Science.gov

Sample records for air laboratory hoal

  1. The Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypothesis-driven observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, G.; Blaschke, A. P.; Broer, M.; Bucher, C.; Carr, G.; Chen, X.; Eder, A.; Exner-Kittridge, M.; Farnleitner, A.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Haas, P.; Hogan, P.; Kazemi Amiri, A.; Oismüller, M.; Parajka, J.; Silasari, R.; Stadler, P.; Strauss, P.; Vreugdenhil, M.; Wagner, W.; Zessner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrological observatories bear a lot of resemblance to the more traditional research catchment concept, but tend to differ in providing more long-term facilities that transcend the lifetime of individual projects, are more strongly geared towards performing interdisciplinary research, and are often designed as networks to assist in performing collaborative science. This paper illustrates how the experimental and monitoring set-up of an observatory, the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, has been established in a way that allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The overarching science questions guided site selection, identification of dissertation topics and the base monitoring. The specific hypotheses guided the dedicated monitoring and sampling, individual experiments, and repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions. The purpose of the HOAL is to advance the understanding of water-related flow and transport processes involving sediments, nutrients and microbes in small catchments. The HOAL catchment is ideally suited for this purpose, because it features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), the nutrient inputs are known, and it is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high-speed glassfibre local area network (LAN). The multitude of runoff generation mechanisms in the catchment provides a genuine laboratory where hypotheses of flow and transport can be tested, either by controlled experiments or by contrasting sub-regions of different characteristics. This diversity also ensures that the HOAL is representative of a range of catchments around the world, and the specific process findings from the HOAL are applicable to a variety of agricultural catchment settings. The HOAL is operated jointly by the Vienna University of Technology and the Federal Agency for Water Management and takes

  2. The Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypotheses driven observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, G.; Blaschke, A. P.; Broer, M.; Bucher, C.; Carr, G.; Chen, X.; Eder, A.; Exner-Kittridge, M.; Farnleitner, A.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Haas, P.; Hogan, P.; Kazemi Amiri, A.; Oismüller, M.; Parajka, J.; Silasari, R.; Stadler, P.; Strauß, P.; Vreugdenhil, M.; Wagner, W.; Zessner, M.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrological observatories bear a lot of resemblance to the more traditional research catchment concept but tend to differ in providing more long term facilities that transcend the lifetime of individual projects, are more strongly geared towards performing interdisciplinary research, and are often designed as networks to assist in performing collaborative science. This paper illustrates how the experimental and monitoring setup of an observatory, the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, has been established in a way that allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The overarching science questions guided site selection, identifying dissertation topics and the base monitoring. The specific hypotheses guided the dedicated monitoring and sampling, individual experiments, and repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions. The purpose of the HOAL is to advance the understanding of water related flow and transport processes involving sediments, nutrients and microbes in small catchments. The HOAL catchment is ideally suited for this purpose, because it features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), the nutrient inputs are known, and it is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high speed glassfibre Local Area Network. The multitude of runoff generation mechanisms in the catchment provide a genuine laboratory where hypotheses of flow and transport can be tested, either by controlled experiments or by contrasting sub-regions of different characteristics. This diversity also ensures that the HOAL is representative of a range of catchments around the world and the specific process findings from the HOAL are applicable to a variety of agricultural catchment settings. The HOAL is operated jointly by the Vienna University of Technology and the Federal Agency for Water Management and takes advantage of the

  3. Human impact on the geomorphic evolution of the HOAL catchment, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Kraushaar, Sabine; Strauss, Peter; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of human settlement extensive land cover and land use changes have induced significant geomorphic landscape changes as water and sediment dynamics have been transformed. The presented project focuses on the reconstruction of Holocene geomorphic landscape evolution and the assessment of recent geomorphic processes in the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria - an area intensively agriculturally used since the middle ages and often overlooked in its geomorphic evolution. The study area is a small catchment (ca. 66 ha) which is located in the western part of Lower Austria comprising a land use history as well as environmental settings typical for wide regions across the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria. The catchment elevation ranges from 268 to 323 m a.s.l. and has a mean slope angle of 8%. The climate in this region can be characterized as humid. The lithology mainly consists of Tertiary marly to sandy deposits which are superimposed by Quaternary sediments (e.g. loesses). Dominant soil types are Cambisols, Luvisols, and Planosols. Furthermore, the catchment is used as a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) implemented for the long-term research of water-related flow and transport processes in the landscape (http://hoal.hydrology.at). The main objective of this research project is to reconstruct Holocene landscape evolution by analyzing physical parameters of sediment cores taken from colluvial and alluvial sediment archives with additional 14C and OSL dating as well as by the measurement of truncated and covered standardized Luvisol profiles. First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  4. Sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes in the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széles, Borbála; Parajka, Juraj; Blöschl, Günter; Oismüller, Markus; Hajnal, Géza

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to simulate the rainfall response and analyse the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes of the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, a small experimental watershed (66 ha) located in the western part of Lower Austria and dominated by agricultural land use. Due to the extensive monitoring network in the HOAL, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of hydro-meteorological elements are exceptionally well represented on the catchment scale. The study aimed to exploit the facilities of the available database collected by innovative sensing techniques to advance the understanding of various rainfall-runoff processes. The TUWmodel, a lumped, conceptual hydrological model, following the structure of the HBV model was implemented on the catchment. In addition to the surface runoff at the catchment outlet, several different runoff generation mechanisms (tile drainage flow, saturation excess runoff from wetlands and groundwater discharge from springs) were also simulated, which gave an opportunity to describe the spatial distribution of model parameters in the study area. This helped to proceed from the original lumped model concept towards a spatially distributed one. The other focus of this work was to distinguish the dominant model parameters from the less sensitive ones for each tributary with different runoff type by applying two different sensitivity analysis methods, the simple local perturbation and the global Latin-Hypercube-One-Factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) tools. Moreover, the impacts of modifying the initial parameters of the LH-OAT method and the applied objective functions were also taken into consideration. The results and findings of the model and sensitivity analyses were summarized and future development perspectives were outlined. Key words: spatial heterogeneity of rainfall-runoff mechanisms, sensitivity analysis, lumped conceptual hydrological model

  5. Air resources laboratory 1992 report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Laboratory provides scientific advice to elements of NOAA and other Government agencies on environmental problems, emergency assistance, and climate change. ARL research is oriented around three major themes, as follow: (1) Air Quality and Dispersion (air-surface exchange/micrometeorology; acid deposition; ozone and oxidants; aerosols and visibility; toxics); (2) Emergency Preparedness (nuclear; volcanoes; large fires; dense gases); (3) Climate Trends and Variability (solar radiation, including IR, UV; meteorological trends; desertification). Work on all of these themes is multi-organizational within ARL, and requires extensive interaction with other agencies. The issues addressed by these programs relate to environmental effects, human exposure, and societal impact.

  6. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  7. Conventional and anisotropic magnetic entropy change in HoAl2 ferromagnetic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, L. A.; Campoy, J. C. P.; Plaza, E. J. R.; de Souza, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical investigations on the conventional and anisotropic magnetocaloric effects in the cubic HoAl2 ferromagnetic compound. They are investigated in terms of a Hamiltonian that takes into account the Zeeman and exchange magnetic interactions, and crystalline electric field. In this study we have explored recent experimental results in HoAl2 single crystals and polycrystalline samples. HoAl2 presents a spin reorientation transition at 20 K and different signatures of this phenomenon are reproduced in our calculations. In addition, we have calculated the anisotropic variation of magnetic entropy that corresponds to a rotation of a HoAl2 single crystal from its [110] towards its [100] direction in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The intensity of the anisotropic effect is twice that one of the conventional effect at spin reorientation region. A subtle signature of the spin reorientation is also observed in the [111] direction. We conclude that the crystal electric field term plays the principal role to describe the main magnetic characteristics of the system, not being necessary to include in the Hamiltonian others effects such as elastic or high order magnetic interactions.

  8. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  9. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  10. Runaway electrons from laboratory discharges in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanya, J.; March, V.

    2011-12-01

    The role of runaway electrons in the lightning discharge it is still unknown. High energy electrons are associated with lightning discharges and occur with electric field variations associated with leader lightning advancement. On the other hand, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGF) are bursts of high energetic particles from the earth. TGF have been associated with lightning, but its origin is still under debate. In 2005 it was demonstrated that runaway electrons appear during high voltage impulses in the laboratory. These results opened the research of high energy particles in the laboratory and some researchers have focused its research in this field. From 2010 we have conducted different experiments using a Marx generator. We created impulse voltages up to 1 MV for air gaps between 30 and 100 cm. Shielded NaI(Tl) detectors were used to measure high energy particles from the discharge. We have designed experiments in order to discover the properties of these runaway electrons. From more than 2000 sparks, we showed that runaway electrons are affected by the rise time of the impulse, presented the role of each electrode in the acceleration of electrons and the role of the electric field in the process. In this presentation, we focus on the results of laboratory discharges and the possible implications in lightning discharges and TGF. The controlled impulse voltages in the laboratory can constitute an indirect way for study this phenomenon.

  11. Measuring Air Resistance in a Computerized Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ken; Thompson, D.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves dropping spherical party balloons onto a sonic motion sensor to show that the force associated with the air resistance is proportional to both the square of the velocity and the cross-sectional area of the balloon. (Author/WRM)

  12. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  14. Laboratory facility design and microbial indoor air quality in selected hospital laboratories.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kiennukul, Nuchanard; Vatthanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-05-01

    Hospital laboratory is one of workplace areas contaminated with a variety of biohazards. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbial air quality and facility design in the laboratories of four selected governmental hospitals (Hospitals A, B, C, and D) in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred eighty-eight indoor air samples were collected from 40 laboratory rooms to investigate bacterial and fungal counts using the Millipore air tester. Forty air samples were collected from the waiting areas of those laboratories, and 16 outdoor air samples were collected to use for comparison. Additionally, those laboratory facilities were assessed following biosafety facility design (10 items). Results indicated that the facility design of laboratory in the Hospital A met most of items of the biosafety facility criteria. The rest met only seven items of the criteria. Means +/- standard deviation (SD) of bacterial counts of 253.1 +/- 247.7 cfu/m3, 236.8 +/- 200.1 cfu/m3, 304.4 +/- 264.2 cfu/m3, and 146.7 +/- 127.0 cfu/m3, and fungal counts of 500.8 +/- 64.2 cfu/ m3, 425.0 +/- 21.2 cfu/m3, 357.0 +/- 121.2 cfu/m3, and 355.7 +/- 86.8 cfu/m3 were found in hospital laboratories A, B, C and D, respectively. The isolated colonies of bacteria and fungi were identified as group or genus. It was found that the most common bacteria was Staphylococcus spp (84.1%, 76.0%, 72.1% and 80.5%, respectively), whereas, the most common fungi were Aspergillus spp and septate hyphae fungi (42.0%, 37.5%, 39.5%, and 45.7%; vs 38.6%, 56.2%, 52.1%, and 37.2%, respectively). These data may be valuable to develop interventions to improve the microbial indoor air quality among hospital laboratories and for preventing the laboratory-acquired infections. PMID:24974659

  15. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  16. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  17. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING LASER LABORATORY. WrightPatterson Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING LASER LABORATORY. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 71A, Propulsion Research Laboratory, Seventh Street between D & G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  18. Philip Morris involvement in the development of an air quality laboratory in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Kummerfeldt, C E; Barnoya, J; Bero, L

    2009-01-01

    Background: The tobacco industry has organised research institutions to generate misleading data on indoor air quality, including second-hand smoke exposure and health effects. Objectives: To describe tobacco industry involvement in the organisation and financial support of an air quality research laboratory in El Salvador. Methods: Tobacco industry documents on the internet were systematically searched from August 2007 to February 2008 for air quality studies undertaken in El Salvador, and laboratory personnel were interviewed. Results: Philip Morris sought to establish a network of air quality laboratories throughout Latin America. In El Salvador, in 1997, through Tabacalera de El Salvador (a subsidiary of Philip Morris) and the Salvadoran Foundation for Economic Development (FUSADES), the industry organised an air quality research laboratory. FUSADES was part of the industry’s Latin American Scientific Network, which consisted of doctors hired as consultants who would send air samples from their research to FUSADES. Philip Morris Scientific Affairs personnel hired LabStat, a Canadian-based laboratory, to provide technical assistance to FUSADES (train and assist the laboratory in air quality measurements). In addition, the Washington-based HMS Group successfully implemented a plan to upgrade the laboratory and obtain international certifications. HMS Group also assisted in searching for sustainable funding for FUSADES, including seeking funds from international aid for Hurricane Mitch. Conclusion: Air quality studies that have used the FUSADES laboratory should be carefully interpreted, given the support that this laboratory received from Philip Morris. PMID:19211614

  19. VERSATILE PC-BASED DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM: AUTOMATION OF EPA'S AIR TOXICS CONTROL LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the decision making process which resulted in the selection and configuration of the hardware and software for the Air Toxics Control Laboratory (ATCL) designed and built at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, in response to the need for the ...

  20. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  1. Air quality control in the ART laboratory is a major determinant of IVF success

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Bento, Fabiola C

    2016-01-01

    A recently published article described how a fertility center in the United States implemented air quality control to newly designed in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory.1 A highly-efficient air filtration was achieved by installing a centered system supplying filtered air to the IVF laboratory and related critical areas, combining air particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) filtration. As a consequence, live birth rates were increased by improvements in air quality. This article highlights the key aspects of air contamination in the IVF context. The topic is important not only to IVF specialists but also to Andrologists due to the great number of male infertility patients referred to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. The evidence is growing that laboratory air quality is paramount importance for improved IVF outcome. PMID:26585700

  2. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  3. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program : annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Richard; Gardizi, Leslee P.

    2007-05-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  5. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS AT EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing, applying, and evaluating population-based exposure models to improve our understanding of the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants. Estimates of population variability are needed for E...

  6. Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are…

  7. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Curtis; Modera, Mark

    2012-05-01

    This report presents a process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  8. Air quality in the assisted reproduction laboratory: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Morbeck, Dean E

    2015-07-01

    Quality of air in the clinical embryology laboratory is considered critical for high in vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates, yet evidence for best practices is lacking. Predominantly anecdotal reports on relationships between air quality and IVF success rates have resulted in minimal authentic clinical laboratory guidelines or in recommendations that are based on industrial cleanroom particulate standards with little attention to chemical air filtration. As a result, a nascent industry of costly, specialized air handling equipment for IVF laboratories has emerged to provide air quality solutions that have not been clearly assessed or verified. Clinics are embracing such technology because their embryology laboratories have become epicenters of assisted reproductive technology as the practice of IVF has moved to blastocyst transfers and utilization of trophectoderm biopsy for preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). Thus, a laboratory's ability to culture, biopsy, and freeze blastocysts is a rate-limiting step that depends on technical proficiency and a supportive and stable culture environment based on a foundation of high-quality ambient air. This review aims to describe how evidence for the importance of air quality, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds (VOC), has resulted in an evolution of clinical practice that has arguably contributed to improved outcomes. PMID:26238385

  9. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  10. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  11. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. Annotated Bibliography of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory Technical Reports--1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Esther M., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography presents a listing of technical reports (1976) dealing with personnel and training research conducted by the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, an institution charged with the planning and execution of United States Air Force exploratory and advanced development programs for selection, motivation, training,…

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  14. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

    2012-05-01

    Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  15. Air/water oxydesulfurization of coal: laboratory investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Warzinski, R. P.; Friedman, S.; Ruether, J. A.; LaCount, R. B.

    1980-08-01

    Air/water oxidative desulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major US coal basins. This experimentation has shown that the reaction proceeds effectively for pulverized coals at temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C with air at a total system pressure of 500 to 1500 psig. Above 200/sup 0/C, the loss of coal and product heating value increases due to oxidative consumption of carbon and hydrogen. The pyritic sulfur solubilization reactions are typically complete (95 percent removal) within 15 to 40 minutes at temperature; however, significant apparent organic sulfur removal requires residence times of up to 60 minutes at the higher temperatures. The principal products of the reaction are sulfuric acid, which can be neutralized with limestone, and iron oxide. Under certain conditions, especially for high pyritic sulfur coals, the precipitation of sulfur-containing compounds from the products of the pyrite reaction may cause anomalous variations in the sulfur form data. The influence of various parameters on the efficiency of sulfur removal from coal by air/water oxydesulfurization has been studied.

  16. Mass transfer of VOCs in laboratory-scale air sparging tank.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Ong, Say Kee; Huang, Mei-Chuan

    2008-04-15

    Volatilization of VOCs was investigated using a 55-gal laboratory-scale model in which air sparging experiments were conducted with a vertical air injection well. In addition, X-ray imaging of an air sparging sand box showed air flows were in the form of air bubbles or channels depending on the size of the porous media. Air-water mass transfer was quantified using the air-water mass transfer coefficient which was determined by fitting the experimental data to a two-zone model. The two-zone model is a one-dimensional lumped model that accounts for the effects of air flow type and diffusion of VOCs in the aqueous phase. The experimental air-water mass transfer coefficients, KGa, obtained from this study ranged from 10(-2) to 10(-3)1/min. From a correlation analysis, the air-water mass transfer coefficient was found to be directly proportional to the air flow rate and the mean particle size of soil but inversely proportional to Henry's constant. The correlation results implied that the air-water mass transfer coefficient was strongly affected by the size of porous media and the air flow rates. PMID:17804158

  17. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Laboratory Air Quality: Part II. Measurements of Ventilation Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Part I of this paper (SE 538 295) described a simple model for estimating laboratory concentrations of gas phase pollutants. In this part, the measurement of ventilation rates and applications of the model are discussed. The model can provide a useful starting point in planning for safer instructional laboratories. (JN)

  19. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Laboratory Air Quality: Part I. A Concentration Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Offers a simple model for estimating vapor concentrations in instructional laboratories. Three methods are described for measuring ventilation rates, and the results of measurements in six laboratories are presented. The model should provide a simple screening tool for evaluating worst-case personal exposures. (JN)

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  2. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  4. Laboratory study of air sparging of TCE-contaminated saturated soils and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1999-06-30

    Air sparging has proven to be an effective remediation technique for treating saturated soils and ground water contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since little is known about the system variables and mass transfer mechanisms important to air sparging, several researchers have recently performed laboratory investigations to study such issues. This paper presents the results of column experiments performed to investigate the behavior of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), specifically trichloroethylene (TCE), during air sparging. The specific objectives of the study were (1) to compare the removal of dissolved TCE with the removal of dissolved light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), such as benzene or toluene; (2) to determine the effect of injected air-flow rate on dissolved TCE removal; (3) to determine the effect of initial dissolved TCE concentration on removal efficiency; and (4) to determine the differences in removal between dissolved and pure-chase TCE. The test results showed that (1) the removal of dissolved TCE was similar to that of dissolved LNAPL; (2) increased air-injection rates led to increased TCE removal at lower ranges of air injection, but further increases at higher ranges of air injection did not increase the rate of removal, indicating a threshold removal rate had been reached; (3) increased initial concentration of dissolved TCE resulted in similar rates of removal; and (4) the removal pf pure-phase TCE was difficult using a low air-injection rate, but higher air-injection rates led to easier removal.

