by heating the seeded air. The CO2 concentration contours measured downstream of the vane showed little change with heating, indicating that the vane flowfield was relatively unaffected by the introduction of the temperature distortion. However, the CO2 contours observed on the rotor airfoil surfaces for the case with inlet heating indicated segregation of hot and cold gas, with the higher temperature gas migrating to the pressure side and the lower temperature gas migrating to the suction side. Significant increases in rotor secondary flow were also observed.

  3. Total-Pressure Distortion and Recovery of Supersonic Nose Inlet with Conical Centerbody in Subsonic Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, Thomas F

    1957-01-01

    Ice was formed on a full-scale unheated supersonic nose inlet in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel to determine its effect on compressor-face total-pressure distortion and recovery.Inlet angle of attack was varied from 0degrees to 12 degrees, free-stream Mach number from 0.17 to 0.28, and compressor-face Mach number from 0.10 to 0.47. Icing-cloud liquid-water content was varied from 0.65 to 1.8 grams per cubic meter at free-stream static air temperatures of 15 degrees and 0 degrees F. The addition of ice to the inlet components increased total-pressure-distortion levels and decreased recovery values compared withclear0air results, the losses increasing with time in ice. The combination of glaze ice, high corrected weight flow, and high angle of attack yielded the highest levels of distortion and lowest values of recovery. The general character of compressor-face distortion with an iced inlet was the same as that for the clean inlet, the total-pressure gradients being predominantly radial, with circumferential gradients occurring at angle of attack. At zero angle of attack, free-stream Mach number of 0.27, and a constant corrected weight flow of 150 pounds per second (compressor-face Mach number of 0.43), compressor-face total-pressure-distortion level increased from about 6 percent in clear air to 12 percent after 21 minutes of heavy glaze icing; concurrently, total-pressure recovery decreased from about 0.98 to 0.945. For the same operating conditions but with the inlet at 12 deg angle of attack, a change in distortion level occurred from about 9 percent in clear air to 14 percent after 2-1/4 minutes of icing, with a decrease in recovery from about 0.97 to 0.94.

  4. Investigation of REST-Class Hypersonic Inlet Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollan, Rowan; Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Rectangular-to-elliptical shape-transition (REST) inlets are of interest for use on scramjet engines because they are efficient and integrate well with the forebody of a planar vehicle. The classic design technique by Smart for these inlets produces an efficient inlet but the complex three-dimensional viscous effects are only approximately included. Certain undesirable viscous features often occur in these inlets. In the present work, a design toolset has been developed which allows for rapid design of REST-class inlet geometries and the subsequent Navier-Stokes analysis of the inlet performance. This gives the designer feedback on the complex viscous effects at each design iteration. This new tool is applied to design an inlet for on-design operation at Mach 8. The tool allows for rapid investigation of design features that was previously not possible. The outcome is that the inlet shape can be modified to affect aspects of the flow field in a positive way. In one particular example, the boundary layer build-up on the bodyside of the inlet was reduced by 20% of the thickness associated with the classically designed inlet shape.

  5. Characterization and airborne deployment of a new counterflow virtual impactor inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, T.; Dey, S.; Sorooshian, A.; Brechtel, F. J.; Wang, Z.; Metcalf, A.; Coggon, M.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Russell, L. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    A new counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet is introduced with details of its design, laboratory characterization tests, and deployment on an aircraft during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). The CVI inlet addresses three key issues in previous designs; in particular, the inlet operates with: (i) negligible organic contamination; (ii) a significant sample flow rate to downstream instruments (~15 l min-1) that reduces the need for dilution; and (iii) a high level of accessibility to the probe interior for cleaning. Wind tunnel experiments characterized the cut size of sampled droplets and the particle size-dependent transmission efficiency in various parts of the probe. For a range of counter-flow rates and air velocities, the measured cut size was between 8.7-13.1 μm. The percentage error between cut size measurements and predictions from aerodynamic drag theory are less than 13%. The CVI was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter for thirty flights during E-PEACE to study aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions off the central coast of California between July and August 2011. Results are reported to assess the performance of the inlet including comparisons of particle number concentration downstream of the CVI and cloud drop number concentration measured by two independent aircraft probes. Measurements downstream the CVI are also examined from one representative case flight coordinated with shipboard-emitted smoke that was intercepted in cloud by the Twin Otter.

  6. Characterisation and airborne deployment of a new counterflow virtual impactor inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, T.; Dey, S.; Sorooshian, A.; Brechtel, F. J.; Wang, Z.; Metcalf, A.; Coggon, M.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Russell, L. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-06-01

    A new counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet is introduced with details of its design, laboratory characterisation tests and deployment on an aircraft during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). The CVI inlet addresses three key issues in previous designs; in particular, the inlet operates with: (i) negligible organic contamination; (ii) a significant sample flow rate to downstream instruments (∼15 l min-1) that reduces the need for dilution; and (iii) a high level of accessibility to the probe interior for cleaning. Wind tunnel experiments characterised the cut size of sampled droplets and the particle size-dependent transmission efficiency in various parts of the probe. For a range of counter-flow rates and air velocities, the measured cut size was between 8.7-13.1 μm. The mean percentage error between cut size measurements and predictions from aerodynamic drag theory is 1.7%. The CVI was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter for thirty flights during E-PEACE to study aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions off the central coast of California in July and August 2011. Results are reported to assess the performance of the inlet including comparisons of particle number concentration downstream of the CVI and cloud drop number concentration measured by two independent aircraft probes. Measurements downstream of the CVI are also examined from one representative case flight coordinated with shipboard-emitted smoke that was intercepted in cloud by the Twin Otter.

  7. NASCRIN - NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SCRAMJET INLET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASCRIN program was developed for analyzing two-dimensional flow fields in supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) inlets. NASCRIN solves the two-dimensional Euler or Navier-Stokes equations in conservative form by an unsplit, explicit, two-step finite-difference method. A more recent explicit-implicit, two-step scheme has also been incorporated in the code for viscous flow analysis. An algebraic, two-layer eddy-viscosity model is used for the turbulent flow calculations. NASCRIN can analyze both inviscid and viscous flows with no struts, one strut, or multiple struts embedded in the flow field. NASCRIN can be used in a quasi-three-dimensional sense for some scramjet inlets under certain simplifying assumptions. Although developed for supersonic internal flow, NASCRIN may be adapted to a variety of other flow problems. In particular, it should be readily adaptable to subsonic inflow with supersonic outflow, supersonic inflow with subsonic outflow, or fully subsonic flow. The NASCRIN program is available for batch execution on the CDC CYBER 203. The vectorized FORTRAN version was developed in 1983. NASCRIN has a central memory requirement of approximately 300K words for a grid size of about 3,000 points.

  8. Wood stove with safety forced air system

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.J.; Thulman, R.D.

    1982-08-03

    A high efficiency, air-tight wood stove has a firebox with front, side, rear, top and bottom walls, primary air introducing means for admitting combustion air into the firebox, air flow means adjacent the bottom of the firebox for directing a flow of air upwardly across at least one firebox wall, at least one supplemental air inlet for diverting a portion of the air from the air flow means into the firebox, fan means for forcing air through the air flow means and through the supplemental air inlet, the size of the primary air introducing means being chosen to automatically restrict the combustion in the firebox if the fan means stops to maintain the temperature of the stove and surroundings at safe levels.

  9. 76 FR 66862 - Opening of Boquillas Border Crossing and Update to the Class B Port of Entry Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ..., effective on January 23, 2007, that implemented WHTI at U.S. air ports of entry. See 71 FR 68412. On April 3... U.S. land and sea ports of entry. See 73 FR 18384. Prior to the implementation of WHTI, nationals of... may grow over time as NPS continues to work with the Mexican government to develop ecotourism...

  10. Effect of replacing surface inlets with blind or gravel inlets on sediment and phosphorus subsurface drainage losses.

