LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...
Engine Air Intake Manifold Having Built In Intercooler
Freese, V, Charles E.
2000-09-12
A turbocharged V type engine can be equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation cooler integrated into the intake manifold, so as to achieve efficiency, cost reductions and space economization improvements. The cooler can take the form of a tube-shell heat exchanger that utilizes a cylindrical chamber in the air intake manifold as the heat exchanger housing. The intake manifold depends into the central space formed by the two banks of cylinders on the V type engine, such that the central space is effectively utilized for containing the manifold and cooler.
LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...
LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS
This life cycle design project was a collaborative effort between the Center for Sustainable Systems (formerly National Pollution Prevention Center) at the University of Michigan, a cross functional team at Ford, and the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. En...
Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice
1997-01-01
Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.
Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruppe, E. P.
1966-01-01
Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.
Correlation of Mixture Temperature Data Obtained from Bare Intake-manifold Thermocouples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, H. Jack; Gammon, Goldie L
1946-01-01
A relatively simple equation has been found to express with fair accuracy, variation in manifold-charge temperature with charge in engine operating conditions. This equation and associated curves have been checked by multi cylinder-engine data, both test stand and flight, over a wide range of operating conditions. Average mixture temperatures, predicted by the equations of this report, agree reasonably well with results within the same range of carburetor-air temperatures from laboratories and test stands other than the NACA.
30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...
30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to...
30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...
30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...
40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...
30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....
30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....
40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...
40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...
40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...
40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...
40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...
30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...
30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...
40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...
40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...
40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...
40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...
40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...
40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...
30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...
30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...
30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...
30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...
30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...
30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...
30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...
30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...
40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...
40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...
40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...
40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...
40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...
40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...
40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...
40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...
40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...
40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...
40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake and cooling air measurements. 92.108 Section 92.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements....
40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....
40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply...
40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...
40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...
40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....
40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....
40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....
40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....
40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...
40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...
40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...
40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...
40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...
40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....
40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....
40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....
40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....
40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....
Air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine
Kobayashi, H.; Tomobe, N.
1987-03-10
This patent describes an air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine having a choke valve and a throttle valve in an intake air passage. The system is adapted to supply an air intake side secondary air into an intake air passage downstream of the throttle valve by a control valve and in response to an operating condition of the engine during a cold operation of the engine. The improvement described here comprises means for detecting a no-load operating state of the engine during the cold operation of the engine in which the choke valve is actuated to close the intake air passage, and means for stopping a supply of the air intake side secondary air upon detection of the non-load operating state so as to enrich an air-fuel mixture supplied to the engine.
Gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system
Ballard, J.R.; Bennett, G.H.; Lee, L.A.
1984-01-17
A gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system are disclosed in which the air intake system comprises a generally horizontally extending duct through which an airflow is induced by an ejector pump powered by the engine. A portion of the air passing through the duct is directed through a second duct to the air inlet of the engine. The second duct is connected to the first duct in such a manner that the air directed to the engine air inlet is derived from a vertically upper region of the first duct. The arrangement is intended to reduce the amount of airborne particulate material ingested by the gas turbine engine.
Comparison of Space Shuttle Hot Gas Manifold analysis to air flow data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcconnaughey, P. K.
1988-01-01
This paper summarizes several recent analyses of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Hot Gas Manifold and compares predicted flow environments to air flow data. Codes used in these analyses include INS3D, PAGE, PHOENICS, and VAST. Both laminar (Re = 250, M = 0.30) and turbulent (Re = 1.9 million, M = 0.30) results are discussed, with the latter being compared to data for system losses, outer wall static pressures, and manifold exit Mach number profiles. Comparison of predicted results for the turbulent case to air flow data shows that the analysis using INS3D predicted system losses within 1 percent error, while the PHOENICS, PAGE, and VAST codes erred by 31, 35, and 47 percent, respectively. The INS3D, PHOENICS, and PAGE codes did a reasonable job of predicting outer wall static pressure, while the PHOENICS code predicted exit Mach number profiles with acceptable accuracy. INS3D was approximately an order of magnitude more efficient than the other codes in terms of code speed and memory requirements. In general, it is seen that complex internal flows in manifold-like geometries can be predicted with a limited degree of confidence, and further development is necessary to improve both efficiency and accuracy of codes if they are to be used as design tools for complex three-dimensional geometries.
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...
111. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER TANKS AND AIR INTAKE SUPPLY FAN IN ...
111. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER TANKS AND AIR INTAKE SUPPLY FAN IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751). PREFILTERS FOR CONDENSERS ON LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...
Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.
Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin
2014-01-01
A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536
Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine
Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin
2014-01-01
A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536
Curved centerline air intake for a gas turbine engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruehr, W. C.; Younghans, J. L.; Smith, E. B. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
An inlet for a gas turbine engine was disposed about a curved centerline for the purpose of accepting intake air that is flowing at an angle to engine centerline and progressively turning that intake airflow along a curved path into alignment with the engine. This curved inlet is intended for use in under the wing locations and similar regions where airflow direction is altered by aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane. By curving the inlet, aerodynamic loss and acoustic generation and emission are decreased.
Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building
Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik
2009-04-16
Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.
Experimental Studies on High Speed Air Intakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panigrahy, Amit Kumar; Muruganandam, T. M.
All high speed air breathing engines require an inlet to decelerate air from free stream velocity to a lower velocity conducive to combustion. The inlet is designed to capture and deliver the required mass flow to combustion chamber with minimum pressure loss, along with minimum flow distortion. Inlet buzz can occur due to several reasons, such as large internal area contraction ratio, serious shock-boundary layer interactions, and high back pressure. Inlet buzz is detrimental to thrust and can even cause structural damage. Thus a detailed back pressure and over contraction based study of inlet behavior is needed.
Air intakes for a probative missile of rocket ramjet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laruelle, G.
1984-01-01
The methods employed to test air intakes for a supersonic guided ramjet powered missile being tested by ONERA are described. Both flight tests and wind tunnel tests were performed on instrumented rockets to verify the designs. Consideration as given to the number of intakes, with the goal of delivering the maximum pressure to the engine. The S2, S4, and S5 wind tunnels were operated at Mach nos. 1.5-3 for the tests, which were compartmentalized into fuselage-intake interaction, optimization of the intake shapes, and the intake performance. Tests were performed on the length and form of the ogive, the presence of grooves, the height of traps in the boundary layer, the types and number of intakes and the lengths and forms of diffusers. Attention was also given to the effects of sideslip, effects of the longitudinal and circumferential positions of the intakes were also examined. Near optimum performance was realized during Mach 2.2 test flights of the prototype rockets.
40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.655 Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a) General. Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical balances of fuel, intake...
40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.655 Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a) General. Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical balances of fuel, intake...
40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.655 Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a) General. Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical balances of fuel, intake...
40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.655 Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a) General. Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical balances of fuel, intake...
40 CFR 1065.655 - Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.655 Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and exhaust. (a) General. Chemical balances of fuel, intake air, and... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical balances of fuel, intake...
WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study
Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.
1996-12-01
The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2} was less than 3.0 m.
Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris
2005-12-01
This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.
Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K
2016-01-01
Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981
Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds
Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K
2016-01-01
Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981
Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William
Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (μg d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.
40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...
40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...
40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...
40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...
40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...
40 CFR 1066.615 - NOX intake-air humidity correction.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity correction. 1066.615 Section 1066.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.615 NOX intake-air humidity...
Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications
Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.
1997-01-01
An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.
Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy
Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H
2009-02-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in
System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine
Sellnau, Mark C.
2015-08-04
A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.
Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air
Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.
1997-01-01
An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.
6. FAN HOUSE OF 8FOOT HIGH SPEED TUNNEL. AIR INTAKES ...
6. FAN HOUSE OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED TUNNEL. AIR INTAKES AND FILTERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE UPPER LEVEL STRUCTURE. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers
Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi
2015-01-01
The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s^{-1} (12.6 km h^{-1}) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.
30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to...
30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to...
40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ±2 percent of full-scale value of the measurement... full-scale value. The Administrator must be advised of the method used prior to testing. (2... measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air....
An Ejector Air Intake Design Method for a Novel Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Rocket Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waung, Timothy S.
Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) vehicles have the potential to reduce launch costs through the use of several different air breathing engine cycles, which reduce fuel consumption. The rocket-ejector cycle, in which air is entrained into an ejector section by the rocket exhaust, is used at flight speeds below Mach 2. This thesis develops a design method for an air intake geometry around a novel RBCC rocket nozzle design for the rocket-ejector engine cycle. This design method consists of a geometry creation step in which a three-dimensional intake geometry is generated, and a simple flow analysis step which predicts the air intake mass flow rate. The air intake geometry is created using the rocket nozzle geometry and eight primary input parameters. The input parameters are selected to give the user significant control over the air intake shape. The flow analysis step uses an inviscid panel method and an integral boundary layer method to estimate the air mass flow rate through the intake geometry. Intake mass flow rate is used as a performance metric since it directly affects the amount of thrust a rocket-ejector can produce. The design method results for the air intake operating at several different points along the subsonic portion of the Ariane 4 flight profile are found to under predict mass flow rate by up to 8.6% when compared to three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations for the same air intake.
The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85
Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.
1996-05-01
This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.
Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China: estimation and application.
Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Ho, Mun S; Li, Ji; Lu, Yongqi
2006-02-01
Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10(-6) for TSP, and 4.2x10(-6) for SO2, with standard deviations of 8.15x10(-6) and 9.16x10(-6), respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10(-7) to 10(-5). Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts. PMID:16398989
30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration at the bottom of each shaft, slope, or in the drift...
30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration at the bottom of each shaft, slope, or in the drift...
30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration at the bottom of each shaft, slope, or in the drift...
Experimental Studies of Active and Passive Flow Control Techniques Applied in a Twin Air-Intake
Joshi, Shrey; Jindal, Aman; Maurya, Shivam P.; Jain, Anuj
2013-01-01
The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ) and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG) and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel) and counterrotating (V-shape) are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG. PMID:23935422
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.
1981-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of the inlet manifold and stator assembly of the compressor drive turbine was experimentally determined with cold air as the working fluid. The investigation included measurements of mass flow and stator-exit fluid torque as well as radial surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator inlet and annulus surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator exit. The stator-exit aftermixed flow conditions and overall stator efficiency were obtained and compared with their design values and the experimental results from three other stators. In addition, an analysis was made to determine the constituent aerodynamic losses that made up the stator kinetic energy loss.
Preliminary Design of the Low Speed Propulsion Air Intake of the LAPCAT-MR2 Aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerts, C.; Steelant, J.; Hendrick, P.
2011-08-01
A supersonic air intake has been designed for the low speed propulsion system of the LAPCAT-MR2 aircraft. Development has been based on the XB-70 aircraft air intake which achieves extremely high performances over a wide operation range through the combined use of variable geometry and porous wall suction for boundary layer control. Design of the LAPCAT-MR2 intake has been operated through CFD simulations using DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model - Menter SST turbulence model). First, a new boundary condition has been validated into the DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model) for porous wall suction modelling. Standard test cases have shown surprisingly good agreement with both theoretical predictions and experimental results. Based upon this validation, XB-70 air intake performances have been assessed through CFD simulations over the subsonic, transonic and supersonic operation regions and compared to available flight data. A new simulation strategy was deployed avoiding numerical instabilities when initiating the flow in both transonic and supersonic operation modes. First, the flow must be initiated with a far field Mach number higher than the target flight Mach number. Additionally, the inlet backpressure may only be increased to its target value once the oblique shock pattern downstream the intake compression ramps is converged. Simulations using that strategy have shown excellent agreement with in-flight measurements for both total pressure recovery ratio and variable geometry schedule prediction. The demarcation between stable and unstable operation could be well reproduced. Finally, a modified version of the XB-70 air intake has been integrated in the elliptical intake on the LAPCAT vehicle. Operation of this intake in the LAPCAT-MR2 environment is under evaluation using the same simulation strategy as the one developed for the XB-70. Performances are assessed at several key operation points to assess viability of this design. This information will allow in a next
Tonse, Shaheen R.; Brown, Nancy J.
2003-02-26
The dimensionality (D) of manifolds of active chemical composition space has been measured using three different approaches: the Hausdorff geometrical binning method, Principal Component Analysis, and the Grassberger-Procaccia cumulative distribution method. A series of artificial manifolds is also generated using a Monte Carlo approach to discern the advantages and limitations of the three methods. Dimensionality is quantified for different levels of turbulent intensity in a simulation of the interactions of a 2D premixed hydrogen flame with a localized region of turbulence superimposed over the cold region upstream of the flame front. The simulations are conducted using an adaptive mesh refinement code for low Mach number reacting flows. By treating the N{sub s} species and temperature of the local thermo-chemical state as a point in multi-dimensional chemical composition space, a snapshot of a flame region is mapped into chemical composition space to generate the manifold associated with the 2-D flame system. An increase in D was observed with increasing turbulent intensity for all three methods. Although each method provides useful information, the Grassberger-Procaccia method is subject to fewer artifacts than the other two thereby providing the most reliable quantification of D.
Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles
Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M
2012-01-01
Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.
Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.
1980-12-23
An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.
Mendler, Edward Charles
2005-02-01
The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; W Nazaroff, William
Small-scale, distributed electricity generation (DG) technologies have been promoted for their many benefits as compared to the traditional paradigm of large, centralized power plants. To evaluate the implications for human inhalation exposure resulting from a shift toward DG, we combined Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based inhalation exposure assessment of existing and hypothetical power-generation facilities in California. Twenty-five existing central stations (CSs) were analyzed and compared with hypothetical DG technologies deployed in the downtown areas of the 11 most populous cities in California. The intake fraction (iF) for primary pollutants was computed for populations living within 100 km of each source, using meteorological conditions typical of the long-term observational record and population, lifetime-average breathing rates. The iF (a dimensionless term representing the proportion of pollutant mass emitted by a source that is eventually inhaled) concisely expresses the source-to-intake relationship, is independent of the emissions characteristics of the plants assessed, and normalizes for the large scale differences between the two paradigms of electricity generation. The median iF for nonreactive primary pollutants emitted from the 25 CSs is 0.8 per million compared to 16 per million for the 11 DG units. The difference is partly attributable to the closer proximity of DG sources to densely populated areas as compared to typical CS facilities. In addition, the short stacks of DG sources emphasize near-source population exposure more than traditional CSs, and increase exposures during periods of low wind speed, low mixing height and stable atmospheric conditions. Strategies that could reduce the potential increase in air pollutant intake from DG include maximally utilizing waste heat in combined heat and power operations, increasing the release height of DG effluents and deploying DG technologies that do not emit air pollutants.
A Method for Reducing the Temperature of Exhaust Manifolds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W
1931-01-01
This report describes tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory on an "air-inducting" exhaust manifold for aircraft engines. The exhaust gases from each cylinder port are discharged into the throat of an exhaust pipe which has a frontal bellmouth. Cooling air is drawn into the pipe, where it surrounds and mixes with the exhaust gases. Temperatures of the manifold shell and of the exhaust gases were obtained in flight for both a conventional manifold and the air-inducting manifold. The air-inducting manifold was installed on an engine which was placed on a test stand. Different fuels were sprayed on and into the manifold to determine whether the use of this manifold reduced the fire hazard. The flight tests showed reductions in manifold temperatures of several hundred degrees, to values below the ignition point of aviation gasoline. On the test stand when the engine was run at idling speeds fuels sprayed into the manifold ignited. It is believed that at low engine speeds the fuel remained in the manifold long enough to become thoroughly heated, and was then ignited by the exhaust gas which had not mixed with cooling air. The use of the air-inducting exhaust manifold must reduce the fire hazard by virtue of its lower operating temperature, but it is not a completely satisfactory solution of the problem.
Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )
1990-12-01
The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.
Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik
2008-10-01
Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.
Oxygen intake in track and treadmill running with observations on the effect of air resistance
Pugh, L. G. C. E.
1970-01-01
1. The relation of V̇O2 and speed was measured on seven athletes running on a cinder track and an all-weather track. The results were compared with similar observations on four athletes running on a treadmill. 2. In treadmill running the relation was linear and the zero intercept coincided with resting V̇O2. 3. In track running the relation was curvilinear, but was adequately represented by a linear regression over a range of speeds extending from 8·0 km/hr (2·2 m/sec) to 21·5 km/hr (6·0 m/sec). The slope of this line was substantially steeper than the regression line slope for treadmill running. 4. The influence of air resistance in running was estimated from measurements of V̇O2 on a subject running on a treadmill at constant speed against wind of varying velocity. 5. The extra O2 intake (ΔV̇O2) associated with wind increased as the square of wind velocity. If wind velocity and running velocity are equal, as in running on a track in calm air, ΔV̇O2 will increase as the cube of velocity. 6. It was estimated that the energy cost of overcoming air resistance in track running is about 8% of total energy cost at 21·5 km/hr (5000 m races) and 16% for sprinting 100 m in 10·0 sec. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:5532903
AGARD WG13 aerodynamics of high speed air intakes: Assessment of CFD results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bissinger, N. C.; Benson, T. J.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.
1992-01-01
A brief review of the work accomplished by the numerical subgroup of AGARD Working Group 13 on the aerodynamics of high speed air intakes is presented. This work comprised the selection of test cases for which experimental data were available. The test cases were chosen to range in complexity from normal-shock/boundary-layer interaction to full forebody-inlet combinations. Computations for these test cases were solicited from a large number of organizations and individual researchers within the NATO countries. The computation methods reached from Euler solvers (with and without boundary layer corrections) to full Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes. The group compared these results with the test data available for each test case. A short overview of the CFD methods employed, a description of the test cases selected, and some of the comparisons between CFD solutions and test data are presented. The conclusions and recommendations drawn from this assessment are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilca, Mihaela
2016-09-01
Vaisman manifolds are strongly related to Kähler and Sasaki geometry. In this paper we introduce toric Vaisman structures and show that this relationship still holds in the toric context. It is known that the so-called minimal covering of a Vaisman manifold is the Riemannian cone over a Sasaki manifold. We show that if a complete Vaisman manifold is toric, then the associated Sasaki manifold is also toric. Conversely, a toric complete Sasaki manifold, whose Kähler cone is equipped with an appropriate compatible action, gives rise to a toric Vaisman manifold. In the special case of a strongly regular compact Vaisman manifold, we show that it is toric if and only if the corresponding Kähler quotient is toric.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...
Intake fraction variability between air pollution emission sources inside an urban area.
Tainio, Marko; Holnicki, Piotr; Loh, Miranda M; Nahorski, Zbigniew
2014-11-01
The cost-effective mitigation of adverse health effects caused by air pollution requires information on the contribution of different emission sources to exposure. In urban areas the exposure potential of different sources may vary significantly depending on emission height, population density, and other factors. In this study, we quantified this intraurban variability by predicting intake fraction (iF) for 3,066 emission sources in Warsaw, Poland. iF describes the fraction of the pollutant that is inhaled by people in the study area. We considered the following seven pollutants: particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Emissions for these pollutants were grouped into four emission source categories (Mobile, Area, High Point, and Other Point sources). The dispersion of the pollutants was predicted with the CALPUFF dispersion model using the year 2005 emission rate data and meteorological records. The resulting annual average concentrations were combined with population data to predict the contribution of each individual source to population exposure. The iFs for different pollutant-source category combinations varied between 51 per million (PM from Mobile sources) and 0.013 per million (sulfate PM from High Point sources). The intraurban iF variability for Mobile sources primary PM emission was from 4 per million to 100 per million with the emission-weighted iF of 44 per million. These results propose that exposure due to intraurban air pollution emissions could be decreased more effectively by specifically targeting sources with high exposure potency rather than all sources. PMID:24913007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.
2009-05-01
The paper concerns intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (ILDM) method suggested in [Maas U, Pope SB. Simplifying chemical kinetics: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds in composition space, combustion and flame 1992;88:239-64] for dimension reduction of models describing kinetic processes. It has been shown in a number of publications [Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. Comparative analysis of two asymptotic approaches based on integral manifolds. IMA J Appl Math 2004;69:353-74; Kaper HG, Kaper TJ, Asymptotic analysis of two reduction methods for systems of chemical reactions. Phys D 2002;165(1-2):66-93; Rhodes C, Morari M, Wiggins S. Identification of the low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope. Chaos 1999;9(1):108-23] that the ILDM-method works successfully and the intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds belong to a small vicinity of invariant slow manifolds. The ILDM-method has a number of disadvantages. One of them is appearance of so-called "ghost"-manifolds, which do not have connection to the system dynamics [Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. "Ghost" ILDM - manifolds and their discrimination. In: Twentieth Annual Symposium of the Israel Section of the Combustion Institute, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 2004. p. 55-7; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. About non-coincidence of invariant manifolds and intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds (ILDM). CNSNS 2008;71:1029-38; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. In: Gorban AN, Kazantzis N, Kevrekidis YG, Ottinger HC, Theodoropoulos C, editors. "Ghost" ILDM-manifolds and their identification: model reduction and coarse-graining approaches for multiscale phenomena. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer; 2006. p. 55-80; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. On a modified version of ILDM method and its asymptotic analysis. IJPAM 2008; 44(1): 125-50; Bykov V, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. On a modified version of ILDM approach: asymptotic analysis based on integral manifolds. IMA J Appl Math 2006
Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.
2001-01-01
A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.
Zhang, Zhenyue; Wang, Jing; Zha, Hongyuan
2012-02-01
Manifold learning algorithms seek to find a low-dimensional parameterization of high-dimensional data. They heavily rely on the notion of what can be considered as local, how accurately the manifold can be approximated locally, and, last but not least, how the local structures can be patched together to produce the global parameterization. In this paper, we develop algorithms that address two key issues in manifold learning: 1) the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes when imposing a connectivity structure on the given set of high-dimensional data points and 2) the adaptive bias reduction in the local low-dimensional embedding by accounting for the variations in the curvature of the manifold as well as its interplay with the sampling density of the data set. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for improving the performance of manifold learning algorithms using both synthetic and real-world data sets. PMID:21670485
Edge compression manifold apparatus
Renzi, Ronald F.
2007-02-27
A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) device to apply an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.
Edge compression manifold apparatus
Renzi, Ronald F.
2004-12-21
A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) device to apply an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.
Advanced Vapor-Supply Manifold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, I. O.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Crouch, R. K.
1986-01-01
Advanced vapor-supply manifold solves problem of manifold purging. Design virtually eliminates dead gas volumes in manifold system. System incorporates special valve into manifold in way that leaks and contamination problems of previous systems, which use tees and three-port valves, are minimized or eliminated in both main manifold line and in supply line. Of considerable use in gas manifold systems where even small amounts of gaseous impurities constitute problem or where more than one gaseous material used in single system.
Constructions of contact manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geiges, Hansjörg
1997-05-01
1. IntroductionIt has been known for some time that contact structures show a high degree of topological flexibility in the sense that many topological operations can be performed on contact manifolds while preserving the contact property. For instance, Martinet [14] used a surgery description of 3-manifolds to show that every closed, oriented 3-manifold admits a contact structure, and alternative proofs of this result were given later by Thurston and Winkelnkemper [18], who based their proof on an open book decomposition, and Gonzalo [8], who used branched covers. These, however, are all strictly 3-dimensional constructions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Nazaroff, William W.; Spears, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.
2012-12-01
Vehicular air pollutant emissions are characterized by a high degree of spatial variability that is correlated with the distribution of people. The consequences of the spatial association between emissions and exposed populations have not been fully captured in lifecycle and other impact assessments. The intake fraction (iF) quantifies aggregate air-pollutant exposures attributable to sources. Utilizing source-receptor (S-R) relationships derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency's AERMOD steady-state plume model, we quantify the intake fraction of conserved pollutants emitted from on-road mobile sources and report here the first characterization across approximately 65,000 census tracts of the conterminous United States. Considering exposures out to 50 km from the source, the population-weighted mean iF is 8.6 parts per million (ppm). The population-weighted median generally increases with geographic scale, from 3.6 ppm for census tracts to 4.2 ppm for counties, and 5.1 ppm for states, while the population-weighted interquartile range (IQR) progressively narrows as geographic scale increases: 0.85-8.8 ppm for census tracts, 1.5-8.5 ppm for counties, and 3.2-7.5 ppm for states. Across the four US Census regions, the population weighted median iF varies from 2.2 ppm (South) to 7.5 ppm (West), and the census-tract IQR spans an order of magnitude in each region (2.1-17 ppm in the West; 0.55-6.9 ppm in the Midwest; 0.45-5.5 ppm in the South; and 1.8-18 ppm in the Northeast). The population-weighted mean intake fraction for populous urban counties is about two orders of magnitude greater than for sparsely populated rural counties. On a population-weighted average basis and considering the 50 km analysis range, 75% of the intake occurs in the same county as emissions.
An analytical solution for flow in a manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warrick, A. W.; Yitayew, M.
An analytical solution is developed for flow in a manifold. The interest is primarily for trickle irrigation laterals, but the solution has broader applications including those for which pressure increases in the direction of flow and for intake manifolds. Both velocity head losses and variable discharge along the manifold are considered in the fundamental analysis. The appropriate second order, nonlinear equation is solved for two flow regimes, laminar and fully turbulent. Results indicate that for most trickle irrigation laterals the velocity head loss is negligible, but for an example from a chemical processing system the effect is important.
Atasoy, Selen; Mateus, Diana; Lallemand, Joe; Meining, Alexander; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Navab, Nassir
2010-01-01
Postprocedural analysis of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic videos is a difficult task because the videos often suffer from a large number of poor-quality frames due to the motion or out-of-focus blur, specular highlights and artefacts caused by turbid fluid inside the GI tract. Clinically, each frame of the video is examined individually by the endoscopic expert due to the lack of a suitable visualisation technique. In this work, we introduce a low dimensional representation of endoscopic videos based on a manifold learning approach. The introduced endoscopic video manifolds (EVMs) enable the clustering of poor-quality frames and grouping of different segments of the GI endoscopic video in an unsupervised manner to facilitate subsequent visual assessment. In this paper, we present two novel inter-frame similarity measures for manifold learning to create structured manifolds from complex endoscopic videos. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method yields high precision and recall values for uninformative frame detection (90.91% and 82.90%) and results in well-structured manifolds for scene clustering. PMID:20879345
Djordjevic, Aleksandar
1983-12-27
A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.
Djordjevic, A.
1983-12-27
A tool guide is described that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into the cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc. 3 figs.
Djordjevic, A.
1982-07-08
A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.
Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator
Adkins, Douglas R.; Rawlinson, K. Scott
1994-01-01
An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.
Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator
Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.
1994-01-04
An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.
Hashing on nonlinear manifolds.
Shen, Fumin; Shen, Chunhua; Shi, Qinfeng; van den Hengel, Anton; Tang, Zhenmin; Shen, Heng Tao
2015-06-01
Learning-based hashing methods have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to greatly increase the scale at which existing algorithms may operate. Most of these methods are designed to generate binary codes preserving the Euclidean similarity in the original space. Manifold learning techniques, in contrast, are better able to model the intrinsic structure embedded in the original high-dimensional data. The complexities of these models, and the problems with out-of-sample data, have previously rendered them unsuitable for application to large-scale embedding, however. In this paper, how to learn compact binary embeddings on their intrinsic manifolds is considered. In order to address the above-mentioned difficulties, an efficient, inductive solution to the out-of-sample data problem, and a process by which nonparametric manifold learning may be used as the basis of a hashing method are proposed. The proposed approach thus allows the development of a range of new hashing techniques exploiting the flexibility of the wide variety of manifold learning approaches available. It is particularly shown that hashing on the basis of t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods on large-scale benchmark data sets, and is very effective for image classification with very short code lengths. It is shown that the proposed framework can be further improved, for example, by minimizing the quantization error with learned orthogonal rotations without much computation overhead. In addition, a supervised inductive manifold hashing framework is developed by incorporating the label information, which is shown to greatly advance the semantic retrieval performance. PMID:25826800
Microwave waveguide manifold and method
Staehlin, John H.
1987-01-01
A controllably electrically coupled, physically intersecting plural waveguide manifold assembly wherein the intersecting waveguide elements are fabricated in integral unitary relationship from a single piece of metal in order to avoid the inaccuracies and difficult-to-control fabrication steps associated with uniting separate waveguide elements into a unitary structure. An X-band aluminum airborne radar manifold example is disclosed, along with a fabrication sequence for the manifold and the electrical energy communicating apertures joining the manifold elements.
Microwave waveguide manifold and method
Staehlin, John H.
1987-12-01
A controllably electrically coupled, physically intersecting plural waveguide manifold assembly wherein the intersecting waveguide elements are fabricated in integral unitary relationship from a single piece of metal in order to avoid the inaccuracies and difficult-to-control fabrication steps associated with uniting separate waveguide elements into a unitary structure. An X-band aluminum airborne radar manifold example is disclosed, along with a fabrication sequence for the manifold and the electrical energy communicating apertures joining the manifold elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ejiri, Arata; Sasaki, Jun; Kinoshita, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Junya; Maruyama, Tsugito; Shimotani, Keiji
For the purpose of contributing to global environment protection, several research studies have been conducted involving clean-burning diesel engines. In recent diesel engines with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems and a Variable Nozzle Turbocharger (VNT), mutual interference between EGR and VNT has been noted. Hence, designing and adjusting control of the conventional PID controller is particularly difficult at the transient state in which the engine speed and fuel injection rate change. In this paper, we formulate 1st principal model of air intake system of diesel engines and transform it to control oriented model including an engine steady state model and a transient model. And we propose a model-based control system with the LQR Controller, Saturation Compensator, the Dynamic Feed-forward and Disturbance Observer using a transient model. Using this method, we achieved precise reference tracking and emission reduction in transient mode test with the real engine evaluations.
Invariant manifolds and global bifurcations.
Guckenheimer, John; Krauskopf, Bernd; Osinga, Hinke M; Sandstede, Björn
2015-09-01
Invariant manifolds are key objects in describing how trajectories partition the phase spaces of a dynamical system. Examples include stable, unstable, and center manifolds of equilibria and periodic orbits, quasiperiodic invariant tori, and slow manifolds of systems with multiple timescales. Changes in these objects and their intersections with variation of system parameters give rise to global bifurcations. Bifurcation manifolds in the parameter spaces of multi-parameter families of dynamical systems also play a prominent role in dynamical systems theory. Much progress has been made in developing theory and computational methods for invariant manifolds during the past 25 years. This article highlights some of these achievements and remaining open problems. PMID:26428557
Partially integrated exhaust manifold
Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E
2015-01-20
A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avramidi, Ivan G.; Buckman, Benjamin J.
2016-06-01
We introduce and study new invariants associated with Laplace type elliptic partial differential operators on manifolds. These invariants are constructed by using the off-diagonal heat kernel; they are not pure spectral invariants, that is, they depend not only on the eigenvalues but also on the corresponding eigenfunctions in a non-trivial way. We compute the first three low-order invariants explicitly.
Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine
Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.
2016-08-09
A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.
Air-consumption parameters for automatic mixture control of aircraft engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shames, Sidney J
1945-01-01
Data obtained from Navy calibration tests of an 18-cylinder, two-row, radial engine of 3350-cubic-inch displacement and a 14-cylinder, two-row, radial engine of 2600-cubic-inch displacement (carburetor types) were analyzed to show the correlation between the air consumption of these engines and the parameters that evaluate the air consumption from intake-manifold temperature and pressure, exhaust back pressure, and engine speed.
Experimental Studies on Unsteady Start/Unstart of High Speed Air Intakes with Moving Cowl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senthilkumar, P.; Muruganandam, T. M.