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  6. Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling hydrogen sulfide in air.

    PubMed

    Kring, E V; Damrell, D J; Henry, T J; DeMoor, H M; Basilio, A N; Simon, C E

    1984-01-01

    The Pro-Tek passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for personal or area sampling of hydrogen sulfide is described. The badge has been validated over the range of 1.8 to 164 ppm-hours (0.23-21 ppm on an 8-hour TWA basis). It has an overall accuracy throughout this range of +/- 15.9% and meets the NIOSH accuracy criteria for an analytical and sampling method. The colorimetric analytical method used is based on the Texas Air Control Board's Molybdenum Blue method. Color-activated exposed badge solutions are read out on a standard laboratory spectrophotometer using 1 centimeter (10 mm) cells. Variations in exposure temperature (between 10 degrees and 40 degrees C), relative humidity, and face velocity (between 2 and 250 ft/min) do not affect badge performance. Unexposed badges are stable for more than 12 months refrigerated and for two months at room temperature. PMID:6702591

  7. The origin, effects and control of air pollution in laboratories used for human embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Gilligan, A; Schimmel, T; Cecchi, M; Cohen, J

    1998-12-01

    Testing shows that most laboratories conducting human gamete and embryo culture have air quality and sources of contamination that exceed the levels measured in homes, businesses and schools. The sources of these contaminants have been shown to be either from activities outside the laboratory, or emitted from materials used in the facility, such as compressed gas, cleaning and sterilizing agents, plastic and stored materials. Both the laboratory structure and the air handling systems may affect the air composition. The significance of these findings is being validated by the accumulation of field case studies and now by assay procedures. Products given off by road sealant were shown to have accumulated in one of the examined laboratories, adjacent to a large re-surfaced parking area. Aldehydes such as acrolein, hexanal, decanal, pentanal and others were detected at elevated concentrations that were statistically significant. Since it is not appropriate to add potentially suspect chemicals to human embryos, we used a mouse-model to study the effect of acrolein. The growth of mouse embryos was significantly affected after acrolein was added at different concentrations to the culture environment. The physiological effect was noted at concentrations in the low ppm range. The testing end-point of embryo death must still be considered to be a crude basis for evaluating toxicological effects, since it involves addition of compounds to culture media and unprotected growth until the blastocyst stage. The findings may, however, support observations of decreased pregnancy rate following exposure of human embryos to aldehydes or other adverse conditions. With proper engineering and material selection, it is possible to reduce such contamination. The usefulness of this approach for controlling aldehydes has been demonstrated by decreasing levels in the laboratory to below those of the outside air. PMID:10091065

  8. Spectroscopic diagnosis of laboratory air plasmas as a benchmark for spectral diagnosis of TLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, F. C.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar ≤ p ≤ 2 mbar) glow air discharges are studied by optical emission spectroscopy to discuss several spectroscopic techniques that could be implemented by field spectrographs, depending on the available spectra resolution, to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets and sprites. Laboratory air plasmas have been analysed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house developed intensified CCD grating spectrograph (GRASSP) recently developed by our group (www.trappa.es) at IAA-CSIC for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with ≤ 0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of lab tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination during TLE spectroscopic campaigns.

  9. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  10. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  11. Air quality investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, W.M.; Silver, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    The air quality implications of the test and evaluation activities at the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility are examined. All facets of the activity that affect air quality are considered. Air contaminants produced directly include exhaust products of rocket motors used to accelerate test articles, dust and gas from chemical explosives, and exhaust gases from electricity generators in the test arenas. Air contaminants produced indirectly include fugitive dust and exhaust contaminants from vehicles used to transport personnel and material to the test area, and effluents produced by equipment used to heat the project buildings. Both the ongoing program and the proposed changes in the program are considered. Using a reliable estimate of th maximum annual testing level, the quantities of contaminants released by project activities ar computed either from known characteristics of test items or from EPA-approved emission factors Atmospheric concentrations of air contaminants are predicted using EPA dispersion models. The predicted quantities and concentrations are evaluated in relation to Federal, New Mexico, an Bernalillo County air quality regulations and the human health and safety standards of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

  12. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  13. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  14. In-house experiments in large space structures at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Flight Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Ozguner, Umit; Yurkovich, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory is committed to an in-house, experimental investigation of several technical areas critical to the dynamic performance of future Air Force large space structures. The advanced beam experiment was successfully completed and provided much experience in the implementation of active control approaches on real hardware. A series of experiments is under way in evaluating ground test methods on the 12 meter trusses with significant passive damping. Ground simulated zero-g response data from the undamped truss will be compared directly with true zero-g flight test data. The performance of several leading active control approaches will be measured and compared on one of the trusses in the presence of significant passive damping. In the future, the PACOSS dynamic test article will be set up as a test bed for the evaluation of system identification and control techniques on a complex, representative structure with high modal density and significant passive damping.

  15. Laboratory scale studies on mitigation of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamoon, A.; Gomma, M. A.; Sohsah, M.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the occasional occurrence of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water under certain circumstances, and in view of the potential health hazards of increased levels of 222Rn in respirable air and in potable water, mitigation of such high 222Rn concentration has become of primary concern. To facilitate the study of the efficiency of the various 222Rn mitigating factors simple laboratory systems were used. Altered alkali granite was used as radon source to enrich air and a piece of pitchblende was used as radon source to enrich water samples. Both enriched media will then be subjected to the mitigation treatments. Charcoal canister technique along with gamma spectrometry were used to measure 222Rn concentrations in air before and after the different mitigating treatments. These were: use of ventilation, radon barriers such as geo-membranes and aluminum sheet, and sealant such as epoxy and vinyl tape. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in air ventilation was the most efficient mitigating factor. Standard liquid scintillation counting was used to measure 222Rn concentrations in water before and after the different mitigation treatments. These were: use of aeration, activated charcoal and heating. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in water, aeration using bubblers and large volume of air was most effective in removing radon from water in a short time. However all the mitigating factors proved effective, in different degrees in decreasing 222Rn concentrations in the respective media. The result from these studies are in general agreement with reports in the literature. It can be concluded then that the different 222Rn mitigating factors can be tested and compared effectively under controlled conditions using simple laboratory scale systems.

  16. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  17. The Early Development of Satellite Characterization Capabilities at the Air Force Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J.; Kissell, K.

    This presentation overviews the development of optical Space Object Identification (SOI) techniques at the Air Force laboratories during the two-decade "pre-operational" period prior to 1980 when the Groundbased Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) sensors were deployed. Beginning with the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the United States Air Force has actively pursued the development and application of optical sensor technology for the detection, tracking, and characterization of artificial satellites. Until the mid-1980s, these activities were primarily conducted within Air Force research and development laboratories which supplied data to the operational components on a contributing basis. This presentation traces the early evolution of the optical space surveillance technologies from the early experimental sensors that led to the current generation of operationally deployed and research systems. The contributions of the participating Air Force organizations and facilities will be reviewed with special emphasis on the development of technologies for the characterization of spacecraft using optical signatures and imagery. The presentation will include descriptions and photographs of the early facilities and instrumentation, and examples of the SOI collection and analysis techniques employed. In this early period, computer support was limited so all aspects of space surveillance relied heavily on manual interaction. Many military, government, educational, and contractor agencies supported the development of instrumentation and analysis techniques. This overview focuses mainly on the role played by Air Force System Command and Office of Aerospace Research, and the closely related activities at the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The omission of other agencies from this review reflects the limitations of this presentation, not the significance of their contributions.

  18. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  19. Laboratory testing during critical care transport: point-of-care testing in air ambulances.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, Francesca; Petronelli, Maria Antonia; Sammartino, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    Air and ground transport are used for prehospital transport of patients in acute life-threatening situations, and increasingly, critically ill patients undergo interhospital transportation. Results from clinical studies suggest that critical tests performed during the transport of critically ill patients presents a potential opportunity to improve patient care. Our project was to identify, according to the recommendations published at this time, a model of point-of-care testing (POCT) (arterial blood gases analysis and glucose, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, hematocrit/hemoglobin measurements) in air ambulances. In order to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving our objective, an analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis) was incorporated into our planning model prior to starting the project. To allow the entire POCT process (pre-, intra-, and post-analytic steps) to be under the control of the reference laboratory, an experimental model of information technology was applied. Real-time results during transport of critically ill patients must be considered to be an integral part of the patient care process and excellent channels of communication are needed between the intensive care units, emergency medical services and laboratories. With technological and computer advances, POCT during critical care transport will certainly increase in the future: this will be a challenge from a laboratory and clinical context. PMID:20406127

  20. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator. PMID:18701113

  1. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of hydrogen Balmer series in laboratory air.

    PubMed

    Swafford, Lauren D; Parigger, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Stark-broadened emission profiles for the hydrogen alpha and beta Balmer series lines in plasma are measured to characterize electron density and temperature. Plasma is generated using a typical laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) arrangement that employs a focused Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd : YAG) laser, operating at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The temporal evolution of the hydrogen Balmer series lines is explored using LIBS. Spectra from the plasma are measured following laser-induced optical breakdown in laboratory air. The electron density is primarily inferred from the Stark-broadened experimental data collected at various time delays. Due to the presence of nitrogen and oxygen in air, the hydrogen alpha and beta lines become clearly discernible from background radiation for time delays of 0.4 and 1.4 μs, respectively. PMID:25226255

  2. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  3. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  4. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Mazaĭkin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency. PMID:24000629

  5. RADIOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF URANIUM IN SOIL AND AIR: SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION AND INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative study of a method for determining uranium isotopes in soil and air samples are presented. The method is applicable to 10-gram soil samples and to both glass fiber and polystyrene air filter samples. Sa...

  6. ACTRIS-Inter-laboratory comparison of VOCs in Europe: measurements of synthetic mixture and ambient air from pressurized cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerger, Corinne C.; Plass-Duelmer, Christian; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Weiss, Elisabeth; Werner, Anja; Reimann, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    For the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a synthetic mixture and in ambient air a comparison study between 19 European laboratories (see affiliations) running 21 research facilities was performed during 2012. The participating laboratories performed five measurements of a synthetic mixture (VOC in nitrogen) and of ambient air (VOCs in urban air) from high pressure cylinders. Reported VOCs include: 14 alkanes, 12 alkenes, 2 alkynes, 1 cyclic alkane, and 5 aromatics. For the synthetic mixture, most laboratories reported VOC concentrations in a range close to the reference value (± 10-15%), which was defined as the error weighted average of measurements previously performed by three selected laboratories (Empa-Duebendorf, DWD-Hohenpeissenberg, KIT-Garmisch-Partenkirchen). The compound with the largest difference between reported and reference value was n-hexane with a difference exceeding 300% for one laboratory. For ambient air, the range of concentrations measured by the laboratories was considerably larger. Whereas measurements were close to the reference values for alkanes (e.g. propane) (± 10-15%), alkenes (e.g. cis-butene) and alkynes (e.g. ethyne) led to the largest differences between reported concentrations and reference values (up to 900%). Further investigations related to the measurement techniques applied by the participating laboratories and the elaboration of possible improvements will be shown. This will contribute to the preparation of a measurement guideline to be used for quantifying VOCs in air.

  7. Laboratory study of asthmatic volunteers exposed to nitrogen dioxide and to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Avol, E.L.; Linn, W.S.; Peng, R.C.; Valencia, G.; Little, D.; Hackney, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    Adult volunteers with moderate to severe asthma (N = 59) underwent dose-response studies to assess their reactivity to nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) in otherwise clean air. Exposure concentrations were 0.0 (control), 0.3 and 0.6 ppm. A subgroup (N = 36) also underwent exposures to Los Angeles area ambient air at times when NO/sub 2/ pollution was expected. Concentrations of NO/sub 2/ during ambient exposures were 0.086 +/- 0.024 ppm (mean +/- s.d.). All exposures took place in a movable chamber/laboratory facility. Each study lasted 2 hr, with alternating 10 min periods of exercise (mean ventilation rate 40 L/min) and rest. Lung function was measured prior to exposure and after 10 min, 1 hr and 2 hr of exposure. Symptoms were recorded prior to exposure, during exposure and for 1 week afterward. In some subjects bronchial reactivity to cold air was measured 1 hr after the end of exposure and again 24 hr later. Different exposure conditions were presented in randomized order, 1 week apart. No pollutant exposure produced statistically significant changes in lung function, symptoms, or bronchial reactivity, relative to clean air. Ambient air exposures produced the largest (still nonsignificant) mean changes in some lung function tests. Given the physiological and atmospheric variability, negative statistical results do not rule out a small unfavorable effect of ambient pollution on lung function. If any such effect occurred, it was not likely caused by NO/sub 2/. Statistical results remained negative when the analysis was restricted to the 20 subjects with most severe lung dysfunction. In conclusion at least in the Los Angeles area, sensitivity to ambient concentrations of NO/sub 2/ is not common, even among adult asthmatics with moderate to severe disease.

  8. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  9. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the "Air Pollution Course", an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this study deals…

  10. Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide in air.

    PubMed

    Kring, E V; Damrell, D J; Basilio, A N; McGibney, P D; Douglas, J J; Henry, T J; Ansul, G R

    1984-10-01

    A new diffusion colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide is described. The Du Pont Pro-Tek C-70 badge has been laboratory validated over the range of 4-375 ppm-hours (0.5-47 ppm on an 8-hour TWA) using standard spectrophotometer readout in 1 centimeter (10 mm) cells. The lower range can be extended to 2 ppm-hours (0.25 ppm) by using 4 cm (40 mm) cells. The badge has an overall sampling and analytical method accuracy of +/- 13.5%. It meets NIOSH accuracy criteria and has a mean coefficient of variation CVT = 0.059. The badge has no temperature, pressure, relative humidity or face velocity effects over practical ranges. The response time is adequate to sample peak concentrations over short time periods. The badge may be used to determine ambient formaldehyde levels if suspected to be present along with ethylene oxide. Badges are shown to agree very well with the industry accepted and proposed ASTM pump/charcoal tube method in three extensive plant field tests. Badges were more precise than the charcoal tube/pump method in all field tests conducted. PMID:6496316

  11. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  14. Simultaneous observation of extensive air showers and deep-underground muons at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Caliccio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P. ); Cecchini, S.; Fabbri, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M. ); Ahlen, S.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W. ); Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.; Liu, G.; Peck, C.; Solie, D.; Steele, J. ); Lane, C.; Steinberg, R. ); Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Grillo, A.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Re; MACRO Collaboration

    1990-09-01

    Combined measurements of extensive air showers at the surface and high-energy muons deep underground have been initiated at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The underground detector is the first supermodule of MACRO (area=140 m{sup 2}, depth=3100 m of water equivalent , {ital E}{sub {mu}}{gt}1.3 TeV) and the surface detector is the EAS-TOP array (altitude 2000 m above sea level, total enclosed area {ital A}{approximately}10{sup 5} m{sup 2}). We discuss the correlation technique, the comparison between the shower parameters as determined by the two detectors, and some of the characteristics of the reconstructed events.

  15. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Yacovitch, Tara I.; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W. Berk; Kolb, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency’s E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources. PMID:26819556

  16. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study.

    PubMed

    Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W Berk; Kolb, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4-1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources. PMID:26819556

  17. (?) The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Aeronomy, aerospace instrumentation, space physics, meteorology, terrestrial sciences and optical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinty, A. B.

    1982-04-01

    Contents: The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; Aeronomy Division--Upper Atmosphere Composition, Middle Atmosphere Effects, Atmospheric UV Radiation, Satellite Accelerometer Density Measurement, Theoretical Density Studies, Chemical Transport Models, Turbulence and Forcing Functions, Atmospheric Ion Chemistry, Energy Budget Campaign, Kwajalein Reference Atmospheres, 1979, Satellite Studies of the Neutral Atmosphere, Satellite Studies of the Ionosphere, Aerospace Instrumentation Division--Sounding Rocket Program, Satellite Support, Rocket and Satellite Instrumentation; Space Physics Division--Solar Research, Solar Radio Research, Environmental Effects on Space Systems, Solar Proton Event Studies, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Ionospheric Effects Research, Spacecraft Charging Technology; Meteorology Division--Cloud Physics, Ground-Based Remote-Sensing Techniques, Mesoscale Observing and Forecasting, Design Climatology, Aircraft Icing Program, Atmospheric Dynamics; Terrestrial Sciences Division--Geodesy and Gravity, Geokinetics; Optical Physics Division--Atmospheric Transmission, Remote Sensing, INfrared Background; and Appendices.

  18. Development of an air emissions inventory for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    Accurate air emissions inventory is important in an effective Clean Air Act (CAA) compliance program; without it, a facility may have difficulty proving compliance with regulations or permit conditions. An emissions inventory can also serve for evaluating the applicability of new regulations (eg, Title V of CAA) and in complying with them. Therefore it is important for the inventory to be well-planned and comprehensive. Preparation of an emissions inventory for a large R&D facility such as ORNL can be a challenging task. ORNL, a government facility managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. for US DOE, consists of more than 300 buildings on about 1,500 acres. It has several thousand diverse emission sources, including small laboratory hoods, several wastewater treatment facilities, and a steam plant. This paper describes the development of ORNL`s emissions inventory with emphasis on setting goals and identifying the scope of the inventory, identifying the emission points, developing/implementing the inventory methodology, compiling data, and evaluating the results.