    PubMed

    Feyereisen, Gary W; Francesconi, Wendy; Smith, Douglas R; Papiernik, Sharon K; Krueger, Erik S; Wente, Christopher D

    2015-03-01

    Open surface inlets that connect to subsurface tile drainage systems provide a direct pathway for movement of sediment, nutrients, and agrochemicals to surface waters. This study was conducted to determine the reduction in drainage effluent total suspended sediment (TSS) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and loads when open surface inlets were replaced with blind (in gravel capped with 30 cm of soil) or gravel (in very coarse sand/fine gravel) inlets. In Indiana, a pair of closed depressions in adjacent fields was fitted with open inlet tile risers and blind inlets in 2005 and monitored for flow and water chemistry. Paired comparisons on a storm event basis during the growing season for years 2006 to 2013 showed that TSS loads were 40.4 and 14.4 kg ha event for tile risers and blind inlets, respectively. Total P (TP) and soluble reactive P (SRP) loads were 66 and 50% less for the blind inlets, respectively. In Minnesota, TSS and SRP concentrations were monitored for 3 yr before and after modification of 24 open inlets to gravel inlets in an unreplicated large-field on-farm study. Median TSS concentrations were 97 and 8.3 mg L and median SRP concentrations were 0.099 and 0.064 mg L for the open inlet and gravel inlet periods, respectively. Median TSS and SRP concentrations were elevated for snowmelt vs. non-snowmelt seasons for open and gravel inlets. Both replacement designs reduced suspended sediment and P concentrations and loads. The Indiana study suggests blind inlets will be effective beyond a 10-yr service life. PMID:26023978

  11. Effect of replacing surface inlets with blind or gravel inlets on sediment and phosphorus subsurface drainage losses.

    PubMed

    Feyereisen, Gary W; Francesconi, Wendy; Smith, Douglas R; Papiernik, Sharon K; Krueger, Erik S; Wente, Christopher D

    2015-03-01

    Open surface inlets that connect to subsurface tile drainage systems provide a direct pathway for movement of sediment, nutrients, and agrochemicals to surface waters. This study was conducted to determine the reduction in drainage effluent total suspended sediment (TSS) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and loads when open surface inlets were replaced with blind (in gravel capped with 30 cm of soil) or gravel (in very coarse sand/fine gravel) inlets. In Indiana, a pair of closed depressions in adjacent fields was fitted with open inlet tile risers and blind inlets in 2005 and monitored for flow and water chemistry. Paired comparisons on a storm event basis during the growing season for years 2006 to 2013 showed that TSS loads were 40.4 and 14.4 kg ha event for tile risers and blind inlets, respectively. Total P (TP) and soluble reactive P (SRP) loads were 66 and 50% less for the blind inlets, respectively. In Minnesota, TSS and SRP concentrations were monitored for 3 yr before and after modification of 24 open inlets to gravel inlets in an unreplicated large-field on-farm study. Median TSS concentrations were 97 and 8.3 mg L and median SRP concentrations were 0.099 and 0.064 mg L for the open inlet and gravel inlet periods, respectively. Median TSS and SRP concentrations were elevated for snowmelt vs. non-snowmelt seasons for open and gravel inlets. Both replacement designs reduced suspended sediment and P concentrations and loads. The Indiana study suggests blind inlets will be effective beyond a 10-yr service life.

  12. Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.

  13. Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.

    2004-01-01

    When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with the scarf inlet, both in full scale and in model tests, where the noise produced during the static test makes it difficult to assess the noise reduction performance of the scarf inlet. NASA Langley researchers have implemented boundary layer control in an attempt to reduce the influence of the flow nonuniformity in a 12-in. diameter model of a high bypass fan engine mounted in an anechoic chamber. Static pressures and boundary layer profiles were measured in the inlet and far field acoustic measurements were made to assess the effectiveness of the blowing treatment. The blowing system was found to lack the authority to overcome the inlet distortions. Methods to improve the implementation of boundary layer control to reduce inlet distortion are discussed.

  14. Computational effects of inlet representation on powered hypersonic, airbreathing models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Computational results are presented to illustrate the powered aftbody effects of representing the scramjet inlet on a generic hypersonic vehicle with a fairing, to divert the external flow, as compared to an operating flow-through scramjet inlet. This study is pertinent to the ground testing of hypersonic, airbreathing models employing scramjet exhaust flow simulation in typical small-scale hypersonic wind tunnels. The comparison of aftbody effects due to inlet representation is well-suited for computational study, since small model size typically precludes the ability to ingest flow into the inlet and perform exhaust simulation at the same time. Two-dimensional analysis indicates that, although flowfield differences exist for the two types of inlet representations, little, if any, difference in surface aftbody characteristics is caused by fairing over the inlet.

  15. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  16. Improved Air-Treatment Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed air-treatment canister integrates a heater-in-tube water evaporator into canister header. Improved design prevents water from condensing and contaminating chemicals that regenerate the air. Heater is evenly spiraled about the inlet header on the canister. Evaporator is brazed to the header.

  17. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  18. CFD Models of a Serpentine Inlet, Fan, and Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.; Arend, D. J.; Castner, R. S.; Slater, J. W.; Truax, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were used to analyze the Versatile Integrated Inlet Propulsion Aerodynamics Rig (VIIPAR) located at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig consists of a serpentine inlet, a rake assembly, inlet guide vanes, a 12-in. diameter tip-turbine driven fan stage, exit rakes or probes, and an exhaust nozzle with a translating centerbody. The analyses were done to develop computational capabilities for modeling inlet/fan interaction and to help interpret experimental data. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the fan stage were used to predict the operating line of the stage, the effects of leakage from the turbine stream, and the effects of inlet guide vane (IGV) setting angle. Coupled axisymmetric calculations of a bellmouth, fan, and nozzle were used to develop techniques for coupling codes together and to investigate possible effects of the nozzle on the fan. RANS calculations of the serpentine inlet were coupled to Euler calculations of the fan to investigate the complete inlet/fan system. Computed wall static pressures along the inlet centerline agreed reasonably well with experimental data but computed total pressures at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) showed significant differences from the data. Inlet distortion was shown to reduce the fan corrected flow and pressure ratio, and was not completely eliminated by passage through the fan

  19. Hysteresis phenomenon of hypersonic inlet at high Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaoliang; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Zhongqi; Yu, Daren

    2016-11-01

    When the hypersonic inlet works at a Mach number higher than the design value, the hypersonic inlet is started with a regular reflection of the external compression shock at the cowl, whereas a Mach reflection will result in the shock propagating forwards to cause a shock detachment at the cowl lip, which is called "local unstart of inlet". As there are two operation modes of hypersonic inlet at high Mach number, the mode transition may occur with the operation condition of hypersonic inlet changing. A cowl-angle-variation-induced hysteresis and a downstream-pressure-variation-induced hysteresis in the hypersonic inlet start↔local unstart transition are obtained by viscous numerical simulations in this paper. The interaction of the external compression shock and boundary layer on the cowl plays a key role in the hysteresis phenomenon. Affected by the transition of external compression shock reflection at the cowl and the transition between separated and attached flow on the cowl, a hysteresis exists in the hypersonic inlet start↔local unstart transition. The hysteresis makes the operation of a hypersonic inlet very difficult to control. In order to avoid hysteresis phenomenon and keep the hypersonic inlet operating in a started mode, the control route should never pass through the local unstarted boundary.

  20. SUPIN: A Computational Tool for Supersonic Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN is being developed to design and analyze the aerodynamic performance of supersonic inlets. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric pitot, three-dimensional pitot, axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flow-field is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling. Each part of the inlet is defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick design and analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates, surface angles, and cross-sectional areas. SUPIN can generate inlet surface grids and three-dimensional, structured volume grids for use with higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Capabilities highlighted in this paper include the design and analysis of streamline-traced external-compression inlets, modeling of porous bleed, and the design and analysis of mixed-compression inlets. CFD analyses are used to verify the SUPIN results.

  1. Some design considerations for supersonic cruise mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    A mixed compression inlet designed for supersonic cruise has very demanding requirements for high total pressure recovery and low bleed and cowl drag. However, since the optimum inlet for supersonic cruise performance may have other undesirable characteristics, it is necessary to establish trade-offs between inlet performance and other inlet characteristics. Some of these trade-offs between the amount of internal compression, aerodynamic performance and angle-of-attack tolerance are reviewed. Techniques for analysis of boundary layer control and subsonic diffuser flow are discussed.

  2. Computational study of inlet injection for a Pre-Mixed, Shock-Induced Combustion (PM/SIC) engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computational simulation of reacting 2-D and 3-D flowfields in a model inlet section of a Pre-Mixed, Shock-Induced Combustion (PM/SIC) engine concept was performed. LARCK, a multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with finite-rate kinetics chemistry developed at NASA LaRC by J.A. White, was adapted for this simulation. The flow conditions in the simulation match those envisioned for the PM/SIC engine experiments currently planned at LaRC. The reacting flowfields were Mach 6.3 freestream air and Mach 2 hydrogen at various pressure and temperature conditions injected through a slot injector at the base of the inlet section. In the PM/SIC engine, fuel is injected at the inlet section upstream of the combustor, and reaction is initiated by the shock wave at the inlet which increases the gas temperature and pressure beyond the kinetic limits for reaction. Many challenges exist prior to establishing shock-controlled combustion as a practical engine concept. These challenges include fuel injection schemes that can provide proper fuel-air mixing without creating large losses in the inlet section, and control of the combustion process so that early ignition or combustion propagation through the inlet boundary layer does not occur. For this project, a parametrics study was carried out to model the fuel injection of hydrogen at different flow conditions. It was found that, as the fuel temperature and pressure were increased, the potential for pre-ignition was high at a short distance downstream of the slot injector. The next stage of this work will investigate injection techniques for enhancing mixing of fuel and air in a manner that prevents or reduces the potential for premature ignition observed numerically.