Inlet plays a major role in the performance of scramjet engines. It should be designed to deliver required quantity of air at supersonic speed to the combustion chamber. When the back pressure is increased in a scramjet inlet, it will make the inlet unstart. It may lead to severe shock oscillations, pressure fluctuations, thrust loss and even combustor flame out. There could be some ways to restart the inlet at the same back pressure in order to save the engine from complete failure. An attempt is made in this research to study the influence of the continuous movement of cowl to start the inlet during the flow. The inlet is forced to unstart by back pressure rise. Then the inlet is started by cowl movement at the same back pressure. This is done by moving the cowl continuously. The flow field is captured by high speed camera. The unstart, transition and start processes are studied from high speed Schlieren images. Then the cowl is returned back to determine any hysteresis present.
Albacora Manifold -- The deepest subsea manifold installed to date
Couto, P.; Moreira, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Dantas, S.; Waskoviak, R.
1996-12-31
The installation of the two Albacora Manifolds made them the deepest Subsea Production Manifolds ever installed. These Manifolds are designed for installation and operation at 1,000 meters water depth and were installed at 620 meters in the Albacora field, Campos Basin offshore Brazil, on December `95 and April `96. Each Manifold is connected to eight satellite wells via a Vertical Flowline Connection System. The export of the crude to the FPS is made via a 10 in. flexible line along with a 4 in. line for production test and another 10 in. service line for pigging purposes; gas lift is made through a 4 in. line. All these flexible lines are also connected via a Vertical Connection System. These manifolds are comprised of four guidelineless retrievable Valve and Choke Modules that include all isolation gate valves and subsea chokes. The controls are made by a Multiplex Control System. The control pods can be installed or retrieved using guidelineless techniques. The Control System is able to function and acquire data from the Manifold valves as well as the satellite Trees valves. The Manifolds consist of two structures, a sub base that is used as a shallow foundation and the Manifold Structure that houses the Valve and Choke Modules, Control Systems Pods, Vertical Connection Systems and all the plumbing. The total weight of the whole system is 450 tons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yen-Sen; Anderson, Peter G.
1990-01-01
A 4000 Hz vibration phenomena was observed during the test firings of several space shuttle main engines (SSME). Experimental studies of this phenomena suggest that the problem might be associated with vortex shedding from the vanes within the LOX tee manifold. The objective of this study was to determine the unsteady, 3-D flow associated with these vanes by computational methods to identify and better understand the 4000 Hz vibration phenomena. A flow solver, FDNS, for the turbulent conservation equations was validated for predicting high frequency vortex dynamics and used to predict 2-D and 3-D flows within the LOX tee. 4000 Hz excitation oscillations were predicted for some flows and the entire 3-D flow structure was predicted for LOX tee flow. The complexity of the flow was revealed by this analysis, and computational methods for predicting these high frequency oscillations in future engine systems were established.
Learning Deformable Shape Manifolds
Rivera, Samuel; Martinez, Aleix
2011-01-01
We propose an approach to shape detection of highly deformable shapes in images via manifold learning with regression. Our method does not require shape key points be defined at high contrast image regions, nor do we need an initial estimate of the shape. We only require sufficient representative training data and a rough initial estimate of the object position and scale. We demonstrate the method for face shape learning, and provide a comparison to nonlinear Active Appearance Model. Our method is extremely accurate, to nearly pixel precision and is capable of accurately detecting the shape of faces undergoing extreme expression changes. The technique is robust to occlusions such as glasses and gives reasonable results for extremely degraded image resolutions. PMID:22308002
Fuel cell manifold sealing system
Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.
1980-01-01
A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.
Folded Symplectic Toric Four-Manifolds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Christopher R.
2009-01-01
A folded symplectic form on an even-dimensional manifold is a closed two-form that degenerates in a suitably controlled way along a smooth hypersurface. When a torus having half the dimension of the manifold acts in a way preserving the folded symplectic form and admitting a moment map, the manifold is called a folded symplectic toric manifold.…
Manifold-valued Dirichlet Processes
Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Xu, Jia; Vemuri, Baba C.; Singh, Vikas
2016-01-01
Statistical models for manifold-valued data permit capturing the intrinsic nature of the curved spaces in which the data lie and have been a topic of research for several decades. Typically, these formulations use geodesic curves and distances defined locally for most cases — this makes it hard to design parametric models globally on smooth manifolds. Thus, most (manifold specific) parametric models available today assume that the data lie in a small neighborhood on the manifold. To address this ‘locality’ problem, we propose a novel nonparametric model which unifies multivariate general linear models (MGLMs) using multiple tangent spaces. Our framework generalizes existing work on (both Euclidean and non-Euclidean) general linear models providing a recipe to globally extend the locally-defined parametric models (using a mixture of local models). By grouping observations into sub-populations at multiple tangent spaces, our method provides insights into the hidden structure (geodesic relationships) in the data. This yields a framework to group observations and discover geodesic relationships between covariates X and manifold-valued responses Y, which we call Dirichlet process mixtures of multivariate general linear models (DP-MGLM) on Riemannian manifolds. Finally, we present proof of concept experiments to validate our model. PMID:26973982
Star product and contact Weyl manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshioka, Akira
2016-09-01
Contact algebra is introduced, which is a Lie algebra given as a one-dimesional exrention of a Weyl algebra. A contact Lie algebra bundle called a contact Weyl manifold is considered over a symplectic manifold which contains a Weyl manifold as a subbundle. A relationship is discussed between deformation quantization on s symplectic manifold and a Weyl manifold over the symplectic manifold. The contact Weyl manifold has a canonical connection which gives rise the relation, and is regarded as an extension of Fedosov connection.
Flowfield visualization for SSME hot gas manifold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roger, Robert P.
1988-01-01
The objective of this research, as defined by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, was two-fold: (1) to numerically simulate viscous subsonic flow in a proposed elliptical two-duct version of the fuel side Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), and (2) to provide analytical support for SSME related numerical computational experiments, being performed by the Computational Fluid Dynamics staff in the Aerophysics Division of the Structures and Dynamics Laboratory at NASA-MSFC. Numerical results of HGM were calculations to complement both water flow visualization experiments and air flow visualization experiments and air experiments in two-duct geometries performed at NASA-MSFC and Rocketdyne. In addition, code modification and improvement efforts were to strengthen the CFD capabilities of NASA-MSFC for producing reliable predictions of flow environments within the SSME.
Generalized graph manifolds and their effective recognition
Matveev, S V
1998-10-31
A generalized graph manifold is a three-dimensional manifold obtained by gluing together elementary blocks, each of which is either a Seifert manifold or contains no essential tori or annuli. By a well-known result on torus decomposition each compact three-dimensional manifold with boundary that is either empty or consists of tori has a canonical representation as a generalized graph manifold. A short simple proof of the existence of a canonical representation is presented and a (partial) algorithm for its construction is described. A simple hyperbolicity test for blocks that are not Seifert manifolds is also presented.
Linear readout of object manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim
2016-06-01
Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.
Li, Chunlei; Zhao, Zhishen; Lei, Bingli; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin
2015-02-01
To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the main source and route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the daily intake and uptakes through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for Shanghai residents were estimated on the basis of the PBDE concentrations in the air obtained in the present study and previous data reported in the literature. The PBDE concentrations in the gas and particle phases collected in Shanghai were 0.99-57.5 and 0.1-234 pg/m(3), respectively. The contamination levels of PBDEs in the air in Shanghai were similar to or slightly lower than the data from other regions. The estimated total daily intakes of PBDEs through the three routes were 607 and 1,636 ng/day for children and adults, respectively, while they decreased to 63.0 and 93.1 ng/day when the uptake efficiency (which is the fraction of contaminants that reaches the systemic circulation) of PBDEs was added to calculation. The results showed that dust is the main source of human exposure to PBDEs when PBDE uptake efficiency was not considered. It accounted for 66.2-79.2 % of the total PBDE intake. However, food is the main source, which accounted for 66.6-75.1 %, when the uptake efficiency was added to calculation. Among the three routes, dermal contact (53.1-76.6 %) is the main pathway, whereas ingestion (84.7-92.9 %) is the main one when the uptake efficiency was considered. Furthermore, risk assessment showed that the PBDE exposure amount would not cause obvious non-cancer and cancer risks to local residents. PMID:25009095
Robotic Welding Of Injector Manifold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Shelley, D. Mark
1992-01-01
Brief report presents history, up through October 1990, of continuing efforts to convert from manual to robotic gas/tungsten arc welding in fabrication of main injector inlet manifold of main engine of Space Shuttle. Includes photographs of welding machinery, welds, and weld preparations. Of interest to engineers considering establishment of robotic-welding facilities.
Chew, C.M.; Lorenzana, R.M.; Garry, M.
1997-09-01
A conceptual model has been developed to estimate screening level, risk-based contaminant air concentrations with respect to human health risks from indirect exposures to air emission. The model can evaluate risks from products of incomplete combustion, principal organic hazardous constituents associated with hazardous waste incinerator emissions and other air emittants. Derivation of screening levels is facilitated with a computer spreadsheet requiring six input values. To avoid complex air modeling, estimates are used for some parameters, such as particle deposition rate. The risk-based air concentrations can be used in the early stages of a risk investigation (prior to the trial burn at some incinerator sites) for screening purposes. These risk-based air concentrations can be compared to air concentrations extrapolated from trial burn or other relevant site historical data to determine whether or not a significant risk due to indirect exposures may be present. If screening comparisons reveal the possibility of significant risks, a more extensive risk assessment analysis can be performed and risk-drivers can be identified early in the process. Conversely, if significant risk is clearly not present for contaminants of concern, the analysis can be concluded cost-effectively with the screening process.
Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system
Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.
2005-05-03
A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.
Hermitian metrics on F-manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, Liana; Hertling, Claus
2016-09-01
An F-manifold is complex manifold with a multiplication on the holomorphic tangent bundle, which satisfies a certain integrability condition. Important examples are Frobenius manifolds and especially base spaces of universal unfoldings of isolated hypersurface singularities. This paper reviews the construction of hermitian metrics on F-manifolds from tt∗ geometry. It clarifies the logic between several notions. It also introduces a new canonical hermitian metric. Near irreducible points it makes the manifold almost hyperbolic. This holds for the singularity case and will hopefully lead to applications there.
Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds.
Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark
2013-12-01
Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton-Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024
Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds
Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark
2013-01-01
Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton–Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024
Point-based manifold harmonics.
Liu, Yang; Prabhakaran, Balakrishnan; Guo, Xiaohu
2012-10-01
This paper proposes an algorithm to build a set of orthogonal Point-Based Manifold Harmonic Bases (PB-MHB) for spectral analysis over point-sampled manifold surfaces. To ensure that PB-MHB are orthogonal to each other, it is necessary to have symmetrizable discrete Laplace-Beltrami Operator (LBO) over the surfaces. Existing converging discrete LBO for point clouds, as proposed by Belkin et al., is not guaranteed to be symmetrizable. We build a new point-wisely discrete LBO over the point-sampled surface that is guaranteed to be symmetrizable, and prove its convergence. By solving the eigen problem related to the new operator, we define a set of orthogonal bases over the point cloud. Experiments show that the new operator is converging better than other symmetrizable discrete Laplacian operators (such as graph Laplacian) defined on point-sampled surfaces, and can provide orthogonal bases for further spectral geometric analysis and processing tasks. PMID:22879345
Symmetries from the solution manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldaya, Víctor; Guerrero, Julio; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco F.; Cossío, Francisco
2015-07-01
We face a revision of the role of symmetries of a physical system aiming at characterizing the corresponding Solution Manifold (SM) by means of Noether invariants as a preliminary step towards a proper, non-canonical, quantization. To this end, "point symmetries" of the Lagrangian are generally not enough, and we must resort to the more general concept of contact symmetries. They are defined in terms of the Poincaré-Cartan form, which allows us, in turn, to find the symplectic structure on the SM, through some sort of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) transformation. These basic symmetries are realized as Hamiltonian vector fields, associated with (coordinate) functions on the SM, lifted back to the Evolution Manifold through the inverse of this HJ mapping, that constitutes an inverse of the Noether Theorem. The specific examples of a particle moving on S3, at the mechanical level, and nonlinear SU(2)-sigma model in field theory are sketched.
Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack
Collins, William P.
1988-01-01
The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.
Computing Slow Manifolds of Saddle Type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guckenheimer, John; Kuehn, Christian
2009-01-01
Slow manifolds are important geometric structures in the state spaces of dynamical systems with multiple time scales. This paper introduces an algorithm for computing trajectories on slow manifolds that are normally hyperbolic with both stable and unstable fast manifolds. We present two examples of bifurcation problems where these manifolds play a key role and a third example in which saddle-type slow manifolds are part of a traveling wave profile of a partial differential equation. Initial value solvers are incapable of computing trajectories on saddle-type slow manifolds, so the slow manifold of saddle type (SMST) algorithm presented here is formulated as a boundary value method. We take an empirical approach here to assessing the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithm.
Munson, D.E.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R.
1995-07-01
Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.
... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...
Model reduction by manifold boundaries.
Transtrum, Mark K; Qiu, Peng
2014-08-29
Understanding the collective behavior of complex systems from their basic components is a difficult yet fundamental problem in science. Existing model reduction techniques are either applicable under limited circumstances or produce "black boxes" disconnected from the microscopic physics. We propose a new approach by translating the model reduction problem for an arbitrary statistical model into a geometric problem of constructing a low-dimensional, submanifold approximation to a high-dimensional manifold. When models are overly complex, we use the observation that the model manifold is bounded with a hierarchy of widths and propose using the boundaries as submanifold approximations. We refer to this approach as the manifold boundary approximation method. We apply this method to several models, including a sum of exponentials, a dynamical systems model of protein signaling, and a generalized Ising model. By focusing on parameters rather than physical degrees of freedom, the approach unifies many other model reduction techniques, such as singular limits, equilibrium approximations, and the renormalization group, while expanding the domain of tractable models. The method produces a series of approximations that decrease the complexity of the model and reveal how microscopic parameters are systematically "compressed" into a few macroscopic degrees of freedom, effectively building a bridge between the microscopic and the macroscopic descriptions. PMID:25216014
Manifold learning for robot navigation.
Keeratipranon, Narongdech; Maire, Frederic; Huang, Henry
2006-10-01
In this paper we introduce methods to build a SOM that can be used as an isometric map for mobile robots. That is, given a dataset of sensor readings collected at points uniformly distributed with respect to the ground, we wish to build a SOM whose neurons (prototype vectors in sensor space) correspond to points uniformly distributed on the ground. Manifold learning techniques have already been used for dimensionality reduction of sensor space in navigation systems. Our focus is on the isometric property of the SOM. For reliable path-planning and information sharing between several robots, it is desirable that the robots build an internal representation of the sensor manifold, a map, that is isometric with the environment. We show experimentally that standard Non-Linear Dimensionality Reduction (NLDR) algorithms do not provide isometric maps for range data and bearing data. However, the auxiliary low dimensional manifolds created can be used to improve the distribution of the neurons of a SOM (that is, make the neurons more evenly distributed with respect to the ground). We also describe a method to create an isometric map from a sensor readings collected along a polygonal line random walk. PMID:17117499
Model Reduction by Manifold Boundaries
Transtrum, Mark K.; Qiu, Peng
2015-01-01
Understanding the collective behavior of complex systems from their basic components is a difficult yet fundamental problem in science. Existing model reduction techniques are either applicable under limited circumstances or produce “black boxes” disconnected from the microscopic physics. We propose a new approach by translating the model reduction problem for an arbitrary statistical model into a geometric problem of constructing a low-dimensional, submanifold approximation to a high-dimensional manifold. When models are overly complex, we use the observation that the model manifold is bounded with a hierarchy of widths and propose using the boundaries as submanifold approximations. We refer to this approach as the manifold boundary approximation method. We apply this method to several models, including a sum of exponentials, a dynamical systems model of protein signaling, and a generalized Ising model. By focusing on parameters rather than physical degrees of freedom, the approach unifies many other model reduction techniques, such as singular limits, equilibrium approximations, and the renormalization group, while expanding the domain of tractable models. The method produces a series of approximations that decrease the complexity of the model and reveal how microscopic parameters are systematically “compressed” into a few macroscopic degrees of freedom, effectively building a bridge between the microscopic and the macroscopic descriptions. PMID:25216014
Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement
Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.
2010-01-15
Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)
Characterizing humans on Riemannian manifolds.
Tosato, Diego; Spera, Mauro; Cristani, Marco; Murino, Vittorio
2013-08-01
In surveillance applications, head and body orientation of people is of primary importance for assessing many behavioral traits. Unfortunately, in this context people are often encoded by a few, noisy pixels so that their characterization is difficult. We face this issue, proposing a computational framework which is based on an expressive descriptor, the covariance of features. Covariances have been employed for pedestrian detection purposes, actually a binary classification problem on Riemannian manifolds. In this paper, we show how to extend to the multiclassification case, presenting a novel descriptor, named weighted array of covariances, especially suited for dealing with tiny image representations. The extension requires a novel differential geometry approach in which covariances are projected on a unique tangent space where standard machine learning techniques can be applied. In particular, we adopt the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff expansion as a means to approximate on the tangent space the genuine (geodesic) distances on the manifold in a very efficient way. We test our methodology on multiple benchmark datasets, and also propose new testing sets, getting convincing results in all the cases. PMID:23787347
GLSMs for partial flag manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donagi, Ron; Sharpe, Eric
2008-12-01
In this paper we outline some aspects of nonabelian gauged linear sigma models. First, we review how partial flag manifolds (generalizing Grassmannians) are described physically by nonabelian gauged linear sigma models, paying attention to realizations of tangent bundles and other aspects pertinent to (0, 2) models. Second, we review constructions of Calabi-Yau complete intersections within such flag manifolds, and properties of the gauged linear sigma models. We discuss a number of examples of nonabelian GLSMs in which the Kähler phases are not birational, and in which at least one phase is realized in some fashion other than as a complete intersection, extending previous work of Hori-Tong. We also review an example of an abelian GLSM exhibiting the same phenomenon. We tentatively identify the mathematical relationship between such non-birational phases, as examples of Kuznetsov's homological projective duality. Finally, we discuss linear sigma model moduli spaces in these gauged linear sigma models. We argue that the moduli spaces being realized physically by these GLSMs are precisely Quot and hyperquot schemes, as one would expect mathematically.
Sasaki-like almost contact complex Riemannian manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Stefan; Manev, Hristo; Manev, Mancho
2016-09-01
A Sasaki-like almost contact complex Riemannian manifold is defined as an almost contact complex Riemannian manifold whose complex cone is a holomorphic complex Riemannian manifold. Explicit compact and non-compact examples are given. A canonical construction producing a Sasaki-like almost contact complex Riemannian manifold from a holomorphic complex Riemannian manifold is provided as an S1-solvable extension.
Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.
1986-01-01
Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.
Sasakian manifolds and M-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea
2016-05-01
We extend the link between Einstein Sasakian manifolds and Killing spinors to a class of η-Einstein Sasakian manifolds, both in Riemannian and Lorentzian settings, characterizing them in terms of generalized Killing spinors. We propose a definition of supersymmetric M-theory backgrounds on such a geometry and find a new class of such backgrounds, extending previous work of Haupt, Lukas and Stelle.
Heisenberg symmetry and hypermultiplet manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Derendinger, Jean-Pierre; Marios Petropoulos, P.; Siampos, Konstantinos
2016-04-01
We study the emergence of Heisenberg (Bianchi II) algebra in hyper-Kähler and quaternionic spaces. This is motivated by the rôle these spaces with this symmetry play in N = 2 hypermultiplet scalar manifolds. We show how to construct related pairs of hyper-Kähler and quaternionic spaces under general symmetry assumptions, the former being a zooming-in limit of the latter at vanishing scalar curvature. We further apply this method for the two hyper-Kähler spaces with Heisenberg algebra, which is reduced to U (1) × U (1) at the quaternionic level. We also show that no quaternionic spaces exist with a strict Heisenberg symmetry - as opposed to Heisenberg ⋉ U (1). We finally discuss the realization of the latter by gauging appropriate Sp (2 , 4) generators in N = 2 conformal supergravity.
Heterotic model building: 16 special manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yang-Hui; Lee, Seung-Joo; Lukas, Andre; Sun, Chuang
2014-06-01
We study heterotic model building on 16 specific Calabi-Yau manifolds constructed as hypersurfaces in toric four-folds. These 16 manifolds are the only ones among the more than half a billion manifolds in the Kreuzer-Skarke list with a non-trivial first fundamental group. We classify the line bundle models on these manifolds, both for SU(5) and SO(10) GUTs, which lead to consistent supersymmetric string vacua and have three chiral families. A total of about 29000 models is found, most of them corresponding to SO(10) GUTs. These models constitute a starting point for detailed heterotic model building on Calabi-Yau manifolds in the Kreuzer-Skarke list. The data for these models can be downloaded from http://www-thphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/projects/CalabiYau/toricdata/index.html.
Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds
Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V
2004-12-16
Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.
Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds
Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V
2003-02-11
Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.
IS-321-312-001 TEP-to-HTEP manifold interface sheet
Willms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan J; Coons, James E; Kubic, William L
2008-01-01
The Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) receives hydrogen-like and air-like gas streams from the High Tritium Exhaust Processing (HTEP) manifold. Gases from the torus roughing pump are pumped into the HTEP manifold before entering TEP. This interface sheet describes the TEP-HTEP material stream interface, both the physical elements that make up the interface as well as the gas streams that will flow through the interface. The functions of this interface are to: Provide a physical connection for the transport of hydrogen-like and air-like gases from the HTEP manifold to TEP. Provide seals to prevent the unncessary release of tritium to the surrounding environment. Provide valves that can be actuated to stop or prevent the flow of gas into TEP.
Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds
Yakovlev, A A
2008-02-28
An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.
Glassy dynamics of driven elastic manifolds
Vinokur, V.M.
1996-12-31
We study the low-temperature dynamics of an elastic manifold driven through a random medium. For driving forces well below the zero- temperature depinning force, the manifold advances via thermally activated hops over the energy barriers separating favorable metastable states. We develop a scaling theory of the thermally activated dynamics (creep) and find a nonlinear glassy response for the driven manifold, {upsilon}{approximately}exp(-const{times}F{sup - {mu}}). We consider an exactly solvable 1-D model for random driven dynamics which exhibits a creep-like velocity-force characteristic. We discuss a microscopic mechanism for the creep motion and show that the distribution of waiting times for the hopping processes scales as a power law. This power-law distribution naturally yields an exponential response for the creep of the manifold.
K-theory of noncommutative Bieberbach manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olczykowski, P.; Sitarz, A.
2015-07-01
We compute the K-theory of noncommutative Bieberbach manifolds, which are fixed point C* subalgebras of a three-dimensional noncommutative torus by a free action of a cyclic group ℤ N , N = 2, 3, 4, 6.
Multiply manifolded molten carbonate fuel cells
Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.; Geyer, H.K.; Johnson, S.A.
1994-08-01
This study consists of research and development activities related to the concept of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with multiple manifolds. Objective is to develop an MCFC having a higher power density and a longer life than other MCFC designs. The higher power density will result from thinner gas flow channels; the extended life will result from reduced temperature gradients. Simplification of the gas flow channels and current collectors may also significantly reduce cost for the multiply manifolded MCFC.
Computer calculation of Witten's 3-manifold invariant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freed, Daniel S.; Gompf, Robert E.
1991-10-01
Witten's 2+1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory is exactly solvable. We compute the partition function, a topological invariant of 3-manifolds, on generalized Seifert spaces. Thus we test the path integral using the theory of 3-manifolds. In particular, we compare the exact solution with the asymptotic formula predicted by perturbation theory. We conclude that this path integral works as advertised and gives an effective topological invariant.
L2-cohomology and complete Hamiltonian manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzeo, Rafe; Pelayo, Álvaro; Ratiu, Tudor S.
2015-01-01
A classical theorem of Frankel for compact Kähler manifolds states that a Kähler S1-action is Hamiltonian if and only if it has fixed points. We prove a metatheorem which says that when the Hodge theory holds on non-compact manifolds, Frankel's theorem still holds. Finally, we present several concrete situations in which the assumptions of the metatheorem hold.
Calabi-Yau manifolds and their degenerations.
Tosatti, Valentino
2012-07-01
Calabi-Yau manifolds are geometric objects of central importance in several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the subject aimed at a general mathematical audience and present some of our results that shed some light on the possible ways in which families of Calabi-Yau manifolds can degenerate. PMID:22257362
A variational problem on Stiefel manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloch, Anthony M.; Crouch, Peter E.; Sanyal, Amit K.
2006-10-01
In their paper on discrete analogues of some classical systems such as the rigid body and the geodesic flow on an ellipsoid, Moser and Veselov introduced their analysis in the general context of flows on Stiefel manifolds. We consider here a general class of continuous time, quadratic cost, optimal control problems on Stiefel manifolds, which in the extreme dimensions again yield these classical physical geodesic flows. We have already shown that this optimal control setting gives a new symmetric representation of the rigid body flow and in this paper we extend this representation to the geodesic flow on the ellipsoid and the more general Stiefel manifold case. The metric we choose on the Stiefel manifolds is the same as that used in the symmetric representation of the rigid body flow and that used by Moser and Veselov. In the extreme cases of the ellipsoid and the rigid body, the geodesic flows are known to be integrable. We obtain the extremal flows using both variational and optimal control approaches and elucidate the structure of the flows on general Stiefel manifolds.
A Light-Activated Reaction Manifold.
Hiltebrandt, Kai; Elies, Katharina; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Blinco, James P; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher
2016-06-01
We introduce an efficient reaction manifold where the rate of a thermally induced ligation can be controlled by a photonic field via two competing reaction channels. The effectiveness of the reaction manifold is evidenced by following the transformations of macromolecular chain termini via high-resolution mass spectrometry and subsequently by selective block copolymer formation. The light-controlled reaction manifold consists of a so-called o-quinodimethane species, a photocaged diene, that reacts in the presence of light with suitable enes in a Diels-Alder reaction and undergoes a transformation into imines with amines in the absence of light. The chemical selectivity of the manifold is controlled by the amount of ene present in the reaction and can be adjusted from 100% imine formation (0% photo product) to 5% imine formation (95% photo product). The reported light-controlled reaction manifold is highly attractive because a simple external field is used to switch the selectivity of specific reaction channels. PMID:27151599
Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold for Chemical Kinetics.
Kooshkbaghi, Mahdi; Frouzakis, Christos E; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Karlin, Iliya V
2016-05-26
The Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold (SQEM) method is a model reduction technique for chemical kinetics based on entropy maximization under constraints built by the slowest eigenvectors at equilibrium. The method is revisited here and discussed and validated through the Michaelis-Menten kinetic scheme, and the quality of the reduction is related to the temporal evolution and the gap between eigenvalues. SQEM is then applied to detailed reaction mechanisms for the homogeneous combustion of hydrogen, syngas, and methane mixtures with air in adiabatic constant pressure reactors. The system states computed using SQEM are compared with those obtained by direct integration of the detailed mechanism, and good agreement between the reduced and the detailed descriptions is demonstrated. The SQEM reduced model of hydrogen/air combustion is also compared with another similar technique, the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE). For the same number of representative variables, SQEM is found to provide a more accurate description. PMID:27116566
Normal hyperbolicity and unbounded critical manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuehn, Christian
2014-06-01
This work is motivated by mathematical questions arising in differential equation models for autocatalytic reactions. We extend the local theory of singularities in fast-slow polynomial vector fields to classes of unbounded manifolds which lose normal hyperbolicity due to an alignment of the tangent and normal bundles. A projective transformation is used to localize the unbounded problem. Then the blow-up method is employed to characterize the loss of normal hyperbolicity for the transformed slow manifolds. Our analysis yields a rigorous scaling law for all unbounded manifolds which exhibit a power-law decay for the alignment with a fast subsystem domain. Furthermore, the proof also provides a technical extension of the blow-up method itself by augmenting the analysis with an optimality criterion for the blow-up exponents.
Geometric proof for normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capiński, Maciej J.; Zgliczyński, Piotr
2015-12-01
We present a new proof of the existence of normally hyperbolic manifolds and their whiskers for maps. Our result is not perturbative. Based on the bounds on the map and its derivative, we establish the existence of the manifold within a given neighborhood. Our proof follows from a graph transform type method and is performed in the state space of the system. We do not require the map to be invertible. From our method follows also the smoothness of the established manifolds, which depends on the smoothness of the map, as well as rate conditions, which follow from bounds on the derivative of the map. Our method is tailor made for rigorous, interval arithmetic based, computer assisted validation of the needed assumptions.
Exponential estimates of symplectic slow manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristiansen, K. U.; Wulff, C.
2016-07-01
In this paper we prove the existence of an almost invariant symplectic slow manifold for analytic Hamiltonian slow-fast systems with finitely many slow degrees of freedom for which the error field is exponentially small. We allow for infinitely many fast degrees of freedom. The method we use is motivated by a paper of MacKay from 2004. The method does not notice resonances, and therefore we do not pose any restrictions on the motion normal to the slow manifold other than it being fast and analytic. We also present a stability result and obtain a generalization of a result of Gelfreich and Lerman on an invariant slow manifold to (finitely) many fast degrees of freedom.
Infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds
Kaynak, Burak Tevfik Turgut, O. Teoman
2015-05-15
We show that the ground state energy is bounded from below when there are infinitely many attractive delta function potentials placed in arbitrary locations, while all being separated at least by a minimum distance, on two dimensional non-compact manifold. To facilitate the reading of the paper, we first present the arguments in the setting of Cartan–Hadamard manifolds and then subsequently discuss the general case. For this purpose, we employ the heat kernel techniques as well as some comparison theorems of Riemannian geometry, thus generalizing the arguments in the flat case following the approach presented in Albeverio et al. (2004). - Highlights: • Schrödinger-operator for infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds. • Proof of the finiteness of the ground-state energy.
Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretherton, Christopher S.; Uchida, Junya; Blossey, Peter N.
2010-04-01
In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height and the instantaneous boundary conditions; this slaved structure determines the entrainment rate and hence the slow evolution of the inversion height and can be regarded as a one-dimensional slow manifold. Slow-manifold analysis is applied to mixed-layer model and large-eddy simulations of an idealized nocturnal stratocumulus-capped boundary layer. Both models are found to have multiple equilibria; depending on the initial inversion height, the simulations slowly evolve toward a shallow thin-cloud boundary layer or a deep, well-mixed thick cloud boundary layer. In the mixed-layer model, this can be described using a single slow manifold bifurcated by an unstable equilibrium inversion height which separates a branch that evolves toward a deep steady state from a branch which shallows indefinitely. In the large-eddy simulations, there are two separate slow manifolds (one of which becomes unstable if cloud droplet concentration is reduced). On one, the boundary layer is well-mixed and deepens to a thick-cloud steady state. On the other, the boundary layer is decoupled and shallows to a thin-cloud steady state. If the initial inversion height supports an optically thick but nearly nondrizzling cloud, it evolves onto the well-mixed manifold; if the initial cloud layer is either too thin to efficiently radiatively cool, or thick enough to heavily drizzle, it evolves onto the decoupled manifold. Applications to analysis of stratocumulus observations and to pockets of open cells and ship
Manifolds for pose tracking from monocular video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Saurav; Poulin, Joshua; Acton, Scott T.
2015-03-01
We formulate a simple human-pose tracking theory from monocular video based on the fundamental relationship between changes in pose and image motion vectors. We investigate the natural embedding of the low-dimensional body pose space into a high-dimensional space of body configurations that behaves locally in a linear manner. The embedded manifold facilitates the decomposition of the image motion vectors into basis motion vector fields of the tangent space to the manifold. This approach benefits from the style invariance of image motion flow vectors, and experiments to validate the fundamental theory show reasonable accuracy (within 4.9 deg of the ground truth).
Isoperimetric inequality on conformally hyperbolic manifolds
Kesel'man, V M
2003-04-30
It is shown that on an arbitrary non-compact Riemannian manifold of conformally hyperbolic type the isoperimetric inequality can be taken by a conformal change of the metric to the same canonical linear form as in the case of the standard hyperbolic Lobachevskii space. Both the absolute isoperimetric inequality and the relative one (for manifolds with boundary) are obtained. This work develops the results and methods of a joint paper with Zorich, in which the absolute isoperimetric inequality was obtained under a certain additional condition; the resulting statements are definitive in a certain sense.