  19. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  20. Airborne Laser Laboratory departure from Kirtland Air Force Base and a brief history of aero-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrazis, Demos T.

    2013-07-01

    We discuss aspects of the development of the Airborne Laser Laboratory. Our discussion is historical in nature and consists of the text from a speech given on the occasion of the Airborne Laser Laboratory leaving Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) to fly to Wright-Patterson AFB to become an exhibit at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. The last part of the discussion concerns the inception of the study of aero-optics as an area of research and some of the milestones in the understanding of the causes and prediction of aero-optical effects.

  1. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  2. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  3. Laboratory spectroscopic diagnostics of TLE-like air plasmas: methods to derive the rotational (gas) temperature in TLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F.; Parra-Rojas, F.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.

    2013-12-01

    Laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar < p < 2 mbar) glow air discharges have been studies by optical emission spectroscopy to illustrate several spectroscopic techniques that, depending on the available spectral resolution, could be implemented by different field spectrographs to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets and sprites. The laboratory air plasmas investigated have been analysed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house developed intensified CCD grating spectrograph that we have recently developed in our group at IAA - CSIC for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with 0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of laboratory tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination during TLE spectroscopic campaigns. Finally, we will also show a comparison of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) of N2(B) obtained from (a) experiments in low pressure laboratory air plasmas produced in conditions similar to TLEs, (b) spectroscopic emissions from real TLE air plasmas and (c) compute from kinetic modeling.

  4. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  5. Evaluation of Methods for Analysis of Lead in Air Particulates: An Intra-Laboratory and Inter-Laboratory Comparison

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) set a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter (Pb-TSP) which called for significant decreases in the allowable limits. The Federal Reference Method (FR...

  6. Geochemical study of groundwater at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and its contractor, Rust Geotech, support the Kirtland Area Office by assisting Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (Sandia/NM) with remedial action, remedial design, and technical support of its Environmental Restoration Program. To aid in determining groundwater origins and flow paths, the GJPO was tasked to provide interpretation of groundwater geochemical data. The purpose of this investigation was to describe and analyze the groundwater geochemistry of the Sandia/NM Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). Interpretations of groundwater origins are made by using these data and the results of {open_quotes}mass balance{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}reaction path{close_quote} modeling. Additional maps and plots were compiled to more fully comprehend the geochemical distributions. A more complete set of these data representations are provided in the appendices. Previous interpretations of groundwater-flow paths that were based on well-head, geologic, and geochemical data are presented in various reports and were used as the basis for developing the models presented in this investigation.

  7. Laboratory study of the particle-size distribution of Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Su, Peng-hao; Hou, Chun-yan; Sun, Dan; Feng, Dao-lun; Halldorson, Thor; Ding, Yong-sheng; Li, Yi-fan; Tomy, Gregg T

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory measurements for particle-size distribution of Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) were performed in a 0.5 m(3) sealed room at 25 °C. BDE-209 was manually bounded to ambient particles. An electrostatic field-sampler was employed to collect particles. The number of collected particles (n(i,j), i and j was the class of particle diameter and applied voltage on electrostatic field-sampler sampler, respectively) and the corresponding mass of BDE-209 in collected particles (m(∑i,j)) were determined in a series of 6 experiments. The particle-size distribution coefficient (ki) was calculated through equations related to n(i,j) and m(∑i,j), and the particle-size distribution of BDE-209 was determined by ki·n(i,j). Results revealed that BDE-209 distributed in particles of all size and were not affiliated with fine particles as in field measurements. The particle size-fraction should be taken into account when discussing the particle-size distribution of BDE-209 in ambient air due to the normalized coefficients (normalized to k1) and were approximately in the same order of magnitude for each diameter class. The method described in the present study was deemed feasible in determining the particle-size distribution of BDE-209 from vaporization sources and helpful to understanding the instinct rule of particle-size distribution of BDE-209, and potentially feasible for other SVOCs. PMID:26363326

  8. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory on Taxiway at Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The sleek lines of the Tupolev Tu-144LL are evident as it sits on the taxiway at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed

  9. Bacterioneuston control of air-water methane exchange determined with a laboratory gas exchange tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Frost, Thomas; Henry, Gordon R.; Franklin, Mark; Murrell, J. Colin; Owens, Nicholas J. P.

    2003-12-01

    The apparent transfer velocities (kw) of CH4, N2O, and SF6 were determined for gas invasion and evasion in a closed laboratory exchange tank. Tank water (pure Milli-RO® water or artificial seawater prepared in Milli-RO®) and/or tank air gas compositions were adjusted, with monitoring of subsequent gas transfer by gas chromatography. Derived kw was converted to "apparent k600," the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20°C. For CH4, analytical constraints precluded estimating apparent k600 based on tank air measurements. In some experiments we added strains of live methanotrophs. In others we added chemically deactivated methanotrophs, non-CH4 oxidizers (Vibrio), or bacterially associated surfactants, as controls. For all individual controls, apparent k600 estimated from CH4, N2O, or SF6 was indistinguishable. However, invasive estimates always exceeded evasive estimates, implying some control of gas invasion by bubbles. Estimates of apparent k600 differed significantly between methanotroph strains, possibly reflecting species-specific surfactant release. For individual strains during gas invasion, apparent k600 estimated from CH4, N2O, or SF6 was indistinguishable, whereas during gas evasion, k600-CH4 was significantly higher than either k600-N2O or k600-SF6, which were identical. Hence evasive k600-CH4/k600-SF6 was always significantly above unity, whereas invasive k600-CH4/k600-SF6 was not significantly different from unity. Similarly, k600-CH4/k600-SF6 for the controls and k600-N2O/k600-SF6 for all experiments did not differ significantly from unity. Our results are consistent with active metabolic control of CH4 exchange by added methanotrophs in the tank microlayer, giving enhancements of ˜12 ± 10% for k600-CH4. Hence reactive trace gas fluxes determined by conventional tracer methods at sea may be in error, prompting a need for detailed study of the role of the sea surface microlayer in gas exchange.

  10. Spectroscopic diagnostics of laboratory air plasmas as a benchmark for spectral rotational (gas) temperature determination in TLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, F. C.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    We have studied laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar ≤ p ≤2 mbar) glow air discharges by optical emission spectroscopy to discuss several spectroscopic techniques that could be implemented by field spectrographs, depending on the available spectral resolution, to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated to transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets, and sprites. Laboratory air plasmas have been analyzed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house intensified CCD grating spectrograph that we have recently developed for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with ≃0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of lab tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination depending on the altitude and available spectral resolution. Moreover, we compare available low resolution (3 nm ≤Δλ≤7 nm) N2 1PG field recorded sprite spectra at 53 km (≃1 mbar), and resulting vibrational distribution function, with 1 mbar laboratory glow discharge spectrum (Δλ=2 nm) and synthetic sprite spectra from models. We found that while the relative population of N2(B3Πg,v=2-7) in sprites and laboratory produced air glow plasmas are similar, the N2(B3Πg,v=1) vibrational level in sprites is more efficiently populated (in agreement with model predictions) than in laboratory air glow plasmas at similar pressures.

  11. Is mudflow in Sidoarjo, East Java due to the pumping mechanism of hot air bubbles? : Laboratory simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2015-09-01

    Extraordinary mudflow has happened in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia since 2006. This mud comes from the giant crater that is located close to the BJP - 01. Thousands of homes have been submerged due to mudflow. Till today this giant mud crater is still has great strength despite the mud flowing over 8 years. This is a very rare phenomenon in the world. This mud flow mechanism raises big questions, because it has been going on for years, naturally the mudflow will stop by itself because the pressure should be reduced. This research evaluates all aspects of integrated observations, laboratory tests and field observations since the beginning of this ongoing mudflow. Laboratory tests were done by providing hot air bubbles into the fluid inside the inverted funnel showed that the fluid can flow with a high altitude. It is due to the mechanism of buoyant force from air bubbles to the water where the contrast density of the water and the air is quite large. Quantity of air bubbles provides direct effect to the debit of fluid flow. Direct observation in the field, in 2006 and 2007, with TIMNAS and LPPM ITB showed the large number of air bubbles on the surface of the mud craters. Temperature observation on the surface of mud crater is around 98 degree C whereas at greater depth shows the temperature is increasingly rising. This strengthens the hypothesis or proves that the mud pumping mechanism comes from buoyant force of hot air bubbles. Inversion gravity images show that the deep subsurface of main crater is close to volcanic layers or root of Arjuna mountain. Based on the simulation laboratory and field observation data, it can be concluded that the geothermal factor plays a key role in the mudflow mechanism.

  12. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  13. Fluid flow in pachuca (air-agitated) tanks: Part I. Laboratory-scale experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, R.; Evans, J. W.

    1989-12-01

    Gas-agitated reactors are used in a number of process industries, including the metallurgical industry, where they are known as “Pachuca” tanks. In spite of the fact that it is the circulation ( i.e., velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distribution) within these tanks that governs the main process requirements, i.e., mass transfer and particle suspension, very little attention has been paid to the question of fluid flow. In the present study, velicity measurements made in a laboratory-scale Pachuca tank have suggested the importance of the fluid flow pattern in governing the performance of air-agitated tanks and have shed some light on the efficient operation of these tanks. Full-center-column tanks with large tank height-to-diameter ratios have a “near-stagnant zone” in the lower section of the annulus. The stagnant zone is a region of low turbulent kinetic energy and is undesirable, since it costs energy and is likely to provide very little in return in terms of mass transfer. An increase in the draft tube diameter, for a given tank diameter, leads to higher velocity and turbulence levels in the annulus, which, in turn, should promote mass transfer. Free-airlift tanks seem to be more vigorously agitated than full-center-column tanks. The present study shows that operating a full-center-column Pachuca tank with the liquid surface at or below the same level as the draft tube top would be disadvantageous in terms of particle suspension and mass transfer and also illustrates that it is erroneous to correlate the turbulence on the liquid surface with the turbulence level within the tank.

  14. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.

    1993-04-29

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully.

  15. Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A

    1992-06-26

    At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

  16. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  17. Research on air sprays and unique foam application methods. Phase II report. Laboratory investigation of foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of air sprays and foam systems for dust control on longwall double-drum shearer faces. Laboratory testing has been conducted using foam systems and promising results have been obtained. Upon Bureau approval, underground testing will be scheduled to assess the effectiveness of foam systems under actual operating conditions. Laboratory testing of air sprays is being conducted at present. This report presents the results of the laboratory testing of foam systems. Specifically, the results obtained on the evaluation of selected foaming agents are presented, the feasibility investigation of flushing foam through the shearer-drum are demonstrated, and conceptual layout of the foam system on the shearer is discussed. The laboratory investigation of the selected foaming agents reveal that the Onyx Microfoam, Onyx Maprosyl and DeTer Microfoam foaming agents have higher expansion ratios compared to the others tested. Flushing foam through the shearer drum is entirely feasible and could be a viable technique for dust suppression on longwall faces.

  18. The effect of water temperature on air entrainment, bubble plumes, and surface foam in a laboratory breaking-wave analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Stokes, M. D.; Deane, G. B.

    2014-11-01

    Air-entraining breaking waves form oceanic whitecaps and play a key role in climate regulation through air-sea bubble-mediated gas transfer, and sea spray aerosol production. The effect of varying sea surface temperature on air entrainment, subsurface bubble plume dynamics, and surface foam evolution intrinsic to oceanic whitecaps has not been well studied. By using a breaking wave analog in the laboratory over a range of water temperatures (Tw = 5°C to Tw = 30°C) and different source waters, we have examined changes in air entrainment, subsurface bubble plumes, and surface foam evolution over the course of a breaking event. For filtered seawater, air entrainment was estimated to increase by 6% between Tw = 6°C and Tw = 30°C, driven by increases of about 43% in the measured surface roughness of the plunging water sheet. After active air entrainment, the rate of loss of air through bubble degassing was more rapid at colder water temperatures within the first 0.5 s of plume evolution. Thereafter, the trend reversed and bubbles degassed more quickly in warmer water. The largest observed temperature-dependent differences in subsurface bubble distributions occurred at radii greater than about 700 μm. Temperature-dependent trends observed in the subsurface bubble plume were mirrored in the temporal evolution of the surface whitecap foam area demonstrating the intrinsic link between surface whitecap foam and the subsurface bubble plume. Differences in foam and plume characteristics due to different water sources were greater than the temperature dependencies for the filtered seawater examined.

  19. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  20. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  1. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Generation, Characterization, and Disposal Experiences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, D. E.

    2002-02-28

    High Efficiency Particulate Air filtration is an essential component of the containment and ventilation systems supporting the research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. High Efficiency Particulate Air filters range in size from 7.6cm (3 inch) by 10.2 cm (4 inch) cylindrical shape filters to filter array assemblies up to 2.1 m (7 feet) high by 1.5 m (5 feet) wide. Spent filters are grouped by contaminates trapped in the filter media and become one of the components in the respective waste stream. Waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts are applied for both radiological and non-radiological applications. Radiological applications include laboratory hoods, glove boxes, and hot cells. High Efficiency Particulate Air filters also are generated from intake or pre-filtering applications, decontamination activities, and asbestos abatement applications. The disposal avenues include sanitary/industrial waste, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Toxic Substance Control Act, regulated waste, solid low-level waste, contact handled transuranic, and remote handled transuranic waste. This paper discusses characterization and operational experiences associated with the disposal of the spent filters across multiple applications.

  2. AIRNET Data from Los Alamos National Laboratory: Air Concentration Data by Site and Isotope/Element

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ambient monitoring is the systematic, long-term assessment of pollutant levels by measuring the quantity and types of certain pollutants in the surrounding, outdoor air. The purpose of AIRNET, LANL's ambient air monitoring network, is to monitor locations where people live or work. The community of Los Alamos is downwind from LANL, so there are many monitoring stations in and around the town. AIRNET stations monitor 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. Particulates are collected on a filter and analyzed every two weeks for identification of analytes and assessment of the potential impact on the public. Emissions measurement is the process of monitoring materials vented from buildings. Air samples are taken from building exhaust units, called stacks, and are then analyzed for particulate matter, tritium, and radioactive gases and vapors. A computer model uses the emission data to determine the dispersion. Stack monitoring is also used to measure emissions that cannot be measured by AIRNET stations.

  3. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF INTERACTIONS OF IRRADIATED O-XYLENE/NOX/SO2/AIR MIXTURES WITH AQUEOUS MEDIA CONTAINING SODIUM FLUORIDE, SODIUM TRIFLUOROACETATE, AMMONIUM NITRATE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate interactions between complex air mixtures and aqueous films containing hydrolysis products of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) oxidation products. he experiments consisted of exposing aqueous films con...

  4. A tracer method for quantifying contamination of building supply air: reentrainment of laboratory hood exhausts.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J L; Richard, M L; Rose, V E

    1983-08-01

    A method is described for quantifying the reentrainment of exhaust air contaminants into a building's fresh-air supply system. The method relies on the "tracer" gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which Is detected by infrared (IR) absorption analysis. This method of analysis differs from the conventional gas chromatography, electron capture detection method due to the MIRAN-1 A's portability, direct-reading capabilities, ease of operation and modest cost. Specific instrument settings for the MIRAN-1 A are given such that detection of SF6 will be optimized without interference. Calculations for quantifying reentrainment are presented and discussed for the "worst case" reentrainment observed. PMID:6624644

  5. Microbial Growth and Air Pollutants in the Corrosion of Carbonate Rocks: Results from Laboratory and Outdoor Experimental Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, B.; Poli, G.; Pitzurra, L.

    2003-04-01

    Microorganisms and atmospheric pollution are primary causes of deterioration of materials exposed to open air. Due to the variety of chemical-mineralogical compositions and textures, stone represents a variegated substrate that interacts with environmental fluids and particulate, and is a selective environment for biological proliferation. Carbonate rocks, in particular, are highly exposed to environmental decay and extremely susceptible to acid attack caused by atmospheric pollutants and metabolic acid production. The aim of this work is to study the combined effect of microbial contamination and atmospheric pollutants in the weathering of carbonate rocks by means of laboratory and outdoor exposure tests. Laboratory experiments performed on carbonate rocks allowed evaluation of the influence of the gas mixture in the chemical modifications of the lithic substrate, and formulation of a kinetic model of sulphation. The obtained results suggest that nucleation alternates with growth as leading processes in the development of sulphation. In particular, nucleation of the reaction products is the leading process in the initial period of sulphation, which is characterized by a marked slowdown of the reaction progress, whereas growth of the products is the leading process in the subsequent period of resumption of sulphation. In situ experiments performed by exposing limestone specimens at two air monitoring stations in Perugia with different degrees of urban air pollution showed high levels of fungal colonization at early times and the presence of weathering products (i.e. gypsum) in the longer term. Results point to a combined effect of microbial colonization and atmospheric pollutants in promoting the weathering of stone through acid attack within the film of water present on the surface of the exposed material, and through the oxidation of metal sulphide particulate pollutant to sulphate. Laboratory tests assaying the extent of fungal colonization and/or chemical

  6. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  7. LABORATORY AND COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATIONS OF THE GAS PHASE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF AIR TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full assessment of the impact of the release of air toxic compounds into the atmospheric requires a detailed understanding of their atmospheres lifetimes and fates. To address this issue a detailed review of the atmospheric chemistry of each of these classes was carried out t...

  8. A simple laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of a liquid in contact with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger; Esteban, Bernat

    2014-09-01

    A simple and accurate laboratory experiment to measure the surface tension of liquids has been developed, which is well suited to teach the behaviour of liquids to first- or second-year students of physics, engineering or chemistry. The experimental setup requires relatively inexpensive equipment usually found in physics and chemistry laboratories, since it consists of a used or recycled burette, an analytical balance and a stereoscopic microscope or a micrometer. Experimental data and error analysis show that the surface tension of distilled water, 1-butanol and glycerol can be determined with accuracy better than 1.4%.