  3. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  4. The VisPort Project: Visualization of Port Logistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Watson, Ginger

    2011-01-01

    There is concern about the diminishing availability of skilled personnel that can operate in the wide variety of disciplines associated with port operations. Increasing cargo volume, combined with a shrinking workforce, could potentially create alarming situations in the future, hence the motivation to publicize to current students the breadth and…

  5. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  6. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-06-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled - the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program.

  7. 33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; annual firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... segments of the public as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). The Captain of the Port will... described above. (d) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C... Island Fireworks Eagle Harbor 47° 37.267′ N 122° 31.583′ W Whaling Days Dyes Inlet 47° 38.65′ N 122°...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; annual firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... segments of the public as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). The Captain of the Port will... described above. (d) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C... Island Fireworks Eagle Harbor 47° 37.267′ N 122° 31.583′ W Whaling Days Dyes Inlet 47° 38.65′ N 122°...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; annual firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... segments of the public as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). The Captain of the Port will... described above. (d) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C... 122°30.397′ W Whaling Days Dyes Inlet 47°38.65′ N 122°41.35′ W Yarrow Point Community Yarrow Point...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; annual firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). The Captain of the Port will issue a Broadcast Notice to Mariners.... In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C, no vessel operator may... Harbor 47°37.142′ N 122°30.397′ W Whaling Days Dyes Inlet 47° 38.65′ N 122° 41.35′ W Yarrow...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; annual firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... segments of the public as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). The Captain of the Port will... described above. (d) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C... Fireworks Eagle Harbor 47° 37.267′ N 122° 31.583′ W Whaling Days Dyes Inlet 47° 38.65′ N 122° 41.35′...

  12. Effect of pressure ratio and inlet pressure on performance of experimental gas turbine at inlet temperature of 800 R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Robert C; Larkin, Robert G

    1948-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine was operated over a range of blade-jet speed ratios, total pressure ratios, and inlet total pressures at a constant inlet temperature of 800 R. Peak over-all efficiencies were obtained at blade-jet speed ratios from 0.525 to 0.575 for all runs. The variation in peak efficiency with inlet pressure and pressure ratio was of small magnitude for the conditions investigated.

  13. Geologic framework of lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Magoon, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    Three seismic reflectors are present throughout the lower Cook Inlet basin and can be correlated with onshore geologic features. The reflections come from unconformities at the base of the Tertiary sequence, at the base of Upper Cretaceous rocks, and near the base of Upper Jurassic strata. A contour map of the deepest horizon shows that Mesozoic rocks are formed into a northeast-trending syncline. Along the southeast flank of the basin, the northwest-dipping Mesozoic rocks are truncated at the base of Tertiary rocks. The Augustine-Seldovia arch trends across the basin axis between Augustine Island and Seldovia. Tertiary rocks thin onto the arch from the north and south. Numerous anticlines, smaller in structural relief and breadth than the Augustine-Seldovia arch, trend northeast parallel with the basin, and intersect the arch at oblique angles. The stratigraphic record shows four cycles of sedimentation and tectonism that are bounded by three regional unconformities in lower Cook Inlet and by four thrust faults and the modern Benioff zone in flysch rocks of the Kenai Peninsula and the Gulf of Alaska. The four cycles of sedimentation are, from oldest to youngest, the early Mesozoic, late Mesozoic, early Cenozoic, and late Cenozoic. Data on organic geochemistry of the rocks from one well suggest that Middle Jurassic strata may be a source of hydrocarbons. Seismic data show that structural traps are formed by northeast-trending anticlines and by structures formed at the intersections of these anticlines with the transbasin arch. Stratigraphic traps may be formed beneath the unconformity at the base of Tertiary strata and beneath unconformities within Mesozoic strata.

  14. Blended Wing Body Systems Studies: Boundary Layer Ingestion Inlets With Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A. (Technical Monitor); Daggett, David L.; Kawai, Ron; Friedman, Doug

    2003-01-01

    A CFD analysis was performed on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft with advanced, turbofan engines analyzing various inlet configurations atop the aft end of the aircraft. The results are presented showing that the optimal design for best aircraft fuel efficiency would be a configuration with a partially buried engine, short offset diffuser using active flow control, and a D-shaped inlet duct that partially ingests the boundary layer air in flight. The CFD models showed that if active flow control technology can be satisfactorily developed, it might be able to control the inlet flow distortion to the engine fan face and reduce the powerplant performance losses to an acceptable level. The weight and surface area drag benefits of a partially submerged engine shows that it might offset the penalties of ingesting the low energy boundary layer air. The combined airplane performance of such a design might deliver approximately 5.5% better aircraft fuel efficiency over a conventionally designed, pod-mounted engine.

  15. Basic research in fan source noise: Inlet distortion and turbulence noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantola, R. A.; Warren, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A widely recognized problem in jet engine fan noise is the discrepancy between inflight and static tests. This discrepancy consists of blade passing frequency tones, caused by ingested turbulence that appear in the static tests but not in flight. To reduce the ingested distortions and turbulence in an anechoic chamber, a reverse cone inlet is used to guide the air into the fan. This inlet also has provisions for boundary layer suction and is used in conjunction with a turbulence control structure (TCS) to condition the air impinging on the fan. The program was very successful in reducing the ingested turbulence, to the point where reductions in the acoustic power at blade passing frequency are as high as 18 db for subsonic tip speeds. Even with this large subsonic tone suppression, the supersonic tip speed tonal content remains largely unchanged, indicating that the TCS did not appreciably attenuate the noise but effects the generation via turbulence reduction. Turbulence mapping of the inlet confirmed that the tone reductions are due to a reduction in turbulence, as the low frequency power spectra of the streamwise and transverse turbulence were reduced by up to ten times and 100 times, respectively.

  16. Inlet Development for a Rocket Based Combined Cycle, Single Stage to Orbit Vehicle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Trefny, C. J.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Design and analysis of the inlet for a rocket based combined cycle engine is discussed. Computational fluid dynamics was used in both the design and subsequent analysis. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were performed using both perfect gas and real gas assumptions. An inlet design that operates over the required Mach number range from 0 to 12 was produced. Performance data for cycle analysis was post processed using a stream thrust averaging technique. A detailed performance database for cycle analysis is presented. The effect ot vehicle forebody compression on air capture is also examined.

  17. Coastal response to the Port Sheldon jetties at Pigeon Lake, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.; Underwood, S.G.

    1991-07-01

    The Consumers Powers Corp. constructed two jetties at Port Shelton, Michigan to maintain an open waterway into Pigeon Lake. These jetties are located at the entrance of Pigeon Lake in Port Shelton township, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Originally, water was drawn from Lake Michigan via Pigeon Lake Inlet to cool a fossil fuel power plant. The inlet into Pigeon Lake was deepened and widened throughout the early history of the power plant. Adjacent shorelines have been modified directly by Consumers Power Corp. and indirectly by the natural littoral response to the jetties. This study sought to determine the impact, if any, of these jetties at the entrance to Pigeon Lake on adjacent shorelines and nearshore zones. Analysis of historical shoreline position and bathymetry data in the vicinity of Port Sheldon indicates approximately 810,600 cu yd of material has been trapped by the jetties since construction in 1964. At present, it appears that the fillet areas adjacent to the jetties have volumetrically stabilized and that natural and bypassing may be occurring around the lakeward tips of the jetties. Results of this study identified a zone of slightly higher erosion 3,000 to 9,000 ft south of the jetties that may be related to jetty construction.

  18. 9 CFR 91.14 - Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., CA 91710, (909) 597-1756. (ii) San Francisco—airport and ocean port. (A) Cow Palace, P.O. Box 34206, San Francisco, CA 94134, (415) 469-6000. (B) Petair, 145 Bel Air Road, P.O. Box 2431, South San... Center, 6300 NW. 36th Street, P.O. Box 523054, Miami, FL 33152, (305) 526-2828. (ii) Tampa—ocean port....