Floer type cohomology on cosymplectic manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Yong Seung; Chai, Young Do
2015-05-01
We investigate a Floer type cohomology on cosymplectic manifolds M. To do this, we study a symplectic type action functional on the universal covering space of the loop space of contractible loops in M and the moduli space of gradient flow lines of the functional. The cochain complex induced by the critical points of the functional produces Floer type cohomology of M which is naturally isomorphic to a quantum type cohomology of M. We have an Arnold type theorem for Hamiltonian cosymplectomorphisms on compact semipositive cosymplectic manifolds. As an example, we consider the product of a Calabi-Yau 3-fold and the unit circle.
Unraveling Flow Patterns through Nonlinear Manifold Learning
Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio
2014-01-01
From climatology to biofluidics, the characterization of complex flows relies on computationally expensive kinematic and kinetic measurements. In addition, such big data are difficult to handle in real time, thereby hampering advancements in the area of flow control and distributed sensing. Here, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised characterization of flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning. Specifically, we apply the isometric feature mapping (Isomap) to experimental video data of the wake past a circular cylinder from steady to turbulent flows. Without direct velocity measurements, we show that manifold topology is intrinsically related to flow regime and that Isomap global coordinates can unravel salient flow features. PMID:24614890
Approaching Moons from Resonance via Invariant Manifolds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Rodney L.
2012-01-01
In this work, the approach phase from the final resonance of the endgame scenario in a tour design is examined within the context of invariant manifolds. Previous analyses have typically solved this problem either by using numerical techniques or by computing a catalog of suitable trajectories. The invariant manifolds of a selected set of libration orbits and unstable resonant orbits are computed here to serve as guides for desirable approach trajectories. The analysis focuses on designing an approach phase that may be tied into the final resonance in the endgame sequence while also targeting desired conditions at the moon.
Localised manifold learning for cardiac image analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Kanwal K.; Price, Anthony N.; Hajnal, Jo V.; Rueckert, Daniel
2012-02-01
Manifold learning is increasingly being used to discover the underlying structure of medical image data. Traditional approaches operate on whole images with a single measure of similarity used to compare entire images. In this way, information on the locality of differences is lost and smaller trends may be masked by dominant global differences. In this paper, we propose the use of multiple local manifolds to analyse regions of images without any prior knowledge of which regions are important. Localised manifolds are created by partitioning images into regular subsections with a manifold constructed for each patch. We propose a framework for incorporating information from the neighbours of each patch to calculate a coherent embedding. This generates a simultaneous dimensionality reduction of all patches and results in the creation of embeddings which are spatially-varying. Additionally, a hierarchical method is presented to enable a multi-scale embedding solution. We use this to extract spatially-varying respiratory and cardiac motions from cardiac MRI. Although there is a complex interplay between these motions, we show how they can be separated on a regional basis. We demonstrate the utility of the localised joint embedding over a global embedding of whole images and over embedding individual patches independently.
Quantum Rigidity of Negatively Curved Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirvasitu, Alexandru
2016-05-01
We show that an isometric action of a compact quantum group on the underlying geodesic metric space of a compact connected Riemannian manifold ( M, g) with strictly negative curvature is automatically classical, in the sense that it factors through the action of the isometry group of ( M, g). This partially answers a question by D. Goswami.
Holomorphic Parabolic Geometries and Calabi-Yau Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKay, Benjamin
2011-09-01
We prove that the only complex parabolic geometries on Calabi-Yau manifolds are the homogeneous geometries on complex tori. We also classify the complex parabolic geometries on homogeneous compact Kähler manifolds.
Calabi-Yau manifolds from noncommutative Hermitian U (1 ) instantons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hyun Seok
2015-05-01
We show that Calabi-Yau manifolds are emergent from the commutative limit of six-dimensional noncommutative Hermitian U (1 ) instantons. Therefore, we argue that the noncommutative Hermitian U (1 ) instantons correspond to quantized Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Distance approximating dimension reduction of Riemannian manifolds.
Chen, Changyou; Zhang, Junping; Fleischer, Rudolf
2010-02-01
We study the problem of projecting high-dimensional tensor data on an unspecified Riemannian manifold onto some lower dimensional subspace We note that, technically, the low-dimensional space we compute may not be a subspace of the original high-dimensional space. However, it is convenient to envision it as a subspace when explaining the algorithms. without much distorting the pairwise geodesic distances between data points on the Riemannian manifold while preserving discrimination ability. Existing algorithms, e.g., ISOMAP, that try to learn an isometric embedding of data points on a manifold have a nonsatisfactory discrimination ability in practical applications such as face and gait recognition. In this paper, we propose a two-stage algorithm named tensor-based Riemannian manifold distance-approximating projection (TRIMAP), which can quickly compute an approximately optimal projection for a given tensor data set. In the first stage, we construct a graph from labeled or unlabeled data, which correspond to the supervised and unsupervised scenario, respectively, such that we can use the graph distance to obtain an upper bound on an objective function that preserves pairwise geodesic distances. Then, we perform some tensor-based optimization of this upper bound to obtain a projection onto a low-dimensional subspace. In the second stage, we propose three different strategies to enhance the discrimination ability, i.e., make data points from different classes easier to separate and make data points in the same class more compact. Experimental results on two benchmark data sets from the University of South Florida human gait database and the Face Recognition Technology face database show that the discrimination ability of TRIMAP exceeds that of other popular algorithms. We theoretically show that TRIMAP converges. We demonstrate, through experiments on six synthetic data sets, its potential ability to unfold nonlinear manifolds in the first stage. PMID:19622439
Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude
2012-01-01
Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375
Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.
1975-01-01
A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.
Three-dimensional manifolds with special Cotton tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calviño-Louzao, E.; García-Río, E.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.
2015-10-01
The Cotton tensor of three-dimensional Walker manifolds is investigated. A complete description of all locally conformally flat Walker three-manifolds is given, as well as that of Walker manifolds whose Cotton tensor is either a Codazzi or a Killing tensor.
Special-holonomy manifolds and quartic-curvature string corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stelle, K. S.
2004-06-01
The quartic-curvature corrections derived from string theory have a very specific impact on the geometry of target-space manifolds of special holonomy. In the cases of Calabi-Yau manifolds and D = 7 manifolds of G2 holonomy, we show how the corrections conspire to preserve the unbroken supersymmetry of these backgrounds.
Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack
Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad
2007-11-13
A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparks, Rachel; Madabhushi, Anant
2012-03-01
Gleason patterns of prostate cancer histopathology, characterized primarily by morphological and architectural attributes of histological structures (glands and nuclei), have been found to be highly correlated with disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. Gleason patterns 4 and 5 are highly correlated with more aggressive disease and poorer patient outcome, while Gleason patterns 1-3 tend to reflect more favorable patient outcome. Because Gleason grading is done manually by a pathologist visually examining glass (or digital) slides, subtle morphologic and architectural differences of histological attributes may result in grading errors and hence cause high inter-observer variability. Recently some researchers have proposed computerized decision support systems to automatically grade Gleason patterns by using features pertaining to nuclear architecture, gland morphology, as well as tissue texture. Automated characterization of gland morphology has been shown to distinguish between intermediate Gleason patterns 3 and 4 with high accuracy. Manifold learning (ML) schemes attempt to generate a low dimensional manifold representation of a higher dimensional feature space while simultaneously preserving nonlinear relationships between object instances. Classification can then be performed in the low dimensional space with high accuracy. However ML is sensitive to the samples contained in the dataset; changes in the dataset may alter the manifold structure. In this paper we present a manifold regularization technique to constrain the low dimensional manifold to a specific range of possible manifold shapes, the range being determined via a statistical shape model of manifolds (SSMM). In this work we demonstrate applications of the SSMM in (1) identifying samples on the manifold which contain noise, defined as those samples which deviate from the SSMM, and (2) accurate out-of-sample extrapolation (OSE) of newly acquired samples onto a manifold constrained by the SSMM. We
Kernel Manifold Alignment for Domain Adaptation.
Tuia, Devis; Camps-Valls, Gustau
2016-01-01
The wealth of sensory data coming from different modalities has opened numerous opportunities for data analysis. The data are of increasing volume, complexity and dimensionality, thus calling for new methodological innovations towards multimodal data processing. However, multimodal architectures must rely on models able to adapt to changes in the data distribution. Differences in the density functions can be due to changes in acquisition conditions (pose, illumination), sensors characteristics (number of channels, resolution) or different views (e.g. street level vs. aerial views of a same building). We call these different acquisition modes domains, and refer to the adaptation problem as domain adaptation. In this paper, instead of adapting the trained models themselves, we alternatively focus on finding mappings of the data sources into a common, semantically meaningful, representation domain. This field of manifold alignment extends traditional techniques in statistics such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to deal with nonlinear adaptation and possibly non-corresponding data pairs between the domains. We introduce a kernel method for manifold alignment (KEMA) that can match an arbitrary number of data sources without needing corresponding pairs, just few labeled examples in all domains. KEMA has interesting properties: 1) it generalizes other manifold alignment methods, 2) it can align manifolds of very different complexities, performing a discriminative alignment preserving each manifold inner structure, 3) it can define a domain-specific metric to cope with multimodal specificities, 4) it can align data spaces of different dimensionality, 5) it is robust to strong nonlinear feature deformations, and 6) it is closed-form invertible, which allows transfer across-domains and data synthesis. To authors' knowledge this is the first method addressing all these important issues at once. We also present a reduced-rank version of KEMA for computational
Kernel Manifold Alignment for Domain Adaptation
Tuia, Devis; Camps-Valls, Gustau
2016-01-01
The wealth of sensory data coming from different modalities has opened numerous opportunities for data analysis. The data are of increasing volume, complexity and dimensionality, thus calling for new methodological innovations towards multimodal data processing. However, multimodal architectures must rely on models able to adapt to changes in the data distribution. Differences in the density functions can be due to changes in acquisition conditions (pose, illumination), sensors characteristics (number of channels, resolution) or different views (e.g. street level vs. aerial views of a same building). We call these different acquisition modes domains, and refer to the adaptation problem as domain adaptation. In this paper, instead of adapting the trained models themselves, we alternatively focus on finding mappings of the data sources into a common, semantically meaningful, representation domain. This field of manifold alignment extends traditional techniques in statistics such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to deal with nonlinear adaptation and possibly non-corresponding data pairs between the domains. We introduce a kernel method for manifold alignment (KEMA) that can match an arbitrary number of data sources without needing corresponding pairs, just few labeled examples in all domains. KEMA has interesting properties: 1) it generalizes other manifold alignment methods, 2) it can align manifolds of very different complexities, performing a discriminative alignment preserving each manifold inner structure, 3) it can define a domain-specific metric to cope with multimodal specificities, 4) it can align data spaces of different dimensionality, 5) it is robust to strong nonlinear feature deformations, and 6) it is closed-form invertible, which allows transfer across-domains and data synthesis. To authors’ knowledge this is the first method addressing all these important issues at once. We also present a reduced-rank version of KEMA for computational
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; Guo, Ting; Luo, Xue; Qu, Jinxiu; Zhang, Chenxuan; Cheng, Wei; Li, Bing
2014-06-01
Viscoelastic sandwich structures (VSS) are widely used in mechanical equipment; their state assessment is necessary to detect structural states and to keep equipment running with high reliability. This paper proposes a novel manifold-manifold distance-based assessment (M2DBA) method for assessing the looseness state in VSSs. In the M2DBA method, a manifold-manifold distance is viewed as a health index. To design the index, response signals from the structure are firstly acquired by condition monitoring technology and a Hankel matrix is constructed by using the response signals to describe state patterns of the VSS. Thereafter, a subspace analysis method, that is, principal component analysis (PCA), is performed to extract the condition subspace hidden in the Hankel matrix. From the subspace, pattern changes in dynamic structural properties are characterized. Further, a Grassmann manifold (GM) is formed by organizing a set of subspaces. The manifold is mapped to a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), where support vector data description (SVDD) is used to model the manifold as a hypersphere. Finally, a health index is defined as the cosine of the angle between the hypersphere centers corresponding to the structural baseline state and the looseness state. The defined health index contains similarity information existing in the two structural states, so structural looseness states can be effectively identified. Moreover, the health index is derived by analysis of the global properties of subspace sets, which is different from traditional subspace analysis methods. The effectiveness of the health index for state assessment is validated by test data collected from a VSS subjected to different degrees of looseness. The results show that the health index is a very effective metric for detecting the occurrence and extension of structural looseness. Comparison results indicate that the defined index outperforms some existing state-of-the-art ones.
A Further Examination of Manifold Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treuthardt, Patrick; Grouchy, Rebecca
2015-08-01
Manifold theory, an alternative to density wave theory, proposes that the spiral structure found in disk galaxies is the result of chaotic orbits guided by invariant manifolds. One prediction by this theory is that galaxies with stronger bars have more open spiral arms (i.e. larger pitch angles, P) compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A study by Martínez-García examined a limited sample of 27 galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) and found a trend between the overall perturbation strength in a galaxy, Qt(r), and P. While Qt(r) is a good measure of bar strength, it is affected by spiral arm torques. Our analysis advances that of Martínez-García by studying approximately 100 galaxies from the OSUBGS that have separate bar and spiral perturbation strength calculations and comparing these values to robust measurements of P via an algorithm developed by Davis et al.
Natural cutoffs via compact symplectic manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozari, K.; Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Vakili, B.
2016-01-01
In the context of phenomenological models of quantum gravity, it is claimed that ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) natural cutoffs can be realized from local deformations of the Hamiltonian systems. In this paper, we scrutinize this hypothesis and formulate a cutoff-regularized Hamiltonian system. The results show that while local deformations are necessary to have cutoffs, they are not sufficient. In fact, the cutoffs can be realized from globally-deformed Hamiltonian systems that are defined on compact symplectic manifolds. By taking the universality of quantum gravity effects into account, we then conclude that quantum gravity cutoffs are global (topological) properties of the symplectic manifolds. We justify our results by considering three well-known examples: the Moyal, Snyder and polymer-deformed Hamiltonian systems.
Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants
Tureav, V.G. )
1992-06-01
The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds.
Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders
Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz
2014-01-01
Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis. PMID:25045195
Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.
Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong
2015-03-01
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25523040
Potts-model critical manifolds revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scullard, Christian R.; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper
2016-03-01
We compute critical polynomials for the q-state Potts model on the Archimedean lattices, using a parallel implementation of the algorithm of Jacobsen (2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor 47 135001) that gives us access to larger sizes than previously possible. The exact polynomials are computed for bases of size 6 × 6 unit cells, and the root in the temperature variable v={{{e}}}K-1 is determined numerically at q = 1 for bases of size 8 × 8. This leads to improved results for bond percolation thresholds, and for the Potts-model critical manifolds in the real (q, v) plane. In the two most favourable cases, we find now the kagome-lattice threshold to eleven digits and that of the (3,{12}2) lattice to thirteen. Our critical manifolds reveal many interesting features in the antiferromagnetic region of the Potts model, and determine accurately the extent of the Berker-Kadanoff phase for the lattices studied.
Incremental nonlinear dimensionality reduction by manifold learning.
Law, Martin H C; Jain, Anil K
2006-03-01
Understanding the structure of multidimensional patterns, especially in unsupervised cases, is of fundamental importance in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Several algorithms have been proposed to analyze the structure of high-dimensional data based on the notion of manifold learning. These algorithms have been used to extract the intrinsic characteristics of different types of high-dimensional data by performing nonlinear dimensionality reduction. Most of these algorithms operate in a "batch" mode and cannot be efficiently applied when data are collected sequentially. In this paper, we describe an incremental version of ISOMAP, one of the key manifold learning algorithms. Our experiments on synthetic data as well as real world images demonstrate that our modified algorithm can maintain an accurate low-dimensional representation of the data in an efficient manner. PMID:16526424
Echocardiogram enhancement using supervised manifold denoising.
Wu, Hui; Huynh, Toan T; Souvenir, Richard
2015-08-01
This paper presents data-driven methods for echocardiogram enhancement. Existing denoising algorithms typically rely on a single noise model, and do not generalize to the composite noise sources typically found in real-world echocardiograms. Our methods leverage the low-dimensional intrinsic structure of echocardiogram videos. We assume that echocardiogram images are noisy samples from an underlying manifold parametrized by cardiac motion and denoise images via back-projection onto a learned (non-linear) manifold. Our methods incorporate synchronized side information (e.g., electrocardiography), which is often collected alongside the visual data. We evaluate the proposed methods on a synthetic data set and real-world echocardiograms. Quantitative results show improved performance of our methods over recent image despeckling methods and video denoising methods, and a visual analysis of real-world data shows noticeable image enhancement, even in the challenging case of noise due to dropout artifacts. PMID:26072166
Swelling of particle-encapsulating random manifolds.
Haleva, Emir; Diamant, Haim
2008-08-01
We study the statistical mechanics of a closed random manifold of fixed area and fluctuating volume, encapsulating a fixed number of noninteracting particles. Scaling analysis yields a unified description of such swollen manifolds, according to which the mean volume gradually increases with particle number, following a single scaling law. This is markedly different from the swelling under fixed pressure difference, where certain models exhibit criticality. We thereby indicate when the swelling due to encapsulated particles is thermodynamically inequivalent to that caused by fixed pressure. The general predictions are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of two particle-encapsulating model systems: a two-dimensional self-avoiding ring and a three-dimensional self-avoiding fluid vesicle. In the former the particle-induced swelling is thermodynamically equivalent to the pressure-induced one, whereas in the latter it is not. PMID:18850811
Kernel Methods on Riemannian Manifolds with Gaussian RBF Kernels.
Jayasumana, Sadeep; Hartley, Richard; Salzmann, Mathieu; Li, Hongdong; Harandi, Mehrtash
2015-12-01
In this paper, we develop an approach to exploiting kernel methods with manifold-valued data. In many computer vision problems, the data can be naturally represented as points on a Riemannian manifold. Due to the non-Euclidean geometry of Riemannian manifolds, usual Euclidean computer vision and machine learning algorithms yield inferior results on such data. In this paper, we define Gaussian radial basis function (RBF)-based positive definite kernels on manifolds that permit us to embed a given manifold with a corresponding metric in a high dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space. These kernels make it possible to utilize algorithms developed for linear spaces on nonlinear manifold-valued data. Since the Gaussian RBF defined with any given metric is not always positive definite, we present a unified framework for analyzing the positive definiteness of the Gaussian RBF on a generic metric space. We then use the proposed framework to identify positive definite kernels on two specific manifolds commonly encountered in computer vision: the Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definite matrices and the Grassmann manifold, i.e., the Riemannian manifold of linear subspaces of a Euclidean space. We show that many popular algorithms designed for Euclidean spaces, such as support vector machines, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis can be generalized to Riemannian manifolds with the help of such positive definite Gaussian kernels. PMID:26539851
Gas distribution through injection manifolds in vacuum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theil, Jeremy A.
1995-03-01
When injecting gas into a vacuum system, quite often the gas is distributed through a gas injection manifold. However, designs normally rely upon practical experience. By considering the manifold arrangement as a network of flow restrictions it is possible to optimize the distribution of gas throughout the manifold. The methodology for determining the flow distribution through the two simplest topologies of gas manifold, single- and double-opening manifolds from a single-gas injection point, is derived in this article. It is shown that the double-opening manifold topology tends to provide more uniform flow distribution than the single-opening manifold topology for similar conductance ratios. The results of this work include a summation formula for the single-opening manifold. In addition, guidelines for one type of tailored flow manifold are given. Finally, three basic design rules are presented: (1) use as few holes in the manifold as possible; (2) use a double opening manifold when possible; and (3) specify tube dimensions such that the tube/spray hole conductance ratio is maximized.
Manifold learning-based subspace distance for machinery damage assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang
2016-03-01
Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.
30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The intake... operator's compartment, to shut off the air supply to the engine. This valve shall be constructed to...
30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The intake... operator's compartment, to shut off the air supply to the engine. This valve shall be constructed to...
Fuel Manifold Resists Embrittlement by Hydrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, T.
1986-01-01
Completely-cast hydrogen-compatible alloy preferable to protective plating. Complexity of plating, welding, and brazing unnecessary if hydrogen-compatible alloy used for entire casting instead of protective overlay. Parts exposed to high-pressure hydrogen made immune to hydrogen embrittlement if fabricated from new alloy, Incoly 903 (or equivalent). Material strong and compatible with hydrogen at all temperatures and adapted for outlet manifold of Space Shuttle main combustion chamber.
Excitable neurons, firing threshold manifolds and canards.
Mitry, John; McCarthy, Michelle; Kopell, Nancy; Wechselberger, Martin
2013-01-01
We investigate firing threshold manifolds in a mathematical model of an excitable neuron. The model analyzed investigates the phenomenon of post-inhibitory rebound spiking due to propofol anesthesia and is adapted from McCarthy et al. (SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 11(4):1674-1697, 2012). Propofol modulates the decay time-scale of an inhibitory GABAa synaptic current. Interestingly, this system gives rise to rebound spiking within a specific range of propofol doses. Using techniques from geometric singular perturbation theory, we identify geometric structures, known as canards of folded saddle-type, which form the firing threshold manifolds. We find that the position and orientation of the canard separatrix is propofol dependent. Thus, the speeds of relevant slow synaptic processes are encoded within this geometric structure. We show that this behavior cannot be understood using a static, inhibitory current step protocol, which can provide a single threshold for rebound spiking but cannot explain the observed cessation of spiking for higher propofol doses. We then compare the analyses of dynamic and static synaptic inhibition, showing how the firing threshold manifolds of each relate, and why a current step approach is unable to fully capture the behavior of this model. PMID:23945278
Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L.
1997-08-01
At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
30 CFR 57.22215 - Separation of intake and return air (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... openings to the surface— (1) Ventilation tubing approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7 or... for separation of air currents. Such wall or partition shall be constructed of reinforced concrete...
30 CFR 57.22215 - Separation of intake and return air (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... openings to the surface— (1) Ventilation tubing approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7 or... for separation of air currents. Such wall or partition shall be constructed of reinforced concrete...
30 CFR 57.22215 - Separation of intake and return air (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... openings to the surface— (1) Ventilation tubing approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7 or... separation of main air currents in the same opening. Flexible ventilation tubing shall not exceed 250 feet...
30 CFR 57.22215 - Separation of intake and return air (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... openings to the surface— (1) Ventilation tubing approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7 or... separation of main air currents in the same opening. Flexible ventilation tubing shall not exceed 250 feet...
30 CFR 57.22215 - Separation of intake and return air (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... openings to the surface— (1) Ventilation tubing approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7 or... for separation of air currents. Such wall or partition shall be constructed of reinforced concrete...
Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny
1939-01-01
The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.
Performance Predictions of Supersonic Intakes with Isentropic-Compression Forebody
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakashima, K.; Saito, Tsutomu
Intake is an important component of next generation air-breathing engines such as Ram/Scram jet engines, as well as conventional jet-propulsion systems. The supersonic intake decelerates compresses the air inflow by shocks or compression waves to appropriate flow conditions for a specific engine system. The performance of supersonic intakes is evaluated mainly by the mass flow rate and the total pressure recovery rate.
Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao
2014-11-01
The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.
SSME hot gas manifold flow comparison test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, G. B., Jr.; Dill, C. C.
1988-01-01
An account is given of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFT) component of NASA's Alternate Turbopump Development effort, which is aimed at the proper aerodynamic integration of the current Phase II three-duct SSME Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) and the future 'Phase II-plus' two-duct HGM. Half-scale water flow tests of both HGM geometries were conducted to provide initial design data for the HPFT. The results reveal flowfield results and furnish insight into the performance differences between the two HGM flowpaths. Proper design of the HPFT can potentially secure significant flow improvements in either HGM configuration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, Edwin B.
1990-01-01
Design-to-cost is a popular technique for controlling costs. Although qualitative techniques exist for implementing design to cost, quantitative methods are sparse. In the launch vehicle and spacecraft engineering process, the question whether to minimize mass is usually an issue. The lack of quantification in this issue leads to arguments on both sides. This paper presents a mathematical technique which both quantifies the design-to-cost process and the mass/complexity issue. Parametric cost analysis generates and applies mathematical formulas called cost estimating relationships. In their most common forms, they are continuous and differentiable. This property permits the application of the mathematics of differentiable manifolds. Although the terminology sounds formidable, the application of the techniques requires only a knowledge of linear algebra and ordinary differential equations, common subjects in undergraduate scientific and engineering curricula. When the cost c is expressed as a differentiable function of n system metrics, setting the cost c to be a constant generates an n-1 dimensional subspace of the space of system metrics such that any set of metric values in that space satisfies the constant design-to-cost criterion. This space is a differentiable manifold upon which all mathematical properties of a differentiable manifold may be applied. One important property is that an easily implemented system of ordinary differential equations exists which permits optimization of any function of the system metrics, mass for example, over the design-to-cost manifold. A dual set of equations defines the directions of maximum and minimum cost change. A simplified approximation of the PRICE H(TM) production-production cost is used to generate this set of differential equations over [mass, complexity] space. The equations are solved in closed form to obtain the one dimensional design-to-cost trade and design-for-cost spaces. Preliminary results indicate that cost
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Robbins, Daniel
2015-11-01
In this talk we report on recent progress in describing compactifications of string theory and M-theory on G2 and Spin(7) manifolds. We include the infinite set of α’-corrections and describe the entire tower of massless and massive Kaluza-Klein modes resulting from such compactifications. Contribution to the ‘Focus Issue on Gravity, Supergravity and Fundamental Physics: the Richard Arnowitt Symposium’, to be published in Physica Scripta. Based on a talk delivered by Becker at the workshop ‘Superstring Perturbation Theory’ at the Perimeter Institute, 22-24 April 2015.
Optical manifold for light-emitting diodes
Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Parkyn, Jr., William A.; Alvarez, Roberto; Dross, Oliver
2008-06-03
An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.
Singular parabolic equations of second order on manifolds with singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Yuanzhen
2016-01-01
The main aim of this article is to establish an Lp-theory for elliptic operators on manifolds with singularities. The particular class of differential operators discussed herein may exhibit degenerate or singular behavior near the singular ends of the manifolds. Such a theory is of importance for the study of elliptic and parabolic equations on non-compact, or even incomplete manifolds, with or without boundary.
Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment
Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.
1980-01-01
A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.
Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path
Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba
2015-01-01
The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering. PMID:26375819
46 CFR 95.16-25 - Manifold and cylinder arrangements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-25 Manifold... accordance with 46 CFR 147.60(b) and 49 CFR part 180. (d) The cylinders in a common manifold must be: (1) Of... pressure....
46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...
46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...
46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...
46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...
46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...
Interference evaluation between manifold and wet Christmas tree CP systems
Brasil, S.L.D.C.; Baptista, W.
2000-05-01
Offshore production wells are controlled by valves installed in the marine soil, called wet Christmas trees (WCTs). A manifold receives the production of several wells and transports it to the platform. The manifold is cathodically protected by Al anodes and the WCT by Zn anodes. A computer simulation was carried out to evaluate the interference between the equipment cathodic protection systems.
Manifold to uniformly distribute a solid-liquid slurry
Kern, Kenneth C.
1983-01-01
This invention features a manifold that divides a stream of coal particles and liquid into several smaller streams maintaining equal or nearly equal mass compositions. The manifold consists of a horizontal, variable area header having sharp-edged, right-angled take-offs which are oriented on the bottom of the header.
Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds
Song, Chong; Sun, Xiaowei; Wang, Youde
2013-12-15
It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.
Pizzetti Formulae for Stiefel Manifolds and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulembier, Kevin; Kieburg, Mario
2015-10-01
Pizzetti's formula explicitly shows the equivalence of the rotation invariant integration over a sphere and the action of rotation invariant differential operators. We generalize this idea to the integrals over real, complex, and quaternion Stiefel manifolds in a unifying way. In particular, we propose a new way to calculate group integrals and try to uncover some algebraic structures which manifest themselves for some well-known cases like the Harish-Chandra integral. We apply a particular case of our formula to an Itzykson-Zuber integral for the coset . This integral naturally appears in the calculation of the two-point correlation function in the transition of the statistics of the Poisson ensemble and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble in random matrix theory.
Consistent Pauli reduction on group manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baguet, A.; Pope, C. N.; Samtleben, H.
2016-01-01
We prove an old conjecture by Duff, Nilsson, Pope and Warner asserting that the NSsbnd NS sector of supergravity (and more general the bosonic string) allows for a consistent Pauli reduction on any d-dimensional group manifold G, keeping the full set of gauge bosons of the G × G isometry group of the bi-invariant metric on G. The main tool of the construction is a particular generalised Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz in double field theory which we explicitly construct in terms of the group's Killing vectors. Examples include the consistent reduction from ten dimensions on S3 ×S3 and on similar product spaces. The construction is another example of globally geometric non-toroidal compactifications inducing non-geometric fluxes.
Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chong; Sun, Xiaowei; Wang, Youde
2013-12-01
It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.
Moduli of Vortices and Grassmann Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Indranil; Romão, Nuno M.
2013-05-01
We use the framework of Quot schemes to give a novel description of the moduli spaces of stable n-pairs, also interpreted as gauged vortices on a closed Riemann surface Σ with target {Mat_{r × n}({C})}, where n ≥ r. We then show that these moduli spaces embed canonically into certain Grassmann manifolds, and thus obtain natural Kähler metrics of Fubini-Study type. These spaces are smooth at least in the local case r = n. For abelian local vortices we prove that, if a certain "quantization" condition is satisfied, the embedding can be chosen in such a way that the induced Fubini-Study structure realizes the Kähler class of the usual L 2 metric of gauged vortices.
Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer
Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid
2003-05-27
A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.
MOCVD manifold switching effects on growth and characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Ivan O.; Fripp, Archibald L.; Jesser, William A.
1991-02-01
A combined modeling and experimental approach is used to quantify the effects of various manifold components on the switching speed in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, two alternative vent-run high-speed switching manifold designs suitable for either continuous or interrupted growth have been investigated. Both designs are incorporated in a common manifold, instrumented with a mass spectrometer. The experiments have been performed using nitrogen as the transport gas and argon as the simulated source gas. The advantages and limitations of two designs are discussed. It is found that while constant flow manifold switching systems may have fluid dynamic advantages, care must be taken to minimize sections of the supply manifold with low flow rates if rapid changes in alloy composition are required.
Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer
Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid
2003-09-30
A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.
Method for producing a fuel cell manifold seal
Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.
1982-01-01
A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.
Endoscopic video manifolds for targeted optical biopsy.