  9. LABORATORY PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATING THE FATE OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AIR AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory test procedures (or protocols) have been developed to provide data useful in evaluating the environmental fate of organic compounds in natural aquatic systems and in the atmosphere. Screening-level protocols are described to estimate rate constants for hydrolysis, phot...

  10. Radiological Laboratory Sample Analysis Guide for Incidents of National Significance – Radionuclides in Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    [The document describes the likely analytical decision paths that would be made by personnel at a radioanalytical laboratory following a radiological or nuclear incident, such as that caused by a terrorist attack. EPA’s responsibilities, as outlined in the National Response Frame...

  11. Laboratory evaluation of welder's exposure and efficiency of air duct ventilation for welding work in a confined space.

    PubMed

    Ojima, J; Shibata, N; Iwasaki, T

    2000-01-01

    CO2 arc welding in a confined space was simulated in a laboratory by manipulating a welding robot which worked in a small chamber to experimentally evaluate the welder's exposure to welding fumes, ozone and carbon monoxide (CO). The effects of the welding arc on the air temperature rise and oxygen (O2) concentration in the chamber were also investigated. The measuring points for these items were located in the presumed breathing zone of a welder in a confined space. The time averaged concentrations of welding fumes, ozone and CO during the arcing time were 83.55 mg/m3, 0.203 ppm and 0.006%, respectively, at a welding current of 120A-200A. These results suggest serious exposure of a welder who operates in a confined space. Air temperature in the chamber rose remarkably due to the arc heat and the increase in the welding current. No clear decrease in the O2 concentration in the chamber was recognized during this welding operation. A model of air duct ventilation was constructed in the small chamber to investigate the strategy of effective ventilation for hazardous welding contaminants in a confined space. With this model we examined ventilation efficiency with a flow rate of 1.08-1.80 m3/min (ventilation rate for 0.40-0.67 air exchanges per minute) in the chamber, and proved that the exposure level was not drastically reduced during arcing time by this air duct ventilation, but the residual contaminants were rapidly exhausted after the welding operation. PMID:10680307

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  15. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-01

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in ˜10 cm2 spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  16. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-28

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in {approx}10 cm{sup 2} spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  17. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Xie, X. X.; Han, Y. Q.; Li, Y.

    2009-06-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (SPM1), black carbon (BC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX). During the Olympics (8-23 August 2008), on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1 compared to the pre-control period (before 20 July). Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September), with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for SPM1. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively) on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship between BC and SPM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) found. Additionally, BC and SPM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were identified in measurements conducted on 6 August in an area southwest of Beijing. The ratio of benzene to toluene, a good indicator of traffic emissions, shifted suddenly from about 0.26 before the Olympics to approximately 0.48 after the Olympics

  18. The effect of positive air ions on reproduction and growth in laboratory rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsull, S. M.; Head, E. L.

    1986-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the growth rates, reproductive success and early mortality of laboratory rats maintained at 10,000 positive ions/ml over two generations. These findings were compared with those from animals maintained at ambient ion levels. The present work indicates that positive ions do not have any adverse effects on the reproductive capabilities or the growth of laboratory rats. In contrast it is shown that exposure to elevated levels of positive ions promotes overall growth, particularly in male rats. This action of positive ions increases with each successive generation exposed to the ions. It is suggested that the growth promoting effect of positive ions may be mediated via some modulation of the endocrine system.

  19. Development of Mobile Solar Evaluation Laboratory & Technical and Economic Performance of the Goldade Site-Built Air Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldade, Travis D.

    The Great Basin climate type is ideal for the utilization of solar winter space heat from air collectors; perhaps the most economically viable option for solar space heating is that of site built air collectors (SBAC). Unfortunately SBACs are a rarely utilized technology primarily because there is presently no standard method to test these types of collectors. This thesis provides a viable testing method for SBACs and the theoretical calculations required to develop testing and provide ratings based on industry standards. This leads to development of the Mobile Solar Evaluation Laboratory (MSEL). The Goldade Family built a 128 ft2 solar air heater for winter space heating, and the MSEL was employed to evaluate the technical and economic performance of that system. Theory and field testing correlated well, and it was proven that the MSEL accurately predicts SBAC performance. In most Northern Nevada households solar space heating can be cost effective. Solar space heating also reduces substantial CO2 from being added to the atmosphere.

  20. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  1. Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchain, G.; Olivier, T.; Franco, M.; Couairon, A.; Prade, B.; Mysyrowicz, A.

    2006-05-01

    We present experimental studies of filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in air at low pressures. The evolution of the filament has been studied by measuring along the propagation axis the conductivity and the sub-THz emission from the plasma channel. We show experimentally that the filamentation process occurs at pressures as low as 0.2 atm in agreement with numerical simulations. Experimental and numerical results [A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun., submitted for publication] are compared and the possible sources of discrepancy are discussed.

  2. Transport, deposition, and liftoff in laboratory density currents composed of hot particles in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of transport, deposition, and air entrainment in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is required for accurate predictions of future current behaviors and interpretations of ancient deposits, but directly observing the interiors of natural PDCs is effectively impossible. We model PDCs with scaled, hot, particle-laden density currents generated in a 6 m long, 0.6 m wide, 1.8 m tall air-filled tank. Comparison of relevant scaling between our experiments and natural PDCs indicates that we are accurately capturing much of the dynamics of dilute PDCs: * Reynolds numbers of our experiments are lower than natural currents, 10^3 compared to 10^6, but still fully turbulent; * Densimetric and Thermal Richardson numbers are of O(1) in both natural and modeled currents; * Stokes and settling numbers for particles in the experiments fall within the expected range for natural PDCs. Conditions within the tank are monitored with temperature and humidity probes. Experiments are illuminated with sheet lighting, and recorded with high-definition video cameras. In general, currents have average velocities of 10-20 cm/s, initial thicknesses of 10-20 cm (although thickness greatly increases as currents entrain and expand air), and run out or lift off distances of 3-5 m. Large Kelvin-Helmholtz type eddies usually form along the top of the current immediately behind the head; these vortices are similar in size to the total current thickness. In currents that lift off, the distal current end typically retreats with time. Preliminary results suggest that lift off distance decreases with increasing thermal Richardson number. Analysis of turbulent structures indicates that the current heads are dominated by large coherent structures with length scales, L, comparable to the current thickness. Within 5-10 L of the current fronts, sequences of similar large eddies often occur. At greater distances behind the current fronts, turbulent structures become smaller and less

  3. Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

    2011-12-13

    There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

  4. SO 2 sorption characteristics of air sampling filter media using a new laboratory test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Osak, Igor; Gelman, Charles

    A significant factor in the selection of filter media used for air sampling is the formation of artifacts due to the sorption of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on the filter. These artifacts can erroneously increase measured particulate concentrations. A technique is developed to measure the uptake of SO 2 and other gases and vapors on air sampling filter media. The static chamber technique features in-chamber measurements of SO 2 concentrations using FTIR spectrometry. The filter uptake, partition coefficient, and diffusion coefficient are estimated from the loss of gaseous SO 2 in the chamber. The technique provides rapid and precise results over a wide range of filter characteristics and avoids problems related to the extraction of target analytes from the filter. A total of 12 types of filters are evaluated, including glass fiber, Teflon-coated glass fiber, nylon, quartz fiber, Teflon, Supor, Nylasorb, and acrylic copolymer membranes. Results indicate that Teflon, quartz and acrylic copolymer filters have minimal sorption of SO 2 while quartz fiber, Supor and Nylasorb filters have high to moderate uptake of SO 2.

  5. Development of a high temperature ceramic-to-metal seal for Air Force Weapons Laboratory Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Honnell, R.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1987-03-01

    Procedures were developed for fabricating vacuum tight metal-to-ceramic ring seals between Inconel 625 and MgO-3 wt % Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ tubes metallized with a calcia-alumina-silica glass (CaO-29 wt % Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-35 wt % SiO/sub 2/) containing 50 vol % molybdenum filler. Palniro No. 1 (Au-25 wt % Pd-25 wt % Ni) was found to be the most reliable braze for joining Inconel to metallized MgO-3 wt % Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ bodies. The reliabilities of the processing procedures and the material systems were demonstrated. A prototype electrical feedthrough was fabricated for 1173/sup 0/K operation in air or vacuum.

  6. From the Field to the Laboratory: Air Pollutant-Induced Genomic Effects in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vizuete, William; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Nguyen, Hang; Smeester, Lisa; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Shope, Cynthia; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James H.; Alvarez, Sergio; Erickson, Mathew H.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Current in vitro studies do not typically assess cellular impacts in relation to real-world atmospheric mixtures of gases. In this study, we set out to examine the feasibility of measuring biological responses at the level of gene expression in human lung cells upon direct exposures to air in the field. This study describes the successful deployment of lung cells in the heavily industrialized Houston Ship Channel. By examining messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from exposed lung cells, we identified changes in genes that play a role as inflammatory responders in the cell. The results show anticipated responses from negative and positive controls, confirming the integrity of the experimental protocol and the successful deployment of the in vitro instrument. Furthermore, exposures to ambient conditions displayed robust changes in gene expression. These results demonstrate a methodology that can produce gas-phase toxicity data in the field. PMID:26917966

  7. Observation of X-rays from long laboratory negative discharge in STP air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, A. P. J.; Ebert, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Pulses of x-rays emitted by lightning are one of the most intriguing among unsolved problem in physics of lightning. They have been detected from both - natural and rocket-triggered lightning. In natural lightning x-rays were detected during stepped leader process and later were associated with a single step. In triggered lighting x-rays were found to be originated from a tip of a dart leader that also possesses stepping propagation mechanism. Therefore, stepping mechanism is the key to understanding the x-ray pulses generated by lightning. Unfortunately, leader stepping mechanism itself is far from well understood. Negative long laboratory discharges also develop through a formation of a space stem/leader and they also generate bursts of x-ray radiation. In this study we investigate the development of a long negative laboratory spark in particular focusing on its x-ray emission. A 2 MV Marx generator delivers high-voltage standard lightning pulse with 1.2/50 microsec rise/fall time to a spark gap with conical electrodes. The distance between cone tips was varied between 1 m and 1.75 m. An upper voltage limit is set to about 1 MV level. The voltage is measured by capacitive high-voltage divider. Two Pearson 7427 current probes determine the currents through high-voltage and grounded electrodes. Two LaBr3 scintillator detectors were mounted in EMC-cabinets and recorded the x-rays. Picos4 Stanford Optics camera with intensified CCD is placed in 4 m distance from the spark gap and directed perpendicular to the spark plane. The camera allows us to make ns-fast images of pre-breakdown phenomena in controllable time. We discovered new details of space stem/leader formation and development in long laboratory sparks. The connection moment of positive part of the space stem/leader to negative high-voltage is accompanied by intense x-ray emission. Taking into account our previous study on positive discharge, we conclude that encounter between positive and negative streamers

  8. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  9. Laboratory investigations of the heat and momentum transfer in the stably stratified air turbulent boundary layer above the wavy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of small scale transfer processes between the ocean and atmosphere in the boundary and its parameterization on the meteorological conditions (wind and surface waves parameters) is very important for weather forecasts modeling [1]. The accuracy of the predictions taking in to account the so named bulk-formulas strongly depends on the quality empirical data. That is why the laboratory modeling sometimes is preferable (see [2]) then in situ measurements for obtaining enough ensembles of the data with a good accuracy in control conditions, first of all in a case of severe conditions (strong winds with intensive wave breaking and sprays generation). In this investigation laboratory modeling was performed on the Thermostratified Wind-Wave Channel of the IAP RAS (see. [3]). Experiments were carried out for the wind speeds up to 18.5 m/s (corresponding the equivalent 10-m wind speed 30 m/s). For the possibility of varying parameters of surface roughness independently on the wind flow a special system basing on the submerged mosquito mesh (cell of 2*2 mm) was used (see [4]). The roughness was controlled by the depth of the mesh installation under the free surface (no waves when the mesh was on the surface and maximum wave amplitude for the maximum depth). So, for each wind speed several cases of the waves parameters were investigated. During experiments a stable stratification of the boundary layer of air flow was obtained. Temperature of the heating air was 33-37 degrees (depending on the reference wind speed), and the water temperature was 14-16 degrees. The Pitote gauge and hotwire were used together for measuring velocity and temperature profiles. Also indirect estimations of the total volume of the phase of sprays were obtained by analyzing hotwire signals errors during droplets hits. Then aerodynamic drag CD and heat transfer Ch coefficients were obtained by profiling method. It was shown that that these parameters are very sensitive to the intensity of

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  11. Application of laser light scattering for determination of the border aerosol-air in a specialized physical laboratory setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damov, K. S.; Iliev, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    The current article examines the application of laser light scattering in a specialized laboratory setup. It is used for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume (High Concentration Aerosols) by the method of free flow out. The measurement chamber is first filled with the investigated aerosol. After a predetermined delay time the aerosol is allowed to flow out through a calibrated pipe with fixed size located few centimetres above the chamber's bottom. The lowering of the upper border aerosol-air is continuously scanned using a laser beam directed along the axis of the cylindrical chamber. The kinematic viscosity and mass density of the investigated aerosol phase are calculated by formulas obtained by the authors. The suggested application of laser light scattering led to higher accuracy of the determination the position of aerosol-air border, thence the certainty of this method. This improvement allowed the use of computer controlled optoelectronic setting. The use of laser light scattering significantly improves the method for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume.

  12. Turbulent flow field and air entrainment in laboratory plunging breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Byoungjoon; Chang, Kuang-An; Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Lim, Ho-Joon

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents laboratory measurements of turbulent flow fields and void fraction in deep-water plunging breaking waves using imaging and optical fiber techniques. Bubble-size distributions are also determined based on combined measurements of velocity and bubble residence time. The most excited mode of the local intermittency measure of the turbulent flow and its corresponding length scale are obtained using a wavelet-based method and found to correlate with the swirling strength and vorticity. Concentrated vortical structures with high intermittency are observed near the lower boundaries of the aerated rollers where the velocity shear is high; the length scale of the deduced eddies ranges from 0.05 to 0.15 times the wave height. The number of bubbles with a chord length less than 2 mm demonstrates good correlation with the swirling strength. The power-law scaling and the Hinze scale of the bubbles determined from the bubble chord length distribution compare favorably with existing measurements. The turbulent dissipation rate, accounting for void fraction, is estimated using mixture theory. When void fraction is not considered, the turbulent dissipation rate is underestimated by more than 70% in the initial impinging and the first splash-up roller. A significant discrepancy of approximately 67% between the total energy dissipation rate and the turbulence dissipation rate is found. Of this uncounted dissipation, 23% is caused by bubble-induced dissipation.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2008-09-29

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2009-06-11

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  15. Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, R. C.; Forman, A.; Crawford, R.; Tyler, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a (2300 square km) National Environmental Research Park that has been used for research and operational support of nuclear power. The Park includes scattered industrial operations and provides an ideal setting to study effects of industry on semi-arid environments. One of the facilities on the Research Park is the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center (INTEC). This facility reprocessed spent nuclear fuel from the US Navy, and its operations included heating acidic solutions to convert wastes to a solid form. The conversion released nitrogen oxides, low levels of other gases (including HF), and small amounts of solid particles through a facility stack. A fossil-fuel power plant also contributed airborne contaminants including sulfur dioxide. A 1985 study identified the effects of INTEC operations on the health of lichens Xanthoria polycarpa (quantified using electrolyte leakage), on levels of trace metals in the lichens X. polycarpa and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, and on the levels of trace metals in higher plants and soils. The study concluded that operations impacted the physiological health of X. polycarpa southwest of the plant, and that lead was significantly higher downwind of the plant relative to other locations. Effects of the plant were re-examined in 1999 as part of an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate the environmental effects of measures available to deal with radioactive waste at INTEC. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the facility decreased from approximately 375 tonsyear to approximately 10 tonsyear between the two studies. The re-examination of lichens showed that the measure of physiological health used in the previous study (conductivity of rinsates collected from lichen thalli) correlated well to the levels of potassium measured in rinsates collected from thalli. There, however, was no correlation between the levels of potassium/conductivity of such rinsates and the levels of total

  16. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.; Knight, P.J.

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  17. Feasibility of a simple laboratory approach for determining temperature influence on SPMD-air partition coefficients of selected compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicenaite, Aurelija; Huckins, James N.; Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter L.; Gale, Robert W.; Kauneliene, Violeta; Bergqvist, Per-Anders

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a widely used passive sampling methodology for both waterborne and airborne hydrophobic organic contaminants. The exchange kinetics and partition coefficients of an analyte in a SPMD are mediated by its physicochemical properties and certain environmental conditions. Controlled laboratory experiments are used for determining the SPMD-air ( Ksa's) partition coefficients and the exchange kinetics of organic vapors. This study focused on determining a simple approach for measuring equilibrium Ksa's for naphthalene (Naph), o-chlorophenol ( o-CPh) and p-dichlorobenzene ( p-DCB) over a wide range of temperatures. SPMDs were exposed to test chemical vapors in small, gas-tight chambers at four different temperatures (-16, -4, 22 and 40 °C). The exposure times ranged from 6 h to 28 d depending on test temperature. Ksa's or non-equilibrium concentrations in SPMDs were determined for all compounds, temperatures and exposure periods with the exception of Naph, which could not be quantified in SPMDs until 4 weeks at the -16 °C temperature. To perform this study the assumption of constant and saturated atmospheric concentrations in test chambers was made. It could influence the results, which suggest that flow through experimental system and performance reference compounds should be used for SPMD calibration.