  19. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, C.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a jet engine capable of being used to power an aircraft throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic. It comprises means for bounding an internal passage centered on an axis and including, in succession as considered in the direction of axial flow of incoming air into and through the passage, a fixed-area air inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section; fan means situated in the air inlet section and including a rotor mounted in the bounding means for rotation about the axis and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced rotor blade members; means for selectively rotating the rotor about the axis with attendant impelling action of the rotor blade members on the air flowing therebetween; and means for selectively discharging air from a region of the passage situated between the air inlet section and the diverging passage section to the exterior of the bounding means, both at subsonic and supersonic speeds of the aircraft, when the amount of incoming air passing through the fixed-area inlet section exceeds that required in the combustion section.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic test of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet with variable cowl slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, A. G.; Welge, H. R.; Trefny, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an axisymmetric mixed-compression supersonic inlet with variable cowl slot are described. The model consisted of the NASA P-inlet centerbody and redesigned cowl with variable cowl slot powered by the JT8D single-stage fan simulator and driven by an air turbine. The model was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9- by 15-foot low-speed tunnel at Mach numbers of 0, 0.1, and 0.2 over a range of flows, cowl slot openings, centerbody positions, and angles of attack. The variable cowl slot was effective in minimizing lip separation at high velocity ratios, showed good steady-state and dynamic distortion characteristics, and had good angle-of-attack tolerance.

  1. Tangential blowing for control of strong normal shock - Boundary layer interactions on inlet ramps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendemann, M. F.; Sanders, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of tangential blowing from a row of holes in an aft facing step is found to provide good control of the ramp boundary layer, normal shock interaction on a fixed geometry inlet over a wide range of inlet mass flow ratios. Ramp Mach numbers of 1.36 and 1.96 are investigated. The blowing geometry is found to have a significant effect on system performance at the highest Mach number. The use of high-temperature air in the blowing system, however, has only a slight effect on performance. The required blowing rates are significantly high for the most severe test conditions. In addition, the required blowing coefficient is found to be proportional to the normal shock pressure rise.

  2. Multi-port dump combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L. A.; Grenleski Jr., S. E.; Keirsey, J. L.; Stevens, C. E.

    1985-09-10

    A four-ported dump combustor is designed for use with a ramjet engine and provides high combustion efficiency and pressure recovery for length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios of between 1.3 and 4.4, over a range of operating conditions.

  3. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 4; Inlet and Fan/Inlet Accoustics Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  4. High-precision measurements of mercury vapor in air: Design of a six-port-manifold mass flow controller system and evaluation of mass flow errors at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lindberg, Steven E.

    1994-03-01

    We constructed an atmospheric sampling system for Hg vapor that utilizes a single vacuum pump connected via a manifold to six separate mass flow controllers (MFC). The manifold system reduces the size and power requirements for collection of replicate samples, is ideally suited for use on meteorological towers, and achieves the precise control of air-sampling volumes required for computing air/surface exchange rates from concentration gradients of Hg vapor. In testing our air sampling systems, we found consistent calibration errors between the manufacturer's calibrations and a standard bubble flow meter. Errors as high as 30% decreased systematically with increasing flow rate to values of 3-5% at near-maximum flow. The relative error patterns established between adjacent MFC units in each system were found to be relatively stable over time. Using gold-coated sand amalgamation traps for Hg vapor and the flow correction factors computed from our calibrations, we routinely achieve precision for replicate measurements of Hg vapor in background air of 0.5-2% (expressed as relative standard errors of mean concentrations of 1.5-3.5 ng/m3). Application of the flow correction factors measurably decreases the level of bias between mean concentrations of Hg vapor measured with adjacent sampling systems and is necessary to reduce uncertainty associated with quantifying gradients in atmospheric concentrations.

  5. 7 CFR 352.9 - Ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations in 19 CFR 1.1 and 19 CFR 6.13, and Agana, Guam, or such other ports as may be named in permits or... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports. 352.9 Section 352.9 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.9 Ports. The arrival, unloading, landing,...

  6. 46 CFR 45.137 - Cargo ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo ports. 45.137 Section 45.137 Shipping COAST GUARD....137 Cargo ports. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the lower edge of any opening for... uppermost loadline. (b) The number of cargo ports in the sides of a ship must be— (1) No more than...

  7. 46 CFR 45.137 - Cargo ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo ports. 45.137 Section 45.137 Shipping COAST GUARD....137 Cargo ports. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the lower edge of any opening for... uppermost loadline. (b) The number of cargo ports in the sides of a ship must be— (1) No more than...

  8. 50 CFR 14.19 - Special ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special ports. 14.19 Section 14.19... IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.19 Special ports. (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 18, 21, or...

  9. 50 CFR 14.19 - Special ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special ports. 14.19 Section 14.19... IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.19 Special ports. (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 18, 21, or...

  10. Smart actuation of inlet guide vanes for small turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusovici, Razvan; Kwok Choon, Stephen T.; Sepri, Paavo; Feys, Joshuo

    2011-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained popularity over the past few years to become an indispensable part of aerial missions that include reconnaissance, surveillance, and communication [1]. As a result, advancements in small jet-engine performance are needed to increase the performance (range, payload and efficiency) of the UAV. These jet engines designed especially for UAV's are characterized by thrust force on the order of 100N and due to their size and weight limitations, may lack advanced flow control devices such as IGV [2]. The goal of the current study was to present a conceptual design of an IGV smart-material based actuation mechanism that would be simple, compact and lightweight. The compressor section of an engine increases the pressure and conditions the flow before the air enters the combustion chamber [3]. The airflow entering the compressor is often turbulent due to the high angle of incidence between engine inlet and free-stream velocity, or existing atmospheric turbulence. Actuated IGV are used to help control the relative angle of incidence of the flow that enters the engine compressor, thereby preventing flow separation, compressor stall and thus extending the compressor's operating envelope [4]. Turbine jet- engines which employ variable IGV were developed by Rolls Royce (Trent DR-900) and General Electric (J79).

  11. Single port laparoscopic mesh rectopexy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traditionally, laparoscopic mesh rectopexy is performed with four ports, in an attempt to improve cosmetic results. Following laparoscopic mesh rectopexy there is a new operative technique called single-port laparoscopic mesh rectopexy. Aim To evaluate the single-port laparoscopic mesh rectopexy technique in control of rectal prolapse and the cosmesis and body image issues of this technique. Material and methods The study was conducted in El Fayoum University Hospital between July 2013 and November 2014 in elective surgery for symptomatic rectal prolapse with single-port laparoscopic mesh rectopexy on 10 patients. Results The study included 10 patients: 3 (30%) males and 7 (70%) females. Their ages ranged between 19 years and 60 years (mean: 40.3 ±6 years), and they all underwent laparoscopic mesh rectopexy. There were no conversions to open technique, nor injuries to the rectum or bowel, and there were no mortalities. Mean operative time was 120 min (range: 90–150 min), and mean hospital stay was 2 days (range: 1–3 days). Preoperatively, incontinence was seen in 5 (50%) patients and constipation in 4 (40%). Postoperatively, improvement in these symptoms was seen in 3 (60%) patients for incontinence and in 3 (75%) for constipation. Follow-up was done for 6 months and no recurrence was found with better cosmetic appearance for all patients. Conclusions Single-port laparoscopic mesh rectopexy is a safe procedure with good results as regards operative time, improvement in bowel function, morbidity, cost, and recurrence, and with better cosmetic appearance. PMID:27350840

  12. 46 CFR 45.155 - Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. 45.155 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.155 Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. (a) Except as provided in... have— (1) An automatic nonreturn valve with a positive means for closing; or (2) Two...

  13. 46 CFR 45.155 - Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. 45.155 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.155 Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. (a) Except as provided in... have— (1) An automatic nonreturn valve with a positive means for closing; or (2) Two...

  14. Validation of WIND for a Series of Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Abbott, John M.; Cavicchi, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Validation assessments compare WIND CFD simulations to experimental data for a series of inlet flows ranging in Mach number from low subsonic to hypersonic. The validation procedures follow the guidelines of the AIAA. The WIND code performs well in matching the available experimental data. The assessments demonstrate the use of WIND and provide confidence in its use for the analysis of aircraft inlets.

  15. 33 CFR 334.1240 - Sinclair Inlet; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sinclair Inlet; naval restricted...; naval restricted areas. (a) Sinclair Inlet: naval restricted areas—(1) Area No. 1. All the waters of... Navy. No person, vessel, craft, article or thing, except those under supervision of military or...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1240 - Sinclair Inlet; naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sinclair Inlet; naval restricted...; naval restricted areas. (a) Sinclair Inlet: naval restricted areas—(1) Area No. 1. All the waters of... Navy. No person, vessel, craft, article or thing, except those under supervision of military or...