Atasoy, Selen; Mateus, Diana; Meining, Alexander; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Navab, Nassir
2012-03-01
Gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy is a widely used clinical procedure for screening and surveillance of digestive tract diseases ranging from Barrett's Oesophagus to oesophageal cancer. Current surveillance protocol consists of periodic endoscopic examinations performed in 3-4 month intervals including expert's visual assessment and biopsies taken from suspicious tissue regions. Recent development of a new imaging technology, called probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), enabled the acquisition of in vivo optical biopsies without removing any tissue sample. Besides its several advantages, i.e., noninvasiveness, real-time and in vivo feedback, optical biopsies involve a new challenge for the endoscopic expert. Due to their noninvasive nature, optical biopsies do not leave any scar on the tissue and therefore recognition of the previous optical biopsy sites in surveillance endoscopy becomes very challenging. In this work, we introduce a clustering and classification framework to facilitate retargeting previous optical biopsy sites in surveillance upper GI-endoscopies. A new representation of endoscopic videos based on manifold learning, "endoscopic video manifolds" (EVMs), is proposed. The low dimensional EVM representation is adapted to facilitate two different clustering tasks; i.e., clustering of informative frames and patient specific endoscopic segments, only by changing the similarity measure. Each step of the proposed framework is validated on three in vivo patient datasets containing 1834, 3445, and 1546 frames, corresponding to endoscopic videos of 73.36, 137.80, and 61.84 s, respectively. Improvements achieved by the introduced EVM representation are demonstrated by quantitative analysis in comparison to the original image representation and principal component analysis. Final experiments evaluating the complete framework demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method as a promising step for assisting the endoscopic expert in retargeting the
Diffusion Harmonics and Dual Geometry on Carnot Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantin, Sarah
The "curse of dimensionality" motivates the importance of techniques for computing low-dimensional approximations of high-dimensional data. It is often necessary to use nonlinear techniques to recover a low-dimensional manifold embedded via a nonlinear map in a high-dimensional space; this family of techniques is referred to as "manifold learning." The accuracy of manifold-learning-based approximations is founded on asymptotic results that assume the data is drawn from a low-dimensional Riemannian manifold. However, in natural datasets, this assumption is often overly restrictive. In the first part of this thesis we examine a more general class of manifolds known as Carnot manifolds, a type of sub-Riemannian manifold that governs natural phenomena such as chemical kinetics and configuration spaces of jointed objects. We find that diffusion maps can be generalized to Carnot manifolds and that the projection onto diffusion harmonics gives an almost isometric embedding; as a side effect, the diffusion distance is a computationally fast estimate for the shortest distance between two points on a Carnot manifold. We apply this theory to biochemical network data and observe that the chemical kinetics of the EGFR network are governed by a Carnot, but not Riemannian, manifold. In the second part of this thesis we examine the Heisenberg group, a classical example of a Carnot manifold. We obtain a representation-theoretic proof that the eigenfunctions of the sub-Laplacian on SU(2) approach the eigenfunctions of the sub-Laplacian on the Heisenberg group, in the limit as the radius of the sphere becomes large, in analogy with the limiting relationship between the Fourier series on the circle and the Fourier transform on the line. This result also illustrates how projecting onto the sub-Laplacian eigenfunctions of a non-compact Carnot manifold can be locally approximated by projecting onto the sub-Laplacian eigenfunctions of a tangent compact Carnot manifold. In the third part
Intake technologies: Research status: Final report
McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.
1989-03-01
This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.
Complete manifolds with bounded curvature and spectral gaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoen, Richard; Tran, Hung
2016-08-01
We study the spectrum of complete noncompact manifolds with bounded curvature and positive injectivity radius. We give general conditions which imply that their essential spectrum has an arbitrarily large finite number of gaps. In particular, for any noncompact covering of a compact manifold, there is a metric on the base so that the lifted metric has an arbitrarily large finite number of gaps in its essential spectrum. Also, for any complete noncompact manifold with bounded curvature and positive injectivity radius we construct a metric uniformly equivalent to the given one (also of bounded curvature and positive injectivity radius) with an arbitrarily large finite number of gaps in its essential spectrum.
Infinity Manifold in Popovici's Photogravitational Two-Body Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mioc, Vasile
The two-body problem associated to the modified photogravitational law proposed by the Romanian astronomer Constantin Popovici is being resumed. After studying the equilibria and the collision manifold (Mioc and Blaga 2001) via the powerful tools of the qualitative analysis, here we tackle the escape/capture orbits. We start from the equations of motion established in the quoted paper, then we apply a mixed sequence of McGehee-type transformations of the first and second kind, obtaining new regular motion equations. In this way the infinity singularity is replaced by the infinity manifold, pasted on the phase space. The flow on this manifold is entirely described, pointing out special features.
Collision and Infinity Manifolds for the Schwarzschild Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mioc, Vasile; Stoica, Cristina
The Schwarzschild problem (i.e. the two-body problem associated to a potential of the form A/r + B/rl, where r = distance between particles, and A, B = real constants) is qualitatively tackled. The equations of motion are written in Hamiltonian formalism, and the first integrals of energy and angular momentum are pointed out. Using McGehee's transformations, the motion equations are regularized, and the collision singularity is replaced by the collision manifold. The flow on this manifold is described. Analogously, one introduces the infinity manifold (corresponding to r tending to infinity), and one characterizes the respective flow.
Denoising-enhancing images on elastic manifolds.
Ratner, Vadim; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y
2011-08-01
The conflicting demands for simultaneous low-pass and high-pass processing, required in image denoising and enhancement, still present an outstanding challenge, although a great deal of progress has been made by means of adaptive diffusion-type algorithms. To further advance such processing methods and algorithms, we introduce a family of second-order (in time) partial differential equations. These equations describe the motion of a thin elastic sheet in a damping environment. They are also derived by a variational approach in the context of image processing. The new operator enables better edge preservation in denoising applications by offering an adaptive lowpass filter, which preserves high-frequency components in the pass-band better than the adaptive diffusion filter, while offering slower error propagation across edges. We explore the action of this powerful operator in the context of image processing and exploit for this purpose the wealth of knowledge accumulated in physics and mathematics about the action and behavior of this operator. The resulting methods are further generalized for color and/or texture image processing, by embedding images in multidimensional manifolds. A specific application of the proposed new approach to superresolution is outlined. PMID:21342847
TESTING DISTANCE ESTIMATORS WITH THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD
Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.
2012-03-20
We demonstrate how the Fundamental Manifold (FM) can be used to cross-calibrate distance estimators even when those 'standard candles' are not found in the same galaxy. Such an approach greatly increases the number of distance measurements that can be utilized to check for systematic distance errors and the types of estimators that can be compared. Here we compare distances obtained using Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), Cepheids, surface brightness fluctuations, the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch, circumnuclear masers, eclipsing binaries, RR Lyrae stars, and the planetary nebulae luminosity functions. We find no significant discrepancies (differences are <2{sigma}) between distance methods, although differences at the {approx}10% level cannot yet be ruled out. The potential exists for significant refinement because the data used here are heterogeneous B-band magnitudes that will soon be supplanted by homogeneous, near-infrared magnitudes. We illustrate the use of FM distances to (1) revisit the question of the metallicity sensitivity of various estimators, confirming the dependence of SN Ia distances on host galaxy metallicity, and (2) provide an alternative calibration of H{sub 0} that replaces the classical ladder approach in the use of extragalactic distance estimators with one that utilizes data over a wide range of distances simultaneously.
Crowd Event Detection on Optical Flow Manifolds.
Rao, Aravinda S; Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Marusic, Slaven; Palaniswami, Marimuthu
2016-07-01
Analyzing crowd events in a video is key to understanding the behavioral characteristics of people (humans). Detecting crowd events in videos is challenging because of articulated human movements and occlusions. The aim of this paper is to detect the events in a probabilistic framework for automatically interpreting the visual crowd behavior. In this paper, crowd event detection and classification in optical flow manifolds (OFMs) are addressed. A new algorithm to detect walking and running events has been proposed, which uses optical flow vector lengths in OFMs. Furthermore, a new algorithm to detect merging and splitting events has been proposed, which uses Riemannian connections in the optical flow bundle (OFB). The longest vector from the OFB provides a key feature for distinguishing walking and running events. Using a Riemannian connection, the optical flow vectors are parallel transported to localize the crowd groups. The geodesic lengths among the groups provide a criterion for merging and splitting events. Dispersion and evacuation events are jointly modeled from the walking/running and merging/splitting events. Our results show that the proposed approach delivers a comparable model to detect crowd events. Using the performance evaluation of tracking and surveillance 2009 dataset, the proposed method is shown to produce the best results in merging, splitting, and dispersion events, and comparable results in walking, running, and evacuation events when compared with other methods. PMID:26219100
Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Medeiros, Paul; Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea
2016-06-01
We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of mathbb{Z} -graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the N = 1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the N = 1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds whose associated Killing superalgebras are precisely the filtered deformations we classify in this paper.
Testing Distance Estimators with the Fundamental Manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.
2012-03-01
We demonstrate how the Fundamental Manifold (FM) can be used to cross-calibrate distance estimators even when those "standard candles" are not found in the same galaxy. Such an approach greatly increases the number of distance measurements that can be utilized to check for systematic distance errors and the types of estimators that can be compared. Here we compare distances obtained using Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), Cepheids, surface brightness fluctuations, the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch, circumnuclear masers, eclipsing binaries, RR Lyrae stars, and the planetary nebulae luminosity functions. We find no significant discrepancies (differences are <2σ) between distance methods, although differences at the ~10% level cannot yet be ruled out. The potential exists for significant refinement because the data used here are heterogeneous B-band magnitudes that will soon be supplanted by homogeneous, near-infrared magnitudes. We illustrate the use of FM distances to (1) revisit the question of the metallicity sensitivity of various estimators, confirming the dependence of SN Ia distances on host galaxy metallicity, and (2) provide an alternative calibration of H 0 that replaces the classical ladder approach in the use of extragalactic distance estimators with one that utilizes data over a wide range of distances simultaneously.
Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.
El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo
2013-01-01
Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images. PMID:24505657
On the Self-starting Constraints for Busemann Intakes with Overboard Spillage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradian, N.; Timofeev, E. V.; Tahir, R.; Mölder, S.
The air intake is an important component of hypersonic airbreathing engines. It is essentially a converging duct decelerating and compressing airflow and supplying the compressed air to the engine's combustor. Molder and Szpiro [1] proposed to use the Busemann flow [2] as the basis for hypersonic air intake design.
Unstable manifolds for the MacKay approximate renormalisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stark, Jaroslav
1989-01-01
For a renormalisation of a critical phenomenon in some class of dynamical systems, it is the unstable manifolds of the critical set which give the universal families which describe the critical transition. In this paper, we study such manifolds for the MacKay [1988] approximate renormalisation scheme which models the breakup of invariant circles of arbitrary rotation number in area-preserving twist maps. We derive a number of properties of the unstable manifolds and then discuss the implications of these to the full renormalisation. In particular a) we suggest the importance of continuity in the definition of unstable manifolds, and b) show that their structure is similar to that observed numerically by MacKay and Percival [1987] in a related renormalisation. Finally we show that the residues of approximating periodic orbits are bounded above on the critical set.
Identifying manifolds underlying group motion in Vicsek agents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajamannage, K.; Butail, S.; Porfiri, M.; Bollt, E. M.
2015-12-01
Collective motion of animal groups often undergoes changes due to perturbations. In a topological sense, we describe these changes as switching between low-dimensional embedding manifolds underlying a group of evolving agents. To characterize such manifolds, first we introduce a simple mapping of agents between time-steps. Then, we construct a novel metric which is susceptible to variations in the collective motion, thus revealing distinct underlying manifolds. The method is validated through three sample scenarios simulated using a Vicsek model, namely, switching of speed, coordination, and structure of a group. Combined with a dimensionality reduction technique that is used to infer the dimensionality of the embedding manifold, this approach provides an effective model-free framework for the analysis of collective behavior across animal species.
Supervised learning for neural manifold using spatiotemporal brain activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Po-Chih; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen
2015-12-01
Objective. Determining the means by which perceived stimuli are compactly represented in the human brain is a difficult task. This study aimed to develop techniques for the construction of the neural manifold as a representation of visual stimuli. Approach. We propose a supervised locally linear embedding method to construct the embedded manifold from brain activity, taking into account similarities between corresponding stimuli. In our experiments, photographic portraits were used as visual stimuli and brain activity was calculated from magnetoencephalographic data using a source localization method. Main results. The results of 10 × 10-fold cross-validation revealed a strong correlation between manifolds of brain activity and the orientation of faces in the presented images, suggesting that high-level information related to image content can be revealed in the brain responses represented in the manifold. Significance. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to investigation into the inherent patterns of brain activity.
Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability
Deremble, Bruno; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael
2009-10-27
In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple ''weather regimes.'' To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, ''bred vectors'' and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemblemore » forecasts issued from clouds (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.« less
Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability
Deremble, Bruno; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael
2009-10-27
In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple ''weather regimes.'' To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, ''bred vectors'' and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemble forecasts issued from clouds (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.
Heterotic string compactified on half-flat manifolds
Gurrieri, Sebastien; Lukas, Andre; Micu, Andrei
2004-12-15
We study the effective action of the heterotic string compactified on particular half-flat manifolds which arise in the context of mirror symmetry with Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz flux. We explicitly derive the superpotential and Kaehler potential at lowest order in {alpha}{sup '} by a reduction of the bosonic action. The superpotential contains new terms depending on the Kaehler moduli which originate from the intrinsic geometrical flux of the half-flat manifolds. A generalized Gukov formula, valid for all manifolds with SU(3) structure, is derived from the gravitino mass term. For the half-flat manifolds it leads to a superpotential in agreement with our explicit bosonic calculation. We also discuss the inclusion of gauge fields.
Covariant Star Product for Exterior Differential Forms on Symplectic Manifolds
McCurdy, Shannon; Zumino, Bruno
2010-02-10
After a brief description of the Z-graded differential Poisson algebra, we introduce a covariant star product for exterior differential forms and give an explicit expression for it up to second order in the deformation parameter h, in the case of symplectic manifolds. The graded differential Poisson algebra endows the manifold with a connection, not necessarily torsion-free, and places upon the connection various constraints.
Minimal Φ-LAGRANGIAN Surfaces in almost Hermitian Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khong Van, Le
1990-02-01
A general method of calibrations is developed for the study of minimal Φ-Lagrangian surfaces in almost-Hermitian manifolds. A criterion for minimality of Φ-Lagrangian surfaces is given, along with a lower bound for the second variation of the volume functional on minimal Φ-Lagrangian surfaces in Hermitian manifolds. The generalized Maslov index of these surfaces is shown to be trivial. Bibliography: 11 titles.
On Lightlike Geometry of Para-Sasakian Manifolds
Acet, Bilal Eftal; Kılıç, Erol
2014-01-01
We study lightlike hypersurfaces of para-Sasakian manifolds tangent to the characteristic vector field. In particular, we define invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces, respectively, and give examples. Integrability conditions for the distributions on a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface of para-Sasakian manifolds are investigated. We obtain a para-Sasakian structure on the leaves of an integrable distribution of a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface. PMID:24892072
Dimensionality reduction of collective motion by principal manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajamannage, Kelum; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio; Bollt, Erik M.
2015-01-01
While the existence of low-dimensional embedding manifolds has been shown in patterns of collective motion, the current battery of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods is not amenable to the analysis of such manifolds. This is mainly due to the necessary spectral decomposition step, which limits control over the mapping from the original high-dimensional space to the embedding space. Here, we propose an alternative approach that demands a two-dimensional embedding which topologically summarizes the high-dimensional data. In this sense, our approach is closely related to the construction of one-dimensional principal curves that minimize orthogonal error to data points subject to smoothness constraints. Specifically, we construct a two-dimensional principal manifold directly in the high-dimensional space using cubic smoothing splines, and define the embedding coordinates in terms of geodesic distances. Thus, the mapping from the high-dimensional data to the manifold is defined in terms of local coordinates. Through representative examples, we show that compared to existing nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, the principal manifold retains the original structure even in noisy and sparse datasets. The principal manifold finding algorithm is applied to configurations obtained from a dynamical system of multiple agents simulating a complex maneuver called predator mobbing, and the resulting two-dimensional embedding is compared with that of a well-established nonlinear dimensionality reduction method.
Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.
Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong
2016-09-01
Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms. PMID:26277005
Manifold learning of brain MRIs by deep learning.
Brosch, Tom; Tam, Roger
2013-01-01
Manifold learning of medical images plays a potentially important role for modeling anatomical variability within a population with pplications that include segmentation, registration, and prediction of clinical parameters. This paper describes a novel method for learning the manifold of 3D brain images that, unlike most existing manifold learning methods, does not require the manifold space to be locally linear, and does not require a predefined similarity measure or a prebuilt proximity graph. Our manifold learning method is based on deep learning, a machine learning approach that uses layered networks (called deep belief networks, or DBNs) and has received much attention recently in the computer vision field due to their success in object recognition tasks. DBNs have traditionally been too computationally expensive for application to 3D images due to the large number of trainable parameters. Our primary contributions are (1) a much more computationally efficient training method for DBNs that makes training on 3D medical images with a resolution of up to 128 x 128 x 128 practical, and (2) the demonstration that DBNs can learn a low-dimensional manifold of brain volumes that detects modes of variations that correlate to demographic and disease parameters. PMID:24579194
STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD
Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H. E-mail: azabludoff@as.arizona.edu
2011-02-01
We explore whether global observed properties, specifically half-light radii, mean surface brightness, and integrated stellar kinematics, suffice to unambiguously differentiate galaxies from star clusters, which presumably formed differently and lack dark matter halos. We find that star clusters lie on the galaxy scaling relationship referred to as the fundamental manifold (FM), on the extension of a sequence of compact galaxies, and so conclude that there is no simple way to differentiate star clusters from ultracompact galaxies. By extending the validity of the FM over a larger range of parameter space and a wider set of objects, we demonstrate that the physics that constrains the resulting baryon and dark matter distributions in stellar systems is more general than previously appreciated. The generality of the FM implies (1) that the stellar spatial distribution and kinematics of one type of stellar system do not arise solely from a process particular to that set of systems, such as violent relaxation for elliptical galaxies, but are instead the result of an interplay of all processes responsible for the generic settling of baryons in gravitational potential wells, (2) that the physics of how baryons settle is independent of whether the system is embedded within a dark matter halo, and (3) that peculiar initial conditions at formation or stochastic events during evolution do not ultimately disturb the overall regularity of baryonic settling. We also utilize the relatively simple nature of star clusters to relate deviations from the FM to the age of the stellar population and find that stellar population models systematically and significantly overpredict the mass-to-light ratios of old, metal-rich clusters. We present an empirical calibration of stellar population mass-to-light ratios with age and color. Finally, we use the FM to estimate velocity dispersions for the low surface brightness, outer halo clusters that lack such measurements.
Manifold alignment for classification of multitemporal hyperspectral image data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hsiu-Han
Analyzing remotely sensed images to obtain land cover classification maps is an effective approach for acquiring information over landscapes that can be accomplished over extended areas with limited ground surveys. Further, with advances in remote sensing technology, spaceborne hyperspectral sensors provide the capability to acquire a set of images that have both high spectral and temporal resolution. These images are suitable for monitoring and analyzing environmental changes with subtle spectral characteristics. However, inherent characteristics of multitemporal hyperspectral images, including high dimensionality, nonlinearity, and nonstationarity phenomena over time and across large areas, pose several challenges for classification. This research addresses the issues of classification tasks in the presence of spectral shifts within multitemporal hyperspectral images by leveraging the concept of the data manifold. Although manifold learning has been applied successfully in single image hyperspectral data classification to address high dimensionality and nonlinear spectral responses, research related to manifold learning for multitemporal classification studies is limited. The proposed approaches utilize spectral signatures and spatial proximity to construct similar "local" geometries of temporal images. By aligning these underlying manifolds optimally, the impacts of nonstationary effects are mitigated and classification is accomplished in a representative temporal data manifold. "Global" manifolds learned from temporal hyperspectral images have a major advantage in faithful representation of the data in an image, such as retaining relationships between different classes. Local manifolds are favored in discriminating difficult classes and for computation efficiency. A new hybrid global-local manifold alignment method that combines the advantages of global and local manifolds for effective multitemporal image classification is also proposed. Results illustrate the
The world problem: on the computability of the topology of 4-manifolds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
vanMeter, J. R.
2005-01-01
Topological classification of the 4-manifolds bridges computation theory and physics. A proof of the undecidability of the homeomorphy problem for 4-manifolds is outlined here in a clarifying way. It is shown that an arbitrary Turing machine with an arbitrary input can be encoded into the topology of a 4-manifold, such that the 4-manifold is homeomorphic to a certain other 4-manifold if and only if the corresponding Turing machine halts on the associated input. Physical implications are briefly discussed.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...
Locally isometric and conformal parameterization of image manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, A. V.; Kuleshov, A. P.; Yanovich, Yu. A.
2015-12-01
Images can be represented as vectors in a high-dimensional Image space with components specifying light intensities at image pixels. To avoid the `curse of dimensionality', the original high-dimensional image data are transformed into their lower-dimensional features preserving certain subject-driven data properties. These properties can include `information-preserving' when using the constructed low-dimensional features instead of original high-dimensional vectors, as well preserving the distances and angles between the original high-dimensional image vectors. Under the commonly used Manifold assumption that the high-dimensional image data lie on or near a certain unknown low-dimensional Image manifold embedded in an ambient high-dimensional `observation' space, a constructing of the lower-dimensional features consists in constructing an Embedding mapping from the Image manifold to Feature space, which, in turn, determines a low-dimensional parameterization of the Image manifold. We propose a new geometrically motivated Embedding method which constructs a low-dimensional parameterization of the Image manifold and provides the information-preserving property as well as the locally isometric and conformal properties.
Target detection performed on manifold approximations recovered from hyperspectral data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziemann, Amanda K.; Messinger, David W.; Albano, James A.
2013-05-01
In high dimensional data, manifold learning seeks to identify the embedded lower-dimensional, non-linear mani- fold upon which the data lie. This is particularly useful in hyperspectral imagery where inherently m-dimensional data is often sparsely distributed throughout the d-dimensional spectral space, with m << d. By recovering the manifold, inherent structures and relationships within the data - which are not typically apparent otherwise - may be identified and exploited. The sparsity of data within the spectral space can prove challenging for many types of analysis, and in particular with target detection. In this paper, we propose using manifold recovery as a preprocessing step for spectral target detection algorithms. A graph structure is first built upon the data and the transformation into the manifold space is based upon that graph structure. Then, the Adaptive Co- sine/Coherence Estimator (ACE) algorithm is applied. We present an analysis of target detection performance in the manifold space using scene-derived target spectra from two different hyperspectral images.
Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nistor, Victor
2016-07-01
We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called "Lie manifolds" -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.
A short- time beltrami kernel for smoothing images and manifolds.
Spira, Alon; Kimmel, Ron; Sochen, Nir
2007-06-01
We introduce a short-time kernel for the Beltrami image enhancing flow. The flow is implemented by "convolving" the image with a space dependent kernel in a similar fashion to the solution of the heat equation by a convolution with a Gaussian kernel. The kernel is appropriate for smoothing regular (flat) 2-D images, for smoothing images painted on manifolds, and for simultaneously smoothing images and the manifolds they are painted on. The kernel combines the geometry of the image and that of the manifold into one metric tensor, thus enabling a natural unified approach for the manipulation of both. Additionally, the derivation of the kernel gives a better geometrical understanding of the Beltrami flow and shows that the bilateral filter is a Euclidean approximation of it. On a practical level, the use of the kernel allows arbitrarily large time steps as opposed to the existing explicit numerical schemes for the Beltrami flow. In addition, the kernel works with equal ease on regular 2-D images and on images painted on parametric or triangulated manifolds. We demonstrate the denoising properties of the kernel by applying it to various types of images and manifolds. PMID:17547140
Vibration signal classification by wavelet packet energy flow manifold learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Qingbo
2013-04-01
This paper proposes a new study to explore the wavelet packet energy (WPE) flow characteristics of vibration signals by using the manifold learning technique. This study intends to discover the nonlinear manifold information from the WPE flow map of vibration signals to characterize and discriminate different classes. A new feature, called WPE manifold feature, is achieved by three main steps: first, the wavelet packet transform (WPT) is conducted to decompose multi-class signals into a library of time-frequency subspaces; second, the WPE is calculated in each subspace to produce a feature vector for each signal; and finally, low-dimensional manifold features carrying class information are extracted from the WPE library for either training or testing samples by using the manifold learning algorithm. The new feature reveals the nonlinear WPE flow structure among various redundant time-frequency subspaces. It combines the benefits of time-frequency characteristics and nonlinear information, and hence exhibits valuable properties for vibration signal classification. The effectiveness and the merits of the proposed method are confirmed by case studies on vibration analysis-based machine fault classification.
Hierarchical discriminant manifold learning for dimensionality reduction and image classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Weihai; Zhao, Changchen; Ding, Kai; Wu, Xingming; Chen, Peter C. Y.
2015-09-01
In the field of image classification, it has been a trend that in order to deliver a reliable classification performance, the feature extraction model becomes increasingly more complicated, leading to a high dimensionality of image representations. This, in turn, demands greater computation resources for image classification. Thus, it is desirable to apply dimensionality reduction (DR) methods for image classification. It is necessary to apply DR methods to relieve the computational burden as well as to improve the classification accuracy. However, traditional DR methods are not compatible with modern feature extraction methods. A framework that combines manifold learning based DR and feature extraction in a deeper way for image classification is proposed. A multiscale cell representation is extracted from the spatial pyramid to satisfy the locality constraints for a manifold learning method. A spectral weighted mean filtering is proposed to eliminate noise in the feature space. A hierarchical discriminant manifold learning is proposed which incorporates both category label and image scale information to guide the DR process. Finally, the image representation is generated by concatenating dimensionality reduced cell representations from the same image. Extensive experiments are conducted to test the proposed algorithm on both scene and object recognition datasets in comparison with several well-established and state-of-the-art methods with respect to classification precision and computational time. The results verify the effectiveness of incorporating manifold learning in the feature extraction procedure and imply that the multiscale cell representations may be distributed on a manifold.
Manifold Learning for Biomarker Discovery in MR Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolz, Robin; Aljabar, Paul; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel
We propose a framework for the extraction of biomarkers from low-dimensional manifolds representing inter- and intra-subject brain variation in MR image data. The coordinates of each image in such a low-dimensional space captures information about structural shape and appearance and, when a phenotype exists, about the subject's clinical state. A key contribution is that we propose a method for incorporating longitudinal image information in the learned manifold. In particular, we compare simultaneously embedding baseline and follow-up scans into a single manifold with the combination of separate manifold representations for inter-subject and intra-subject variation. We apply the proposed methods to 362 subjects enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and classify healthy controls, subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Learning manifolds based on both the appearance and temporal change of the hippocampus, leads to correct classification rates comparable with those provided by state-of-the-art automatic segmentation estimates of hippocampal volume and atrophy. The biomarkers identified with the proposed method are data-driven and represent a potential alternative to a-priori defined biomarkers derived from manual or automated segmentations.
Light transport on path-space manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakob, Wenzel Alban
-stepping limitations of the theory, they often suffer from unusably slow convergence; improvements to this situation have been hampered by the lack of a thorough theoretical understanding. We address these problems by developing a new theory of path-space light transport which, for the first time, cleanly incorporates specular scattering into the standard framework. Most of the results obtained in the analysis of the ideally smooth case can also be generalized to rendering of glossy materials and volumetric scattering so that this dissertation also provides a powerful new set of tools for dealing with them. The basis of our approach is that each specular material interaction locally collapses the dimension of the space of light paths so that all relevant paths lie on a submanifold of path space. We analyze the high-dimensional differential geometry of this submanifold and use the resulting information to construct an algorithm that is able to "walk" around on it using a simple and efficient equation-solving iteration. This manifold walking algorithm then constitutes the key operation of a new type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) rendering method that computes lighting through very general families of paths that can involve arbitrary combinations of specular, near-specular, glossy, and diffuse surface interactions as well as isotropic or highly anisotropic volume scattering. We demonstrate our implementation on a range of challenging scenes and evaluate it against previous methods.
Locating an atmospheric contamination source using slow manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Wenbo; Haller, George; Baik, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Young-Hee
2009-04-01
Finite-size particle motion in fluids obeys the Maxey-Riley equations, which become singular in the limit of infinitesimally small particle size. Because of this singularity, finding the source of a dispersed set of small particles is a numerically ill-posed problem that leads to exponential blowup. Here we use recent results on the existence of a slow manifold in the Maxey-Riley equations to overcome this difficulty in source inversion. Specifically, we locate the source of particles by projecting their dispersed positions on a time-varying slow manifold, and by advecting them on the manifold in backward time. We use this technique to locate the source of a hypothetical anthrax release in an unsteady three-dimensional atmospheric wind field in an urban street canyon.
On conformally recurrent manifolds of dimension greater than 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Molinari, Luca Guido
2016-03-01
Conformally recurrent pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of dimension n ≥ 5 are investigated. The Weyl tensor is represented as a Kulkarni-Nomizu product. If the square of the Weyl tensor is non-zero, a covariantly constant symmetric tensor is constructed, that is quadratic in the Weyl tensor. Then, by Grycak’s theorem, the explicit expression of the traceless part of the Ricci tensor is obtained, up to a scalar function. The Ricci tensor has at most two distinct eigenvalues, and the recurrence vector is an eigenvector. Lorentzian conformally recurrent manifolds are then considered. If the square of the Weyl tensor is non-zero, the manifold is decomposable. A null recurrence vector makes the Weyl tensor of algebraic type IId or higher in the Bel-Debever-Ortaggio classification, while a time-like recurrence vector makes the Weyl tensor purely electric.
Manifold learning techniques for the analysis of hyperspectral ocean data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillis, David; Bowles, Jeffrey; Lamela, Gia M.; Rhea, William J.; Bachmann, Charles M.; Montes, Marcos; Ainsworth, Tom
2005-06-01
A useful technique in hyperspectral data analysis is dimensionality reduction, which replaces the original high dimensional data with low dimensional representations. Usually this is done with linear techniques such as linear mixing or principal components (PCA). While often useful, there is no a priori reason for believing that the data is actually linear. Lately there has been renewed interest in modeling high dimensional data using nonlinear techniques such as manifold learning (ML). In ML, the data is assumed to lie on a low dimensional, possibly curved surface (or manifold). The goal is to discover this manifold and therefore find the best low dimensional representation of the data. Recently, researchers at the Naval Research Lab have begun to model hyperspectral data using ML. We continue this work by applying ML techniques to hyperspectral ocean water data. We focus on water since there are underlying physical reasons for believing that the data lies on a certain type of nonlinear manifold. In particular, ocean data is influenced by three factors: the water parameters, the bottom type, and the depth. For fixed water and bottom types, the spectra that arise by varying the depth will lie on a nonlinear, one dimensional manifold (i.e. a curve). Generally, water scenes will contain a number of different water and bottom types, each combination of which leads to a distinct curve. In this way, the scene may be modeled as a union of one dimensional curves. In this paper, we investigate the use of manifold learning techniques to separate the various curves, thus partitioning the scene into homogeneous areas. We also discuss ways in which these techniques may be able to derive various scene characteristics such as bathymetry.
On pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with many Killing spinors
Alekseevsky, D. V.; Cortes, V.
2009-02-02
Let M be a pseudo-Riemannian spin manifold of dimension n and signature s and denote by N the rank of the real spinor bundle. We prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits more than (3/4)N independent Killing spinors with the same Killing number, unless n {identical_to} 1(mod 4) and s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). We also prove that M is locally homogeneous if it admits k{sub +} independent Killing spinors with Killing number {lambda} and k{sub -} independent Killing spinors with Killing number -{lambda} such that k{sub +}+k{sub -}>(3/2)N, unless n {identical_to} s {identical_to} 3(mod 4). Similarly, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold with more than (3/4)N independent conformal Killing spinors is conformally locally homogeneous. For (positive or negative) definite metrics, the bounds (3/4)N and (3/2)N in the above results can be relaxed to (1/2)N and N, respectively. Furthermore, we prove that a pseudo-Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/4)N parallel spinors is flat and that (1/4)N parallel spinors suffice if the metric is definite. Similarly, a Riemannnian spin manifold with more than (3/8)N Killing spinors with the Killing number {lambda}(set-membership sign)R has constant curvature 4{lambda}{sup 2}. For Lorentzian or negative definite metrics the same is true with the bound (1/2)N. Finally, we give a classification of (not necessarily complete) Riemannian manifolds admitting Killing spinors, which provides an inductive construction of such manifolds.