  18. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  19. Feasibility of a simple laboratory approach for determining temperature influence on SPMD–air partition coefficients of selected compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cicenaite, Aurelija; Huckins, James N.; Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter L.; Gale, Robert W.; Kauneliene, Violeta; Bergqvist, Per-Anders

    2007-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a widely used passive sampling methodology for both waterborne and airborne hydrophobic organic contaminants. The exchange kinetics and partition coefficients of an analyte in a SPMD are mediated by its physicochemical properties and certain environmental conditions. Controlled laboratory experiments are used for determining the SPMD–air (Ksa's) partition coefficients and the exchange kinetics of organic vapors. This study focused on determining a simple approach for measuring equilibrium Ksa's for naphthalene (Naph), o-chlorophenol (o-CPh) and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) over a wide range of temperatures. SPMDs were exposed to test chemical vapors in small, gas-tight chambers at four different temperatures (−16, −4, 22 and 40 °C). The exposure times ranged from 6 h to 28 d depending on test temperature. Ksa's or non-equilibrium concentrations in SPMDs were determined for all compounds, temperatures and exposure periods with the exception of Naph, which could not be quantified in SPMDs until 4 weeks at the −16 °C temperature. To perform this study the assumption of constant and saturated atmospheric concentrations in test chambers was made. It could influence the results, which suggest that flow through experimental system and performance reference compounds should be used for SPMD calibration.

  20. Feasibility of a simple laboratory approach for determining temperature influence on SPMD-air partition coefficients of selected compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cicenaite, A.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Kauneliene, V.; Bergqvist, P.-A.

    2007-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a widely used passive sampling methodology for both waterborne and airborne hydrophobic organic contaminants. The exchange kinetics and partition coefficients of an analyte in a SPMD are mediated by its physicochemical properties and certain environmental conditions. Controlled laboratory experiments are used for determining the SPMD-air (Ksa's) partition coefficients and the exchange kinetics of organic vapors. This study focused on determining a simple approach for measuring equilibrium Ksa's for naphthalene (Naph), o-chlorophenol (o-CPh) and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) over a wide range of temperatures. SPMDs were exposed to test chemical vapors in small, gas-tight chambers at four different temperatures (-16, -4, 22 and 40 ??C). The exposure times ranged from 6 h to 28 d depending on test temperature. Ksa's or non-equilibrium concentrations in SPMDs were determined for all compounds, temperatures and exposure periods with the exception of Naph, which could not be quantified in SPMDs until 4 weeks at the -16 ??C temperature. To perform this study the assumption of constant and saturated atmospheric concentrations in test chambers was made. It could influence the results, which suggest that flow through experimental system and performance reference compounds should be used for SPMD calibration. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subject bibliography of the PMA205 (Program Manager Air 205) Network Technical Library at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, M.V.

    1990-05-01

    The PMA205 (Program Manager Air 205) Network Technical Library at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains documents relating to US Department of Defense standards for computer-based training technology and training and American National Standards Institute international standards for user interfaces and Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support. The collection emphasizes supporting research in instructional system design, software engineering, user system interfaces, human factors engineering, and cognitive psychology as it differentiates between higher and lower cognitive tasking. The collection currently consists of about 670 documents of various types. These include military standards and specifications, reports, conference proceedings, dissertations, technical manuals, books, journal articles, and military instructions and directives. The documents have been added to the library as the result of literature searches and personal submission from team members. It is a selective collection and not a comprehensive one. A database, written in Procite/PC, contains the cataloged holdings of the library. Each record contains the bibliographic information and an abstract. The database provides access to information in the records by either full text searches using Boolean logic or individual field searching. One-word quick searches'' can be performed on the date, title, or author fields. The browsing capability for retrieved items is by full record or brief format. Search results can be read from the screen, printed to hard copy, or transferred to a disk file for later use. Disks containing the database and printed bibliographies are available to PMA205 network team members upon request.

  2. Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes Using In-Situ Air Sparging—A 2-D Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Krishna R.; Tekola, Lue

    2011-01-01

    In-situ air sparging has evolved as an innovative technique for soil and groundwater remediation impacted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including chlorinated solvents. These may exist as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) or dissolved in groundwater. This study assessed: (1) how air injection rate affects the mass removal of dissolved phase contamination, (2) the effect of induced groundwater flow on mass removal and air distribution during air injection, and (3) the effect of initial contaminant concentration on mass removal. Dissolved-phase chlorinated solvents can be effectively removed through the use of air sparging; however, rapid initial rates of contaminant removal are followed by a protracted period of lower removal rates, or a tailing effect. As the air flow rate increases, the rate of contaminant removal also increases, especially during the initial stages of air injection. Increased air injection rates will increase the density of air channel formation, resulting in a larger interfacial mass transfer area through which the dissolved contaminant can partition into the vapor phase. In cases of groundwater flow, increased rates of air injection lessened observed downward contaminant migration effect. The air channel network and increased air saturation reduced relative hydraulic conductivity, resulting in reduced groundwater flow and subsequent downgradient contaminant migration. Finally, when a higher initial TCE concentration was present, a slightly higher mass removal rate was observed due to higher volatilization-induced concentration gradients and subsequent diffusive flux. Once concentrations are reduced, a similar tailing effect occurs. PMID:21776228

  3. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  4. An innovative approach that was used to assess the air quality impacts of a large complex facility (Los Alamos National Laboratory) that has the potential to emit hundreds of toxic air pollutants in small quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.; Kogan, V.; Gorman-Bates, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Sitewide EIS for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of its evaluation of future use for the facility. An air quality analysis is required to estimate the potential impacts of the release of air pollutants from a facility that uses hundreds of toxic chemicals. These chemicals are currently used in 30 separately managed groups of operations or laboratory complexes--known as Technical Areas (TAs). Emission data and stack parameter information are currently not available. Undertaking an emission inventory, which would have been required for a conventional air quality impact analysis, would have been both costly and time consuming. An innovative and cost-effective methodology was therefore developed to assess the potential air quality impacts of the emissions of toxic air pollutants released from this facility. This methodology is based on the use of threshold emission values (TEVs), which are, for the purpose of this study, the maximum rates of each pollutant that could be emitted into the atmosphere from each TA that would not contravene health-related guideline values. TEVs unique to each TA were developed for each of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxic pollutants emitted from facility using EPA`s ISC3 dispersion model, and prototypical stack and building parameters. Once the TEVs were established for each TA, comparisons were made on a pollutant-specific basis between these values and conservatively estimated potential emissions rates that were based primarily on the purchase rates of these chemicals to identify those pollutants which may cause potentially significant adverse air quality impacts. This approach allowed over 95 percent of the toxic air pollutants to be eliminated from further consideration, and enabled the detailed analysis to focus on the remaining 5 percent.

  5. A simple extension of Rüchardt's method for measuring the ratio of specific heats of air using microcomputer-based laboratory sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severn, G. D.; Steffensen, T.

    2001-03-01

    A lower division laboratory experiment is described which measures the ratio of specific heats for air, γ≡Cp/Cv, using Rüchardt's method augmented by microcomputer-based laboratory sensors. A low pressure gauge transducer records the damped pressure oscillations, leading to a value of γ=1.41±0.04. Adding a laser switch, one can extend the method to determine γ from the ratio of pressure and volume variations, γ=-(dp/dV)(V/p), which yields 1.33±0.05. Nonadiabatic processes are considered.

  6. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 1. Final report, 1 January 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.; Jackson, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully. The report presents the results of the laboratory experiments.

  7. Good Practice Recommendations in the Field of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Health Related Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1966

    1966-01-01

    A collection of laboratory design notes to set forth minimum criteria required in the design of basic medical research laboratory buildings. Recommendations contained are primarily concerned with features of design which affect quality of performance and future flexibility of facility systems. Subjects of economy and safety are discussed where…

  8. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  9. Atmospheric corrosion effects of HNO 3—Influence of concentration and air velocity on laboratory-exposed copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samie, Farid; Tidblad, Johan; Kucera, Vladimir; Leygraf, Christofer

    A recently developed experimental set-up has been used to explore the atmospheric corrosion effects of nitric acid (HNO 3) on copper, in particular the influence of concentration and air velocity. Characterization and quantification of the corrosion products on exposed samples were performed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrocscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-balance and microscopy. At low air velocity (0.03 cm s -1) HNO 3 deposition and weight gain of copper increased linearly with concentration up to 400 μg m -3 or 156 ppb. The influence of air velocity on corrosion of copper was tested within the range of 0.03-35.4 cm s -1. Although the air velocity in this study was significantly lower than typical outdoor wind values, a high HNO 3 concentration of the air velocity of 35.4 cm s -1 resulted in a relatively high deposition velocity ( Vd) of 0.9 cm s -1 on the metal surface and 1.2 cm s -1 on an ideal absorbent, which would imply a limiting deposition velocity on the copper surface ( Vd,surf) of 3.6 cm s -1. Results obtained in this study emphasize the importance for future research on the corrosion effects of HNO 3 on materials as very little has so far been done in this field.

  10. Comparison of 192Ir air kerma calibration coefficients derived at ARPANSA using the interpolation method and at the National Physical Laboratory using a direct measurement.

    PubMed

    Butler, D; Haworth, A; Sander, T; Todd, S

    2008-12-01

    The reference air kerma rate from 192Ir High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources can be measured using a suitably calibrated Farmer chamber and an appropriate in-air calibration jig. When a primary standard for 192Ir gamma rays is available, a calibration coefficient for the chamber and jig combination can be determined directly. In Australia, due to the absence of such a standard, the chamber must be calibrated by interpolation of the response in 60Co and in a kilovoltage x-ray beam. Corrections for the effect of the jig, scatter and beam non-uniformity must then be measured or calculated before the reference air kerma rate can be determined. We compare the air-kerma calibration coefficient of a PTW 30010 PMMA/A1 Farmer chamber (referred to as Farmer chamber throughout this report) obtained from the 192Ir primary standard at the National Physical Laboratory in the UK with the corresponding coefficient obtained by interpolating Australian calibrations using 60Co and 250 kV x-rays and determining suitable correction factors. The resulting chamber/jig calibration coefficients differ by 0.2% which is well within the combined standard uncertainties of 1.2% and 0.6% reported by ARPANSA and NPL respectively. PMID:19239060

  11. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1997-12-01

    Determination of the number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining this task is provided by technical reports such as Mishima et al. and Hickey et al. These two documents and other guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving dilution and clearance of sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Objectives of the study were to document a method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies and to confirm the number and placement of air monitors within a typical Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) inhalation exposure laboratory.

  12. Air pollutants from hydrocarbons and derivatives in micropropagation laboratories: toxicity symptoms on tissue culture of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Righetti, B

    1990-11-01

    Several air pollutants in research and micropropagation laboratories originate from the combustion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The combustion products of some natural gases (propane-butane, propane, methane) and ethanol were analyzed, and the atmosphere composition was investigated inside the laminar flow box, inside the room where transplanting is performed and inside the culture vessels after transplanting. Large quantities of ethylene and other biologically active compounds are produced when hydrocarbons are partially oxidized or unevenly combusted and when ethanol is used for sterilization of dissecting instruments during transplanting operations. Air pollutants' effects have been tested on Prunus Colt shoot cultures; the toxicity symptoms observed suggest the elimination of gas combustion and alcohols during transplanting operations. PMID:24227058

  13. Laboratory and field ecophysiological studies on the impact of air pollution on red spruce and Fraser fir

    SciTech Connect

    Tyszko, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the first study, red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) seedlings were submitted to long-term multiple growing cycle intermittent ozone fumigations. No effect of ozone exposure on growth and gas exchange of the seedlings was found. Net photosynthesis at saturating light intensity was reduced in both species and the light compensation point was shifted upwards in spruce when exposed to ozone. Fraser fir seedlings showed inconsistent responses of CO{sub 2} curve parameters to ozone exposure. In the second study, the impact of summer exposure to ambient pollutants on winter hardiness in red spruce seedlings was examined. The seedlings were subjected to the following summertime treatments while kept in exclusion chambers on the top of Whitetop Mountain (Virginia): ambient air and clouds, ambient air with clouds excluded, charcoal filtered air, and chamberless control treatment. During the following winter the seedlings were placed in Blacksburg (Virginia), in two locations: in the open and in a shadehouse. A number of conducted tests indicated that there were significant differences in winter damage between the chamber treatments and chamberless control, as well as between the winter exposure locations. Among the summer chamber exposure regimes, the treatment excluding clouds seemed to perform the best. In the third study, the physiology of red spruce trees of various sizes growing on two sites on the top of Whitetop Mtn., was compared and related to ambient ozone concentration. Some seedlings were treated with an antioxidant EDU, to help evaluate the impact of ozone on their physiology.

  14. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  15. Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Ostrom, Elinor; Nagendra, Harini

    2006-01-01

    Governing natural resources sustainably is a continuing struggle. Major debates occur over what types of policy “interventions” best protect forests, with choices of property and land tenure systems being central issues. Herein, we provide an overview of findings from a long-term interdisciplinary, multiscale, international research program that analyzes the institutional factors affecting forests managed under a variety of tenure arrangements. This program analyzes satellite images, conducts social-ecological measurements on the ground, and tests the impact of structural variables on human decisions in experimental laboratories. Satellite images track the landscape dimensions of forest-cover change within different management regimes over time. On-the-ground social-ecological studies examine relationships between forest conditions and types of institutions. Behavioral studies under controlled laboratory conditions enhance our understanding of explicit changes in structure that affect relevant human decisions. Evidence from all three research methods challenges the presumption that a single governance arrangement will control overharvesting in all settings. When users are genuinely engaged in decisions regarding rules affecting their use, the likelihood of them following the rules and monitoring others is much greater than when an authority simply imposes rules. Our results support a frontier of research on the most effective institutional and tenure arrangements for protecting forests. They move the debate beyond the boundaries of protected areas into larger landscapes where government, community, and comanaged protected areas are embedded and help us understand when and why deforestation and regrowth occur in specific regions within these larger landscapes. PMID:17088538

  16. Development of a Laboratory Model of a Phototroph-Heterotroph Mixed-Species Biofilm at the Stone/Air Interface.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen; Cappitelli, Francesca; Stewart, Philip S

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific investigations have shed light on the ecological importance and physiological complexity of subaerial biofilms (SABs) inhabiting lithic surfaces. In the field of sustainable cultural heritage (CH) preservation, mechanistic approaches aimed at investigation of the spatiotemporal patterns of interactions between the biofilm, the stone, and the atmosphere are of outstanding importance. However, these interactions have proven difficult to explore with field experiments due to the inaccessibility of samples, the complexity of the ecosystem under investigation and the temporal resolution of the experiments. To overcome these limitations, we aimed at developing a unifying methodology to reproduce a fast-growing, phototroph-heterotroph mixed species biofilm at the stone/air interface. Our experiments underscore the ability of the dual-species SAB model to capture functional traits characteristic of biofilms inhabiting lithic substrate such as: (i) microcolonies of aggregated bacteria; (ii) network like structure following surface topography; (iii) cooperation between phototrophs and heterotrophs and cross feeding processes; (iv) ability to change the chemical parameters that characterize the microhabitats; (v) survival under desiccation and (vi) biocide tolerance. With its advantages in control, replication, range of different experimental scenarios and matches with the real ecosystem, the developed model system is a powerful tool to advance our mechanistic understanding of the stone-biofilm-atmosphere interplay in different environments. PMID:26635736

  17. Development of a Laboratory Model of a Phototroph-Heterotroph Mixed-Species Biofilm at the Stone/Air Interface

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen; Cappitelli, Francesca; Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific investigations have shed light on the ecological importance and physiological complexity of subaerial biofilms (SABs) inhabiting lithic surfaces. In the field of sustainable cultural heritage (CH) preservation, mechanistic approaches aimed at investigation of the spatiotemporal patterns of interactions between the biofilm, the stone, and the atmosphere are of outstanding importance. However, these interactions have proven difficult to explore with field experiments due to the inaccessibility of samples, the complexity of the ecosystem under investigation and the temporal resolution of the experiments. To overcome these limitations, we aimed at developing a unifying methodology to reproduce a fast-growing, phototroph-heterotroph mixed species biofilm at the stone/air interface. Our experiments underscore the ability of the dual-species SAB model to capture functional traits characteristic of biofilms inhabiting lithic substrate such as: (i) microcolonies of aggregated bacteria; (ii) network like structure following surface topography; (iii) cooperation between phototrophs and heterotrophs and cross feeding processes; (iv) ability to change the chemical parameters that characterize the microhabitats; (v) survival under desiccation and (vi) biocide tolerance. With its advantages in control, replication, range of different experimental scenarios and matches with the real ecosystem, the developed model system is a powerful tool to advance our mechanistic understanding of the stone-biofilm-atmosphere interplay in different environments. PMID:26635736

  18. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: Coupling experimental and computational analysis at the laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, M. S.; Bell, J. B.; Cheng, R. K.; Tachibana, S.; Beckner, V. E.; Lijewski, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.

  19. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  20. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  1. Vibration-Rotation Analysis of the 13CO_2 Asymmetric Stretch Fundamental Band in Ambient Air for the Physical Chemistry Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolson, David A.; Anders, Catherine B.

    2015-06-01

    The CO_2 asymmetric stretch fundamental band near 4.3 μm is one of the strongest infrared absorption transitions of all small molecules. This band is an undesired interference in most infrared spectra, but it also serves as a potential choice for a vibration-rotation analysis experiment in the physical chemistry teaching laboratory. Due to the strength of this band and the 1.1% natural abundance of carbon-13, the asymmetric stretch fundamental band of 13CO_2 is readily observable in a typical ambient air background spectrum and is shifted sufficiently from the stronger 12CO_2 fundamental such that the 13CO_2 P-branch lines are almost completely free of interferences and are easily assigned. All of the 13CO_2 R-branch lines appear within the 12CO_2 P-branch, which creates assignment challenges. Students in our program have analyzed the 13CO_2 fundamental asymmetric stretch band over a two-year period. Analyses of the P-branch line positions enabled the prediction of additional R-branch line positions, which guided line identification and measurements in the 13CO_2 R-branch. C=O bond lengths determined from analyses of the 13CO_2 spectra improved when R-branch lines were added to the initial P-branch data sets. Spectral appearance, analyses and results will be presented for spectra obtained at 0.5 cm-1 resolution and at 0.125 cm-1 resolution. The challenge of predicting and finding the 13CO_2 R-branch lines among other interfering lines adds an element of realism to this experiment that is not found in many student experiments of this type.