  17. Aerodynamic and directional acoustic performance of a scoop inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic and directional acoustic performances of a scoop inlet were studied. The scoop inlet is designed with a portion of the lower cowling extended forward to direct upward any noise that is propagating out the front of the engine toward the ground. The tests were conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel facility at free stream velocities of 0, 18, 41, and 61 m/sec and angles of attack from -10 deg to 120 deg. Inlet throat Mach number was varied from 0.30 to 0.75. Aerodynamically, at a free stream velocity of 41 m/sec, the design throat Mach number (0.63), and an angle of attack of 50 deg, the scoop inlet total pressure recovery was 0.989 and the total pressure distortion was 0.15. The angles of attack where flow separation occurred with the scoop inlet were higher than those for a conventional symmetric inlet. Acoustically, the scoop inlet provided a maximum noise reduction of 12 to 15 db below the inlet over the entire range of throat Mach number and angle of attack at a free-stream velocity of 41 m/sec.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16′54″ N, longitude 122°41′33″ W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion of Hale Passage extending from Carr Inlet southeasterly to a line drawn perpendicular to the channel...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16′54″ N, longitude 122°41′33″ W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion of Hale Passage extending from Carr Inlet southeasterly to a line drawn perpendicular to the channel...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16′54″ N, longitude 122°41′33″ W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion of Hale Passage extending from Carr Inlet southeasterly to a line drawn perpendicular to the channel...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16′54″ N, longitude 122°41′33″ W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion of Hale Passage extending from Carr Inlet southeasterly to a line drawn perpendicular to the channel...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1250 - Carr Inlet, naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... northwest by a line running from Green Point (at latitude 47°16′54″ N, longitude 122°41′33″ W) to Penrose Point; plus that portion of Pitt Passage extending from Carr Inlet to Pitt Island, and that portion of Hale Passage extending from Carr Inlet southeasterly to a line drawn perpendicular to the channel...

  3. Isolated testing of highly maneuverable inlet con cepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norby, W. P.; Haeffele, B. A.; Burley, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten percent scale models of a Mach 2.2 two dimensional inlet and a Mach 2.0 axisymmetric inlet were tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel as part of a cooperative effort with the McDonnell Aircraft Company. The objective of this effort was to test methods designed to increase the maneuvering performance of fighter aircraft inlets. Maneuvering improvement concepts were tested up to 40-deg angle of attack for Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.9, and up to 25 deg for Mach numbers 1.2 and 1.4. Maneuvering improvement concepts included a rotating cowl lip, auxiliary inlets aft of the inlet throat, and a retracting centerbody for the axisymmetric inlet. Test results show that the rotating cowl design was effective in improving subsonic maneuvering performance for both inlets. Auxiliary inlets did not produce significant performance increases for either model. The retracted centerbody resulted in some performance benefits at high angles of attack. None of the maneuvering improvement concepts were effective at Mach 1.2 and 1.4.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. 334.1310 Section 334.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1310 Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Army POL dock restricted area. (i) The waters of Lutak Inlet bounded...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. 334.1310 Section 334.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1310 Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Army POL dock restricted area. (i) The waters of Lutak Inlet bounded...

  6. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  7. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  8. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  9. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  10. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  11. Analytical and experimental studies of a short compact subsonic diffuser for a two-dimensional supersonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iek, Chanthy; Burley, Richard R.; Johns, Albert L.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of a two-dimensional supersonic inlet with a short compact subsonic diffuser, length to exit diameter (dl/d) ratio of 1.25, was conducted to investigate the impact of the short diffuser on inlet performance at low speeds and to assess the diffuser subsonic performance for a simulated diffuser flow corresponding to high-speed inlet conditions near the design flight Mach number of 2.2. For the low-speed testing, a drooped lip was employed to improve the inlet performance at a high angle of attack. For the simulated high-speed testing, air was blown through slots or discrete nozzles as an active boundary-layer control. The results from the low-speed performance test were compared with the results from a previous test program on the same inlet with a long subsonic diffuser (dl/d = 4.5). The comparison indicates that inlet recovery was not affected by the use of the short diffuser for either the baseline (no droop) or the drooped cowl lip configuration. However, the inlet baseline distortion for the short diffuser configuration was substantially higher than for the long diffuser. A comparison of the two configurations with a 70 deg drooped lip showed no significant difference in distortion. For the portion of the experimental program in which diffuser conditions for high-speed flight were simulated, diffuser-induced flow separation occurred. This separation was predicted from an analytical study that used the Hess potential flow panel method and the Herring two-dimensional boundary-layer analysis computer codes. The flow separated mainly on the diffuser ramp. Subsequent tests in which boundary-control systems were utilized showed that blowing with either slots or discrete nozzles could suppress the flow separation in the short subsonic diffuser, thereby substantially improving the diffuser performance.

  12. Conceptual study of a turbojet/ramjet inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    An inlet concept for separate turbojet and ramjet engines was defined and compared with an equivalent inlet for a wraparound turboramjet engine. The comparison was made for a typical high altitude hypersonic cruise vehicle where the turbojet inlet capture area was required to be half as large as the ramjet inlet capture area at cruise. The use of a shorter nacelle having substantially lower cooling requirements at cruise for the inlet concept for separate turbojet and ramjet engines is suggested. The separate engine concept better isolates the turbojet from the ramjet, requires no special close off mechanisms within the turbojet, and avoids the circumferential heat load imposed by a wraparound ramjet. A more variable geometry is required.

  13. Computational Analysis of a Low-Boom Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2011-01-01

    A low-boom supersonic inlet was designed for use on a conceptual small supersonic aircraft that would cruise with an over-wing Mach number of 1.7. The inlet was designed to minimize external overpressures, and used a novel bypass duct to divert the highest shock losses around the engine. The Wind-US CFD code was used to predict the effects of capture ratio, struts, bypass design, and angles of attack on inlet performance. The inlet was tested in the 8-ft by 6-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results showed that the inlet had excellent performance, with capture ratios near one, a peak core total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a stable operating range much larger than that of an engine. Predictions generally compared very well with the experimental data, and were used to help interpret some of the experimental results.

  14. Acoustic characteristics of two hybrid inlets at forward speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falarski, M. D.; Moore, M. T.

    1980-02-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of two hybrid inlets installed on a JT15D-1 turbofan engine was performed. The hybrid inlets combined moderate throat Mach number and wall acoustic treatment to suppress the fan inlet noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic data were recorded over a range of flight and engine operating conditions. In a simulated flight environment, the hybrid inlets provided significant levels of suppression at both design and off-design throat Mach numbers with good aerodynamic performance. A comparison of inlet noise at quasi-static and forward-speed conditions in the wind tunnel showed a reduction in the fan tones, demonstrating the flight cleanup effect. High angles of attack produced slight increases in fan noise at the high acoustic directivity angles.

  15. Minimum weight design of a generic axisymmetric inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    1996-01-01

    A new minimum weight design method for high-speed axisymmetric inlets was demonstrated on a generic inlet. The method uses Classical Beam Theory and shell buckling to determine the minimum required equivalent isotropic thickness for a stiffened shell based on prescribed structural design requirements and load conditions. The optimum spacing and equivalent isotropic thickness of ring frame supports are computed to prevent buckling. The method thus develops a preliminary structural design for the inlet and computes the structural weight. Finite element analyses were performed on the resulting inlet design to evaluate the analytical results. Comparisons between the analytical and finite element stresses and deflections identified areas needing improvement in the analytical method. The addition of the deflection due to shear and a torsional buckling failure mode to the new method brought its results in line with those from the finite element analyses. Final validation of the new method will be made using data from actual inlets.

  16. 78 FR 37878 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... of Transportation Privacy Act Notice that appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... (LNG) Deepwater Port appears in the Federal Register on June 14, 2013, 78 FR 36014. The ``Summary of... Bachman, U.S. Coast Guard, telephone: 202-372-1451, email: Roddy.C.Bachman@uscg.mil , or Tracey...

  17. Curved centerline air intake for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruehr, W. C.; Younghans, J. L.; Smith, E. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An inlet for a gas turbine engine was disposed about a curved centerline for the purpose of accepting intake air that is flowing at an angle to engine centerline and progressively turning that intake airflow along a curved path into alignment with the engine. This curved inlet is intended for use in under the wing locations and similar regions where airflow direction is altered by aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane. By curving the inlet, aerodynamic loss and acoustic generation and emission are decreased.