Rotation vectors for homeomorphisms of non-positively curved manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lessa, Pablo
2011-11-01
Rotation vectors, as defined for homeomorphisms of the torus that are isotopic to the identity, are generalized to such homeomorphisms of any complete Riemannian manifold with non-positive sectional curvature. These generalized rotation vectors are shown to exist for almost every orbit of such a dynamical system with respect to any invariant measure with compact support. The concept is then extended to flows and, as an application, it is shown how non-null rotation vectors can be used to construct a measurable semi-conjugacy between a given flow and the geodesic flow of a manifold.
Geometry and physics of pseudodifferential operators on manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Giampiero; Napolitano, George M.
2016-09-01
A review is made of the basic tools used in mathematics to define a calculus for pseudodifferential operators on Riemannian manifolds endowed with a connection: existence theorem for the function that generalizes the phase; analogue of Taylor's theorem; torsion and curvature terms in the symbolic calculus; the two kinds of derivative acting on smooth sections of the cotangent bundle of the Riemannian manifold; the concept of symbol as an equivalence class. Physical motivations and applications are then outlined, with emphasis on Green functions of quantum field theory and Parker's evaluation of Hawking radiation.
Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A.; Ray, Shannon
2015-09-01
The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector.
Clogging of Manifolds with Evaporatively Frozen Propellants. Part 2; Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simmon, J. A.; Gift, R. D.; Spurlock, J. M.
1966-01-01
The mechanisms of evaporative freezing of leaking propellant and the creation of flow stoppages within injector manifolds is discussed. A quantitative analysis of the conditions, including the existence of minimum and maximum leak rates, for the accumulation of evaporatively frozen propellant is presented. Clogging of the injector manifolds of the Apollo SPS and the Gemini OAMS engines by the freezing of leaking propellant is predicted and the seriousness of the consequences are discussed. Based on the analysis a realistic evaluation of selected techniques to eliminate flow stoppages by frozen propellant is made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspiras, Theus H.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Sakla, Wesam
2015-03-01
The human brain has the capability to process high quantities of data quickly for detection and recognition tasks. These tasks are made simpler by the understanding of data, which intentionally removes redundancies found in higher dimensional data and maps the data onto a lower dimensional space. The brain then encodes manifolds created in these spaces, which reveal a specific state of the system. We propose to use a recurrent neural network, the nonlinear line attractor (NLA) network, for the encoding of these manifolds as specific states, which will draw untrained data towards one of the specific states that the NLA network has encoded. We propose a Gaussian-weighted modular architecture for reducing the computational complexity of the conventional NLA network. The proposed architecture uses a neighborhood approach for establishing the interconnectivity of neurons to obtain the manifolds. The modified NLA network has been implemented and tested on the Electro-Optic Synthetic Vehicle Model Database created by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), which contains a vast array of high resolution imagery with several different lighting conditions and camera views. It is observed that the NLA network has the capability for representing high dimensional data for the recognition of the objects of interest through its new learning strategy. A nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme based on singular value decomposition has found to be very effective in providing a low dimensional representation of the dataset. Application of the reduced dimensional space on the modified NLA algorithm would provide fast and more accurate recognition performance for real time applications.
Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach
Marshall, Julian D.
2002-05-01
Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.
Numerical analysis of flow in the hot gas manifold of the Space Shuttle main engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Singhal, A. K.; Przekwas, A. J.; Glynn, D. R.; Costes, N. C.
1986-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model and results of analyses carried out to characterize the flow through the two duct configuration of the Hot Gas Manifold of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Three dimensional computations have been performed for a half-scale air test model using a nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate system. The calculation domain is extended from the inlet of the turnaround duct to the exit of the transfer duct. Three test cases, one for laminar flow and two for turbulent flow, have been considered. For turbulent flows, constant eddy viscosity and the k-epsilon model of turbulence were employed. As expected, laminar flow calculation predicts much larger pressure drop than turbulent flow cases. The turbulent flow results are in good agreement with the available flow-visualization data. This study and experimental data indicate that the two-transfer duct design will significantly improve the flow distribution in the Hot Gas Manifold and thereby enhance the overall performance of the SSME.
92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING ...
92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING THE SEVEN (7) DISCHARGE LINES FROM THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC PUMPS THROUGH SHUT-OFF VALVES TO ACCUMULATOR TANKS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA
Infinitesimal generators and the Loewner equation on complete hyperbolic manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arosio, Leandro; Bracci, Filippo
2011-12-01
We characterize infinitesimal generators on complete hyperbolic complex manifolds without any regularity assumption on the Kobayashi distance. This allows to prove a general Loewner type equation with regularity of any order {d in [1, +infty]} . Finally, based on these results, we focus on some open problems naturally arising.
Comparative analysis of two asymptotic approaches based on integral manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldfarb, Igor; Gol'Dshtein, Vladimir; Maas, Ulrich
2004-08-01
A comparative analysis of the two powerful asymptotic methods, ILDM and MIM (intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds; method of invariant manifold), is presented in the paper. The two methods are based on the general theory of integral manifolds. The ILDM method is able to handle large systems of ODEs, whereas the MIM method treats systems with a limited number of unknown variables. The MIM method allows one to conduct analytical exploration of the original system and to obtain final expressions in compact form, whereas the ILDM method is a numerical approach that yields the numerical form of the desired surface. The ILDM method works well in a region where a rough splitting of the initial system exists. Regions of the phase space where splitting does not exist are problematic for the ILDM method. In these regions the MIM method provides additional information regarding the dynamical behaviour of the system. A number of simple examples are considered and analysed. It is shown that for the Semenov model (singularly perturbed system of ODEs) the ILDM method gives a surface which appears close to the first order (with respect to the corresponding small parameter) approximation of the stable (attracting) invariant manifolds. The complementary properties of the two asymptotic approaches suggests a feasible combination of the two methods, which is the subject of a future work.
Special geometries associated to quaternion-Kähler 8-manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambioli, A.; Nagatomo, Y.; Salamon, S.
2015-05-01
We develop a calculus of differential forms on a quaternion-Kähler manifold M4n admitting an isometric circle action. This is used to study three fundamental examples of such actions on the quaternionic projective plane and the construction of G2 and half-flat structures on quotients of M8 and its hypersurfaces.
Multiscale envelope manifold for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang
2015-02-01
The wavelet transform has been widely used in the field of machinery fault diagnosis for its good property of band-pass filtering. However, the filtered signal still faces the contamination of in-band noise. This paper focuses on wavelet enveloping, and proposes a new method, called multiscale envelope manifold (MEM), to extract the envelope information of fault impacts with in-band noise suppression. The MEM addresses manifold learning on the wavelet envelopes at multiple scales. Specifically, the proposed method is conducted by three following steps. First, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with complex Morlet wavelet base is introduced to obtain the wavelet envelopes at all scales. Second, the wavelet envelopes are restricted in one or more narrow scale bands to simply include the envelope information of fault impacts. The scale band is determined through a smoothness index-based (SI-based) selection method by considering the impulsiveness inside the power spectrum. Third, the manifold learning algorithm is conducted on the wavelet envelopes at selected scales to extract the intrinsic envelope manifold of fault-related impulses. The MEM combines the envelope information at multiple scales in a nonlinear approach, and may thus preserve the factual envelope structure of machinery fault. Simulation studies and experimental verifications confirm that the new method is effective for enhanced fault diagnosis of rotating machines.
Analytical and numerical manifolds in a symplectic 4-D map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delis, N.; Contopoulos, G.
2016-05-01
We study analytically the orbits along the asymptotic manifolds from a complex unstable periodic orbit in a symplectic 4-D Froeschlé map. The orbits are given as convergent series. We compare the analytic results by truncating the series at various orders with the corresponding numerical results and we find agreement along a more extended length, as the order of truncation increases. The agreement is improved when the parameters approach those of the stability domain. Along the manifolds no terms with small divisors appear in the series. The same result is found if we use a parametrization method along the asymptotic curves. In the case of orbits starting close to the manifolds small divisors appear, but the orbits remain close to the manifolds for an extended period of time. If the parameters of the map are close to the stable domain the orbits recede and approach the origin several times and remain confined in a certain volume around the origin for a long time before escaping to large distances. For special sets of parameters we see resonance phenomena and the orbits take particular forms near every resonance.
Manifold learning for object tracking with multiple nonlinear models.
Nascimento, Jacinto C; Silva, Jorge G; Marques, Jorge S; Lemos, Joao M
2014-04-01
This paper presents a novel manifold learning algorithm for high-dimensional data sets. The scope of the application focuses on the problem of motion tracking in video sequences. The framework presented is twofold. First, it is assumed that the samples are time ordered, providing valuable information that is not presented in the current methodologies. Second, the manifold topology comprises multiple charts, which contrasts to the most current methods that assume one single chart, being overly restrictive. The proposed algorithm, Gaussian process multiple local models (GP-MLM), can deal with arbitrary manifold topology by decomposing the manifold into multiple local models that are probabilistic combined using Gaussian process regression. In addition, the paper presents a multiple filter architecture where standard filtering techniques are integrated within the GP-MLM. The proposed approach exhibits comparable performance of state-of-the-art trackers, namely multiple model data association and deep belief networks, and compares favorably with Gaussian process latent variable models. Extensive experiments are presented using real video data, including a publicly available database of lip sequences and left ventricle ultrasound images, in which the GP-MLM achieves state of the art results. PMID:24577194
Analysis of twisted supercharge families on product manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harju, Antti J.
2015-04-01
Twisted supercharge families on product manifolds 𝕋 × M have been applied in the analysis of the odd twisted K-theory. We shall suspend these families to the even twisted K-theory and solve their twisted families index problem. This is applied to give analytic representatives of the twisted K-theory classes on tori—including all the torsion classes.
A new construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds: Generalized CICYs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Lara B.; Apruzzi, Fabio; Gao, Xin; Gray, James; Lee, Seung-Joo
2016-05-01
We present a generalization of the complete intersection in products of projective space (CICY) construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds. CICY three-folds and four-folds have been studied extensively in the physics literature. Their utility stems from the fact that they can be simply described in terms of a 'configuration matrix', a matrix of integers from which many of the details of the geometries can be easily extracted. The generalization we present is to allow negative integers in the configuration matrices which were previously taken to have positive semi-definite entries. This broadening of the complete intersection construction leads to a larger class of Calabi-Yau manifolds than that considered in previous work, which nevertheless enjoys much of the same degree of calculational control. These new Calabi-Yau manifolds are complete intersections in (not necessarily Fano) ambient spaces with an effective anticanonical class. We find examples with topology distinct from any that has appeared in the literature to date. The new manifolds thus obtained have many interesting features. For example, they can have smaller Hodge numbers than ordinary CICYs and lead to many examples with elliptic and K3-fibration structures relevant to F-theory and string dualities.
Bounding the heat trace of a Calabi-Yau manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Walcher, Johannes
2015-09-01
The SCHOK bound states that the number of marginal deformations of certain two-dimensional conformal field theories is bounded linearly from above by the number of relevant operators. In conformal field theories defined via sigma models into Calabi-Yau manifolds, relevant operators can be estimated, in the point-particle approximation, by the low-lying spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the manifold. In the strict large volume limit, the standard asymptotic expansion of Weyl and Minakshisundaram-Pleijel diverges with the higher-order curvature invariants. We propose that it would be sufficient to find an a priori uniform bound on the trace of the heat kernel for large but finite volume. As a first step in this direction, we then study the heat trace asymptotics, as well as the actual spectrum of the scalar Laplacian, in the vicinity of a conifold singularity. The eigenfunctions can be written in terms of confluent Heun functions, the analysis of which gives evidence that regions of large curvature will not prevent the existence of a bound of this type. This is also in line with general mathematical expectations about spectral continuity for manifolds with conical singularities. A sharper version of our results could, in combination with the SCHOK bound, provide a basis for a global restriction on the dimension of the moduli space of Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Conceptual development of the Laser Beam Manifold (LBM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, W.; Owen, R. B.
1979-01-01
The laser beam manifold, a device for transforming a single, narrow, collimated beam of light into several beams of desired intensity ratios is described. The device consists of a single optical substrate with a metallic coating on both optical surfaces. By changing the entry point, the number of outgoing beams can be varied.
Nonparametric Bayes Classification and Hypothesis Testing on Manifolds
Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Dunson, David
2012-01-01
Our first focus is prediction of a categorical response variable using features that lie on a general manifold. For example, the manifold may correspond to the surface of a hypersphere. We propose a general kernel mixture model for the joint distribution of the response and predictors, with the kernel expressed in product form and dependence induced through the unknown mixing measure. We provide simple sufficient conditions for large support and weak and strong posterior consistency in estimating both the joint distribution of the response and predictors and the conditional distribution of the response. Focusing on a Dirichlet process prior for the mixing measure, these conditions hold using von Mises-Fisher kernels when the manifold is the unit hypersphere. In this case, Bayesian methods are developed for efficient posterior computation using slice sampling. Next we develop Bayesian nonparametric methods for testing whether there is a difference in distributions between groups of observations on the manifold having unknown densities. We prove consistency of the Bayes factor and develop efficient computational methods for its calculation. The proposed classification and testing methods are evaluated using simulation examples and applied to spherical data applications. PMID:22754028
Experimental investigation of a manifold heat-pipe heat exchanger
Konev, S.V.; Wang Tszin` Lyan`; D`yakov, I.I.
1995-12-01
Results of experimental investigations of a heat exchanger on a manifold water heat pipe are given. An analysis is made of the temperature distribution along the heat-transfer agent path as a function of the transferred heat power. The influence of the degree of filling with the heat transfer agent on the operating characteristics of the construction is considered.
Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard
2014-03-01
In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked.
Norman, J.
1981-12-15
The invention concerns a device for controlling the vehicles fuel-air mixture by regulating the air in the ventilation passage leading to the engine air intake from the crankcase. In a vehicle provided with a PCV valve, the device is located in the ventilation passage leading from the crankcase to the engine air intake and the device is downstream of the PCV valve. The device admits outside air to the ventilation passage to lean the gas mixture when the engine creates a vacuum less than 8 psi in the ventilation passage.
30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250... Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a) Your BOP system must include a choke manifold that is suitable for...
30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250... Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a) Your BOP system must include a choke manifold that is suitable for the anticipated surface...
30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250... Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a) Your BOP system must include a choke manifold that is suitable for the anticipated...
30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250... Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a) Your BOP system must include a choke manifold that is suitable for the anticipated...
30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250... Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a) Your BOP system must include a choke manifold that is suitable for the anticipated...
33 CFR 149.110 - What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? 149.110 Section 149.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.110 What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? Each pipeline end manifold must have a shutoff valve capable of operating both...
33 CFR 149.110 - What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? 149.110 Section 149.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.110 What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? Each pipeline end manifold must have a shutoff valve capable of operating both...
33 CFR 149.110 - What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? 149.110 Section 149.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.110 What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? Each pipeline end manifold must have a shutoff valve capable of operating both...
33 CFR 149.110 - What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? 149.110 Section 149.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.110 What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? Each pipeline end manifold must have a shutoff valve capable of operating both...
33 CFR 149.110 - What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? 149.110 Section 149.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.110 What are the requirements for pipeline end manifold shutoff valves? Each pipeline end manifold must have a shutoff valve capable of operating both...
Prediction of pressure fluctuation in sounding rockets and manifolded recovery systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laudadio, J. F.
1972-01-01
The determination of altitude by means of barometric sensors in sounding rocket applications is discussed. A method for predicting the performance of such sensing systems is needed. A method is developed for predicting the pressure-time response of a volume subjected to subsonic air flow through from one to four passages. The pressure calculation is based on one-dimensional gas flow with friction. A computed program has been developed which solves the differential equations using a self-starting predictor-corrector integration technique. The input data required are the pressure sensing system dimensions, pressure forcing function(s) at the inlet port(s), and a trajectory over the time of analysis (altitude-velocity-time), if the forcing function is trajectory dependent. The program then computes the pressure-temperature history of the gas in the manifold over the time interval specified.
The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...
Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary.
Wu, Yue Ivan; Lau, Siu-Kit; Wong, Kainam Thomas
2016-06-01
The acoustic vector-sensor (a.k.a. the vector hydrophone) is a practical and versatile sound-measurement device, with applications in-room, open-air, or underwater. It consists of three identical uni-axial velocity-sensors in orthogonal orientations, plus a pressure-sensor-all in spatial collocation. Its far-field array manifold [Nehorai and Paldi (1994). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 2481-2491; Hawkes and Nehorai (2000). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 2981-2993] has been introduced into the technical field of signal processing about 2 decades ago, and many direction-finding algorithms have since been developed for this acoustic vector-sensor. The above array manifold is subsequently generalized for outside the far field in Wu, Wong, and Lau [(2010). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 3946-3951], but only if no reflection-boundary is to lie near the acoustic vector-sensor. As for the near-boundary array manifold for the general case of an emitter in the geometric near field, the far field, or anywhere in between-this paper derives and presents that array manifold in terms of signal-processing mathematics. Also derived here is the corresponding Cramér-Rao bound for azimuth-elevation-distance localization of an incident emitter, with the reflected wave shown to play a critical role on account of its constructive or destructive summation with the line-of-sight wave. The implications on source localization are explored, especially with respect to measurement model mismatch in maximum-likelihood direction finding and with regard to the spatial resolution between coexisting emitters. PMID:27369140
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
2014-01-01
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
2014-01-01
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food
Environmental continuous air monitor inlet with combined preseparator and virtual impactor
Rodgers, John C.
2007-06-19
An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls. A plurality of receiver nozzles are located in the base of the manifold coaxial with the accelerator jets, and a plurality of matching flow restrictor elements are located in the plurality of receiver nozzles for balancing and equalizing the total minor flow among all the plurality of receiver nozzles, through which a lower, fractional flow extracts large particle constituents of the air for collection on a sample filter after passing through the plurality of receiver nozzles and the plurality of matching flow restrictor elements.
A Brownian dynamics algorithm for colloids in curved manifolds.
Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Villada-Balbuena, Alejandro; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Estrada-Jiménez, Sendic
2014-06-01
The many-particle Langevin equation, written in local coordinates, is used to derive a Brownian dynamics simulation algorithm to study the dynamics of colloids moving on curved manifolds. The predictions of the resulting algorithm for the particular case of free particles diffusing along a circle and on a sphere are tested against analytical results, as well as with simulation data obtained by means of the standard Brownian dynamics algorithm developed by Ermak and McCammon [J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1352 (1978)] using explicitly a confining external field. The latter method allows constraining the particles to move in regions very tightly, emulating the diffusion on the manifold. Additionally, the proposed algorithm is applied to strong correlated systems, namely, paramagnetic colloids along a circle and soft colloids on a sphere, to illustrate its applicability to systems made up of interacting particles. PMID:24907998
Understanding 3D human torso shape via manifold clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Sheng; Li, Peng; Fu, Yun
2013-05-01
Discovering the variations in human torso shape plays a key role in many design-oriented applications, such as suit designing. With recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies, people can obtain 3D human torso data that provide more information than traditional measurements. However, how to find different human shapes from 3D torso data is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose to use spectral clustering approach on torso manifold to address this problem. We first represent high-dimensional torso data in a low-dimensional space using manifold learning algorithm. Then the spectral clustering method is performed to get several disjoint clusters. Experimental results show that the clusters discovered by our approach can describe the discrepancies in both genders and human shapes, and our approach achieves better performance than the compared clustering method.
Hausdorff dimension of a particle path in a quantum manifold
Nicolini, Piero; Niedner, Benjamin
2011-01-15
After recalling the concept of the Hausdorff dimension, we study the fractal properties of a quantum particle path. As a novelty we consider the possibility for the space where the particle propagates to be endowed with a quantum-gravity-induced minimal length. We show that the Hausdorff dimension accounts for both the quantum mechanics uncertainty and manifold fluctuations. In addition the presence of a minimal length breaks the self-similarity property of the erratic path of the quantum particle. Finally we establish a universal property of the Hausdorff dimension as well as the spectral dimension: They both depend on the amount of resolution loss which affects both the path and the manifold when quantum gravity fluctuations occur.
Numerical integration of ordinary differential equations on manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouch, P. E.; Grossman, R.
1993-12-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of developing numerical integration algorithms for differential equations that, when viewed as equations in some Euclidean space, naturally evolve on some embedded submanifold. It is desired to construct algorithms whose iterates also evolve on the same manifold. These algorithms can therefore be viewed as integrating ordinary differential equations on manifolds. The basic method “decouples” the computation of flows on the submanifold from the numerical integration process. It is shown that two classes of single-step and multistep algorithms can be posed and analyzed theoretically, using the concept of “freezing” the coefficients of differential operators obtained from the defining vector field. Explicit third-order algorithms are derived, with additional equations augmenting those of their classical counterparts, obtained from “obstructions” defined by nonvanishing Lie brackets.
Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases
Schnacke, Arthur W.
1985-01-01
A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.
Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases
Schnacke, A.W.
1983-10-12
A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.
Cost-effective and detailed modelling of compressor manifold vibrations
Eijk, A.; Egas, G.; Smeulers, J.P.M.
1996-12-01
In systems with large reciprocating compressors, so-called compressor manifold vibrations can contribute to fatigue failure of the pipe system. These vibrations are excited by pulsation-induced forces and by forces generated by the compressor. This paper describes an advanced and accurate method for predicting vibration levels and cyclic stresses in critical parts of the piping, based on detailed modelling of the pulsations and compressor parts. Although detailed finite element modelling is applied, the method can compete in ease of use with analytical methods and is far more accurate. The effectiveness of this approach will be demonstrated by a case study in which a detailed compressor manifold vibration analysis has been carried out. The compressor is used for underground storage of natural gas.
Pressure and flow distribution in internal gas manifolds of a fuel-cell stack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Joon-Ho; Seo, Hai-Kyung; Lee, Choong Gon; Yoo, Young-Sung; Lim, Hee Chun
Gas-flow dynamics in internal gas manifolds of a fuel-cell stack are analyzed to investigate overall pressure variation and flow distribution. Different gas-flow patterns are considered in this analysis. Gas-flow through gas channels of each cell is modeled by means of Darcy's law where permeability should be determined on an experimental basis. Gas-flow in manifolds is modeled from the macroscopic mechanical energy balance with pressure-loss by wall friction and geometrical effects. A systematic algorithm to solve the proposed flow model is suggested to calculate pressure and flow distribution in fuel-cell stacks. Calculation is done for a 100-cell molten carbonate fuel-cell stack with internal manifolds. The results show that the pressure-loss by wall friction is negligible compared with the pressure recovery in inlet manifolds or loss in outlet manifolds due to mass dividing or combining flow at manifold-cell junctions. A more significant effect on manifold pressure possibly arises from the geometrical manifold structure which depends on the manifold size and shape. The geometrical effect is approximated from pressure-loss coefficients of several types of fittings and valves. The overall pressure and flow distribution is significantly affected by the value of the geometrical pressure-loss coefficient. It is also found that the flow in manifolds is mostly turbulent in the 100-cell stack and this way result in an uneven flow distribution when the stack manifold is incorrectly, designed.
T-duality and exceptional generalized geometry through symmetries of dg-manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupercio, Ernesto; Rengifo, Camilo; Uribe, Bernardo
2014-09-01
We study dg-manifolds which are R[2]-bundles over R[1]-bundles over manifolds, we calculate its symmetries, its derived symmetries and we introduce the concept of T-dual dg-manifolds. Within this framework, we construct the T-duality map as a degree -1 map between the cohomologies of the T-dual dg-manifolds and we show an explicit isomorphism between the differential graded algebra of the symmetries of the T-dual dg-manifolds. We, furthermore, show how the algebraic structure underlying Bn generalized geometry could be recovered as derived dg-Leibniz algebra of the fixed points of the T-dual automorphism acting on the symmetries of a self T-dual dg-manifold, and we show how other types of algebraic structures underlying exceptional generalized geometry could be obtained as derived symmetries of certain dg-manifolds.
Compact surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature in Randers manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ningwei
2016-08-01
The flag curvature of a Finsler surface is called the Gaussian curvature in Finsler geometry. In this paper, we characterize the surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature (CGC) in the Randers 3-manifold. Then we give a classification of the orientable closed CGC surfaces in two Randers space forms, which are the non-Euclidean Minkowski-Randers 3-space (K = 0) and the Bao-Shen sphere (K = 1).
DeepStar evaluation of subsea trees and manifold concepts
Kirkland, K.G.; Richardson, E.M.; Hey, C.
1996-12-31
This paper reviews the results of a study performed for the DeepStar Project, CTR A802-2, Concept Study and Investigation of Key Areas of Interest for Subsea Systems in Deepwater. The report documents the results of a study of subsea manifold systems as applied to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Of particular interest is the development of a range of system level philosophies based on recent and ongoing experience from the operators and vendors.
Curved manifolds with conserved Runge-Lenz vectors
Ngome, J.-P.
2009-12-15
van Holten's algorithm is used to construct Runge-Lenz-type conserved quantities, induced by Killing tensors, on curved manifolds. For the generalized Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino metric, the most general external potential such that the combined system admits a conserved Runge-Lenz-type vector is found. In the multicenter case, the subclass of two-center metric exhibits a conserved Runge-Lenz-type scalar.
Energy minimization on manifolds for docking flexible molecules
Mirzaei, Hanieh; Zarbafian, Shahrooz; Villar, Elizabeth; Mottarella, Scott; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima
2015-01-01
In this paper we extend a recently introduced rigid body minimization algorithm, defined on manifolds, to the problem of minimizing the energy of interacting flexible molecules. The goal is to integrate moving the ligand in six dimensional rotational/translational space with internal rotations around rotatable bonds within the two molecules. We show that adding rotational degrees of freedom to the rigid moves of the ligand results in an overall optimization search space that is a manifold to which our manifold optimization approach can be extended. The effectiveness of the method is shown for three different docking problems of increasing complexity. First we minimize the energy of fragment-size ligands with a single rotatable bond as part of a protein mapping method developed for the identification of binding hot spots. Second, we consider energy minimization for docking a flexible ligand to a rigid protein receptor, an approach frequently used in existing methods. In the third problem we account for flexibility in both the ligand and the receptor. Results show that minimization using the manifold optimization algorithm is substantially more efficient than minimization using a traditional all-atom optimization algorithm while producing solutions of comparable quality. In addition to the specific problems considered, the method is general enough to be used in a large class of applications such as docking multidomain proteins with flexible hinges. The code is available under open source license (at http://cluspro.bu.edu/Code/Code_Rigtree.tar), and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package. PMID:26478722
Logarithmic Sobolev Inequalities on Path Spaces Over Riemannian Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Elton P.
Let Wo(M) be the space of paths of unit time length on a connected, complete Riemannian manifold M such that γ(0) =o, a fixed point on M, and ν the Wiener measure on Wo(M) (the law of Brownian motion on M starting at o).If the Ricci curvature is bounded by c, then the following logarithmic Sobolev inequality holds:
Burning invariant manifolds in spatially disordered advection-reaction-diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bargteil, Dylan; Solomon, Tom; Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin
2012-02-01
We introduce burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) which act as barriers to front propagation, similar to the role played by invariant manifolds as barriers to passive transport in two-dimensional flows. We present experimental studies of BIMs in a spatially disordered, time-independent flow. We generate the flow with a magnetohydrodynamic technique that uses a DC current and a disordered pattern of permanent magnets. The velocity field is determined from this flow using particle tracking velocimetry, and reaction fronts are produced using the Ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction. We use the experimental velocity field and a three-dimensional set of ODEs to predict from theory the location and orientation of BIMs. These predicted BIMs are found to match up well with the propagation barriers observed experimentally in the same flow using the BZ reaction. We explore the nature of BIMs as one-sided barriers, in contrast to invariant manifolds that act as barriers for passive transport in all directions. We also explore the role of projection singularities in the theory and how these singularities affect front behavior.
Localization using omnivision-based manifold particle filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Adelia; Yousefhussien, Mohammed; Ptucha, Raymond
2015-01-01
Developing precise and low-cost spatial localization algorithms is an essential component for autonomous navigation systems. Data collection must be of sufficient detail to distinguish unique locations, yet coarse enough to enable real-time processing. Active proximity sensors such as sonar and rangefinders have been used for interior localization, but sonar sensors are generally coarse and rangefinders are generally expensive. Passive sensors such as video cameras are low cost and feature-rich, but suffer from high dimensions and excessive bandwidth. This paper presents a novel approach to indoor localization using a low cost video camera and spherical mirror. Omnidirectional captured images undergo normalization and unwarping to a canonical representation more suitable for processing. Training images along with indoor maps are fed into a semi-supervised linear extension of graph embedding manifold learning algorithm to learn a low dimensional surface which represents the interior of a building. The manifold surface descriptor is used as a semantic signature for particle filter localization. Test frames are conditioned, mapped to a low dimensional surface, and then localized via an adaptive particle filter algorithm. These particles are temporally filtered for the final localization estimate. The proposed method, termed omnivision-based manifold particle filters, reduces convergence lag and increases overall efficiency.
Self-Aligning Manifolds for Matching Disparate Medical Image Datasets.
Baumgartner, Christian F; Gomez, Alberto; Koch, Lisa M; Housden, James R; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andy P
2015-01-01
Manifold alignment can be used to reduce the dimensionality of multiple medical image datasets into a single globally consistent low-dimensional space. This may be desirable in a wide variety of problems, from fusion of different imaging modalities for Alzheimer's disease classification to 4DMR reconstruction from 2D MR slices. Unfortunately, most existing manifold alignment techniques require either a set of prior correspondences or comparability between the datasets in high-dimensional space, which is often not possible. We propose a novel technique for the 'self-alignment' of manifolds (SAM) from multiple dissimilar imaging datasets without prior correspondences or inter-dataset image comparisons. We quantitatively evaluate the method on 4DMR reconstruction from realistic, synthetic sagittal 2D MR slices from 6 volunteers and real data from 4 volunteers. Additionally, we demonstrate the technique for the compounding of two free breathing 3D ultrasound views from one volunteer. The proposed method performs significantly better for 4DMR reconstruction than state-of-the-art image-based techniques. PMID:26221687
Manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization with label information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huirong; Zhang, Jiangshe; Wang, Changpeng; Liu, Junmin
2016-03-01
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a popular technique for finding parts-based, linear representations of non-negative data has been successfully applied in a wide range of applications, such as feature learning, dictionary learning, and dimensionality reduction. However, both the local manifold regularization of data and the discriminative information of the available label have not been taken into account together in NMF. We propose a new semisupervised matrix decomposition method, called manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MRNMF) with label information, which incorporates the manifold regularization and the label information into the NMF to improve the performance of NMF in clustering tasks. We encode the local geometrical structure of the data space by constructing a nearest neighbor graph and enhance the discriminative ability of different classes by effectively using the label information. Experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on theCOIL20, PIE, Extended Yale B, and MNIST databases demonstrate the effectiveness of MRNMF.
Canonical Correlation Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds and Its Applications.