  2. Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Soil Properties on the Soil-Air Partitioning of Semivolatile Pesticides: Laboratory Measurements and Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Hageman, Kimberly J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Rougé, Valentin; Fujita, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Soil-air partition coefficient (Ksoil-air) values are often employed to investigate the fate of organic contaminants in soils; however, these values have not been measured for many compounds of interest, including semivolatile current-use pesticides. Moreover, predictive equations for estimating Ksoil-air values for pesticides (other than the organochlorine pesticides) have not been robustly developed, due to a lack of measured data. In this work, a solid-phase fugacity meter was used to measure the Ksoil-air values of 22 semivolatile current- and historic-use pesticides and their degradation products. Ksoil-air values were determined for two soils (semiarid and volcanic) under a range of environmentally relevant temperature (10-30 °C) and relative humidity (30-100%) conditions, such that 943 Ksoil-air measurements were made. Measured values were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, soil organic carbon content, and pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficients. Pesticide volatilization losses from soil, calculated with the newly derived Ksoil-air predictive equation and a previously described pesticide volatilization model, were compared to previous results and showed that the choice of Ksoil-air predictive equation mainly affected the more-volatile pesticides and that the way in which relative humidity was accounted for was the most critical difference. PMID:26258946

  3. Biomedical Science, Unit I: Respiration in Health and Medicine. Respiratory Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology; The Behavior of Gases; Introductory Chemistry; and Air Pollution. Laboratory Manual. Revised Version, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Designed to accompany the student text on respiration, this manual presents instructions on the use of laboratory equipment and presents various experiments dealing with the concepts presented in the text. Thirty-nine laboratory activities are described. Laboratory activities are divided into several parts, each part covering a specific experiment…

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: What's in the Air? How Much Is Too Much? Measurement of Toxic Gases, Vapors, and Particulates--Limits of Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Discusses methods of measuring organic vapors, various compounds, and particulates in laboratory atmospheres, reviewing criteria for safe levels. Does not discuss other ways that toxic materials enter the body as through skin or by ingestion. (Author/JN)

  5. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  6. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  7. Laboratory host range testing of Lilioceris sp. near impressa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) – a potential biological control agent of air potato, Dioscorea bulbifera (Dioscoreaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air potato, Dioscorea bulbifera, is an invasive, herbaceous, climbing vine, which dominates invaded native vegetation in Florida. The fortuitous discovery of Lilioceris sp. near impressa defoliating D. bulbifera vines and feeding on the bulbils (aerial tubers) in the Katmandu Valley of Nepal initiat...

  8. AIR TOXICS DEVELOPMENT AT EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of research activities in EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, including the identification, assessment, and control of sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (NAPs), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). VOCs...

  9. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor and utility scale power plants. Quarterly progress report No. 14, January--March, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report summarized progress on Task 3, Power Plant Studies, and Task 4, Technical Management and Reporting. Task 3 this quarter involved sampling of flue gas from Units 6 and 7 of the host power plant. The operating parameters during the sampling period are given. Laboratory analyses are in progress. Under Task 4, internal and external QA/QC audits were conducted. A data base management system was prepared. An appendix contains a data compilation of plant operating data.

  10. Air emissions testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The article presents a brief overview of air emission sampling methods and analysis procedures related to stationary sources such as incinerators, power plants, and industrial boilers. It is intended primarily for the laboratory chemist or manager who is familiar with samples and methods associated with water or waste sources, but not with those associated with air and stack gas emissions.

  11. Environmental assessment for the depleted uranium testing program at the Nevada Test Site by the United States Army Ballistics Research Laboratory. [Open-Air Tests and X-Tunnel Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-24

    This proposed action provides the Department of Energy (DOE) authorization to the US Army to conduct a testing program using Depleted Uranium (DU) in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) would be the managing agency for the program. The proposed action site would utilize existing facilities, and human activity would be confined to areas identified as having no tortoise activity. Two classifications of tests would be conducted under the testing program: (1) open-air tests, and (2) X-Tunnel tests. A series of investigative tests would be conducted to obtain information on DU use under the conditions of each classification. The open-air tests would include DU ammunition hazard classification and combat systems activity tests. Upon completion of each test or series of tests, the area would be decontaminated to meet requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. All contaminated materials would be decontaminated or disposed of as radioactive waste in an approved low-level Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) by personnel trained specifically for this purpose.

  12. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  13. Quantification and human health risk assessment of by-products of photo catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene, xylene and toluene in indoor air of analytical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Dhada, Indramani; Sharma, Mukesh; Nagar, Pavan Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The by-products of TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of ethylbenze, p,m-xylene, o-xylene and toluene (EXT) in vapour phase and those adsorbed on the catalyst surface (solid phase) were identified and quantified on GC/GC-MS. A factor was developed in terms of μg of by-product produced per mg of EXT removed per sq-meter surface area of catalyst for estimating the mass of by-products produced. The by-products quantified were: acetone, hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, crotonaldehyde, toulene, 1,4-benzoquinone, benzaldehyde, phenol, benzylalcohol, cresol, hydroquinone and benzoic acid. The by-products accounted for 2.3-4.2% of the total mass of EXT treated. For treating concentrations of 220μg/m(3) (ethylbenzene), 260μg/m(3) (p,m-xylene), 260μg/m(3) (o-xylene) and 320μg/m(3) (toluene), at a flow rate of 7L/min for 12h in a laboratory of volume 195m(3), the estimated cancer risks of by-products to the occupants were 1.51×10(-6), 1.06×10(-6), 4.69×10(-7), and 1.58×10(-9) respectively. The overall hazard index (HI) of the by-products for EXT was of the order 10(-4); which is much less than desired level of 1.0. The estimated risks were within the acceptable level. This study has also suggested the photocatalytic degradation pathways for EX which are through formation of toluene. PMID:27208611

  14. Partitioning of ocean and land uptake of CO2 as inferred by delta C-13 measurements from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciais, Philippe; Tans, Pieter P.; White, James W. C.; Trolier, Michael; Francey, Roger J.; Berry, Joe A.; Randall, David R.; Sellers, Piers J.; Collatz, James G.; Schimel, David S.

    1995-01-01

    Using delta C-13 measurements in atmospheric CO2 from a cooperative global air sampling network, we determined the partitioning of the net uptake of CO2 between ocean and land as a function of latitude and time. The majority of delta C-13 measurements were made at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) of the University of Colorado. We perform an inverse deconvolution of both CO2 and delta C-13 observations, using a two-dimensional model of atmospheric transport. Also, the discrimination against C-13 by plant photosynthesis, as a function of latitude and time, is calculated from global runs of the simple biosphere (SiB) model. Uncertainty due to the longitudinal structure of the data, which is not represented by the model, is studied through a bootstrap analysis by adding and omitting measurement sites. The resulting error estimates for our inferred sources and sinks are of the order of 1 GTC (1 GTC = 10(exp 15) gC). Such error bars do not reflect potential systematic errors arising from our estimates of the isotopic disequilibria between the atmosphere and the oceans and biosphere, which are estimated in a separate sensitivity analysis. With respect to global totals for 1992 we found that 3.2 GTC of carbon dissolved into the ocean and that 1.5 GTC were sequestered by land ecosystems. Northern hemisphere ocean gyres north of 15 deg N absorbed 2.7 GTC. The equatorial oceans between 10 deg S and 10 deg N were a net source to the atmosphere of 0.9 GTC. We obtained a sink of 1.6 GTC in southern ocean gyres south of 20 deg S, although the deconvolution is poorly constrained by sparse data coverage at high southern latitudes. The seasonal uptake of CO2 in the northern gyres appears to be correlated with a bloom of phytoplankton in surface waters. On land, northern temperate and boreal ecosystems between 35 deg N and 65 deg N were found to be a major sink of CO2 in 1992, as large as 3.5 GTC. Northern tropical ecosystems (equator-30 deg N) appear to be a net

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  17. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  18. Neutron metrology laboratory facility simulation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Salgado, Ana P; Filho, Aidano S; Pereira, Walsan W; Patrão, Karla C S; Fonseca, Evaldo S

    2014-10-01

    The Neutron Low Scattering Laboratory in Brazil has been completely rebuilt. Evaluation of air attenuation parameters and neutron component scattering in the room was done using Monte Carlo simulation code. Neutron fields produced by referenced neutron source were used to calculate neutron scattering and air attenuation. PMID:24864318

  19. Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization in the Undergraduate Laboratories. 2. Using ATRP in Limited Amounts of Air to Prepare Block and Statistical Copolymers of n-Butyl Acrylate and Styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Beers, Kathryn L.; Woodworth, Brian; Metzner, Zachary

    2001-04-01

    Developments in controlled radical polymerization have facilitated the use of living polymer chemistry in the undergraduate laboratories. In the first paper of this series, a procedure for the use of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to prepare block and statistical copolymers was described and the use of kinetic analysis to differentiate between living and conventional processes was demonstrated. In this paper, the experiment is extended to polymerizations run in limited amounts of air so that the use of inert gases is unnecessary. The Cu(I) catalyst can be lost owing to oxidation or termination reactions; however, a scavenger, Cu(0), is added to react with oxidized catalyst to regenerate the Cu(I) complex. A difunctional macroinitiator of poly(n-butyl acrylate) is prepared and chain-extended with polystyrene. A statistical copolymer using the same monomer pair is also prepared. These copolymers are isolated and characterized along with the homopolymeric macroinitiator using 1H NMR and SEC. Kinetic analysis is also carried out using GC and SEC. The significant difference in these two approaches, in addition to slight variations in the reaction conditions, is apparent in the chain extension to yield the ABA triblock copolymer.

  20. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  1. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  2. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  3. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

  4. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory...) days from the date of publication of this Notice. Written objections should be sent to: Air Force Research Laboratory, Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, AFRL/RIJ, 26 Electronic Parkway, Rome, New...

  5. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  6. 75 FR 27865 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ..., Department of the Air Force, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL); Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75... the Air Force, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of... Law 111-84, 123 Stat. 2486, and 73 FR 73248, to enhance the performance of these laboratories.......

  7. 75 FR 53075 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ..., Department of the Air Force, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL); Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75... the Air Force, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of... Public Law 111-84, section 1105, and 73 FR 73248, to enhance the performance of these laboratories.......

  8. Air encapsulation during infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Murphy, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effects of air encapsulation within the soil's transmission zone upon several infiltration properties. In the field, infiltration rates were measured using a double-cap infiltrometer and soil-water contents were measured using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). In the laboratory, infiltration experiments were peformed using repacked soil columns using TDR and CO 2 flooding. Results suggest that a significant portion of the total encapsulated air resided in interconnected pores within the soil's transmission zone. For the time scale considered, this residual air caused the effective hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone to remain at a level no greater than 20% of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. -from Authors

  9. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  10. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.

  12. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century Best Practices: Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH – non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 – Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate “should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory” it specifically indicates that it is intended to “provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.” The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that pro-vide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories.

  15. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  16. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  17. Control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-03-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

  18. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  19. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  20. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  3. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  4. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  5. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  6. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Air Toxics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) is a multimedia, multipathway population-based exposure and dose model for air toxics developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). SHEDS-AirToxics uses a probabili...

  7. Medical Laboratory Technician--Microbiology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology (the history of bacteriology; aseptic techniques and sterilization procedures; bacterial morphology and…

  8. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, anddemonstrates air pollution prevention a...

  9. 4. DETAIL SHOWING FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking southeast. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL SHOWING FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. DETAIL, CONTROL BOOTH, RP1 TANK FARM Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, CONTROL BOOTH, RP1 TANK FARM - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Combined Fuel Storage Tank Farm, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. Looking west Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. Looking west - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Fuel & Water Tank, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 3. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southeast. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 4. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  15. COMPARISON OF THE OCTANOL-AIR PARTITION COEFFICIENT AND LIQUID-PHASE VAPOR PRESSURE AS DESCRIPTORS FOR PARTICLE/GAS PARTITIONING USING LABORATORY AND FIELD DATA FOR PCBS AND PCNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conventional Junge-Pankow adsorption model uses the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (pLo) as a correlation parameter for gas/particle interactions. An alternative is the octanol-air partition coefficient (Koa) absorption model. Log-log plots of the particle-gas partition c...

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  17. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  18. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  19. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1939 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) PLANS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photographic Laboratory, 7718 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  20. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1939 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) REAR AND LEFT SIDE ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photographic Laboratory, 7718 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  1. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1939 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) MAIN ENTRANCE DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photographic Laboratory, 7718 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  2. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Photographic Laboratory Building in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1939 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photographic Laboratory, 7718 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  3. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Daniel M.; Simolunas, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment to teach the principles of air sampling, gamma ray spectroscopy, nuclear decay, and radioactive equilibrium. Analyzes radon by carbon adsorption and gamma ray counting. Provides methodology and rate of decay equations. (MVL)

  5. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Classroom Air Quality: Exploring the Indoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experiences with Global Lab, which is depicted as a real-world networked science laboratory connecting individuals investigating global and local environmental change. Focuses on techniques to monitor indoor air quality. (DDR)

  9. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  10. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  11. Materials Data on HoAl7Au3 (SG:167) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-08

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Royce, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory.

  13. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  14. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  15. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  16. Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab. Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of…

  17. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  18. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  19. Measuring Concentrations of Particulate 140La in the Air.

    PubMed

    Okada, Colin E; Kernan, Warnick; Keillor, Martin; Kirkham, Randy; Sorom, Rich D; Van Etten, Don M

    2016-05-01

    Air sampling systems were deployed to measure the concentration of radioactive material in the air during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device Field Trials. The air samplers were positioned 100-600 m downwind of the release point. The filters were collected immediately and analyzed in a field laboratory. Quantities for total activity collected on the air filters are reported along with additional information to compute the average or integrated air concentrations. PMID:27023029

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  1. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  2. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  3. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  4. 19. Interior view of HVAC room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view of HVAC room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking toward east wall. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, machinery, and technological modifications for HVAC system installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 18. Interior view of HVAC room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior view of HVAC room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), showing northwest corner. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications for HVAC system installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 11. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking north. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. 9. Exterior view, Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Exterior view, Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. The enclosure discussed in CO-88-B-8 is at the right. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Medical Laboratory Technician (Chemistry and Urinalysis). (AFSC 92470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are medical laboratory administration and clinical chemistry (career opportunities, general laboratory safety and materials, general medical laboratory…

  9. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. 12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 76 FR 57026 - Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Force Research Laboratory overview focusing on the Air Force Science and Technology plan emphasizing... Department of the Air Force Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  12. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  13. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  14. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  15. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. ata do not appear for several days, during which sample integ...

  16. FIELD DEPLOYABLE MONITORS FOR VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. ata do not appear for several days, during which sample integ...

  17. 10. "TEST STAND 15, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  19. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  20. Transportable Xenon Laboratory (TXL-1) Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Robert C.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Willett, Jesse A.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-03-07

    The Transportable Xenon Laboratory Operations Manual is a guide to set up and shut down TXL, a fully contained laboratory made up of instruments to identify and measure concentrations of the radioactive isotopes of xenon by taking air samples and analyzing them. The TXL is housed in a standard-sized shipping container. TXL can be shipped to and function in any country in the world.

  1. 21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room (also known as scrubber room) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  3. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  4. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories. Various types of energy recovery

  5. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, G.L.; Paquette, D.E.; Naidu, J.R.; Lee, R.J.; Briggs, S.L.K.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and summarizes information about environmental compliance for 1996. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and of a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in the ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna, and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at adjacent sites. The report also evaluates the Laboratory`s compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and non-radiological emissions and effluents to the environment.

  6. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  7. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  8. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  9. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  10. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  11. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed.

  12. A Selected Bibliography on Microbiological Laboratory Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Reference sources on microbiological laboratory design are cited. Subjects covered include--(1) policies and general requirements, (2) ventilated cabinets, (3) animal isolation equipment, (4) air handling, ventilation, and filtration, (5) germicidal ultraviolet irradiation, (6) aerosol test facilities, (7) process production of microorganisms, and…

  13. REAL-TIME MONITORING OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR WITH A MOBILE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project involving a mobile laboratory for continuous monitoring of emissions and operating parameters of hazardous waste incinerators. This Hazardous Air Pollutants Mobile Laboratory (HAPML), easily transported for use by research projects at a variety ...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories embraces ISDN

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Eldridge, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a multidisciplinary research and development laboratory located on Kirtland Air Force Base, has embraced Integrated Services Digital Network technology as an integral part of its communication network. Sandia and the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Operations Office have recently completed the installation of a modernized and expanded telephone system based, on the AT&T 5ESS telephone switch. Sandia is committed to ISDN as an integral part of data communication services, and it views ISDN as one part of a continuum of services -- services that range from ISDN`s asynchronous and limited bandwidth Ethernet (250--1000 Kbps) through full bandwidth Ethernet, FDDI, and ATM at Sonet rates. Sandia has demonstrated this commitment through its use of ISDN data features to support critical progmmmatic services such as access to corporate data base systems. In the future, ISDN will provide enhanced voice, data communication, and video services.

  15. Ambient air and its potential effects on conception in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Gilligan, A; Esposito, W; Schimmel, T; Dale, B

    1997-08-01

    Incidences of chemical air contamination (CAC) are common in assisted reproductive technology, but not reported in peer review format. Justified fear of car and industrial emissions clearly exists among reproductive specialists, but standards for air contents and gaseous emission limits have not been reported. Here, we describe air sampling methods and assay systems which can be applied to any laboratory or laboratory item. It was found that unfiltered outside air may be cleaner than high efficiency particulate air filtration (HEPA) filtered laboratory air or air obtained from incubators, due to accumulation of volatile organic compounds derived from adjacent spaces or specific laboratory products such as compressed CO2, sterile Petri dishes and other materials or devices known to release gaseous emissions. Specific groups of products such as anaesthetic gases, refrigerants, cleaning agents, hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene are described. The latter were shown to accumulate specifically in incubators. Isopropyl alcohol was the most dominant product found, though it was not used by the laboratory staff. Concentrations of this agent were low in incubator air, indicating that it was probably absorbed by the water in the pan or by culture medium. Measures to counter CAC are proposed, including the use of activated carbon filters and oxidizing material placed in the central air handling systems, in separate free-standing units or even inside the incubators. PMID:9308805

  16. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  17. Improving air handler efficiency in houses

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2004-05-01

    Although furnaces, air conditioners and heat pumps have become significantly more efficient over the last couple of decades, residential air handlers have typical efficiencies of only 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. Substantial increases in performance could be obtained through improved air handler design and construction. A prototype residential air handler intended to address these issues has recently been developed. The prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler (averaged over a wide range of operating conditions) and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the clearance between the air handler and cabinet it was placed in. These test results showed that in addition to the large scope for performance improvement, air handler fans need to be tested in the cabinets they operate in.