  18. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  19. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  20. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  1. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  2. Unstart coupling mechanism analysis of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted. PMID:24348146

  3. Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series: Admiralty Inlet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dethier, Megan N.; Hodson, Timothy O.; Kull, Kristine K.; Golden, Nadine E.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Moegling, Crescent; Pacunski, Robert E.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    Puget Sound is separated into four interconnected basins; Whidbey, Central (Main), Hood Canal, and South (Thomson, 1994). The Whidbey, Central, and Hood Canal basins are the three main branches of the Puget Sound estuary and are separated from the Strait of Juan de Fuca by a double sill at Admiralty Inlet. The Admiralty Inlet map area includes the Inlet and a portion of the Whidbey Basin (fig. 1). The shallower South Basin is separated by a sill at Tacoma Narrows and is highly branched with numerous finger inlets. Flow within Puget Sound is dominated by tidal currents of as much as 1 m/s at Admiralty Inlet, reducing to approximately 0.5 m/s in the Central Basin (Lavelle and others, 1988). The lack of silt and clay-sized sediments in the Admiralty Inlet map area is likely a result of the strong currents (see Ground-Truth Studies for the Admiralty Inlet Map Area, sheet 3). The subtidal component of flow reaches approximately 0.1 m/s and is driven by density gradients arising from the contrast in salty ocean water at the entrance and freshwater inputs from stream flow (Lavelle and others, 1988). The total freshwater input

  4. Flow Simulation of Supersonic Inlet with Bypass Annular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, HyoungJin; Kumano, Takayasu; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Conners, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    A relaxed isentropic compression supersonic inlet is a new concept that produces smaller cowl drag than a conventional inlet, but incurs lower total pressure recovery and increased flow distortion in the (radially) outer flowpath. A supersonic inlet comprising a bypass annulus to the relaxed isentropic compression inlet dumps out airflow of low quality through the bypass duct. A reliable computational fluid dynamics solution can provide considerable useful information to ascertain quantitatively relative merits of the concept, and further provide a basis for optimizing the design. For a fast and reliable performance evaluation of the inlet performance, an equivalent axisymmetric model whose area changes accounts for geometric and physical (blockage) effects resulting from the original complex three-dimensional configuration is proposed. In addition, full three-dimensional calculations are conducted for studying flow phenomena and verifying the validity of the equivalent model. The inlet-engine coupling is carried out by embedding numerical propulsion system simulation engine data into the flow solver for interactive boundary conditions at the engine fan face and exhaust plane. It was found that the blockage resulting from complex three-dimensional geometries in the bypass duct causes significant degradation of inlet performance by pushing the terminal normal shock upstream.

  5. Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted. PMID:24348146

  6. Observations of Currents in Two Tidally Modulated Inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, T. C.; Irish, J. D.; Hunt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of currents obtained in two tidally modulated inlets are used to examine the spatial evolution of the vertical structure in hourly averaged mean flow and at tidal frequencies. Field experiments of 30 day duration were conducted at Hampton/Seabrook Harbor, NH, in the Fall of 2011 and again at New River Inlet, NC, in the spring of 2012. The temporal variation and vertical structure of the currents were observed with 600 khz and 1200 khz RDI Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) deployed on low-profile bottom tripods just outside and within the inlet mouth, and with a Nortek Aquadopp Profiler mounted on a jetted pipe on the flank of the inlet channel. Across-inlet current profiles were obtained at each site at various tidal stages with a 1200 khz RDI vessel-mounted ADCP onboard the personal watercraft (the Coastal Bathymetry Survey System, or CBASS) that transited the inlet multiple times at various spatial locations. Flows within the inlet were dominated by semi-diurnal tides, ranging from 2.5 to 4 m in elevation at Hampton/Seabrook Harbor with velocities exceeding 3 m/s, and tides ranging from 1 to 1.5 m in elevation at New River Inlet with velocities exceeding 2 m/s. Flows sampled with the CBASS will be used to examine the horizontal and vertical variation in mean currents (averaged over about 20 - 40 min) at various tidal stages. Currents sampled with the fixed instruments will be used to examine the temporal variation in amplitude and direction of mean currents (averaged over 30 - 60 min) as a function of depth, as well as the amplitude, phase, and rotational structure at tidal frequencies. Observations from the two field sites will be compared and discussed in terms of the spatial and temporal evolution from outside the river mouth to the inner inlet channels over the fortnightly sampling period.

  7. Investigation of Power Requirements for Ice Prevention and Cyclical De-Icing of Inlet Guide Vanes with Internal Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Blatz, Robert E.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the electric power requirements necessary for ice protection of inlet guide vanes by continuous heating and by cyclical de-icing. Data are presented to show the effect of ambient-air temperature, liquid-water content, air velocity, heat-on period, and cycle times on the power requirements for these two methods of ice protection. The results showed that for a hypothetical engine using 28 inlet guide vanes under similar icing conditions, cyclical de-icing can provide a total power saving as high as 79 percent over that required for continuous heating. Heat-on periods in the order of 10 seconds with a cycle ratio of about 1:7 resulted in the best over-all performance with respect to total power requirements and aerodynamic losses during the heat-off period. Power requirements reported herein may be reduced by as much as 25 percent by achieving a more uniform surface-temperature distribution. A parameter in terms of engine mass flow, vane size, vane surface temperature, and the icing conditions ahead of the inlet guide vanes.was developed by which an extension of the experimental data to icing conditions and inlet guide vanes, other than those investigated was possible.

  8. Effects of radial and circumferential inlet velocity profile distortions on performance of a short-length double-annular ram induction combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.; Perkins, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Inlet air velocity profile tests were conducted on a full-scale short-length 102-centimeter-diameter annual combustor designed for advanced gas turbine engine applications. The inlet profiles studied include radial distortions that were center peaked, and tip peaked, as well as a circumferential distortion which was center peaked for one-third of the circumference and flat for the other two-thirds. An increase in combustor pressure loss was the most significant effect of the radial air velocity distortions. With the circumferential distortion, exit temperature pattern factor doubled when compared to a flat velocity profile.

  9. Cooling Characteristics of a Pratt and Whitney R-2800 Engine Installed in an NACA Short-nose High-inlet-velocity Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W.; McLellan, Charles H.

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made of the cooling characteristics of a P and W R-2800 engine with NACA short-nose high inlet-velocity cowling. The internal aerodynamics of the cowling were studied for ranges of propeller-advance ratio and inlet-velocity ratio obtained by deflection of cowling flaps. Tests included variations of engine power, fuel/air ratio and cooling-air pressure drop. Engine cooling data are presented in the form of cooling correlation curves, and an example for calculation of cooling requirements in flight is included.

  10. Heavy minerals in surficial sediments from lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Amphiboles, orthopyroxenes, and clinopyroxenes dominate the heavy mineral suite of surficial sediments in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. Sources for these sediments include the igneous arc terrane of the northeast Alaska Range, reworked intrabasinal sediments, and local drainages in lower Cook Inlet. The distribution of these deposits is a reflection of both the tidal currents and the prevailing southerly net movement from the head of Cook Inlet. The heavy mineral studies concur with similar findings from gravel analyses, clay mineral investigations, and quartz microtexture observations. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. High-speed inlet research program and supporting analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coltrin, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    The technology challenges faced by the high speed inlet designer are discussed by describing the considerations that went into the design of the Mach 5 research inlet. It is shown that the emerging three dimensional viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow codes, together with small scale experiments, can be used to guide larger scale full inlet systems research. Then, in turn, the results of the large scale research, if properly instrumented, can be used to validate or at least to calibrate the CFD codes.

  12. Prediction of sound radiation from different practical jet engine inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, B. T.; Meyer, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    Computer codes, capable of producing accurate results for nondimensional wave numbers (based on duct radius) of up to 20, were developed and used to generate results for various other inlet configurations. Both reflection coefficients and radiation patterns were calculated by the integral solution procedure for the following five inlet configurations: the NASA Langley Bellmouth, the NASA Lewis JT-15D-1 ground test nacelle, and three hyperbolic inlets of 50, 70, and 90 degrees. Results obtained are compared with results from other experimental and theoretical studies.

  13. Esophageal Rings and Stricture Related to a Circumferential Inlet Patch

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Inlet patches are sometimes seen during upper endoscopy, usually in the proximal esophagus. Complications of inlet patches can cause a wide array of symptoms and complications. A man presented with dysphagia and was found to have 2 rings in the upper esophagus, just above and below a circumferential inlet patch. The more distal ring caused a stenosis, which produced the symptoms. Savary dilation and treatment with a proton pump inhibitor led to symptom resolution. Pathology was missed on the patient's first endoscopy, highlighting the importance of looking for pathology throughout the entire esophagus, not just in the distal esophagus.

  14. Feasibility study of inlet shock stability system of YF-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blausey, G. C.; Coleman, D. M.; Harp, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of self actuating bleed valves as a shock stabilization system in the inlet of the YF-12 is considered for vortex valves, slide valves, and poppet valves. Analytical estimation of valve performance indicates that only the slide and poppet valves located in the inlet cowl can meet the desired steady state stabilizing flows, and of the two the poppet valve is substantially faster in response to dynamic disturbances. The poppet valve is, therefore, selected as the best shock stability system for the YF-12 inlet.