Kim, Hyunwoo J; Adluru, Nagesh; Bendlin, Barbara B; Johnson, Sterling C; Vemuri, Baba C; Singh, Vikas
2014-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a widely used statistical technique to capture correlations between two sets of multi-variate random variables and has found a multitude of applications in computer vision, medical imaging and machine learning. The classical formulation assumes that the data live in a pair of vector spaces which makes its use in certain important scientific domains problematic. For instance, the set of symmetric positive definite matrices (SPD), rotations and probability distributions, all belong to certain curved Riemannian manifolds where vector-space operations are in general not applicable. Analyzing the space of such data via the classical versions of inference models is rather sub-optimal. But perhaps more importantly, since the algorithms do not respect the underlying geometry of the data space, it is hard to provide statistical guarantees (if any) on the results. Using the space of SPD matrices as a concrete example, this paper gives a principled generalization of the well known CCA to the Riemannian setting. Our CCA algorithm operates on the product Riemannian manifold representing SPD matrix-valued fields to identify meaningful statistical relationships on the product Riemannian manifold. As a proof of principle, we present results on an Alzheimer's disease (AD) study where the analysis task involves identifying correlations across diffusion tensor images (DTI) and Cauchy deformation tensor fields derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. PMID:25317426
Optimal reconfigurations of two-craft Coulomb formations along manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Drew R.; Schaub, Hanspeter
2013-02-01
Coulomb formations refer to swarms of closely flying spacecraft, in which the net electric charge of each vehicle is controlled. Active charge control is central to this concept and enables a propulsion system with highly desirable characteristics, albeit with limited controllability. Numerous Coulomb formation equilibria have been derived, but to maintain and maneuver these configurations, some inertial thrust is required to supplement the nearly propellant-less charge control. In this work, invariant manifold theory is applied to two-craft Coulomb equilibria, which are admitted in a linearized two-body gravity model. The manifolds associated with these systems are analyzed for the first time, and are then utilized as part of a general procedure for formulating optimal reconfigurations. Specifically, uncontrolled flows along the manifolds are sought which provide near continuous transfers from one equilibrium to another. Control is then introduced to match continuity, while minimizing inertial thrusting. This methodology aims to exploit uncontrolled motions and charge control to realize the shape-changing ability of these formations, without large inertial control efforts. Some variations in formulating and parameterizing the optimal transfers are discussed, and analytical expressions are derived to aid in establishing control parameter limits, under certain assumptions. Numerical results are provided, as demonstrative examples of the optimization procedure, using relatively simple control approximations. Finally, Particle Swarm Optimization, a novel stochastic method, is used with considerable success to solve the numerically difficult parameter optimization problems.
Triangulated manifold meshing method preserving molecular surface topology.
Chen, Minxin; Tu, Bin; Lu, Benzhuo
2012-09-01
Generation of manifold mesh is an urgent issue in mathematical simulations of biomolecule using boundary element methods (BEM) or finite element method (FEM). Defects, such as not closed mesh, intersection of elements and missing of small structures, exist in surface meshes generated by most of the current meshing method. Usually the molecular surface meshes produced by existing methods need to be revised carefully by third party software to ensure the surface represents a continuous manifold before being used in a BEM and FEM calculations. Based on the trace technique proposed in our previous work, in this paper, we present an improved meshing method to avoid intersections and preserve the topology of the molecular Gaussian surface. The new method divides the whole Gaussian surface into single valued pieces along each of x, y, z directions by tracing the extreme points along the fold curves on the surface. Numerical test results show that the surface meshes produced by the new method are manifolds and preserve surface topologies. The result surface mesh can also be directly used in surface conforming volume mesh generation for FEM type simulation. PMID:23117290
Metastatic liver tumour segmentation from discriminant Grassmannian manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadoury, Samuel; Vorontsov, Eugene; Tang, An
2015-08-01
The early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of liver cancer progression can be achieved with the precise delineation of metastatic tumours. However, accurate automated segmentation remains challenging due to the presence of noise, inhomogeneity and the high appearance variability of malignant tissue. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised metastatic liver tumour segmentation framework using a machine learning approach based on discriminant Grassmannian manifolds which learns the appearance of tumours with respect to normal tissue. First, the framework learns within-class and between-class similarity distributions from a training set of images to discover the optimal manifold discrimination between normal and pathological tissue in the liver. Second, a conditional optimisation scheme computes non-local pairwise as well as pattern-based clique potentials from the manifold subspace to recognise regions with similar labelings and to incorporate global consistency in the segmentation process. The proposed framework was validated on a clinical database of 43 CT images from patients with metastatic liver cancer. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our method achieves a better performance on two separate datasets of metastatic liver tumours from different clinical sites, yielding an overall mean Dice similarity coefficient of 90.7+/- 2.4 in over 50 tumours with an average volume of 27.3 mm3.
Schoen manifold with line bundles as resolved magnetized orbifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.
2013-03-01
We give an alternative description of the Schoen manifold as the blow-up of a {{{Z}}_2}× {{{Z}}_2} orbifold in which one {{{Z}}_2} factor acts as a roto-translation. Since for this orbifold the fixed tori are only identified in pairs but not orbifolded, four-dimensional chirality can never be obtained in heterotic string compactifications using standard techniques alone. However, chirality is recovered when its tori become magnetized. To exemplify this, we construct an E8 × E8' heterotic SU(5) GUT on the Schoen manifold with Abelian gauge fluxes, which becomes an MSSM with three generations after an appropriate Wilson line is associated to its freely acting involution. We reproduce this model as a standard heterotic orbifold CFT of the (partially) blown down Schoen manifold with a magnetic flux. Finally, in analogy to a proposal for non-perturbative heterotic models by Aldazabal et al. we suggest modifications to the heterotic orbifold spectrum formulae in the presence of magnetized tori.
Constructing reference metrics on multicube representations of arbitrary manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindblom, Lee; Taylor, Nicholas W.; Rinne, Oliver
2016-05-01
Reference metrics are used to define the differential structure on multicube representations of manifolds, i.e., they provide a simple and practical way to define what it means globally for tensor fields and their derivatives to be continuous. This paper introduces a general procedure for constructing reference metrics automatically on multicube representations of manifolds with arbitrary topologies. The method is tested here by constructing reference metrics for compact, orientable two-dimensional manifolds with genera between zero and five. These metrics are shown to satisfy the Gauss-Bonnet identity numerically to the level of truncation error (which converges toward zero as the numerical resolution is increased). These reference metrics can be made smoother and more uniform by evolving them with Ricci flow. This smoothing procedure is tested on the two-dimensional reference metrics constructed here. These smoothing evolutions (using volume-normalized Ricci flow with DeTurck gauge fixing) are all shown to produce reference metrics with constant scalar curvatures (at the level of numerical truncation error).
Homogeneous, anisotropic three-manifolds of topologically massive gravity
Nutku, Y.; Baekler, P. )
1989-10-01
We present a new class of exact solutions of Deser, Jackiw, and Templeton's theory (DJT) of topologically massive gravity which consists of homogeneous, anisotropic manifolds. In these solutions the coframe is given by the left-invariant 1-forms of 3-dimensional Lie algebras up to constant scale factors. These factors are fixed in terms of the DJT coupling constant {mu}m which is the constant of proportionality between the Einstein and Cotton tensors in 3-dimensions. Differences between the scale factors result in anisotropy which is a common feature of topologically massive 3-manifolds. We have found that only Bianchi Types VI, VIII, and IX lead to nontrivial solutions. Among these, a Bianchi Type IX, squashed 3-sphere solution of the Euclideanized DJT theory has finite action, Bianchi Type VIII, IX solutions can variously be embedded in the de Sitter/anti-de Sitter space. That is, some DJT 3-manifolds that we shall present here can be regarded as the basic constitent of anti-de Sitter space which is the ground state solution in higher dimensional generalizations of Einstein's general relativity. {copyright} 1989 Academic Press, Inc.
Empirical low-dimensional manifolds in composition space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yue; Pope, Stephen B.; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2012-11-01
To reduce the computational cost of turbulent combustion simulations with a detailed chemical mechanism, it is useful to find a low-dimensional manifold in composition space that can approximate the full system dynamics. Most previous low-dimensional manifolds in turbulent combustion are based on the governing conservation equations or thermochemistry and their application involves certain assumptions. On the other hand, empirical low-dimensional manifolds (ELDMs) are constructed based on samples of the compositions observed in experiments or in direct numerical simulation (DNS). Plane and curved ELDMs can be obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate adaptive spline regression (MARS), respectively. Both PCA and MARS are applied to the DNS datasets of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving jet flame (Hawkes et al., 2007) and an ethylene lifted jet flame (Yoo et al., 2011). We observe that it requires very high dimensions to represent the species mass fractions accurately by a plane ELDM, while better accuracy can be achieved by curved ELDMs with lower dimensions. In addition, the effect of differential diffusion on ELDMs is examined in large-eddy simulations with PDF modeling. This work is supported in part by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the DOE.
Intake flow analysis of a pulsed detonation engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strafaccia, Joshua A.
A CFD program is converted and modified to explore unsteady flow within the intake system of a pulse detonation engine (PDE). Using a quasi-one-dimensional approach the program provides insight into the unsteady nature of localized equivalence ratios to include their effects on PDE performance. The original FORTRAN program is converted into the MATLAB architecture, taking full advantage of user availability and post processing convenience. The converted program was validated against the original program and modified to include a primitive intake manifold system with a single fuel injector located approximately 10 feet upstream of the primary intake valve. Constant fuel mass flow rate at the injector end creates local variations in equivalence ratio throughout the PDE that may have significant impact on overall engine performance. The results of the current thesis research suggest that performance effects of up to 21% can be attributed to non-uniform fuel distribution throughout the detonation process and are most prevalent at lower frequencies and fill ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmieder, Felix; Kinaci, Mustafa E.; Wartmann, Jens; König, Jörg; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Burgmann, Sebastian; Heinzel, Angelika
2016-02-01
The versatility of fuel cells enables a wide range of applications. Usually fuel cells are combined to stacks such that the reactant supply of the single cells is achieved via a pipe branching system, the manifold. The overall performance significantly depends on cell flow rates which are related to the fluidic interaction of the manifold and the cells. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, which are often used to find a suitable design, lack experimental flow data for validation of the numerical results. To enable flow measurements within the small geometries of the manifold and to provide reliable velocity information inside a real fuel cell stack, a low-coherence Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) is applied, which uses multi-mode laser light to achieve a spatial resolution of <100 μm. The use of fluorescent particles and backward scatter mode make the sensor highly suitable for the application in small manifold geometries like in fuel cell stacks. Sensor and measurement technique are validated in simplified stack models and the applicability to air flows is demonstrated. Finally, for the first time, velocity profiles with high spatial resolution inside an operated fuel cell stack are presented, which serve as benchmark for CFD to find an optimal geometry.
AMBIENT AIR NON-METHANE HYDROCARBON MONITOR
A monitor has been developed with adequate sensitivity and accuracy to measure continuously the concentration of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in ambient air. The monitor consists of pump and manifold system along with two basic instruments, a methane monitor and a flame-ioniza...
Connections on a non-symmetric (generalized) Riemannian manifold and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Stefan; Zlatanović, Milan
2016-04-01
Connections with (skew-symmetric) torsion on a non-symmetric Riemannian manifold satisfying the Einstein metricity condition (non-symmetric gravitation theory (NGT) with torsion) are considered. It is shown that an almost Hermitian manifold is NGT with torsion if and only if it is a nearly Kähler manifold. In the case of an almost contact metric manifold the NGT with torsion spaces are characterized and a possibly new class of almost contact metric manifolds is extracted. Similar considerations lead to a definition of a particular class of almost para-Hermitian and almost paracontact metric manifolds. Conditions are given in terms of the corresponding Nijenhuis tensors and the exterior derivative of the skew-symmetric part of the non-symmetric Riemannian metric.
Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds
Guth, Larry; Lubotzky, Alexander
2014-08-15
Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance n{sup ε}. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using Z{sub 2}-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor [“On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction,” in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5557 (2009), pp. 259–273], who asked whether homological codes with such parameters could exist at all.
Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guth, Larry; Lubotzky, Alexander
2014-08-01
Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance nɛ. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using {Z}_2-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor ["On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction," in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC),
Bures metric over thermal state manifolds and quantum criticality
Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Giorda, Paolo
2007-12-15
We analyze the Bures metric over the manifold of thermal density matrices for systems featuring a zero temperature quantum phase transition. We show that the quantum critical region can be characterized in terms of the temperature scaling behavior of the metric tensor itself. Furthermore, the analysis of the metric tensor when both temperature and an external field are varied, allows one to complement the understanding of the phase diagram including crossover regions which are not characterized by any singular behavior. These results provide a further extension of the scope of the metric approach to quantum criticality.
Euler-Lagrange formulas for pseudo-Kähler manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, JeongHyeong
2016-01-01
Let c be a characteristic form of degree k which is defined on a Kähler manifold of real dimension m > 2 k. Taking the inner product with the Kähler form Ωk gives a scalar invariant which can be considered as a generalized Lovelock functional. The associated Euler-Lagrange equations are a generalized Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory; this theory restricts to the canonical formalism if c =c2 is the second Chern form. We extend previous work studying these equations from the Kähler to the pseudo-Kähler setting.
On-manifold localization in open quantum maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippolis, Domenico; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Sang Wook
2012-12-01
A quantized chaotic map exhibiting localization of wave function intensity is opened. We investigate how such patterns as scars in the Husimi distributions are influenced by the losses through a number of numerical experiments. We find the scars to relocate on the stable or unstable manifolds depending on the position of the opening, and provide a classical argument to explain the observations. For asymmetrically introduced openings mode interaction contributes to determine the localization patterns. We finally show examples of similar localization in a simulated dielectric microcavity.
Piecewise linear manifolds: Einstein metrics and Ricci flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schrader, Robert
2016-05-01
This article provides an attempt to extend concepts from the theory of Riemannian manifolds to piecewise linear (p.l.) spaces. In particular we propose an analogue of the Ricci tensor, which we give the name of an Einstein vector field. On a given set of p.l. spaces we define and discuss (normalized) Einstein flows. p.l. Einstein metrics are defined and examples are provided. Criteria for flows to approach Einstein metrics are formulated. Second variations of the total scalar curvature at a specific Einstein space are calculated. Dedicated to Ludwig Faddeev on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
Young, Andrew
2005-01-01
Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds is reported. A FORTRAN computer program was written for the computation of the thermal performance of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds. Arrays constructed from two example solar thermal collectors are computated. Typical external manifold sizes and thermal insulations are presented graphically and are compared with the thermal performance of the collector alone.
The Kastler-Kalau-Walze type theorem for six-dimensional manifolds with boundary
Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong E-mail: wangy581@nenu.edu.cn
2015-05-15
In this paper, we define lower dimensional volumes of spin manifolds with boundary. We compute the lower dimensional volume V ol{sub 6}{sup (1,3)} for 6-dimensional spin manifolds with boundary and derive the gravity on boundary from the noncommutative residue associated with Dirac operators. For 6-dimensional manifolds with boundary, we also get a Kastler-Kalau-Walze type theorem for a general fourth order operator.
Seiberg-Witten invariants on manifolds with Riemannian foliations of codimension 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordyukov, Yuri; Lejmi, Mehdi; Weber, Patrick
2016-09-01
We define Seiberg-Witten equations on closed manifolds endowed with a Riemannian foliation of codimension 4. When the foliation is taut, we show compactness of the moduli space under some hypothesis satisfied for instance by closed K-contact manifolds. Furthermore, we prove some vanishing and non-vanishing results and we highlight that the invariants may be used to distinguish different foliations on diffeomorphic manifolds.
LCK rank of locally conformally Kähler manifolds with potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ornea, Liviu; Verbitsky, Misha
2016-09-01
An LCK manifold with potential is a quotient of a Kähler manifold X equipped with a positive Kähler potential f, such that the monodromy group acts on X by holomorphic homotheties and multiplies f by a character. The LCK rank is the rank of the image of this character, considered as a function from the monodromy group to real numbers. We prove that an LCK manifold with potential can have any rank between 1 and b1(M) . Moreover, LCK manifolds with proper potential (ones with rank 1) are dense. Two errata to our previous work are given in the last section.
Completing the web of ℤ3-quotients of complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candelas, P.; Constantin, A.
2012-04-01
We complete the study of smooth $Z_3$-quotients of complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds by discussing the six new manifolds that admit free $Z_3$ actions that were discovered discovered recently by Braun. These manifolds were missed in an earlier work and complete the web of smooth $Z_3$-quotients in a nice way. We discuss the transitions between these manifolds and include also the other manifolds of the web. This leads to the conclusion that the web of $Z_3$-free quotients of complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds is connected by conifold transitions.
40 CFR 1065.325 - Intake-flow calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake-flow calibration. 1065.325 Section 1065.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements §...
40 CFR 1065.325 - Intake-flow calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-flow calibration. 1065.325 Section 1065.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements §...
Submaximal conformal symmetry superalgebras for Lorentzian manifolds of low dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Medeiros, Paul
2016-02-01
We consider a class of smooth oriented Lorentzian manifolds in dimensions three and four which admit a nowhere vanishing conformal Killing vector and a closed two-form that is invariant under the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vectors. The invariant two-form is constrained in a particular way by the conformal geometry of the manifold. In three dimensions, the conformal Killing vector must be everywhere causal (or null if the invariant two-form vanishes identically). In four dimensions, the conformal Killing vector must be everywhere null and the invariant two-form vanishes identically if the geometry is everywhere of Petrov type N or O. To the conformal class of any such geometry, it is possible to assign a particular Lie superalgebra structure, called a conformal symmetry superalgebra. The even part of this superalgebra contains conformal Killing vectors and constant R-symmetries while the odd part contains (charged) twistor spinors. The largest possible dimension of a conformal symmetry superalgebra is realised only for geometries that are locally conformally flat. We determine precisely which non-trivial conformal classes of metrics admit a conformal symmetry superalgebra with the next largest possible dimension, and compute all the associated submaximal conformal symmetry superalgebras. In four dimensions, we also compute symmetry superalgebras for a class of Ricci-flat Lorentzian geometries not of Petrov type N or O which admit a null Killing vector.
The Newman-Penrose formalism for Riemannian 3-manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aazami, Amir Babak
2015-08-01
We adapt the Newman-Penrose formalism in general relativity to the setting of three-dimensional Riemannian geometry, and prove the following results. Given a Riemannian 3-manifold without boundary and a smooth unit vector field k with geodesic flow, if an integral curve of k is hypersurface-orthogonal at a point, then it is so at every point along that curve. Furthermore, if k is complete, hypersurface-orthogonal, and satisfies Ric(k, k) ≥ 0, then its divergence must be nonnegative. As an application, we show that if the Riemannian 3-manifold is closed and a unit length k with geodesic flow satisfies Ric(k, k) > 0, then k cannot be hypersurface-orthogonal, thus recovering a result in Harris and Paternain (2013). Turning next to scalar curvature, we derive an evolution equation for the scalar curvature in terms of unit vector fields k that satisfy the condition R(k, ṡ, ṡ, ṡ) = 0. When the scalar curvature is a nonzero constant, we show that a hypersurface-orthogonal unit vector field k satisfies R(k, ṡ, ṡ, ṡ) = 0 if and only if it is a Killing vector field.
Manifold learning to interpret JET high-dimensional operational space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Murari, A.; Pau, A.; Sias, G.; JET EFDA Contributors, the
2013-04-01
In this paper, the problem of visualization and exploration of JET high-dimensional operational space is considered. The data come from plasma discharges selected from JET campaigns from C15 (year 2005) up to C27 (year 2009). The aim is to learn the possible manifold structure embedded in the data and to create some representations of the plasma parameters on low-dimensional maps, which are understandable and which preserve the essential properties owned by the original data. A crucial issue for the design of such mappings is the quality of the dataset. This paper reports the details of the criteria used to properly select suitable signals downloaded from JET databases in order to obtain a dataset of reliable observations. Moreover, a statistical analysis is performed to recognize the presence of outliers. Finally data reduction, based on clustering methods, is performed to select a limited and representative number of samples for the operational space mapping. The high-dimensional operational space of JET is mapped using a widely used manifold learning method, the self-organizing maps. The results are compared with other data visualization methods. The obtained maps can be used to identify characteristic regions of the plasma scenario, allowing to discriminate between regions with high risk of disruption and those with low risk of disruption.
Nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability: from curves to manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilov, Andrey; Mukhin, Dmitry; Loskutov, Evgeny; Feigin, Alexander
2016-04-01
The necessity of efficient dimensionality reduction methods capturing dynamical properties of the system from observed data is evident. Recent study shows that nonlinear dynamical mode (NDM) expansion is able to solve this problem and provide adequate phase variables in climate data analysis [1]. A single NDM is logical extension of linear spatio-temporal structure (like empirical orthogonal function pattern): it is constructed as nonlinear transformation of hidden scalar time series to the space of observed variables, i. e. projection of observed dataset onto a nonlinear curve. Both the hidden time series and the parameters of the curve are learned simultaneously using Bayesian approach. The only prior information about the hidden signal is the assumption of its smoothness. The optimal nonlinearity degree and smoothness are found using Bayesian evidence technique. In this work we do further extension and look for vector hidden signals instead of scalar with the same smoothness restriction. As a result we resolve multidimensional manifolds instead of sum of curves. The dimension of the hidden manifold is optimized using also Bayesian evidence. The efficiency of the extension is demonstrated on model examples. Results of application to climate data are demonstrated and discussed. The study is supported by Government of Russian Federation (agreement #14.Z50.31.0033 with the Institute of Applied Physics of RAS). 1. Mukhin, D., Gavrilov, A., Feigin, A., Loskutov, E., & Kurths, J. (2015). Principal nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability. Scientific Reports, 5, 15510. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep15510
Calculus on manifolds of conformal maps and CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyon, Benjamin
2012-08-01
In conformal field theory (CFT) on simply connected domains of the Riemann sphere, the natural conformal symmetries under self-maps are extended, in a certain way, to local symmetries under general conformal maps, and this is at the basis of the powerful techniques of CFT. Conformal maps of simply connected domains naturally have the structure of an infinite-dimensional groupoid, which generalizes the finite-dimensional group of self-maps. We put a topological structure on the space of conformal maps on simply connected domains, which makes it into a topological groupoid. Further, we (almost) extend this to a local manifold structure based on the infinite-dimensional Fréchet topological vector space of holomorphic functions on a given domain A. From this, we develop the notion of conformal A-differentiability at the identity. Our main conclusion is that quadratic differentials characterizing cotangent elements on the local manifold enjoy properties similar to those of the holomorphic stress-energy tensor of CFT; these properties underpin the local symmetries of CFT. Applying the general formalism to CFT correlation functions, we show that the stress-energy tensor is exactly such a quadratic differential. This is at the basis of constructing the stress-energy tensor in conformal loop ensembles. It also clarifies the relation between Cardy's boundary conditions for CFT on simply connected domains, and the expression of the stress-energy tensor in terms of metric variations.
Salient Band Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification via Manifold Ranking.
Wang, Qi; Lin, Jianzhe; Yuan, Yuan
2016-06-01
Saliency detection has been a hot topic in recent years, and many efforts have been devoted in this area. Unfortunately, the results of saliency detection can hardly be utilized in general applications. The primary reason, we think, is unspecific definition of salient objects, which makes that the previously published methods cannot extend to practical applications. To solve this problem, we claim that saliency should be defined in a context and the salient band selection in hyperspectral image (HSI) is introduced as an example. Unfortunately, the traditional salient band selection methods suffer from the problem of inappropriate measurement of band difference. To tackle this problem, we propose to eliminate the drawbacks of traditional salient band selection methods by manifold ranking. It puts the band vectors in the more accurate manifold space and treats the saliency problem from a novel ranking perspective, which is considered to be the main contributions of this paper. To justify the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments are conducted on three HSIs, and our method is compared with the six existing competitors. Results show that the proposed method is very effective and can achieve the best performance among the competitors. PMID:27008675
Eight-manifolds with G structure in eleven dimensional supergravity
Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac
2005-10-15
We extend the refined G-structure classification of supersymmetric solutions of 11 dimensional supergravity. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an arbitrary number of Killing spinors whose common isotropy group contains a compact factor acting irreducibly in eight spatial dimensions and which embeds in (Spin(7)xR{sup 8})xR. We use these conditions to explicitly derive the general local bosonic solution of the Killing spinor equation admitting an N=4 SU(4) structure embedding in a (Spin(7)xR{sup 8})xR structure, up to an eight-manifold of SU(4) holonomy. Subject to very mild assumptions on the form of the metric, we explicitly derive the general local bosonic solutions of the Killing spinor equation for N=6 Sp(2) structures and N=8 SU(2)xSU(2) structures embedding in a (Spin(7)xR{sup 8})xR structure, again up to eight-manifolds of special holonomy. We construct several other classes of explicit solutions, including some for which the preferred local structure group defined by the Killing spinors does not correspond to any holonomy group in 11 dimensions. We also give a detailed geometrical characterization of all supersymmetric spacetimes in 11 dimensions admitting G-structures with structure groups of the form (GxR{sup 8})xR.
Group Actions on DG-Manifolds and Exact Courant Algebroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, Bernardo
2013-02-01
Let G be a Lie group acting by diffeomorphisms on a manifold M and consider the image of T[1] G and T[1] M, of G and M respectively, in the category of differential graded manifolds. We show that the obstruction to lift the action of T[1] G on T[1] M to an action on a {mathbb{R}[n]}-bundle over T[1] M is measured by the G equivariant cohomology of M. We explicitly calculate the differential graded Lie algebra of the symmetries of the {mathbb{R}[n]}-bundle over T[1] M and we use this differential graded Lie algebra to understand which actions are hamiltonian. We show how split Exact Courant algebroids could be obtained as the derived Leibniz algebra of the symmetries of {mathbb{R}[2]}-bundles over T[1] M, and we use this construction to propose that the infinitesimal symmetries of a split Exact Courant algebroid should be encoded in the differential graded Lie algebra of symmetries of a {mathbb{R}[2]}-bundle over T[1] M. With this setup at hand, we propose a definition for an action of a Lie group on an Exact Courant algebroid and we propose conditions for the action to be hamiltonian.
Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...
Experimental study of a novel manifold structure of micro-channel heat exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Bo; Xu, Kunhao; Wei, Wei; Han, Qing; Chen, Jiangping
2013-07-01
Refrigerant flow distribution with phase change heat transfer was experimentally studied for a micro-channel heat exchanger having horizontal headers. In order to solve the problem of maldistribution, a novel manifold structure with orifice and bypass tube was proposed and experimentally studied compared to the conventional structure. Tests were conducted with downward flow for mass flux from 70 to 110 kg m-2s-1 (air side flow velocity from 1 to 2ms-1). The surface temperature distribution of the heat exchanger recorded by thermal imager and the square deviation of it were used to judge the uniformity of flow distribution. It is shown that as mass flux increased, better flow distribution is obtained (small square deviation of temperature distribution means better flow distribution: conventional structure from 32 to 27, novel structure from 19 to 14), and flow distribution of the novel structure was much better than that of the conventional one. The heat transfer performances of the two heat exchangers were also studied. The cooling capacity of the novel heat exchanger was 14.8% higher than that of the conventional because of the better flow distribution. And the refrigerant pressure drop was 120% higher because of bigger mass flow and the resistance of the orifice. It's worth noting that the air pressure drop of novel heat exchanger was also higher (about 28.3%)than that of the conventional one, even when they have same fin and flat tube structure. From the pictures of the heat exchanger surfaces, it was found that some surface area of the conventional heat exchanger was not wet because of the low mass flow and high superheat, which leaded to a poor performance and relatively small air pressure drop.
Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit
none,
2012-08-01
In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.
Power plant intake entrainment analysis
Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.
2000-04-01
Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.
Quasitoric manifolds and small covers over properly coloured polytopes: immersions and embeddings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baralić, D.; Grujić, V.
2016-04-01
We construct small covers and quasitoric manifolds over n-dimensional simple polytopes which allow proper colourings of facets with n colours. We calculate the Stiefel-Whitney classes of these manifolds as obstructions to immersions and embeddings into Euclidean spaces. The largest dimension required for embedding is achieved in the case n is a power of two.Bibliography: 11 titles.
The triple collision manifold in the isosceles case of the planar three-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irigoyen, J. M.
1980-06-01
Proven results of the general planar three-body problem are applied to the particular case of the planar isosceles problem. Attention is given to position and speed parameters, the associated differential system and equilibrium points. The triple collision manifold is described with regard to triple collision orbits, and the flow on this manifold is investigated.
A Dynamical Model of General Intelligence: The Positive Manifold of Intelligence by Mutualism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Der Maas, Han L. J.; Dolan, Conor V.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Huizenga, Hilde M.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.
2006-01-01
Scores on cognitive tasks used in intelligence tests correlate positively with each other, that is, they display a positive manifold of correlations. The positive manifold is often explained by positing a dominant latent variable, the g factor, associated with a single quantitative cognitive or biological process or capacity. In this article, a…
Integrable Systems on Flag Manifold and Coherent State Path-Integral
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Myung-Ho; Oh, Phillial
We construct integrable models on flag manifold by using the symplectic structure explicitly given in the Bruhat coordinatization of flag manifold. They are noncommutative integrable and some of the conserved quantities are given by the Casimir invariants. We quantize the systems using the coherent state path-integral technique and find the exact expression for the propagator for some special cases.
Tensor calculus with open-source software: the SageManifolds project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gourgoulhon, Eric; Bejger, Michal; Mancini, Marco
2015-04-01
The SageManifolds project aims at extending the mathematics software system Sage towards differential geometry and tensor calculus. Like Sage, SageManifolds is free, open- source and is based on the Python programming language. We discuss here some details of the implementation, which relies on Sage's parent/element framework, and present a concrete example of use.
Ho, Shen-Shyang; Dai, Peng; Rudzicz, Frank
2016-06-01
Multivariate variable-length sequence data are becoming ubiquitous with the technological advancement in mobile devices and sensor networks. Such data are difficult to compare, visualize, and analyze due to the nonmetric nature of data sequence similarity measures. In this paper, we propose a general manifold learning framework for arbitrary-length multivariate data sequences driven by similarity/distance (parameter) learning in both the original data sequence space and the learned manifold. Our proposed algorithm transforms the data sequences in a nonmetric data sequence space into feature vectors in a manifold that preserves the data sequence space structure. In particular, the feature vectors in the manifold representing similar data sequences remain close to one another and far from the feature points corresponding to dissimilar data sequences. To achieve this objective, we assume a semisupervised setting where we have knowledge about whether some of data sequences are similar or dissimilar, called the instance-level constraints. Using this information, one learns the similarity measure for the data sequence space and the distance measures for the manifold. Moreover, we describe an approach to handle the similarity search problem given user-defined instance level constraints in the learned manifold using a consensus voting scheme. Experimental results on both synthetic data and real tropical cyclone sequence data are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of our manifold learning framework and the robustness of performing similarity search in the learned manifold. PMID:25781959
Polyhedral representation of invariant manifolds applied to orbit transfers in the Earth-Moon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo
2016-02-01
Recently, manifold dynamics has assumed an increasing relevance for analysis and design of low-energy missions, both in the Earth-Moon system and in alternative multibody environments. This work proposes and describes an intuitive polyhedral interpolative approach for each state component associated with manifold trajectories, both in two and in three dimensions. An adequate grid of data, coming from the numerical propagation of a finite number of manifold trajectories, is employed. Accuracy of this representation is evaluated with reference to the invariant manifolds associated with a two-dimensional Lyapunov orbit and a three-dimensional Halo orbit, and is proven to be satisfactory, with the exclusion of limited regions of the manifolds. As a first, preliminary application, the polyhedral interpolation technique allows identifying the orbits in the proximity of the interior collinear libration point as either asymptotic, transit, or bouncing trajectories. Then, two applications to orbital maneuvering are addressed. First, the globally optimal two-impulse transfer between a specified low Earth orbit and a Lyapunov orbit (through its stable manifold) is determined. Second, the minimum-time low-thrust transfer from the same terminal orbits is found using again the stable manifold. These applications prove the effectiveness of the polyhedral interpolative technique and represent the premise for its application also to different problems involving invariant manifold dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yingmin; Zhang, Fujun; Cui, Tao; Zhou, Jinlong
2016-03-01
Intake system of diesel engine is a strong nonlinear system, and it is difficult to establish accurate model of intake system; and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can't be diagnosed easily using model-based methods. Thus, a fault diagnosis method based on Elman neural network observer is proposed. By comparing simulation results of intake pressure based on BP network and Elman neural network, lower sampling error magnitude is gained using Elman neural network, and the error is less volatile. Forecast accuracy is between 0.015-0.017 5 and sample error is controlled within 0-0.07. Considering the output stability and complexity of solving comprehensively, Elman neural network with a single hidden layer and with 44 nodes is presented as intake system observer. By comparing the relations of confidence intervals of the residual value between the measured and predicted values, error variance and failures in various fault types. Then four typical MAP faults of diesel engine can be diagnosed: complete failure fault, bias fault, precision degradation fault and drift fault. The simulation results show: intake pressure is observable and selection of diagnostic strategy parameter reasonably can increase the accuracy of diagnosis; the proposed fault diagnosis method only depends on data and structural parameters of observer, not depends on the nonlinear model of air intake system. A fault diagnosis method is proposed not depending system model to observe intake pressure, and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can be diagnosed based on residuals.