  18. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26065785

  19. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists. PMID:26851660

  20. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  1. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  2. POPULATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODEL FOR AIR TOXICS: A BENZENE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing a human exposure and dose model called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) to characterize population exposure to air toxics in support of the National Air ...

  3. An investigation of the source of air Ar contamination in KAr dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussett, A.E.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1968-01-01

    Precision of young KAr ages is limited by air argon contamination. A series of experiments in which the exposure of basalt and sanidine samples to air argon was controlled, shows that most of the air contamination does not arise in the laboratory. Because of this, it seems unlikely that air argon contamination can be significantly reduced by special sample handling and preparation techniques. ?? 1968.

  4. 75 FR 81591 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... of the Air Force. In addition, the SAB will discuss and reach a consensus on the results of the Air Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology FY11 Review. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b, as amended,...

  5. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  6. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  7. Simulation of a hydraulic air ingestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.; Golshani, A.

    1981-01-01

    A hydraulic air ingestion process which requires no mechanical moving parts to accomplish air compression but a downward flow of water and operates at nearly isothermal compression mode can be a viable alternative for the noncondensibles disposal of an OTEC open-cycle power system. A computer simulation of the process is presented based on one-dimensional lumped parameter analysis. Results of laboratory-scale experiments were obtained which compared favorably with the analytical results. A sensitivity study which depicts the effects of various parameters upon the applied head of the hydraulic air ingestion process is also presented.

  8. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  9. 2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  11. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  12. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  13. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  14. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  15. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  16. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF BUILDING 125, THE STANDARDS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF BUILDING 125, THE STANDARDS LABORATORY. THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE STANDARDS LABORATORY WAS TO ENSURE AND IMPLEMENT A SYSTEM OF QUALITY CONTROL FOR INCOMING MATERIALS USED IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. SEVERAL ENGINEERING CONTROLS WERE USED TO ASSURE ACCURACY OF THE CALIBRATION PROCESSES INCLUDING: FLEX-FREE GRANITE TABLES, AIR LOCKED DOORS, TEMPERATURE CONTROLS, AND A SUPER-CLEAN ENVIRONMENT - Rocky Flats Plant, Standards Laboratory, Immediately north of 215A water tower & adjacent to Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 10. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of control room in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking east. The control room is located in the center of the building and abuts the Test Cell 8, 9, and 10 and equipment room wings. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  19. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. The Argonne radon-in-air analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    The methods used or developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the measurement of radon in air are being summarized here. The radon calibration work has been entirely maintained during the last several years by F. Markun (Analytic Services Section).

  1. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  2. Services provided by the 222-S laboratory for regulatory support

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.P.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the services the 222-S Laboratory shall provide Regulatory Support (RS) and the samples RS plans to submit to the 222-S Laboratory throughout the calendar year for analysis. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements cited in Quality Assurance Program Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Monitoring, Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Activities, and Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan. Radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public from those emissions are reported. This report complies with the reporting requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ``Protection of the Environment, `` Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, `` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclide Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.``

  3. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  4. An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)

  5. Employment at National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    E. S. Peterson; C. A. Allen

    2007-04-01

    Scientists enter the National Laboratory System for many different reasons. For some, faculty positions are scarce, so they take staff-scientist position at national laboratories (i.e. Pacific Northwest, Idaho, Los Alamos, and Brookhaven). Many plan to work at the National Laboratory for 5 to 7 years and then seek an academic post. For many (these authors included), before they know it it’s 15 or 20 years later and they never seriously considered leaving the laboratory system.

  6. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  7. A laboratory scale supersonic combustive flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, E.C.; Zerkle, D.K.; Fry, H.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1995-02-01

    A laboratory scale supersonic flow system [Combustive Flow System (CFS)] which utilizes the gaseous products of methane-air and/or liquid fuel-air combustion has been assembled to provide a propulsion type exhaust flow field for various applications. Such applications include providing a testbed for the study of planar two-dimensional nozzle flow fields with chemistry, three-dimensional flow field mixing near the exit of rectangular nozzles, benchmarking the predictive capability of various computational fluid dynamic codes, and the development and testing of advanced diagnostic techniques. This paper will provide a detailed description of the flow system and data related to its operation.

  8. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  9. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  10. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  11. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  12. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  14. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  15. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  16. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  17. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  18. Testing Air-Filtering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Joseph R.; Sullivan, James F.; Hurd, James W.

    1963-01-01

    A procedure was developed for evaluating high-efficiency filters mounted in exhaust ducts at the National Animal Disease Laboratory. An aerosol of the test organism, Escherichia coli B T3 bacteriophage, was generated in a chamber attached to a ceiling exhaust register in concentrations of at least 1000 viable organisms per ft3 of air. Samples were collected from both the pre- and postfilter areas, and the number of organisms per ft3 of air was determined. The efficiency of the filter was calculated from these figures. A total of 269 high-efficiency filters were tested. Of these, 249 had efficiencies of 98% or greater. The remaining 20, with efficiencies of less than 98%, were repaired and retested. No filter was accepted with an efficiency of less than 98%. Images Fig. 2 PMID:14063779

  19. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  20. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  1. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  2. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  3. Laboratory Turnaround Time

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT. PMID:18392122

  4. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  5. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  6. Using an air thermometer to estimate the gas constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchin, John

    2015-03-01

    The air thermometer, widely used in physics laboratories to show the relationship between volume and temperature, can also be used to obtain values for the gas constant and hence Avogadro’s number. Using a very low cost, home-made air thermometer can give surprisingly good results in a very short period of time.

  7. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  8. Radioxenon spiked air.

    PubMed

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities. PMID:26318775

  9. Radioxenon spiked air

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The Internationalmore » Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.« less

  10. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  11. Structure of laboratory ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Tamura, Tomoya; Cappelli, Mark A.; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Trajectories of self-sustained laboratory ball lightning, generated by arc discharges with silicon, are investigated for understanding the possibility of buoyant flight. Extremely low apparent densities are found, nearly approaching that of standard air. The freely buoyant balls are observed to survive for about 0.1 s, with significantly buoyant balls surviving for several seconds. These ball lightning objects are found to have a density and size that can easily allow them to be carried by a gentle breeze of a few meters per second. The results are interpreted by a model that is an extension of that first proposed by Abrahamson and Dinniss [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)]. The buoyant behavior of ball lightning seen in our experiments is believed to arise as a result of the formation of a nanoparticle oxide network growing from a molten silicon core.

  12. Structure of laboratory ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Tamura, Tomoya; Cappelli, Mark A; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Trajectories of self-sustained laboratory ball lightning, generated by arc discharges with silicon, are investigated for understanding the possibility of buoyant flight. Extremely low apparent densities are found, nearly approaching that of standard air. The freely buoyant balls are observed to survive for about 0.1 s, with significantly buoyant balls surviving for several seconds. These ball lightning objects are found to have a density and size that can easily allow them to be carried by a gentle breeze of a few meters per second. The results are interpreted by a model that is an extension of that first proposed by Abrahamson and Dinniss [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)]. The buoyant behavior of ball lightning seen in our experiments is believed to arise as a result of the formation of a nanoparticle oxide network growing from a molten silicon core. PMID:20365306

  13. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  14. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  15. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  16. Air-pollution effects on biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

    1992-04-01

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

  17. 2. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking north. The Components Test Laboratory (T-27) is located in the immediate foreground. Immediately uphill to the left of T-27 is the Boiler Chiller Plant (T-28H). To the left of T-28H is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D). Behind the T-28D is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). The twin gantry structure at the left is the Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Elimination of microorganisms from dental operatory compressed air.

    PubMed

    De Ciccio, A; Chan, E C

    1998-01-01

    Compressed air is used to power high-speed handpieces, as well as to dry and clean surfaces in the oral cavity during patient treatment, in all dental operatories. The compressed air used in the dental operatories located in large institutions such as universities or hospitals is generally obtained from a central source, and is produced by continually running compressors. In operatories located in private practice settings, compressed air is obtained from small on-site air compressors, which may be run less frequently. A survey was made of operatories in the Montreal area to determine the microbial load of the compressed air produced by air compressors. An air sampler was used to collect compressed air and impinge it on a rotating agar medium surface. Compared to the air produced from compressors in constant use, the air collected from compressors that ran intermittently had a very high microbial load. The efficacy of an apparatus designed to sterilize the contaminated air produced by small, on-site compressors was tested. Called a Purilair, this device heats every particle of inflowing compressed air to 250 degrees C and then forces it through a fine-pore ceramic filter. In three private practice operatories, an in-line Purilair effectively sterilized the air being delivered by small compressors. The same result was obtained in the laboratory when lyophilized spores and cells of Bacillus stearothermophilus and conidia of Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus niger were sprayed into the intake line of the apparatus. PMID:9473876

  19. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  1. 7. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking south. The wing in the immediate foreground houses the equipment room. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 2. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. The low-lying concrete Signal Transfer Building (T-28A) is located in the immediate foreground. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 2. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. The building wing on the left houses the equipment room and that on the right houses Test Cell 8 (oxidizer) and the oxidizer storage pit or vault. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 3. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. The building wing on the left houses the equipment room, and that on the right houses Test Cell 8 (oxidizer) and the oxidizer storage pit or vault. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 4. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. The building wing on the left houses Test Cell 8 (oxidizer) and the oxidizer storage pit or vault, and that on the right houses Test Cell 10 (environmental). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 5. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northwest. The building wing on the left houses Test Cell 10 (environmental), and that on the right houses Test Cell 9 (fuel) and the fuel storage pit or vault. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  8. Mobile Energy Laboratory Use Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This document provides a framework for the use of four Mobile Energy Laboratories (MELs) by federal agencies. These laboratories are made available by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to measure and analyze the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application. The MELs are customized passenger buses converted to provide transportation and storage of sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment. The MELs also provide mobile work space for specially trained engineers and technicians. One MEL is currently assigned to each of the following agencies: Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, Department of the Navy, and Department of Energy. Experience over the past five years has indicated the need for centralized MEL administration, application scheduling, test procedure development, user training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests for MEL use and the economies available by having trained full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. Other evidence suggests that a regional, rather than Departmental, administration can reduce the costs of MEL relocation.

  9. Parachute Testing for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The team developing the landing system for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory tested the deployment of an early parachute design in mid-October 2007 inside the world's largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

    In this image, an engineer is dwarfed by the parachute, which holds more air than a 280-square-meter (3,000-square-foot) house and is designed to survive loads in excess of 36,000 kilograms (80,000 pounds).

    The parachute, built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, has 80 suspension lines, measures more than 50 meters (165 feet) in length, and opens to a diameter of nearly 17 meters (55 feet). It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built and is shown here inflated in the test section with only about 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) of clearance to both the floor and ceiling.

    The wind tunnel, which is 24 meters (80 feet) tall and 37 meters (120 feet) wide and big enough to house a Boeing 737, is part of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, operated by the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is building and testing the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft for launch in 2009. The mission will land a roving analytical laboratory on the surface of Mars in 2010. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Towards the South African Underground Laboratory (SAUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.

    Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.

  11. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  12. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  13. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  14. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  16. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  17. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  18. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  19. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  20. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  1. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  2. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  3. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  4. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  5. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  6. LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

    THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

  7. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  8. Medical Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

  9. Practical Laboratory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. R.

    This book is intended as a guide for people who are planning chemistry and physics research laboratories. It deals with the importance of effective communication between client and architect, the value of preliminary planning, and the role of the project officer. It also discusses the size and layout of individual laboratories, the design of…

  10. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  11. Laboratory for Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the activities of the Laboratory for Oceans. The staff and the research activities are nearly evenly divided between engineering and scientific endeavors. The Laboratory contributes engineering design skills to aircraft and ground based experiments in terrestrial and atmospheric sciences in cooperation with scientists from labs in Earth sciences.

  12. Using Laboratory Models to Test Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Lewis; O'Donnell, Carl R.; Gilman, Sean A.; Lansing, Robert W.; Schwartzstein, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Opioids are commonly used to relieve dyspnea, but clinical data are mixed and practice varies widely. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of morphine on dyspnea and ventilatory drive under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Methods: Six healthy volunteers received morphine (0.07 mg/kg) and placebo intravenously on separate days (randomized, blinded). We measured two responses to a CO2 stimulus: (1) perceptual response (breathing discomfort; described by subjects as “air hunger”) induced by increasing partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) during restricted ventilation, measured with a visual analog scale (range, “neutral” to “intolerable”); and (2) ventilatory response, measured in separate trials during unrestricted breathing. Measurements and Main Results: We determined the PetCO2 that produced a 60% breathing discomfort rating in each subject before morphine (median, 8.5 mm Hg above resting PetCO2). At the same PetCO2 after morphine administration, median breathing discomfort was reduced by 65% of its pretreatment value; P < 0.001. Ventilation fell 28% at the same PetCO2; P < 0.01. The effect of morphine on breathing discomfort was not significantly correlated with the effect on ventilatory response. Placebo had no effect. Conclusions: (1) A moderate morphine dose produced substantial relief of laboratory dyspnea, with a smaller reduction of ventilation. (2) In contrast to an earlier laboratory model of breathing effort, this laboratory model of air hunger established a highly significant treatment effect consistent in magnitude with clinical studies of opioids. Laboratory studies require fewer subjects and enable physiological measurements that are difficult to make in a clinical setting. Within-subject comparison of the response to carefully controlled laboratory stimuli can be an efficient means to optimize treatments before clinical trials. PMID:21778294

  13. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  14. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  16. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  17. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  18. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  19. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  20. Spatiotemporally-Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution-Related Morbidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EP...

  1. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  2. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methodology C Appendix C to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient Air... appendix must be submitted to: Director, National Exposure Research Laboratory (MD-D205-03),...

  4. Effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC flux rates from CAFO manure and wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to estimate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission ...

  5. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  6. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  7. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  8. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  9. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  10. Modeling the exit velocity of a compressed air cannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, Z. J.; Buresh, T. R.; Madsen, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of compressed air cannons in an undergraduate laboratory provides a way to illustrate the connection between diverse physics concepts, such as conservation of momentum, the work-kinetic energy theorem, gas expansion, air drag, and elementary Newtonian mechanics. However, it is not clear whether the expansion of the gas in the cannon is an adiabatic or an isothermal process. We built an air cannon that utilizes a diaphragm valve to release the pressurized gas and found that neither process accurately predicts the exit velocity of our projectile. We discuss a model based on the flow of air through the valve, which is in much better agreement with our data.

  11. Radioxenon spiked air

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  12. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  13. Hepa room air purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a portable air purification apparatus comprising a housing including a base portion and cover means, the base portion including an air deflection means and a plate means mounted in spaced relationship to the air deflection means so as to create a substantially continuous air exhaust opening therebetween. A centrifugal fan means is disposed between the plate means and the air deflection means and is mounted so as to direct air radially outwardly therefrom through the air exhaust opening, at least one opening through the plate means to permit air flow therethrough to the centrifugal fan means. The motor means carried by the base portion and extends upwardly with respect to the opening in the plate means, the motor means having drive shaft means for driving the centrifugal fan means. An air filter means is mounted between the base portion and the cover means so that air is drawn therethrough toward the centrifugal fan means, and a means for secures the cover means relative to the base means to thereby retain the air filter means therebetween.

  14. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  15. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  16. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  17. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1997 Site Environmental Report Vol. II

    SciTech Connect

    Thorson, Patrick

    1998-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 1997 is published by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data). Data presented in volume II are given in Systeme International (SI) units. The list below categorizes the volume II data sections with corresponding summary result tables in volume I: Stack Air, Ambient Air, Rainwater, Creeks, Creek Baseline Study, Hydraugers, Lakes, Stormwater, Sewer, Fixed Treatment Units, Soil, Sediment, Vegetation.

  18. HEDL air filter examination system software

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    This document describes the system software and operation of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) air filter sample counting systems. Included are a description of how each program functions with flow charts, sample printouts, program listings and a listing with comments of test routines that exercise the hardware. This effort is a result of a work order from HEDL Operational Safety to the Instrument Calibration and Evaluations section of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to upgrade the HEDL counting systems to include standardization, radon subtraction, and detector cooling.

  19. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  20. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  1. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  2. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  3. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  4. Improving air handler efficiency in residential HVAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Mingee, Michael D.; Brenner, Douglas E.

    2003-08-01

    In continuing the development of energy efficiency standards, consideration has turned to air handlers used for heating and air conditioning of consumer residences. These air handlers have typical efficiencies of about 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. This study was undertaken to examine some of these performance issues, under carefully controlled laboratory conditions, to support potential regulatory changes. In addition, this study examined the performance of a prototype air handler fan assembly that offers the potential for substantial increases in performance. This prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL which was specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that, averaged over a wide range of operating conditions, the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the space between the air handler and the cabinet it was installed in. Therefore any fan rating needs to be performed using the actual cabinet it will be used in.

  5. Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory--50 years of global seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, C.R.; Peterson, Jon; Gee, Lind; Derr, John; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory is about 15 miles southeast of Albuquerque on the Pueblo of Isleta, adjacent to Kirtland Air Force Base. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory supports the Global Seismographic Network Program and the Advanced National Seismic System through the installation, operation, and maintenance of seismic stations around the world and serves as the premier seismological instrumentation test facility for the U.S. Government.

  6. Ecosystems in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madders, M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)

  7. Organic Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherrel

    1990-01-01

    Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)

  8. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  9. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  10. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  11. Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

  12. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - CORVALLIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory - Corvallis is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's - national research center for terrestrial and watershed ecology, aquatic ecoregions, and for the ecological effects of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and atmospheric p...