  15. Prediction of sound radiation from different practical jet engine inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinn, B. T.; Meyer, W. L.

    Computer codes, capable of producing accurate results for nondimensional wave numbers (based on duct radius) of up to 20, were developed and used to generate results for various other inlet configurations. Both reflection coefficients and radiation patterns were calculated by the integral solution procedure for the following five inlet configurations: the NASA Langley Bellmouth, the NASA Lewis JT-15D-1 ground test nacelle, and three hyperbolic inlets of 50, 70, and 90 degrees. Results obtained are compared with results from other experimental and theoretical studies.

  16. Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.

  17. Analysis of an advanced ducted propeller subsonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iek, Chanthy; Boldman, Donald R.; Ibrahim, Mounir

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that a time marching Navier-Stokes code called PARC can be utilized to provide a reasonable prediction of the flow field within an inlet for an advanced ducted propeller. The code validation was implemented for a nonseparated flow condition associated with the inlet functioning at angles-of-attack of zero and 25 deg. Comparison of the computational results with the test data shows that the PARC code with the propeller face fixed flow properties boundary conditions (BC) provided a better prediction of the inlet surface static pressures than the prediction when the mass flow BC was employed.

  18. Distortion-rotor interaction noise produced by a drooped inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. B.; Moore, M. T.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The 'drooped' inlet used on most wing mounted engines produces a wall static pressure distortion at the fan face of about plus or minus 2%. The interaction of the fan rotor with this fixed distortion pattern produces blade passing frequency and harmonic tone levels in flight which contribute to forward radiated engine noise spectra. Data from a wind tunnel test, using both a drooped inlet and an inlet with no droop, show large changes in forward radiated noise levels over a limited fan speed range. An analytical model of this fan noise mechanism is developed and is used to account for the major features of the measured results.

  19. Variable geometry inlet design for scram jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, Daniel P. (Inventor); Drake, Alan (Inventor); Andreadis, Dean (Inventor); Beckel, Stephen A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved variable geometry inlet for a scram jet engine having at least one combustor module. The variable geometry inlet comprises each combustor module having two sidewalls. Each of the sidewalls has a central portion with a thickness and a tapered profile forward of the central portion. The tapered profile terminates in a sharp leading edge. The variable geometry inlet further comprises each module having a lower wall and a movable cowl flap positioned forward of the lower wall. The movable cowl flap has a leading edge and the leading edges of the sidewalls intersect the leading edge of the cowl flap.

  20. Numerical Analysis of the Trailblazer Inlet Flowfield for Hypersonic Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.; DeBonis, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the Trailblazer vehicle inlet was conducted using the Global Air Sampling Program (GASP) code for flight Mach numbers ranging from 4-12. Both perfect gas and finite rate chemical analysis were performed with the intention of making detailed comparisons between the two results. Inlet performance was assessed using total pressure recovery and kinetic energy efficiency. These assessments were based upon a one-dimensional stream-thrust-average of the axisymmetric flowfield. Flow visualization utilized to examine the detailed shock structures internal to this mixed-compression inlet. Kinetic energy efficiency appeared to be the least sensitive to differences between the perfect gas and finite rate chemistry results. Total pressure recovery appeared to be the most sensitive discriminator between the perfect gas and finite rate chemistry results for flight Mach numbers above Mach 6. Adiabatic wall temperature was consistently overpredicted by the perfect gas model for flight Mach numbers above Mach 4. The predicted shock structures were noticeably different for Mach numbers from 6-12. At Mach 4, the perfect gas and finite rate chemistry models collapse to the same result.

  1. Inlet Diameter and Flow Volume Effects on Separation and Energy Efficiency of Hydrocyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikli, Ş.; Olcay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates hydrocyclone performance of an oil injected screw compressor. Especially, the oil separation efficiency of a screw compressor plays a significant role for air quality and non-stop working hour of compressors has become an important issue when the efficiency in energy is considered. In this study, two separation efficiency parameters were selected to be hydrocyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top of the hydrocyclone. Nine different cases were studied in which cyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top were investigated in regards to separation and energy performance aspects and the effect of the parameters on the general performance appears to be causing powerful influence. Flow inside the hydrocyclone geometry was modelled by Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and hydro particles were tracked by Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Besides, particle break up was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model. The reversed vortex generation was observed at different planes. The upper limit of the inlet diameter of the cyclone yields the centrifugal force on particles to decrease while the flow becomes slower; and the larger diameter implies slower flow. On the contrary, the lower limit is increment in speed causes breakup problems that the particle diameters become smaller; consequently, it is harder to separate them from gas.

  2. The Effect of Inlet Aspiration of Aerosol Odd-nitrogen Species on NOy Budget Determination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, D. J.; Rogers, D. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Flocke, F. M.; Zheng, W.; Wennberg, P.; Crounse, J.; McCabe, D.; Decarlo, P.; Dunlea, E.; Aiken, A.; Jimenez, J.; Blake, D.

    2007-12-01

    During the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-MEX campaign in March 2006, the NCAR chemiluminescence NOx, NOy, O3 instrument was flown aboard the NSF C-130 in and around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) to sample the urban pollution plume. The NOy instrument sampled ambient air from an aft-facing inlet extended on a pylon from the bottom of the aircraft, in a continuously aspirated flow of about 1 SLM. The sample flow entrained small aerosols which is understood from a practical perspective, but until this time had not been quantified for this inlet configuration. During flights close to MCMA, relatively high values of ammonium nitrate aerosol (5.2 ppbv equivalent mixing ratio) were measured by the University of Colorado AMS instrument coincidently with high NOy readings (5.5 ppbv) from the NCAR NOy instrument. Subsequent analysis of the NOy partitioning resulted in a component NOy deficiency of 15 - 40 percent, based on independent but concomitantly measured major NOy species: NOx, PANs, HNO3, alkyl nitrates and aerosol NH4NO3. The aspiration efficiency of small aerosols from the NOy inlet was modeled using the Fluent aerodynamic model. The amount of aerosol NH4NO3 and HNO3 on fine dust were calculated based on the determined aspiration efficiencies for a range of aerosol masses, and the potential contribution of these species to the NOy budget was determined. Systematic aspiration of an unknown amount of these aerosols may at least partially explain historic examples of missing NOy.

  3. Admiralty Inlet Advanced Turbulence Measurements: June 2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kilcher, Levi

    2014-06-30

    This data is from measurements at Admiralty Head, in Admiralty Inlet (Puget Sound) in June of 2014. The measurements were made using Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) equipped ADVs mounted on Tidal Turbulence Mooring's (TTMs). The TTM positions the ADV head above the seafloor to make mid-depth turbulence measurements. The inertial measurements from the IMU allows for removal of mooring motion in post processing. The mooring motion has been removed from the stream-wise and vertical velocity signals (u, w). The lateral (v) velocity has some 'persistent motion contamination' due to mooring sway. Each ttm was deployed with two ADVs. The 'top' ADV head was positioned 0.5m above the 'bottom' ADV head. The TTMs were placed in 58m of water. The position of the TTMs were: ttm01 : (48.1525, -122.6867) ttm01b : (48.15256666, -122.68678333) ttm02b : (48.152783333, -122.686316666) Deployments TTM01b and TTM02b occurred simultaneously and were spaced approximately 50m apart in the cross-stream direction. Units ----- - Velocity data (_u, urot, uacc) is in m/s. - Acceleration (Accel) data is in m/s^2. - Angular rate (AngRt) data is in rad/s. - The components of all vectors are in 'ENU' orientation. That is, the first index is True East, the second is True North, and the third is Up (vertical). - All other quantities are in the units defined in the Nortek Manual. Motion correction and rotation into the ENU earth reference frame was performed using the Python-based open source DOLfYN library (http://lkilcher.github.io/dolfyn/). Details on motion correction can be found there. Additional details on TTM measurements at this site can be found in the included Marine Energy Technology Symposium paper.

  4. A remote optical system for port and harbor defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Fletcher A.; Antonelli, Lynn T.; Kalinowski, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    A remote, aerial, laser-based sonar method for detecting and locating underwater targets from the air is discussed. The aerial sonar system combines two independent laser technologies. First, a high power laser is used to remotely generate underwater sound from the air by converting the optical energy into an acoustic pressure wave at the water surface. Second, a low power laser monitors water surface vibrations to detect and localize underwater sound. The aerial (opto-acoustic) generation and (acousto-optic) detection of underwater sound provides a non-contact means for active and passive sonar that does not currently exist. The laser systems could be mounted on an in-air or an above surface platform to search an area to provide intelligence information about the presence and location of underwater objects. Such data could be used for targeting for air-dropped munitions, port defense by monitoring friendly waters, or for area clearance for fleet operations in foreign ports. This transformational capability offers a covert, rapidly deployable, highly distributed, sensor field along the water surface.