Interacting extended Chaplygin gas cosmology in Lyra manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, Martiros
2015-12-01
Subject of our interest is an extended Chaplygin gas cosmology and new receipts providing accelerated expansion of the large scale universe. In Literature a variety of cosmological models exist studying the behavior of the universe in the presence of Chaplygin gas. From its initial form Chaplygin gas evolved and accepted different EoS-s and we will work with one of them. The main purpose of this work is to study behavior of the universe in Lyra Manifold with a varying \\varLambda-term, which does give us modified field equations. Modified field equations compared to field equations of General Relativity provide a new parametrization of dark energy sector of the large scale universe. It is also interesting to study the behavior of the universe in case of an existing coupling between quintessence DE and extended Chaplygin gas. We applied observational constraints and causality issue to separate physically relevant behavior of the phenomenological model.
Retrieving handwriting by combining word spotting and manifold ranking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Morin, Emmanuel; Viard-Gaudin, Christian
2012-01-01
Online handwritten data, produced with Tablet PCs or digital pens, consists in a sequence of points (x, y). As the amount of data available in this form increases, algorithms for retrieval of online data are needed. Word spotting is a common approach used for the retrieval of handwriting. However, from an information retrieval (IR) perspective, word spotting is a primitive keyword based matching and retrieval strategy. We propose a framework for handwriting retrieval where an arbitrary word spotting method is used, and then a manifold ranking algorithm is applied on the initial retrieval scores. Experimental results on a database of more than 2,000 handwritten newswires show that our method can improve the performances of a state-of-the-art word spotting system by more than 10%.
Nambu-Lie 3-algebras on fuzzy 3-manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Axenides, Minos; Floratos, Emmanuel
2009-02-01
We consider Nambu-Poisson 3-algebras on three dimensional manifolds Script M3, such as the Euclidean 3-space R3, the 3-sphere S3 as well as the 3-torus T3. We demonstrate that in the Clebsch-Monge gauge, the Lie algebra of volume preserving diffeomorphisms SDiff(Script M3) is identical to the Nambu-Poisson algebra on Script M3. Moreover the fundamental identity for the Nambu 3-bracket is just the commutation relation of SDiff(Script M3). We propose a quantization prescription for the Nambu-Poisson algebra which provides us with the correct classical limit. As such it possesses all of the expected classical properties constituting, in effect, a concrete representation of Nambu-Lie 3-algebras.
Selecting protein families for environmental features based on manifold regularization.
Jiang, Xingpeng; Xu, Weiwei; Park, E K; Li, Guangrong
2014-06-01
Recently, statistics and machine learning have been developed to identify functional or taxonomic features of environmental features or physiological status. Important proteins (or other functional and taxonomic entities) to environmental features can be potentially used as biosensors. A major challenge is how the distribution of protein and gene functions embodies the adaption of microbial communities across environments and host habitats. In this paper, we propose a novel regularization method for linear regression to adapt the challenge. The approach is inspired by local linear embedding (LLE) and we call it a manifold-constrained regularization for linear regression (McRe). The novel regularization procedure also has potential to be used in solving other linear systems. We demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the approach in both simulation and real data. PMID:24802701
Heterogeneous Tensor Decomposition for Clustering via Manifold Optimization.
Sun, Yanfeng; Gao, Junbin; Hong, Xia; Mishra, Bamdev; Yin, Baocai
2016-03-01
Tensor clustering is an important tool that exploits intrinsically rich structures in real-world multiarray or Tensor datasets. Often in dealing with those datasets, standard practice is to use subspace clustering that is based on vectorizing multiarray data. However, vectorization of tensorial data does not exploit complete structure information. In this paper, we propose a subspace clustering algorithm without adopting any vectorization process. Our approach is based on a novel heterogeneous Tucker decomposition model taking into account cluster membership information. We propose a new clustering algorithm that alternates between different modes of the proposed heterogeneous tensor model. All but the last mode have closed-form updates. Updating the last mode reduces to optimizing over the multinomial manifold for which we investigate second order Riemannian geometry and propose a trust-region algorithm. Numerical experiments show that our proposed algorithm compete effectively with state-of-the-art clustering algorithms that are based on tensor factorization. PMID:27046492
[Anomaly Detection of Multivariate Time Series Based on Riemannian Manifolds].
Xu, Yonghong; Hou, Xiaoying; Li Shuting; Cui, Jie
2015-06-01
Multivariate time series problems widely exist in production and life in the society. Anomaly detection has provided people with a lot of valuable information in financial, hydrological, meteorological fields, and the research areas of earthquake, video surveillance, medicine and others. In order to quickly and efficiently find exceptions in time sequence so that it can be presented in front of people in an intuitive way, we in this study combined the Riemannian manifold with statistical process control charts, based on sliding window, with a description of the covariance matrix as the time sequence, to achieve the multivariate time series of anomaly detection and its visualization. We made MA analog data flow and abnormal electrocardiogram data from MIT-BIH as experimental objects, and verified the anomaly detection method. The results showed that the method was reasonable and effective. PMID:26485975
Decision Manifold Approximation for Physics-Based Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Jay Ming; Samareh, Jamshid A.
2016-01-01
With the recent surge of success in big-data driven deep learning problems, many of these frameworks focus on the notion of architecture design and utilizing massive databases. However, in some scenarios massive sets of data may be difficult, and in some cases infeasible, to acquire. In this paper we discuss a trajectory-based framework that quickly learns the underlying decision manifold of binary simulation classifications while judiciously selecting exploratory target states to minimize the number of required simulations. Furthermore, we draw particular attention to the simulation prediction application idealized to the case where failures in simulations can be predicted and avoided, providing machine intelligence to novice analysts. We demonstrate this framework in various forms of simulations and discuss its efficacy.
The Moduli Space of Asymptotically Cylindrical Calabi-Yau Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conlon, Ronan J.; Mazzeo, Rafe; Rochon, Frédéric
2015-09-01
We prove that the deformation theory of compactifiable asymptotically cylindrical Calabi-Yau manifolds is unobstructed. This relies on a detailed study of the Dolbeault-Hodge theory and its description in terms of the cohomology of the compactification. We also show that these Calabi-Yau metrics admit a polyhomogeneous expansion at infinity, a result that we extend to asymptotically conical Calabi-Yau metrics as well. We then study the moduli space of Calabi-Yau deformations that fix the complex structure at infinity. There is a Weil-Petersson metric on this space, which we show is Kähler. By proving a local families L 2-index theorem, we exhibit its Kähler form as a multiple of the curvature of a certain determinant line bundle.
Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.
Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis. PMID:26441450
Multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning for MCI conversion prediction.
Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Suk, Heung-Il; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang
2015-12-01
As the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has high chance to convert to AD. Effective prediction of such conversion from MCI to AD is of great importance for early diagnosis of AD and also for evaluating AD risk pre-symptomatically. Unlike most previous methods that used only the samples from a target domain to train a classifier, in this paper, we propose a novel multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning (M2TL) method that jointly utilizes samples from another domain (e.g., AD vs. normal controls (NC)) as well as unlabeled samples to boost the performance of the MCI conversion prediction. Specifically, the proposed M2TL method includes two key components. The first one is a kernel-based maximum mean discrepancy criterion, which helps eliminate the potential negative effect induced by the distributional difference between the auxiliary domain (i.e., AD and NC) and the target domain (i.e., MCI converters (MCI-C) and MCI non-converters (MCI-NC)). The second one is a semi-supervised multimodal manifold-regularized least squares classification method, where the target-domain samples, the auxiliary-domain samples, and the unlabeled samples can be jointly used for training our classifier. Furthermore, with the integration of a group sparsity constraint into our objective function, the proposed M2TL has a capability of selecting the informative samples to build a robust classifier. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database validate the effectiveness of the proposed method by significantly improving the classification accuracy of 80.1 % for MCI conversion prediction, and also outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25702248
Multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning for MCI conversion prediction
Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Suk, Heung-Il; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang
2015-01-01
As the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has high chance to convert to AD. Effective prediction of such conversion from MCI to AD is of great importance for early diagnosis of AD and also for evaluating AD risk pre-symptomatically. Unlike most previous methods that used only the samples from a target domain to train a classifier, in this paper, we propose a novel multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning (M2TL) method that jointly utilizes samples from another domain (e.g., AD vs. normal controls (NC)) as well as unlabeled samples to boost the performance of the MCI conversion prediction. Specifically, the proposed M2TL method includes two key components. The first one is a kernel-based maximum mean discrepancy criterion, which helps eliminate the potential negative effect induced by the distributional difference between the auxiliary domain (i.e., AD and NC) and the target domain (i.e., MCI converters (MCI-C) and MCI non-converters (MCI-NC)). The second one is a semi-supervised multimodal manifold-regularized least squares classification method, where the target-domain samples, the auxiliary-domain samples, and the unlabeled samples can be jointly used for training our classifier. Furthermore, with the integration of a group sparsity constraint into our objective function, the proposed M2TL has a capability of selecting the informative samples to build a robust classifier. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database validate the effectiveness of the proposed method by significantly improving the classification accuracy of 80.1 % for MCI conversion prediction, and also outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25702248
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Takeji
The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.
Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.
2012-11-01
Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.
T4 fibrations over Calabi-Yau two-folds and non-Kähler manifolds in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hai
2016-08-01
We construct a geometric model of eight-dimensional manifolds and realize them in the context of type II string theory. These eight-manifolds are constructed by non-trivial T4 fibrations over Calabi-Yau two-folds. These give rise to eight-dimensional non-Kähler Hermitian manifolds with SU (4) structure. The eight-manifold is also a circle fibration over a seven-dimensional G2 manifold with skew torsion. The eight-manifolds of this type appear as internal manifolds with SU (4) structure in type IIB string theory with F3 and F7 fluxes. These manifolds have generalized calibrated cycles in the presence of fluxes.
Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension
2014-01-01
Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468
Viscous flow computations for elliptical two-duct version of the SSME hot gas manifold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roger, R. P.
1986-01-01
The objective of the effort was to numerically simulate viscous subsonic flow in a proposed elliptical two-duct version of the fuel side Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The numerical results were to complement both water flow and air flow experiments in the two-duct geometry performed at NASA-MSFC and Rocketdyne. The three-dimensional character of the HGM consists of two essentially different geometries. The first part of the construction is a concentric shell duct structure which channels the gases from a turbine exit into the second part comprised of two cylindrically shaped transfer ducts. The initial concentric shell portion can be further subdivided into a turnaround section and a bowl section. The turnaround duct (TAD) changes the direction of the mean flow by 180 degress from a smaller radius to a larger radius duct which discharges into the bowl. The cylindrical transfer ducts are attached to the bowl on one side thus providing a plane of symmetry midway between the two. Centerline flow distance from the TAD inlet to the transfer duct exit is approximately two feet. Details of the approach used to numerically simulate laminar or turbulent flow in the HGM geometry are presented. Computational results are presented and discussed.
Kobayashi, Miki U; Saiki, Yoshitaka
2014-02-01
Manifold structures of the Lorenz system, the Hénon map, and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system are investigated in terms of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractors. Especially, changes of manifold structures are focused on when some parameters are varied. The angle between a stable manifold and an unstable manifold (manifold angle) at every sample point along an unstable periodic orbit is measured using the covariant Lyapunov vectors. It is found that the angle characterizes the parameter at which the periodic window corresponding to the unstable periodic orbit finishes, that is, a saddle-node bifurcation point. In particular, when the minimum value of the manifold angle along an unstable periodic orbit at a parameter is small (large), the corresponding periodic window exists near (away from) the parameter. It is concluded that the window sequence in a parameter space can be predicted from the manifold angles of unstable periodic orbits at some parameter. The fact is important because the local information in a parameter space characterizes the global information in it. This approach helps us find periodic windows including very small ones. PMID:25353542
Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brender, Jean D.; And Others
1985-01-01
Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)
Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others
1980-01-01
In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donini, A.; Martin, S. M.; Bastiaans, R. J. M.; van Oijen, J. A.; de Goey, L. P. H.
2013-10-01
In the present paper a computational analysis of a high pressure confined premixed turbulent methane/air jet flames is presented. In this scope, chemistry is reduced by the use of the Flamelet Generated Manifold method [1] and the fluid flow is modeled in an LES and RANS context. The reaction evolution is described by the reaction progress variable, the heat loss is described by the enthalpy and the turbulence effect on the reaction is represented by the progress variable variance. The interaction between chemistry and turbulence is considered through a presumed probability density function (PDF) approach. The use of FGM as a combustion model shows that combustion features at gas turbine conditions can be satisfactorily reproduced with a reasonable computational effort. Furthermore, the present analysis indicates that the physical and chemical processes controlling carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be captured only by means of unsteady simulations.
Asymptotic expansions of slow invariant manifolds and reduction of chemical kinetics models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobolev, V. A.; Tropkina, E. A.
2012-01-01
Methods of the geometric theory of singular perturbations are used to reduce the dimensions of problems in chemical kinetics. The methods are based on using slow invariant manifolds. As a result, the original system is replaced by one on an invariant manifold, whose dimension coincides with that of the slow subsystem. Explicit and implicit representations of slow invariant manifolds are applied. The mathematical apparatus described is used to develop N.N. Semenov's fundamental ideas related to the method of quasi-stationary concentrations and is used to study particular problems in chemical kinetics.
Encoding quantum information in a stabilized manifold of a superconducting cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Touzard, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Mundhada, S. O.; Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Chou, K.; Blumoff, J.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.
In a superconducting Josephson circuit architecture, we activate a multi-photon process between two modes by applying microwave drives at specific frequencies. This creates a pairwise exchange of photons between a high-Q cavity and the environment. The resulting open dynamical system develops a two-dimensional quasi-energy ground state manifold. Can we encode, protect and manipulate quantum information in this manifold? We experimentally investigate the convergence and escape rates in and out of this confined subspace. Finally, using quantum Zeno dynamics, we aim to perform gates which maintain the state in the protected manifold at all times. Work supported by: ARO, ONR, AFOSR and YINQE.
Three-dimensional representations of the tube manifolds of the planar restricted three-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lega, Elena; Guzzo, Massimiliano
2016-06-01
The stable and unstable manifolds of the Lyapunov orbits of the Lagrangian equilibrium points L1, L2 play a key role in the understanding of the complicated dynamics of the circular restricted three-body problem. By developing a recent technique of computation of the stable and unstable manifolds, based on the use of Fast Lyapunov Indicators modified by the introduction of a filtering window function, we compute sample three-dimensional representations of the manifolds which show an original vista about their complicated development in the phase-space.
Borgogno, D.; Grasso, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Schep, T. J.
2008-10-15
A numerical contour dynamics code has been employed to calculate the stable and unstable manifolds related to two interacting magnetic island chains. The magnetic configuration is generated by a nonlinear reconnection process described in D. Borgogno et al. [Phys. Plasmas. 12, 032309 (2005)]. The appearance of the first homoclinic and heteroclinic intersections of the dominant manifolds are shown and one of the associated uniformly hyperbolic orbits is given. The stickiness of the field lines around the island and the eventual development of global stochasticity are discussed. The basic geometry of the magnetic configuration is periodic so that the structure of the manifolds may be compared with the one obtained with Poincare plots.
Superconformal algebras and string compactification on manifolds with SU( n) holonomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eguchi, Tohru; Ooguri, Hirosi; Taormina, Anne; Yang, Sung-Kil
1989-03-01
We discuss string compactifications on manifolds with SU( n) holonomy by making use of representation theories of extended superconformal algebras. In particular, string compactification on K 3 surfaces is discussed in detail. We calculate loop-space indices and show that all c = 6 superconformal field theories describe string propagation on manifolds with SU(2) holonomy. We study Gepner's models based on the tensoring of N = 2 minimal series and point out that some of these models are identified as orbifolds. We also discuss c = 9 superconformal field theories and their relation to Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Applications of lagrangian coherent structures to expression of invariant manifolds in astrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Rui; Xu, Shi Jie
2014-05-01
This paper investigates the relationship between invariant manifold and Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) in dynamical systems. LCS is defined as the ridge of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field, and is proving to be excellent platform for studies of stable and unstable manifold in flows with arbitrary time dependence. In this study, the LCS tool is applied to autonomous systems, simple pendulum and planar circular restricted three-body problem (PCR3BP), and also non-autonomous ones, double-gyre flow and bicircular problem (BCP). A comparison between LCS and invariant manifold is presented.
Laser beam manifold and particle photography system for use in fluid velocity measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owen, R. B.; Campbell, C. W.
1980-01-01
A laser beam manifold and particle photography system has been developed for use in fluid velocity measurements. The laser manifold is a device which transforms a single laser beam into several uniform parallel beams. By orienting two manifolds mutually perpendicular, an optical grid can be formed which acts as a reference for fluid velocity measurements. This optical grid is for all practical purposes totally nonperturbing to the flow. Tracer particles moving in the plane of the grid are then photographed to yield fluid velocities that can be measured relative to the optical grid. System construction and theory are presented.
Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Dan; Xu, Guanghua; Jiang, Kuosheng; Liang, Lin
2015-01-01
For decades, bearing factory quality evaluation has been a key problem and the methods used are always static tests. This paper investigates the use of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers (PUT) as dynamic diagnostic tools and a relevant signal classification technique, wavelet packet entropy (WPEntropy) flow manifold learning, for the evaluation of bearing factory quality. The data were analyzed using wavelet packet entropy (WPEntropy) flow manifold learning. The results showed that the ultrasonic technique with WPEntropy flow manifold learning was able to detect different types of defects on the bearing components. The test method and the proposed technique are described and the different signals are analyzed and discussed. PMID:25549173
Examples of simply-connected K-contact non-Sasakian manifolds of dimension 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin Hong
2015-12-01
The existence of compact simply-connected K-contact, but not Sasakian, manifolds has been unknown only for dimension 5. The aim of this paper is to show that the Kollár's simply-connected example which is a Seifert bundle over the complex projective space ℂℙ2 and does not carry any Sasakian structure is actually a K-contact manifold. As a consequence, we affirmatively answer the above existence problem in dimension 5, establishing that there are infinitely many compact simply-connected K-contact manifolds of dimension 5 which do not carry a Sasakian structure.
The manifold zoology of anelastic dynamos with variable conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietrich, Wieland; Jones, Chris
2015-04-01
Whereas the dynamo processes in terrestrial planets is strongly influenced by the overlying rocky mantle, the induction of global magnetic fields in gas giants is mainly affected by internal properties, such as the rapid outward decay of static density, pressure and temperature throughout the gaseous shell. Further for Jupiter and Saturn it is well known that the transition from metallic to molecular hydrogen leads to a steep decrease in the electrical conductivity. This drop-off radius is closer to the surface for heavy Jupiter (at 90% of its respective radius), but much deeper for the less massive Saturn (65%). From the modelling perspective this leads to an inner conducting shell where the magnetic fields dominate the dynamics, and outer hydro dynamic shell where the strong Coriolis force reigns. Within this study we parametrise the conductivity drop-off radius and investigate the interaction between these shells, such as the emergence of differential rotation and induction of magnetic fields. Remarkably, we could identify numerous rather different self-consistent dynamo solutions. E.g., hemispherical dynamos, quadrupolar dynamos, octupolar dynamos, dipolar dynamo waves or many mixed modes, such as solutions where the quadrupole is stable in time and the dipole periodically reverses. In summary, our results suggest anelastic dynamo models with variable conductivity yield manifold different solutions in close poriximity in the parameter space. Unfortunately for Saturn-like models with deep conductivity drop-off, Saturn-like magnetic field (stable, strongly dipolar) seemed rather unlikely.
Parameterized locally invariant manifolds: A tool for multiscale modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawant, Aarti
In this thesis two methods for coarse graining in nonlinear ODE systems are demonstrated through analysis of model problems. The basic ideas of a method for model reduction and a method for non-asymptotic time-averaging are presented, using the idea of the Parameterized locally invariant manifolds. New approximation techniques for carrying out this methodology are developed. The work is divided in four categories based on the type of coarse-graining used: reduction of degrees of freedom, spatial averaging, time averaging and a combination of space and time averaging. Model problems showing complex dynamics are selected and various features of the PLIM method are elaborated. The quality and efficiency of the different coarse-graining approaches are evaluated. From the computational standpoint, it is shown that the method has the potential of serving as a subgrid modeling tool for problems in engineering. The developed ideas are evaluated on the following model problems: Lorenz System, a 4D Hamiltonian System due to Hald, 1D Elastodynamics in a strongly heterogeneous medium, kinetics of a phase transforming material with wiggly energy due to Abeyaratne, Chu and James, 2D gradient system with wiggly energy due to Menon, and macroscopic stress-strain behavior of an atomic chain based on the Frenkel-Kontorova model.
Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Adaptive Manifold Filter.
Geng, Peng; Liu, Shuaiqi; Zhuang, Shanna
2015-01-01
Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. The modified local contrast information is proposed to fuse multimodal medical images. Firstly, the adaptive manifold filter is introduced into filtering source images as the low-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Secondly, the modified spatial frequency of the source images is adopted as the high-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Finally, the pixel with larger modified local contrast is selected into the fused image. The presented scheme outperforms the guided filter method in spatial domain, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform-based method, nonsubsampled contourlet transform-based method, and four classic fusion methods in terms of visual quality. Furthermore, the mutual information values by the presented method are averagely 55%, 41%, and 62% higher than the three methods and those values of edge based similarity measure by the presented method are averagely 13%, 33%, and 14% higher than the three methods for the six pairs of source images. PMID:26664494
Scene recognition by manifold regularized deep learning architecture.
Yuan, Yuan; Mou, Lichao; Lu, Xiaoqiang
2015-10-01
Scene recognition is an important problem in the field of computer vision, because it helps to narrow the gap between the computer and the human beings on scene understanding. Semantic modeling is a popular technique used to fill the semantic gap in scene recognition. However, most of the semantic modeling approaches learn shallow, one-layer representations for scene recognition, while ignoring the structural information related between images, often resulting in poor performance. Modeled after our own human visual system, as it is intended to inherit humanlike judgment, a manifold regularized deep architecture is proposed for scene recognition. The proposed deep architecture exploits the structural information of the data, making for a mapping between visible layer and hidden layer. By the proposed approach, a deep architecture could be designed to learn the high-level features for scene recognition in an unsupervised fashion. Experiments on standard data sets show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art used for scene recognition. PMID:25622326
Image quality assessment with manifold and machine learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charrier, Christophe; Lebrun, Gilles; Lezoray, Olivier
2009-01-01
A crucial step in image compression is the evaluation of its performance, and more precisely the available way to measure the final quality of the compressed image. In this paper, a machine learning expert, providing a final class number is designed. The quality measure is based on a learned classification process in order to respect the one of human observers. Instead of computing a final note, our method classifies the quality using the quality scale recommended by the UIT. This quality scale contains 5 ranks ordered from 1 (the worst quality) to 5 (the best quality). This was done constructing a vector containing many visual attributes. Finally, the final features vector contains more than 40 attibutes. Unfortunatley, no study about the existing interactions between the used visual attributes has been done. A feature selection algorithm could be interesting but the selection is highly related to the further used classifier. Therefore, we prefer to perform dimensionality reduction instead of feature selection. Manifold Learning methods are used to provide a low-dimensional new representation from the initial high dimensional feature space. The classification process is performed on this new low-dimensional representation of the images. Obtained results are compared to the one obtained without applying the dimension reduction process to judge the efficiency of the method.
Stretch fast dynamo mechanism via conformal mapping in Riemannian manifolds
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2007-10-15
Two new analytical solutions of the self-induction equation in Riemannian manifolds are presented. The first represents a twisted magnetic flux tube or flux rope in plasma astrophysics, where the rotation of the flow implies that the poloidal field is amplified from toroidal field, in the spirit of dynamo theory. The value of the amplification depends on the Frenet torsion of the magnetic axis of the tube. Actually this result illustrates the Zeldovich stretch, twist, and fold method to generate dynamos from straight and untwisted ropes. Based on the fact that this problem was previously handled, using a Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux ropes [Phys Plasmas 13, 022309 (2006)], investigation of a second dynamo solution, conformally related to the Arnold kinematic fast dynamo, is obtained. In this solution, it is shown that the conformal effect on the fast dynamo metric enhances the Zeldovich stretch, and therefore a new dynamo solution is obtained. When a conformal mapping is performed in an Arnold fast dynamo line element, a uniform stretch is obtained in the original line element.
Manifold Ranking-Based Matrix Factorization for Saliency Detection.
Tao, Dapeng; Cheng, Jun; Song, Mingli; Lin, Xu
2016-06-01
Saliency detection is used to identify the most important and informative area in a scene, and it is widely used in various vision tasks, including image quality assessment, image matching, and object recognition. Manifold ranking (MR) has been used to great effect for the saliency detection, since it not only incorporates the local spatial information but also utilizes the labeling information from background queries. However, MR completely ignores the feature information extracted from each superpixel. In this paper, we propose an MR-based matrix factorization (MRMF) method to overcome this limitation. MRMF models the ranking problem in the matrix factorization framework and embeds query sample labels in the coefficients. By incorporating spatial information and embedding labels, MRMF enforces similar saliency values on neighboring superpixels and ranks superpixels according to the learned coefficients. We prove that the MRMF has good generalizability, and develops an efficient optimization algorithm based on the Nesterov method. Experiments using popular benchmark data sets illustrate the promise of MRMF compared with the other state-of-the-art saliency detection methods. PMID:26277008
Computing (Un)stable Manifolds with Validated Error Bounds: Non-resonant and Resonant Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Mireles James, Jason D.; Reinhardt, Christian
2016-04-01
We develop techniques for computing the (un)stable manifold at a hyperbolic equilibrium of an analytic vector field. Our approach is based on the so-called parametrization method for invariant manifolds. A feature of this approach is that it leads to a posteriori analysis of truncation errors which, when combined with careful management of round off errors, yields a mathematically rigorous enclosure of the manifold. The main novelty of the present work is that, by conjugating the dynamics on the manifold to a polynomial rather than a linear vector field, the computer-assisted analysis is successful even in the case when the eigenvalues fail to satisfy non-resonance conditions. This generically occurs in parametrized families of vector fields. As an example, we use the method as a crucial ingredient in a computational existence proof of a connecting orbit in an amplitude equation related to a pattern formation model that features eigenvalue resonances.
Estimating Turaev-Viro three-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation
Alagic, Gorjan; Reichardt, Ben W.; Jordan, Stephen P.; Koenig, Robert
2010-10-15
The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem efficiently decidable by a quantum computer. Thus approximating certain Turaev-Viro invariants of manifolds presented by Heegaard splittings is a universal problem for quantum computation. This establishes a relation between the task of distinguishing nonhomeomorphic 3-manifolds and the power of a general quantum computer.
Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer
Grossman, Mark W.; Evans, Roger
1991-01-01
A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the .sup.196 Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of .+-.0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour.
Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer
Grossman, M.W.; Evans, R.
1991-11-26
A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the [sup 196]Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of [+-]0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour. 8 figures.
Computing (Un)stable Manifolds with Validated Error Bounds: Non-resonant and Resonant Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Mireles James, Jason D.; Reinhardt, Christian
2016-08-01
We develop techniques for computing the (un)stable manifold at a hyperbolic equilibrium of an analytic vector field. Our approach is based on the so-called parametrization method for invariant manifolds. A feature of this approach is that it leads to a posteriori analysis of truncation errors which, when combined with careful management of round off errors, yields a mathematically rigorous enclosure of the manifold. The main novelty of the present work is that, by conjugating the dynamics on the manifold to a polynomial rather than a linear vector field, the computer-assisted analysis is successful even in the case when the eigenvalues fail to satisfy non-resonance conditions. This generically occurs in parametrized families of vector fields. As an example, we use the method as a crucial ingredient in a computational existence proof of a connecting orbit in an amplitude equation related to a pattern formation model that features eigenvalue resonances.
Conjugate Heat Transfer Analyses on the Manifold for Ramjet Fuel Injectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen J.
2006-01-01
Three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer analyses on the manifold located upstream of the ramjet fuel injector are performed using CFdesign, a finite-element computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The flow field of the hot fuel (JP-7) flowing through the manifold is simulated and the wall temperature of the manifold is computed. The three-dimensional numerical results of the fuel temperature are compared with those obtained using a one-dimensional analysis based on empirical equations, and they showed a good agreement. The numerical results revealed that it takes around 30 to 40 sec to reach the equilibrium where the fuel temperature has dropped about 3 F from the inlet to the exit of the manifold.
Salt intake and hypertension therapy.
Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco
2002-01-01
Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420
Estimating the Dimension of an Inertial Manifold from Unstable Periodic Orbits.
Ding, X; Chaté, H; Cvitanović, P; Siminos, E; Takeuchi, K A
2016-07-01
We provide numerical evidence that a finite-dimensional inertial manifold on which the dynamics of a chaotic dissipative dynamical system lives can be constructed solely from the knowledge of a set of unstable periodic orbits. In particular, we determine the dimension of the inertial manifold for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system and find it to be equal to the "physical dimension" computed previously via the hyperbolicity properties of covariant Lyapunov vectors. PMID:27447508
Analytical invariant manifolds near unstable points and the structure of chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efthymiopoulos, Christos; Contopoulos, George; Katsanikas, Matthaios
2014-08-01
It is known that the asymptotic invariant manifolds around an unstable periodic orbit in conservative systems can be represented by convergent series (Cherry, Proc Lond Math Soc ser 2, 27:151-170, 1926; Moser, Commun Pure Appl Math 9:673, 1956 and 11:257, 1958; Moser, Giorgilli, Discret Contin Dyn Syst 7:855, 2001). The unstable and stable manifolds intersect at an infinity of homoclinic points, generating a complicated homoclinic tangle. In the case of simple mappings it was found (Da Silva Ritter et al., Phys D 29:181, 1987) that the domain of convergence of the formal series extends to infinity along the invariant manifolds. This allows in practice the study of the homoclinic tangle using only series. However in the case of Hamiltonian systems, or mappings with a finite analyticity domain, the convergence of the series along the asymptotic manifolds is also finite. Here, we provide numerical indications that the convergence does not reach any homoclinic points. We discuss in detail the convergence problem in various cases and we find the degree of approximation of the analytical invariant manifolds to the real (numerical) manifolds as (i) the order of truncation of the series increases, and (ii) we use higher numerical precision in computing the coefficients of the series. Then we introduce a new method of series composition, by using action-angle variables, that allows the calculation of the asymptotic manifolds up to an a arbitrarily large extent. This is the first case of an analytic development that allows the computation of the invariant manifolds and their intersections in a Hamiltonian system for an extent long enough to allow the study of homoclinic chaos by analytical means.
Estimating the Dimension of an Inertial Manifold from Unstable Periodic Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, X.; Chaté, H.; Cvitanović, P.; Siminos, E.; Takeuchi, K. A.
2016-07-01
We provide numerical evidence that a finite-dimensional inertial manifold on which the dynamics of a chaotic dissipative dynamical system lives can be constructed solely from the knowledge of a set of unstable periodic orbits. In particular, we determine the dimension of the inertial manifold for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system and find it to be equal to the "physical dimension" computed previously via the hyperbolicity properties of covariant Lyapunov vectors.
Modeling and mitigating noise in graph and manifold representations of hyperspectral imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Can; Bachmann, Charles M.