  14. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  15. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  16. NETL - Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, George

    2013-06-12

    Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are investigating chemical looping combustion. As a clean and efficient fossil fuel technology, chemical looping combustion controls CO2 emissions and offers a promising alternative to traditional combustion.

  17. An automobile air conditioner design model

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D M; Mei, V C; Chen, F C

    1992-12-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as input to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermostatic expansion valves (TXV), capillary tube, and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; and evaporator pressure regulator and all interconnecting tubing. Pressure drop, heat transfer rates, and latent capacity ratio for the new plate-fin evaporator submodel are shown to agree well with laboratory data. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R-134a.

  18. Data Acquisition and Control Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Randy; Jensen, Scott; Burrel, Terrence; Spooner, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) Laboratory is a facility at Stennis Space Center that provides an off test-stand capability to develop data-acquisition and control systems for rocket-engine test stands. It is also used to train new employees in state-of-the-art systems, and provides a controlled environment for troubleshooting existing systems, as well as the ability to evaluate the application of new technologies and process improvements. With the SSC propulsion testing schedules, without the DACS Laboratory, it would have been necessary to perform most of the development work on actual test systems, thereby subjecting both the rocket-engine testing and development programs to substantial interference in the form of delays, restrictions on modifications of equipment, and potentially compromising software configuration control. The DACS Laboratory contains a versatile assortment of computer hardware and software, digital and analog electronic control and data-acquisition equipment, and standard electronic bench test equipment and tools. Recently completed Control System development and software verification projects include support to the joint NASA/Air Force Integrated Powerhead Demonstration (IPD) LOX & LH2 PreBurner and Turbopump ground testing programs. In other recent activities, the DACS Laboratory equipment and expertise have supported the off-stand operation of high-pressure control valves to correct valve leak problems prior to installation on the test stand. Future plans include expanding the Laboratory's capabilities to provide cryogenic control valve characterization prior to installation, thereby reducing test stand activation time.

  19. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  20. Theory and laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Alcock, Charles; Allamandola, Lou; Chevalier, Roger A.; Cline, David B.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Fall, S. Michael; Ferland, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Science opportunities in the 1990's are discussed. Topics covered include the large scale structure of the universe, galaxies, stars, star formation and the interstellar medium, high energy astrophysics, and the solar system. Laboratory astrophysics in the 1990's is briefly surveyed, covering such topics as molecular, atomic, optical, nuclear and optical physics. Funding recommendations are given for the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Department of Energy. Recommendations for laboratory astrophysics research are given.

  1. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, C. O.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor Charles H. Kruger, with Dr. Christophe O. Laux as Associate Investigator. The goal of this research was to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this end, spectral measurements and modeling were made of the radiation emitted between 2.4 and 5.5 micrometers by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3000 K. The objective was to examine the spectral emission of air species including nitric oxide, atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines, molecular and atomic continua, as well as secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperatures, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8x10(exp -4).

  2. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  4. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  5. Hyperspectral air-to-air seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Nahum; Barhen, Jacob; Gulati, Sandeep; Steiner, Todd D.

    1994-07-01

    Synthetic hyperspectral signatures representing an airborne target engine radiation, a decoy flare, and the engine plume radiation are used to demonstrate computational techniques for the discrimination between such objects. Excellent discrimination is achieved for a `single look' at SNR of -10 dB. Since the atmospheric transmittance perturbs the signature of all objects in an identical fashion, the transmittance is equivalent to a modulation of the target radiance (in the spectral domain). The proper spectral signal decomposition may, therefore, recover the original unperturbed signature accurately enough to allow discrimination. The algorithms described here, and in two accompanying papers, have been tested over the spectral range that includes the VNIR and MWIR and are most appropriate for an intelligent, autonomous, air-to-air or surface-to-air guided munitions. With additional enhancements, the techniques apply to ground targets and other dual-use applications.

  6. Hospital air is sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    2000-11-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:11185833

  7. NASA KingAir #801 during takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA KingAir N801NA during takeoff. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. Dryden assumed the mission and aircraft in September 1996. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  8. What is IAQ. [Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, G.

    1992-01-01

    Does indoor air quality (IAQ) affect you The answer is an emphatic YES Problems affecting indoor air quality can range from a stinky rest room to Sick Building Syndrome. IAQ goes beyond avoiding odors through sufficient ventilation. Many health issues are also involved. IAQ problems are generally complex with no single source causing them. Rather, they result from a combination of several sources that require an organized, but flexible, plan of attack. The purpose of this paper is to define the terms associated with the subject of IAQ, provide some history on the subject, and finally describe my experiences with the continuing process of assessing and remediating problems associated with poor indoor air quality in a new laboratory building.

  9. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  10. Ejector subassembly for dual wall air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kolle, J.J.

    1996-09-01

    The dry drilling system developed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project incorporates a surface vacuum system to prevent drilling air and cuttings from contaminating the borehole wall during coring operations. As the drilling depth increases, however there is a potential for borehole contamination because of the limited volume of air which can be removed by the vacuum system. A feasibility analysis has shown that an ejector subassembly mounted in the drill string above the core barrel could significantly enhance the depth capacity of the dry drilling system. The ejector subassembly would use a portion of the air supplied to the core bit to maintain a vacuum on the hole bottom. The results of a design study including performance testing of laboratory scale ejector simulator are presented here.

  11. [A new approach to improving air in habitable pressurized modules].

    PubMed

    Argunova, A M; Odelevskiĭ, V K; Strogonova, L B

    2009-01-01

    Habitable pressurized modules, including space cabin, should provide ecologically efficient and physiologically auspicious conditions. The regenerated air should be comparable with fresh air of the natural environment humans belonged with over thousand years of evolution. Air scrubbing system GALOINHALATOR IGK-02 (MAI, patent No. 2209093) comprises eco-pure minerals from the salt rocks in Verkhnekamsk (the Urals). The portable automatic system controls air saturation with negative light aeroions and fine salt aerosols at preset levels. The laboratory, clinical and model tests demonstrated bactericide and bacteriostatic effects of air produced by GALOINHALATOR and the mineral ability to adsorb harmful volatile admixtures. Breathing decontaminated and ionized air during long stay in a pressurized module is beneficial to human performance, immunity, and chronic diseases prevention. PMID:19621806

  12. Solar Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Nation's first solar-cell-powered air monitoring station was installed at Liberty State Park, New Jersey. Jointly sponsored by state agencies and the Department of Energy, system includes display which describes its operation to park visitors. Unit samples air every sixth day for a period of 24 hours. Air is forced through a glass filter, then is removed each week for examination by the New Jersey Bureau of Air Pollution. During the day, solar cells provide total power for the sampling equipment. Excess energy is stored in a bank of lead-acid batteries for use when needed.

  13. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  14. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  15. Air Pressure Controlled Mass Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruilin; Wang, Jian; Cai, Changqing; Yao, Hong; Ding, Jin'an; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaolei

    Mass measurement is influenced by air pressure, temperature, humidity and other facts. In order to reduce the influence, mass laboratory of National Institute of Metrology, China has developed an air pressure controlled mass measurement system. In this system, an automatic mass comparator is installed in an airtight chamber. The Chamber is equipped with a pressure controller and associate valves, thus the air pressure can be changed and stabilized to the pre-set value, the preferred pressure range is from 200 hPa to 1100 hPa. In order to keep the environment inside the chamber stable, the display and control part of the mass comparator are moved outside the chamber, and connected to the mass comparator by feed-throughs. Also a lifting device is designed for this system which can easily lift up the upper part of the chamber, thus weights can be easily put inside the mass comparator. The whole system is put on a marble platform, and the temperature and humidity of the laboratory is very stable. The temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide content inside the chamber are measured in real time and can be used to get air density. Mass measurement cycle from 1100 hPa to 200 hPa and back to 1100 hPa shows the effective of the system.

  16. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  17. Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.E.; Fink, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include: Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Material Laboratory (AFWAL). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Flight Center (NASA Marshall), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Industries included in the effort are: aluminum, cement, paper and allied products, petroleum, steel and textiles.

  18. Development of the Design Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla, Harry

    1986-01-01

    Describes the design laboratory at the Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT). Considers course objectives, design projects, project structure, mechanical design, project management, and laboratory operation. This laboratory complements SIT's course in process design, giving students a complete design experience. (JN)

  19. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  20. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  1. 1. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View, structures in Systems Integration Laboratory complex, looking northwest. The twin gantry structure in the center is the Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28). To its immediate left in the foreground is a truck well, concrete retaining wall, piping, and stack associated with the oxidizer vault storage area. To the immediate right of T-28 is the concrete Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). At the extreme right is the Long-Term Hydrazine Silo (T-28E). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. A Physically Based Model for Air-Lift Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FrançOis, Odile; Gilmore, Tyler; Pinto, Michael J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1996-08-01

    A predictive, physically based model for pumping water from a well using air injection (air-lift pumping) was developed for the range of flow rates that we explored in a series of laboratory experiments. The goal was to determine the air flow rate required to pump a specific flow rate of water in a given well, designed for in-well air stripping of volatile organic compounds from an aquifer. The model was validated against original laboratory data as well as data from the literature. A laboratory air-lift system was constructed that consisted of a 70-foot-long (21-m-long) pipe, 5.5 inches (14 cm) inside diameter, in which an air line of 1.3 inches (3.3 cm) outside diameter was placed with its bottom at different elevations above the base of the long pipe. Experiments were conducted for different levels of submergence, with water-pumping rates ranging from 5 to 70 gallons/min (0.32-4.4 L/s), and air flow ranging from 7 to 38 standard cubic feet/min (0.2-1.1 m3 STP/min). The theoretical approach adopted in the model was based on an analysis of the system as a one-dimensional two-phase flow problem. The expression for the pressure gradient includes inertial energy terms, friction, and gas expansion versus elevation. Data analysis revealed that application of the usual drift-flux model to estimate the air void fraction is not adequate for the observed flow patterns: either slug or churn flow. We propose a modified drift-flux model that accurately predicts air-lift pumping requirements for a range of conditions representative of in-well air-stripping operations.

  3. Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

  4. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  5. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  6. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  7. Low-friction coatings for air bearings in fuel cell air compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; Erdemir, A.; Woodford, J.; Sitts, J.; Elshot, K.; Griffey, K.

    2000-01-06

    In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the US Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. The authors present here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings. With two parallel 440C stainless steel discs in unidirectional sliding contact, the NFC reduced the frictional force four times and the wear rate by more than two orders of magnitude. Wear mechanism on the uncoated surface involved oxidation and production of iron oxide debris. Wear occurred on the coated surfaces primarily by a polishing mechanism.

  8. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  9. NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY: PROVIDING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This small, two-fold flyer contains general information introducing EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory and its research program. The key overarching areas of research described are: Protection of drinking water; control of air pollution; pollution prevention and e...

  10. LABORATORY ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM LAND TREATMENT OF REFINERY OILY SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organics emissions were characterized when petroleum refinery oily sludges were incorporated in soils under controlled laboratory conditions. The sludges tested included three of the five listed hazardous wastes for the refining industry: dissolved air flotation float, s...

  11. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, A.J.; Lindeken, C.L.; Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-04-15

    The results of environmental monitoring for 1980 at the Livermore National Laboratory are presented. Radioactivity in air, soil, sewage, water, vegetation and food, and milk was measured. Noise pollution, beryllium, heavy metals, and pesticides were monitored. (ACR)

  12. DESCRIPTION OF THE CLEANS (CLINICAL LABORATORY FOR EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT OF NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES) HUMAN EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legislative mandates require the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the levels of risk to the human population exposed to air pollutants and establish standards to limit that risk. Two stainless steel Controlled Environmental Laboratories (CEL) were constructed in the E...

  13. VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. [Providing studies quality for pesticides risk evaluation in their use according to proper laboratory practice rules].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiy, V N; Bereznyak, I V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers experience of proper laboratory practice in hygienic studies examining air and workers' skin for assessment of exposure levels of pesticides in natural conditions of agricultural production. PMID:27265940

  15. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  18. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  19. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  20. Protective air lock

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  1. Lawsuits in the Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses why indoor air quality problems in schools should be treated, not only as a health problem issue, but as a potential for legal actions. What types of proof are needed to make a legal claim involving indoor air problems are addressed as are the elements which constitute a "sick building." (GR)

  2. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  3. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  4. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  5. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  6. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  7. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  8. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  9. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  10. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

  11. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  12. A Simultaneous Analysis Problem for Advanced General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, J. J.; Gallaher, T. N.

    1983-01-01

    Oxidation of magnesium metal in air has been used as an introductory experiment for determining the formula of a compound. The experiment described employs essentially the same laboratory procedure but is significantly more advanced in terms of information sought. Procedures and sample calculations/results are provided. (JN)

  13. PROGRAMMABLE TURBIDISTAT FOR SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN LABORATORY AQUARIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A system for precise control of suspended particle concentrations in laboratory aquaria is described. It comprises an air-lift dosing system, a transmissometer to measure particle concentration, and a microcomputer which calculates the dose required to achieve a programmed turbid...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Galegar, F.H.; Yourick, P.D.; Ross, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.

  15. Environmental Research Laboratory-Corvallis. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, R.T.

    1989-04-21

    Laboratory research programs address several broad areas, including the ecological effects of airborne pollutants, such as ozone, acid rain, and air toxics; the effects of toxic chemicals on plants, animals, and ecosystems; the assessment and restoration of contaminated or degraded environments; the characterization and assessment of the vulnerability of ecological systems, such as wetlands, to human impacts; the use of aquatic ecoregions to develop biological criteria for assessing aquatic ecosystems; the ecological risks from the terrestrial release of bioengineered organisms and other biological control agents; and the ecological effects of global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and loss of biological diversity.

  16. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This publication is one in series of case studies for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings. This case study describes the Science and Technology Facility, a new laboratory at NREL that incorporated energy-efficient and sustainable design features including underfloor air distribution in offices, daylighting, and process cooling.

  17. Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, L.C.; Rope, S.K.

    1987-09-01

    A study begun in 1984 to evaluate the feasibility of using lichens to monitor air pollution at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has provided good baseline data on the lichen flora of the site. To date, 111 lichen taxa, including 25 genera and 110 species, have been identified. Six genera (Agrestia, Heterodermia, Microthelia, Polyblastiopsis, Teloschistes, and Verrucaria) and 49 species were previously unrecorded in Idaho. A key to the lichen species of the INEL and a general description of the genera are included as appendices to this report. Voucher specimens of lichens found at the INEL are being stored at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory. As of May 1987, 43 species have been curated in the lichen herbarium there.

  18. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.S.T.; Chen, P.; /SLAC

    2006-09-21

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms.

  19. AIRE-Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  20. [Pulmogenic air embolism].

    PubMed

    Adebahr, G

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial emphysema and pulmonic hemorrhage alone are not the causes of pulmonic air embolism. The conditions making the entrance of air from the lungs to the vessels of pulmonary circulation are obviously present only if the expiration pressure is suddenly strongly elevated. Based on this point of view, investigations were performed in autopsy cases--falls from a height, being run over, a gunshot in the abdomen. We have succeeded in proving the entrance of air into capillaries and branches of the pulmonary vein. The precipitation of thrombocytes at the margin of large air bubbles in pulmonary veins shows the finding of air in the vessels as a vital or supravital reaction. PMID:4090761

  1. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Blanco, M.; Boháčová, M.; Buonomo, B.; Cataldi, G.; Coluccia, M. R.; Creti, P.; De Mitri, I.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Foggetta, L.; Gaïor, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, D.; Iarlori, M.; Le Coz, S.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Louedec, K.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Mazzitelli, G.; Monasor, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Salamida, F.; Salina, G.; Settimo, M.; Valente, P.; Vazquez, J. R.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2016-07-01

    You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  2. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  3. DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

  4. The Applied Mathematics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martha J.

    This report describes the Applied Mathematics Laboratory (AML) operated by the Department of Mathematics at Towson State University, Maryland. AML is actually a course offered to selected undergraduates who are given the opportunity to apply their skills in investigating industrial and governmental problems. By agreement with sponsoring…

  5. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  6. Green Laboratory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Presents schools as the perfect microcosms of the world of the 1990s: most work is done indoors, many resources are consumed, and schools sit surrounded by large chunks of land mostly devoted to grass and parking. Suggests that a school can serve as two perfect environmental education laboratories, one indoor and one outdoor. Describes how to…

  7. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  8. Introducing Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple, 10-item quiz designed to make students aware that they must learn laboratory safety. The items include questions on acid/base accidents, several types of fire extinguishers, and safety glassses. Answers and some explanations are included. (DH)

  9. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  10. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  11. Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz de la Pena, Arsenio; Gonzalez-Gomez, David; Munoz de la Pena, David; Gomez-Estern, Fabio; Sequedo, Manuel Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    designed for automating the collection and assessment of laboratory exercises is presented. This Web-based system has been extensively used in engineering courses such as control systems, mechanics, and computer programming. Goodle GMS allows the students to submit their results to a…

  12. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. RUNNING A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REES, ALUN L.W.

    THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TRUJILLO AS IT IS USED IN THE FIVE-YEAR ENGLISH TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THIS COURSE ARE INTENSIVE, BASED ON A STUDY OF ENGLISH USING LADO-FRIES MATERIALS (FOR LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS) WHICH REQUIRE FIVE HOURS OF CLASSWORK A WEEK SUPPLEMENTED BY…

  14. Writing the Laboratory Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanare, Howard M.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the principles of proper scientific notekeeping. The principles presented in this book are goals for which working scientists must strive. Chapter 1, "The Reasons for Notekeeping," is an overview of the process of keeping a laboratory notebook. Chapter 2, "The Hardware of Notekeeping," is intended especially…

  15. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

    2013-05-28

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Microcomputers in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafert, Bruce; Nicklin, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A one-semester hour laboratory course introduced junior and senior physics majors to assembly language programing and to interfacing KIM-1 microcomputer to experiments. A general purpose interface to a standard breadboard was developed. Course details, apparatus, and some interfacing projects are given. (Author/SK)

  17. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  18. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  19. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  20. Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…