  5. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    PubMed

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  6. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    PubMed

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  7. Three dimensional viscous analysis of a hypersonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, D. R.; Smith, G. E.; Liou, M.-F.; Benson, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The flow fields in supersonic/hypersonic inlets are currently being studied at NASA Lewis Research Center using 2- and 3-D full Navier-Stokes and Parabolized Navier-Stokes solvers. These tools have been used to analyze the flow through the McDonnell Douglas Option 2 inlet which has been tested at Calspan in support of the National Aerospace Plane Program. Comparisons between the computational and experimental results are presented. These comparisons lead to better overall understanding of the complex flows present in this class of inlets. The aspects of the flow field emphasized in this work are the 3-D effects, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and the strong nonuniformities generated within the inlet.

  8. CFD Results for an Axisymmetric Isentropic Relaxed Compression Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Conners, Timothy R.; Merret, Jason M.; Howe, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    The OVERFLOW code was used to calculate the flow field for a family of five relaxed compression inlets, which were part of a screening study to determine a configuration most suited to the application of microscale flow control technology as a replacement for bleed. Comparisons are made to experimental data collected for each of the inlets in the 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to help determine the suitability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for future studies of these inlets with flow control devices. Effects on the wind tunnel results of the struts present in a high subsonic flow region accounted for most of the inconsistency between the results. Based on the level of agreement in the present study, it is expected that CFD can be used as a tool to aid in the design of a study of this class of inlets with flow control.

  9. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  11. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  12. STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLAN, SHEET 2 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLAN, SHEET 2 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  13. Inlet total pressure loss due to acoustic wall treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of diffuser wall acoustic treatment on inlet total pressure loss was experimentally determined. Data were obtained by testing an inlet model with 10 different acoustically treated diffusers differing only in the design of the Helmholtz resonator acoustic treatment. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel at forward velocities to 41 meters per second for inlet throat Mach numbers of .5 to .8 and angles of attack as high as 50 degrees. Results indicate a pressure loss penalty due to acoustic treatment that increases linearly with the porosity of the acoustic facing sheet. For a surface porosity of 14 percent the total pressure loss was 21 percent greater than that for an untreated inlet.

  14. Tailoring Inlet Flow to Enable High Accuracy Compressor Performance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossman, John R.; Smith, Natalie R.; Talalayev, Anton; Key, Nicole L.

    2011-12-01

    To accomplish the research goals of capturing the effects of blade row interactions on compressor performance, small changes in performance must be measurable. This also requires axi-symmetric flow so that measuring one passage accurately captures the phenomena occurring in all passages. Thus, uniform inlet flow is a necessity. The original front-driven compressor had non-uniform temperature at the inlet. Additional challenges in controlling shaft speed to within tight tolerances were associated with the use of a viscous fluid coupling. Thus, a new electric motor, with variable frequency drive speed control was implemented. To address the issues with the inlet flow, the compressor is now driven from the rear resulting in improved inlet flow uniformity. This paper presents the design choices of the new layout in addition to the preliminary performance data of the compressor and an uncertainty analysis.

  15. Straight type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 105 Inlet, oblique view, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 105 Inlet, oblique view, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Culverts and Headwalls, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  16. Hydrodynamics and sediment transport in a southeast Florida tidal inlet

    PubMed Central

    Fiechter, Jerome; Steffen, Kelley L.; Mooers, Christopher N.K.; Haus, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional ocean circulation model is used to investigate the hydrodynamics of a tidal inlet and deltas system in Southeast Florida, and to understand the consequences for suspended and bedload sediment transport patterns. The model reproduces observed tidal currents and provides insight about residual currents caused by spatial asymmetries in the inlet throat and tidal deltas during ebb and flood flows. A particle-tracking approach for suspended and bedload sediment transport is used to simulate deposition patterns for different particle sizes. The simulation results qualitatively correlate with the distribution of sediment characteristics within the tidal inlet and deltas system and demonstrate sensitivity to the choice of advection velocities (e.g., near-bottom versus depth-averaged) and regions of sediment origin. Furthermore, the distinction between suspended and bedload transport as a function of particle size indicates significant differences in deposition patterns and their potential connection to geomorphologic features of the tidal inlet and deltas system. PMID:19838314

  17. Ship emissions inventory, social cost and eco-efficiency in Shanghai Yangshan port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Su

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated both the in-port ship emissions inventory (CO2, CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC) and the emission associated social cost in Yangshan port of Shanghai. A sophisticated activity-based methodology, supported by the ship-by-ship and real-time data from the modern automatic identification system (AIS), was introduced to obtain accurate estimates of ship emissions. The detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories can be used as input for air quality dispersion modeling in the port and vicinities. The social cost of the emission impact on the Yangshan port coastal regions was then assessed based on the emissions inventories. The social cost covers the impact on human health, the environment, and the climate of the coastal community. Finally, the ship emissions was combined with port's basic operation profiles, i.e. container throughput, ship calls, and port revenue, in an attempt to assess the port's “eco-efficiency”, which indicates the port performance with social-economic and environmental concerns. This study filled the gap of previous studies by providing the AIS-supported activity-based emission inventory to facilitate the social cost-benefit analysis for the emission abatement policies. The result shows that i) the amount of in-port ship emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC in Yangshan port area was 578,444 tons, 10 tons, 33 tons, 1078 tons (PM10, inducing PM2.5), 859 tons (PM2.5 only), 10,758 tons, 5623 tons, 1136 tons, and 519 tons, respectively, with ii) a total social cost of 287 million; iii) the values of the three parameters of the port eco-efficiency performance were 36,528 per 1,000 TEU throughput, 43,993 per ship call, and 44 million per billion US$ port revenue (4.4% of port revenue), respectively in 2009.

  18. Wave-driven fluxes through New River Inlet, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargula, A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of wave forcing to inlet circulation is examined using observations of waves, water levels, and currents collected in and near New River Inlet, NC during April and May, 2012. A boat-mounted system was used to measure current profiles along transects across the inlet mouth during three 14-hr periods, providing information on cross-inlet current structure, as well as discharge. Additionally, an array of 13 colocated pressure gages and profilers were deployed along 2 km of the inlet channel (5 to 10 m water depths) and ebb shoal channel (2 to 3 m water depths) and 19 colocated pressure gages and acoustic Doppler velocimeters were deployed across and offshore of the ebb shoal (1 to 5 m water depths) (Figure 1). The inlet is well mixed and tidal currents ranged from +/- 1.5 m/s, maximum discharge rates at peak ebb and flood were about 700 to 900 m3/s, offshore significant wave heights Hsig were 0.5 to 2.5 m, and wind speeds ranged from 0 to 14 m/s. Time-integrated residual discharge over semi-diurnal tidal cycles with similar ranges was ebb dominant during calm conditions (May 11, net out-of-inlet discharge ~ 55 m3, Hsig ~ 0.5 m, NW winds ~ 3 m/s) and flood dominant during stormier conditions (May 14, net into-inlet discharge ~ 15 m3, Hsig ~ 1.2 m, S winds ~ 6.5 m/s). Low-pass filtered in situ profiler data suggest wave-forcing affects the fluxes into and out of the inlet. The observations will be used to examine the momentum balance governing the temporal and cross-inlet (channel vs. shoal) variation of these fluxes, as well as the effect of waves on ebb and flood flow dominance. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research and a National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship.; Figure 1: Google Earth image of New River Inlet, NC. Colors are depth contours (scale on the right, units are m relative to mean sea level) and symbols are locations of colocated current meters and pressure gages.

  19. Velocity Field Characteristics at the Inlet to a Pipe Culvert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolerski, Tomasz; Wielgat, Paweł

    2014-12-01

    A poorly designed culvert inlet structure causes scouring, which can lead to the collapse of the culvert and significant damage to the neighboring land. A set of laboratory tests was evaluated to examine velocity distribution at the culvert inlet. A three-dimensional acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used to measure instantaneous flow velocity upstream of the culvert. The analysis of mean velocities, turbulence strength, and Reynolds stresses was performed to understand the flow structure near the culvert entrance.

  20. Utilizing numerical techniques in turbofan inlet acoustic suppressor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    Numerical theories in conjunction with previously published analytical results are used to augment current analytical theories in the acoustic design of a turbofan inlet nacelle. In particular, a finite element-integral theory is used to study the effect of the inlet lip radius on the far field radiation pattern and to determine the optimum impedance in an actual engine environment. For some single mode JT15D data, the numerical theory and experiment are found to be in a good agreement.