2015-05-01
Over the past decade, manifold and graph representations of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) have been explored widely in HSI applications. There are a large number of data-driven approaches to deriving manifold coordinate representations including Isometric Mapping (ISOMAP)1, Local Linear Embedding (LLE)2, Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE)3, Diffusion Kernels (DK)4, and many related methods. Improvements to specific algorithms have been developed to ease computational burden or otherwise improve algorithm performance. For example, the best way to estimate the size of the locally linear neighborhoods used in graph construction have been addressed6 as well as the best method of linking the manifold representation with classifiers in applications. However, the problem of how to model and mitigate noise in manifold representations of hyperspectral imagery has not been well studied and remains a challenge for graph and manifold representations of hyperspectral imagery and their application. It is relatively easy to apply standard linear methods to remove noise from the data in advance of further processing, however, these approaches by and large treat the noise model in a global sense, using statistics derived from the entire data set and applying the results globally over the data set. Graph and manifold representations by their nature attempt to find an intrinsic representation of the local data structure, so it is natural to ask how can one best represent the noise model in a local sense. In this paper, we explore the approaches to modeling and mitigating noise at a local level, using manifold coordinates of local spectral subsets. The issue of landmark selection of the current landmark ISOMAP algorithm5 is addressed and a workflow is proposed to make use of manifold coordinates of local spectral subsets to make optimal landmark selection and minimize the effect of local noise.
The relative isoperimetric inequality on a conformally parabolic manifold with boundary
Kesel'man, Vladimir M
2011-07-31
For an arbitrary noncompact n-dimensional Riemannian manifold with a boundary of conformally parabolic type it is proved that there exists a conformal change of metric such that a relative isoperimetric inequality of the same form as in the closed n-dimensional Euclidean half-space holds on the manifold with the new metric. This isoperimetric inequality is asymptotically sharp. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold with a solvent-level sensor.
Orlando, R M; Rath, S; Rohwedder, J J R
2013-11-15
A semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold for multiple extractions is presented. The manifold utilizes commercial solid-phase syringe cartridges and automatically introduces and elutes all the solvents during the extraction, reducing the typical workload and stress of the analyst. The manifold consists of a peristaltic pump with solenoid valves in a flow circuit that contains transmissive photomicrosensors. The photomicrosensors were used to control the solvent dispenser and the solvent level inside the cartridge. As solvent-level sensors, the photomicrosensors determined the exact time the solvent reached the top frit to avoid sorbent drying and accurately perform the solvent exchange. The repeatability of the manifold to introduce a particular volume of solvent into the cartridges was measured, and the precisions were between 0.05 and 2.89% (RSD). To evaluate the manifold, the amount of two fluoroquinolones in a fortified blank milk sample was determined. The results of the intra- and inter-day precision of multiple extractions from the fortified milk samples resulted in precisions better than 9.0% (RSD) and confirmed that the arrangement of the semiautomated manifold could adequately be used in solid-phase extraction with commercial cartridges. PMID:24148370
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Masato; Ueki, Yoshitaka; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki
2012-11-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem which is caused by interaction between electrical conducting fluid flow and the magnetic field is one of the biggest problem in the liquid metal blanket of the fusion reactor. In the liquid metal blanket concept, it is necessary to distribute liquid metal flows uniformly in the manifold because imbalance of flow rates should affect the heat transfer performance directly, which leads to safety problem. While the manifold is insulated electrically as well as the flow duct, the 3D-MHD effect on the flowing liquid metal in the manifold is more apparent than that in straight duct. With reference to the flow distribution in this concept, the liquid metal flow in the electrical insulating manifold under the uniform transverse magnetic field is investigated experimentally. In this study, GaInSn is selected as working fluid. The experimental system includes the electrical magnet and the manifold test section which is made of acrylic resin for perfectly electrical insulation. The liquid metal flows in a non-symmetric 180°-turn with manifold, which consists of one upward channel and two downward channels. The flow rates in each channel are measured by electromagnetic flow meters for several combinations Reynolds number and Hartman number. The effects of magnetic field on the uniformity of flow distribution are cleared.
Some results on pseudo-collar structures on high-dimensional manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolland, Jeffrey Joseph
In this dissertation we outline a partial reverse to Quilen's plus construction in the high-dimensional manifold categor. We show that for any orientable manifold N with fundamental group Q and any fintely presented superperfect group S, there is a 1-sided s-cobordism (W, N, N-) with the fundamental group G of N- a semi-direct product of Q by S, that is, with G satisying 1 → S → G → Q → 1 and actually a semi-direct product. We then use a free product of Thompson's group V with itself to form a superperfect group S and start with an orientable manifold N with fundamental group Z, the integers, and form semi-direct products of (S x S ... x S) with Z and cobordism ( W1, N, N-), (W 2, N-, N--), (W3, N--, N---) and so on and glue these 1-sided s-cobordisms together to form an uncoutable family of 1-ended pseudo-collarable manifolds V all with non-pro-isomorphic fundamental group systems at infinity. Finally, we generalize a result of Guilbault and Tinsley to show that in M is a manifold with hypo-Abelian fundamental group with an element of infinite order, then there is an absolutely inward tame manifold V with boundary M which fails to be pseudo-collaarable.
A configuration manifold embedding model for dynamic control of redundant robots
Gu, E.Y.L.
2000-03-01
This paper presents a configuration manifold embedding model that provides a new approach to dynamic model reduction and adaptive control of redundant robotic systems. The proposed model is developed based on a geometrical and topological analysis of configuration manifolds (C-manifolds) hidden behind every robotic dynamic system that commonly obeys the Lagrange equation. With a detailed study of the C-manifold immersion and embedding into Euclidean space, the authors show that for a redundant robotic system, a subtask decision by choosing a certain null solution is technically equivalent to the C-manifold embedization. A direct adaptive control strategy is then developed based on the C-manifold embedding model for a specific application to model reduction and control of redundant robotic systems with both main tasks and subtasks represented in Cartesian space. It is also demonstrated that making only a kinematics model for a redundant robot can do the dynamic control job. Finally, a computer simulation study shows the effectiveness of this adaptive control algorithm.
Spectral Target Detection using Physics-Based Modeling and a Manifold Learning Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albano, James A.
Identification of materials from calibrated radiance data collected by an airborne imaging spectrometer depends strongly on the atmospheric and illumination conditions at the time of collection. This thesis demonstrates a methodology for identifying material spectra using the assumption that each unique material class forms a lower-dimensional manifold (surface) in the higher-dimensional spectral radiance space and that all image spectra reside on, or near, these theoretic manifolds. Using a physical model, a manifold characteristic of the target material exposed to varying illumination and atmospheric conditions is formed. A graph-based model is then applied to the radiance data to capture the intricate structure of each material manifold, followed by the application of the commute time distance (CTD) transformation to separate the target manifold from the background. Detection algorithms are then applied in the CTD subspace. This nonlinear transformation is based on a random walk on a graph and is derived from an eigendecomposition of the pseudoinverse of the graph Laplacian matrix. This work provides a geometric interpretation of the CTD transformation, its algebraic properties, the atmospheric and illumination parameters varied in the physics-based model, and the influence the target manifold samples have on the orientation of the coordinate axes in the transformed space. This thesis concludes by demonstrating improved detection results in the CTD subspace as compared to detection in the original spectral radiance space.
Constrained manifold learning for the characterization of pathological deviations from normality.
Duchateau, Nicolas; De Craene, Mathieu; Piella, Gemma; Frangi, Alejandro F
2012-12-01
This paper describes a technique to (1) learn the representation of a pathological motion pattern from a given population, and (2) compare individuals to this population. Our hypothesis is that this pattern can be modeled as a deviation from normal motion by means of non-linear embedding techniques. Each subject is represented by a 2D map of local motion abnormalities, obtained from a statistical atlas of myocardial motion built from a healthy population. The algorithm estimates a manifold from a set of patients with varying degrees of the same disease, and compares individuals to the training population using a mapping to the manifold and a distance to normality along the manifold. The approach extends recent manifold learning techniques by constraining the manifold to pass by a physiologically meaningful origin representing a normal motion pattern. Interpolation techniques using locally adjustable kernel improve the accuracy of the method. The technique is applied in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), focusing on a specific motion pattern of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony called septal flash (SF). We estimate the manifold from 50 CRT candidates with SF and test it on 37 CRT candidates and 21 healthy volunteers. Experiments highlight the relevance of non-linear techniques to model a pathological pattern from the training set and compare new individuals to this pattern. PMID:22906821
A Low-Dimensional Principal Manifold as the "Attractor Backbone" of a Chaotic Beam System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bollt, Erik M.; Skufca, Joseph D.
We model an elastic beam subject to a contact load which displaces under a chaotic external forcing, motivated by application of a ship carrying either a crane, or fluids in internal tanks. This model not only has rich dynamics and relevance in its own right, it gives rise to a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) whose solutions are chaotic, with an attractor whose points lie "near" a low-dimensional curve. This form identifies a data-driven dimensionality reduction which encapsulates a Cartesian product, approximately, of a principal manifold, corresponding to spatial regularity, against a temporal complex dynamics of the intrinsic variable of the manifold. The principal manifold element serves to translate the complex information at one site to all other sites on the beam. Although points of the attractor do not lie on the principal manifold, they lie sufficiently close that we describe that manifold as a "backbone" running through the attractor, allowing the manifold to serve as a suitable space to approximate behaviors.
Air-liquid solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water subsystems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
A collection of quarterly reports consisting of the installation and layout design of the air collector system for commercial applications, completion of the preliminary design review, detailed design efforts, and preparation of the verification test plan are given. Performance specifications and performance testing of a prototype model of a two manifold, 144 tube air collector array is presented.
Statistical Shape Model for Manifold Regularization: Gleason grading of prostate histology.
Sparks, Rachel; Madabhushi, Anant
2013-09-01
Gleason patterns of prostate cancer histopathology, characterized primarily by morphological and architectural attributes of histological structures (glands and nuclei), have been found to be highly correlated with disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. Gleason patterns 4 and 5 are highly correlated with more aggressive disease and poorer patient outcome, while Gleason patterns 1-3 tend to reflect more favorable patient outcome. Because Gleason grading is done manually by a pathologist visually examining glass (or digital) slides subtle morphologic and architectural differences of histological attributes, in addition to other factors, may result in grading errors and hence cause high inter-observer variability. Recently some researchers have proposed computerized decision support systems to automatically grade Gleason patterns by using features pertaining to nuclear architecture, gland morphology, as well as tissue texture. Automated characterization of gland morphology has been shown to distinguish between intermediate Gleason patterns 3 and 4 with high accuracy. Manifold learning (ML) schemes attempt to generate a low dimensional manifold representation of a higher dimensional feature space while simultaneously preserving nonlinear relationships between object instances. Classification can then be performed in the low dimensional space with high accuracy. However ML is sensitive to the samples contained in the dataset; changes in the dataset may alter the manifold structure. In this paper we present a manifold regularization technique to constrain the low dimensional manifold to a specific range of possible manifold shapes, the range being determined via a statistical shape model of manifolds (SSMM). In this work we demonstrate applications of the SSMM in (1) identifying samples on the manifold which contain noise, defined as those samples which deviate from the SSMM, and (2) accurate out-of-sample extrapolation (OSE) of newly acquired samples onto a
A manifold learning approach to target detection in high-resolution hyperspectral imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziemann, Amanda K.
Imagery collected from airborne platforms and satellites provide an important medium for remotely analyzing the content in a scene. In particular, the ability to detect a specific material within a scene is of high importance to both civilian and defense applications. This may include identifying "targets" such as vehicles, buildings, or boats. Sensors that process hyperspectral images provide the high-dimensional spectral information necessary to perform such analyses. However, for a d-dimensional hyperspectral image, it is typical for the data to inherently occupy an m-dimensional space, with m << d. In the remote sensing community, this has led to a recent increase in the use of manifold learning, which aims to characterize the embedded lower-dimensional, non-linear manifold upon which the hyperspectral data inherently lie. Classic hyperspectral data models include statistical, linear subspace, and linear mixture models, but these can place restrictive assumptions on the distribution of the data; this is particularly true when implementing traditional target detection approaches, and the limitations of these models are well-documented. With manifold learning based approaches, the only assumption is that the data reside on an underlying manifold that can be discretely modeled by a graph. The research presented here focuses on the use of graph theory and manifold learning in hyperspectral imagery. Early work explored various graph-building techniques with application to the background model of the Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithm, which is a graph theory based approach to anomaly detection. This led towards a focus on target detection, and in the development of a specific graph-based model of the data and subsequent dimensionality reduction using manifold learning. An adaptive graph is built on the data, and then used to implement an adaptive version of locally linear embedding (LLE). We artificially induce a target manifold and incorporate it into
[Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].
Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae
2015-07-01
Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308
Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amschler, Denise H.
1985-01-01
This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-01-20
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...
Protein intake and bone health.
Bonjour, Jean-Philippe
2011-03-01
Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564
Premixed and nonpremixed generated manifolds in large-eddy simulation of Sandia flame D and F
Vreman, A.W.; Albrecht, B.A.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.
2008-05-15
Premixed and nonpremixed flamelet-generated manifolds have been constructed and applied to large-eddy simulation of the piloted partially premixed turbulent flames Sandia Flame D and F. In both manifolds the chemistry is parameterized as a function of the mixture fraction and a progress variable. Compared to standard nonpremixed flamelets, premixed flamelets cover a much larger part of the reaction domain. Comparison of the results for the two manifolds with experimental data of flame D show that both manifolds yield predictions of comparable accuracy for the mean temperature, mixture fraction, and a number of chemical species, such as CO{sub 2}. However, the nonpremixed manifold outperforms the premixed manifold for other chemical species, the most notable being CO and H{sub 2}. If the mixture is rich, CO and H{sub 2} in a premixed flamelet are larger than in a nonpremixed flamelet, for a given value of the progress variable. Simulations have been performed for two different grids to address the effect of the large-eddy filter width. The inclusion of modeled subgrid variances of mixture fraction and progress variable as additional entries to the manifold have only small effects on the simulation of either flame. An exception is the prediction of NO, which (through an extra transport equation) was found to be much closer to experimental results when modeled subgrid variances were included. The results obtained for flame D are satisfactory, but despite the unsteadiness of the LES, the extinction measured in flame F is not properly captured. The latter finding suggests that the extinction in flame F mainly occurs on scales smaller than those resolved by the simulation. With the presumed {beta}-pdf approach, significant extinction does not occur, unless the scalar subgrid variances are overestimated. A thickened flame model, which maps unresolved small-scale dynamics upon resolved scales, is able to predict the experimentally observed extinction to some extent
The Geometric Median on Riemannian Manifolds with Application to Robust Atlas Estimation
Fletcher, P. Thomas; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh; Joshi, Sarang
2009-01-01
One of the primary goals of computational anatomy is the statistical analysis of anatomical variability in large populations of images. The study of anatomical shape is inherently related to the construction of transformations of the underlying coordinate space, which map one anatomy to another. It is now well established that representing the geometry of shapes or images in Euclidian spaces undermines our ability to represent natural variability in populations. In our previous work we have extended classical statistical analysis techniques, such as averaging, principal components analysis, and regression, to Riemannian manifolds, which are more appropriate representations for describing anatomical variability. In this paper we extend the notion of robust estimation, a well established and powerful tool in traditional statistical analysis of Euclidian data, to manifold-valued representations of anatomical variability. In particular, we extend the geometric median, a classic robust estimator of centrality for data in Euclidean spaces. We formulate the geometric median of data on a Riemannian manifold as the minimizer of the sum of geodesic distances to the data points. We prove existence and uniqueness of the geometric median on manifolds with non-positive sectional curvature and give sufficient conditions for uniqueness on positively curved manifolds. Generalizing the Weiszfeld procedure for finding the geometric median of Euclidean data, we present an algorithm for computing the geometric median on an arbitrary manifold. We show that this algorithm converges to the unique solution when it exists. In this paper we exemplify the robustness of the estimation technique by applying the procedure to various manifolds commonly used in the analysis of medical images. Using this approach, we also present a robust brain atlas estimation technique based on the geometric median in the space of deformable images. PMID:19056498
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...
Aeppli and Bott-Chern cohomology for bi-generalized Hermitian manifolds and d‧d″-lemma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tai-Wei; Ho, Chung-I.; Teh, Jyh-Haur
2015-07-01
We define Aeppli and Bott-Chern cohomology for bi-generalized complex manifolds and show that they are finite dimensional for compact bi-generalized Hermitian manifolds. For totally bounded double complexes (A, d‧d″), we show that the validity of d‧d″-lemma is equivalent to having the same dimension of several cohomology groups. Some calculations of Bott-Chern cohomology groups of some bi-generalized Hermitian manifolds are given.
Nonlinear regression on Riemannian manifolds and its applications to Neuro-image analysis ★
Banerjee, Monami; Chakraborty, Rudrasis; Ofori, Edward; Vaillancourt, David
2016-01-01
Regression in its most common form where independent and dependent variables are in ℝn is a ubiquitous tool in Sciences and Engineering. Recent advances in Medical Imaging has lead to a wide spread availability of manifold-valued data leading to problems where the independent variables are manifold-valued and dependent are real-valued or vice-versa. The most common method of regression on a manifold is the geodesic regression, which is the counterpart of linear regression in Euclidean space. Often, the relation between the variables is highly complex, and existing most commonly used geodesic regression can prove to be inaccurate. Thus, it is necessary to resort to a non-linear model for regression. In this work we present a novel Kernel based non-linear regression method when the mapping to be estimated is either from M → ℝn or ℝn → M, where M is a Riemannian manifold. A key advantage of this approach is that there is no requirement for the manifold-valued data to necessarily inherit an ordering from the data in ℝn. We present several synthetic and real data experiments along with comparisons to the state-of-the-art geodesic regression method in literature and thus validating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27110601
Dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral images based on sparse discriminant manifold embedding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Hong; Luo, Fulin; Liu, Jiamin; Yang, Yaqiong
2015-08-01
Sparse manifold clustering and embedding (SMCE) adaptively selects neighbor points from the same manifold and approximately spans a low-dimensional affine subspace, but it does not explicitly give a projection matrix and encounters the out-of-sample problem. To overcome this drawback, we propose a new dimensionality reduction method, called sparse manifold embedding (SME), based on graph embedding and sparse representation for hyperspectral image (HSI). It utilizes the sparse coefficients of affine subspace to construct a similarity graph and preserves this sparse similarity in embedding space. Furthermore, we try to make full use of the prior label information to design a novel supervised learning method termed sparse discriminant manifold embedding (SDME). SDME not only inherits the merits of the sparsity property of affine subspace but also boosts the compactness of intra-manifold, which achieves discriminating features and further improves the classification performance of HSI. Experiments on two real hyperspectral data sets (Indian Pines and PaviaU) show the benefits of the proposed SME and SDME methods.
Manifold regularized multitask learning for semi-supervised multilabel image classification.
Luo, Yong; Tao, Dacheng; Geng, Bo; Xu, Chao; Maybank, Stephen J
2013-02-01
It is a significant challenge to classify images with multiple labels by using only a small number of labeled samples. One option is to learn a binary classifier for each label and use manifold regularization to improve the classification performance by exploring the underlying geometric structure of the data distribution. However, such an approach does not perform well in practice when images from multiple concepts are represented by high-dimensional visual features. Thus, manifold regularization is insufficient to control the model complexity. In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized multitask learning (MRMTL) algorithm. MRMTL learns a discriminative subspace shared by multiple classification tasks by exploiting the common structure of these tasks. It effectively controls the model complexity because different tasks limit one another's search volume, and the manifold regularization ensures that the functions in the shared hypothesis space are smooth along the data manifold. We conduct extensive experiments, on the PASCAL VOC'07 dataset with 20 classes and the MIR dataset with 38 classes, by comparing MRMTL with popular image classification algorithms. The results suggest that MRMTL is effective for image classification. PMID:22997267
Access to Mars from Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbits:. [Manifold and Direct Options
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kakoi, Masaki; Howell, Kathleen C.; Folta, David
2014-01-01
This investigation is focused specifically on transfers from Earth-Moon L(sub 1)/L(sub 2) libration point orbits to Mars. Initially, the analysis is based in the circular restricted three-body problem to utilize the framework of the invariant manifolds. Various departure scenarios are compared, including arcs that leverage manifolds associated with the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) orbits as well as non-manifold trajectories. For the manifold options, ballistic transfers from Earth-Moon L(sub 2) libration point orbits to Sun-Earth L(sub 1)/L(sub 2) halo orbits are first computed. This autonomous procedure applies to both departure and arrival between the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth systems. Departure times in the lunar cycle, amplitudes and types of libration point orbits, manifold selection, and the orientation/location of the surface of section all contribute to produce a variety of options. As the destination planet, the ephemeris position for Mars is employed throughout the analysis. The complete transfer is transitioned to the ephemeris model after the initial design phase. Results for multiple departure/arrival scenarios are compared.
Enhanced low-rank representation via sparse manifold adaption for semi-supervised learning.
Peng, Yong; Lu, Bao-Liang; Wang, Suhang
2015-05-01
Constructing an informative and discriminative graph plays an important role in various pattern recognition tasks such as clustering and classification. Among the existing graph-based learning models, low-rank representation (LRR) is a very competitive one, which has been extensively employed in spectral clustering and semi-supervised learning (SSL). In SSL, the graph is composed of both labeled and unlabeled samples, where the edge weights are calculated based on the LRR coefficients. However, most of existing LRR related approaches fail to consider the geometrical structure of data, which has been shown beneficial for discriminative tasks. In this paper, we propose an enhanced LRR via sparse manifold adaption, termed manifold low-rank representation (MLRR), to learn low-rank data representation. MLRR can explicitly take the data local manifold structure into consideration, which can be identified by the geometric sparsity idea; specifically, the local tangent space of each data point was sought by solving a sparse representation objective. Therefore, the graph to depict the relationship of data points can be built once the manifold information is obtained. We incorporate a regularizer into LRR to make the learned coefficients preserve the geometric constraints revealed in the data space. As a result, MLRR combines both the global information emphasized by low-rank property and the local information emphasized by the identified manifold structure. Extensive experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks demonstrate that MLRR is an excellent method in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph construction approaches. PMID:25634552
On perturbative instability of Pope-Warner solutions on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilch, Krzysztof; Yoo, Isaiah
2013-09-01
Given a Sasaki-Einstein manifold, M 7, there is the supersymmetric AdS 4 × M 7 Freund-Rubin solution of eleven-dimensional supergravity and the corresponding non-supersymmetric solutions: the perturbatively stable skew-whiffed solution, the perturbatively unstable Englert solution, and the Pope-Warner solution, which is known to be perturbatively unstable when M 7 is the seven-sphere or, more generally, a tri-Sasakian manifold. We show that similar perturbative instability of the Pope-Warner solution will arise for any regular Sasaki-Einstein manifold, M 7, admitting a basic, primitive, transverse (1,1)-eigenform of the Hodge-de Rham Laplacian with the eigenvalue in the range between and . Existence of such (1,1)-forms on all homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein manifolds can be shown explicitly using the Kähler quotient construction or the standard harmonic expansion. The latter shows that the instability arises from the coupling between the Pope-Warner background and Kaluza-Klein scalar modes that at the supersymmetric point lie in a long Z-vector supermultiplet. We also verify that the instability persists for the orbifolds of homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein manifolds that have been discussed recently.
Multilayer Joint Gait-Pose Manifolds for Human Gait Motion Modeling.
Ding, Meng; Fan, Guolian
2015-11-01
We present new multilayer joint gait-pose manifolds (multilayer JGPMs) for complex human gait motion modeling, where three latent variables are defined jointly in a low-dimensional manifold to represent a variety of body configurations. Specifically, the pose variable (along the pose manifold) denotes a specific stage in a walking cycle; the gait variable (along the gait manifold) represents different walking styles; and the linear scale variable characterizes the maximum stride in a walking cycle. We discuss two kinds of topological priors for coupling the pose and gait manifolds, i.e., cylindrical and toroidal, to examine their effectiveness and suitability for motion modeling. We resort to a topologically-constrained Gaussian process (GP) latent variable model to learn the multilayer JGPMs where two new techniques are introduced to facilitate model learning under limited training data. First is training data diversification that creates a set of simulated motion data with different strides. Second is the topology-aware local learning to speed up model learning by taking advantage of the local topological structure. The experimental results on the Carnegie Mellon University motion capture data demonstrate the advantages of our proposed multilayer models over several existing GP-based motion models in terms of the overall performance of human gait motion modeling. PMID:25532201
Legendre submanifolds in contact manifolds as attractors and geometric nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Goto, Shin-itiro
2015-07-15
It has been proposed that equilibrium thermodynamics is described on Legendre submanifolds in contact geometry. It is shown in this paper that Legendre submanifolds embedded in a contact manifold can be expressed as attractors in phase space for a certain class of contact Hamiltonian vector fields. By giving a physical interpretation that points outside the Legendre submanifold can represent nonequilibrium states of thermodynamic variables, in addition to that points of a given Legendre submanifold can represent equilibrium states of the variables, this class of contact Hamiltonian vector fields is physically interpreted as a class of relaxation processes, in which thermodynamic variables achieve an equilibrium state from a nonequilibrium state through a time evolution, a typical nonequilibrium phenomenon. Geometric properties of such vector fields on contact manifolds are characterized after introducing a metric tensor field on a contact manifold. It is also shown that a contact manifold and a strictly convex function induce a lower dimensional dually flat space used in information geometry where a geometrization of equilibrium statistical mechanics is constructed. Legendre duality on contact manifolds is explicitly stated throughout.
Legendre submanifolds in contact manifolds as attractors and geometric nonequilibrium thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Shin-itiro
2015-07-01
It has been proposed that equilibrium thermodynamics is described on Legendre submanifolds in contact geometry. It is shown in this paper that Legendre submanifolds embedded in a contact manifold can be expressed as attractors in phase space for a certain class of contact Hamiltonian vector fields. By giving a physical interpretation that points outside the Legendre submanifold can represent nonequilibrium states of thermodynamic variables, in addition to that points of a given Legendre submanifold can represent equilibrium states of the variables, this class of contact Hamiltonian vector fields is physically interpreted as a class of relaxation processes, in which thermodynamic variables achieve an equilibrium state from a nonequilibrium state through a time evolution, a typical nonequilibrium phenomenon. Geometric properties of such vector fields on contact manifolds are characterized after introducing a metric tensor field on a contact manifold. It is also shown that a contact manifold and a strictly convex function induce a lower dimensional dually flat space used in information geometry where a geometrization of equilibrium statistical mechanics is constructed. Legendre duality on contact manifolds is explicitly stated throughout.
40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... operating range during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ±2 percent of full-scale value of the... percent or less of the full-scale value. The Administrator must be advised of the method used prior...
40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... percent of full-scale value of the measurement device for all modes except the idle mode. For the idle mode, the measurement accuracy must be ±five percent or less of the full-scale value. The...
Thin-Film Air-Mass-Flow Sensor of Improved Design Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Hwang, Danny P.
2003-01-01
used to provide accurate information about the amount of air entering the engine so that the amount of fuel can be adjusted to give the most efficient combustion. The ideal mass-flow sensor would be a rugged design that minimizes the disturbance to the flow stream and provides an accurate reading of both smooth and turbulent flows; NASA's design satisfies these requirements better than any existing design. Most of the mass-flow sensors used today are the hot wire variety. Hot wires can be fragile and cannot accurately measure a turbulent or reversing flow, which is often encountered in an intake manifold. Other types of mass-flow sensors include pitot tubes, vane anemometers, and thermocouple rakes-all of which suffer from some type of performance problem. Because it solves these performance problems while maintaining a simple design that lends itself to low-cost manufacturing techniques, NASA s thin-film resistance temperature detector air-mass-flow sensor should lead to more widespread use of mass-flow sensors.
A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES
The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...
Observations of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of phosphine on Saturn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Rank, D. M.
1985-01-01
Saturn was observed in the vicinity of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of phosphine on 1984 July 10 and 12 from NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the facility far-infrared cooled grating spectrometer. On each night observations of the full disk plus rings were made at 4 to 6 discrete wavelengths which selectively sampled the manifold and the adjacent continuum. The previously reported detection of this manifold is confirmed. After subtraction of the flux due to the rings, the data are compared with disk-averaged models of Saturn. It is found that PH3 must be strongly depleted above the thermal inversion (approx. 70 mbar). The best fitting models consistent with other observational constraints indicate that PH3 is significantly depleted at even deeper atmospheric levels (or = 500 mbar), implying an eddy diffusion coefficient for Saturn of 10 to the 4 cm sq/sec.
Observations of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of phosphine on Saturn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Rank, D. M.
1986-01-01
Saturn was observed in the vicinity of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of phosphine on 1984 July 10 and 12 from NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the facility far-infrared cooled grating spectrometer. On each night observations of the full disk plus rings were made at 4 to 6 discrete wavelengths which selectively sampled the manifold and the adjacent continuum. The previously reported detection of this manifold is confirmed. After subtraction of the flux due to the rings, the data are compared with disk-averaged models of Saturn. It is found that PH3 must be strongly depleted above the thermal inversion (approx. 70 mbar). The best fitting models consistent with other observational constaints indicate that PH3 is significantly depleted at even deeper atmospheric levels ( or = 500 mbar), implying an eddy diffusion coefficient for Saturn of 10 to the 4 cm sq/sec.
Natural star-products on symplectic manifolds and related quantum mechanical operators
Błaszak, Maciej Domański, Ziemowit
2014-05-15
In this paper is considered a problem of defining natural star-products on symplectic manifolds, admissible for quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. First, a construction of a star-product on a cotangent bundle to an Euclidean configuration space is given with the use of a sequence of pair-wise commuting vector fields. The connection with a covariant representation of such a star-product is also presented. Then, an extension of the construction to symplectic manifolds over flat and non-flat pseudo-Riemannian configuration spaces is discussed. Finally, a coordinate free construction of related quantum mechanical operators from Hilbert space over respective configuration space is presented. -- Highlights: •Invariant representations of natural star-products on symplectic manifolds are considered. •Star-products induced by flat and non-flat connections are investigated. •Operator representations in Hilbert space of considered star-algebras are constructed.
A comparative study on manifold learning of hyperspectral data for land cover classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozturk, Ceyda Nur; Bilgin, Gokhan
2015-03-01
This paper focuses on the land cover classification problem by employing a number of manifold learning algorithms in the feature extraction phase, then by running single and ensemble of classifiers in the modeling phase. Manifolds are learned on training samples selected randomly within available data, while the transformation of the remaining test samples is realized for linear and nonlinear methods via the learnt mappings and a radial-basis function neural network based interpolation method, respectively. The classification accuracies of the original data and the embedded manifolds are investigated with several classifiers. Experimental results on a 200-band hyperspectral image indicated that support vector machine was the best classifier for most of the methods, being nearly as accurate as the best classification rate of the original data. Furthermore, our modified version of random subspace classifier could even outperform the classification accuracy of the original data for local Fisher's discriminant analysis method despite of a considerable decrease in the extrinsic dimension.
Burning invariant manifolds for propagating fronts in a chain of vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solomon, Tom; Kingsbury, Mark; Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin
2011-11-01
We present experimental studies of the behavior of reaction fronts in a chain of alternating vortices. The flow is produced by a magnetohydrodynamic forcing technique, and the fronts are produced by the ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. We introduce burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) which act as barriers to front propagation, similar to the role played by invariant manifolds as barriers to passive transport in two-dimensional flows. Unlike manifolds for passive transport, though, BIMs are one-sided barriers, passing either left- or right-going fronts but blocking the other. We show how the BIMs can be measured experimentally for both time-independent and time-periodic flows. The experimental results are compared to simulations based on a simplified numerical model of the flow. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-0703635, DMR-1004744, PHY-0552790 and PHY-0748828.