Science.gov

Sample records for air lift pump

  1. A Physically Based Model for Air-Lift Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FrançOis, Odile; Gilmore, Tyler; Pinto, Michael J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1996-08-01

    A predictive, physically based model for pumping water from a well using air injection (air-lift pumping) was developed for the range of flow rates that we explored in a series of laboratory experiments. The goal was to determine the air flow rate required to pump a specific flow rate of water in a given well, designed for in-well air stripping of volatile organic compounds from an aquifer. The model was validated against original laboratory data as well as data from the literature. A laboratory air-lift system was constructed that consisted of a 70-foot-long (21-m-long) pipe, 5.5 inches (14 cm) inside diameter, in which an air line of 1.3 inches (3.3 cm) outside diameter was placed with its bottom at different elevations above the base of the long pipe. Experiments were conducted for different levels of submergence, with water-pumping rates ranging from 5 to 70 gallons/min (0.32-4.4 L/s), and air flow ranging from 7 to 38 standard cubic feet/min (0.2-1.1 m3 STP/min). The theoretical approach adopted in the model was based on an analysis of the system as a one-dimensional two-phase flow problem. The expression for the pressure gradient includes inertial energy terms, friction, and gas expansion versus elevation. Data analysis revealed that application of the usual drift-flux model to estimate the air void fraction is not adequate for the observed flow patterns: either slug or churn flow. We propose a modified drift-flux model that accurately predicts air-lift pumping requirements for a range of conditions representative of in-well air-stripping operations.

  2. The measured field performances of eight different mechanical and air-lift water-pumping wind-turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kentfield, J.A.C.

    1996-12-31

    Results are presented of the specific performances of eight, different, water-pumping wind-turbines subjected to impartial tests at the Alberta Renewable Energy Test Site (ARETS), Alberta, Canada. The results presented which were derived from the test data, obtained independently of the equipment manufacturers, are expressed per unit of rotor projected area to eliminate the influence of machine size. Hub-height wind speeds and water flow rates for a common lift of 5.5 m (18 ft) constitute the essential test data. A general finding was that, to a first approximation, there were no major differences in specific performance between four units equipped with conventional reciprocating pumps two of which employed reduction gearing and two of which did not. It was found that a unit equipped with a Moyno pump performed well but three air-lift machines had, as was expected, poorer specific performances than the more conventional equipment. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Air-cushion lift pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Dane, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical model is formulated for an air pad which is capable of lifting a structure to a height of 0.125 inch. Design is superior to conventional air cushion devices because it eliminates flutter, vibration, heaving, and pitching.

  4. Air Bearing Lift Pad (ABLP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, Dan H.; Blaise, Herman T.

    1968-01-01

    Typical air bearings float on air films of only a few thousandths of an inch and so will only operate above very smooth, even surfaces. For the mechanical simulation of space, the small drag of the bladder type air pads is much more than can be coped with, and the practicality of large floor areas being machined for precision air bearings is nonexistent. To enable operation above surfaces that undulate slightly or feature cracks and discontinuities, an ABLP has been developed. It consists of a rigid pad beneath which an inflatable bladder is mounted. The bladder is inflated with air which then escapes through passages into a cavity in the center of the bladder to produce the lifting energy. As the air escapes about the perimeter of the bladder, a certain degree of balance and equilibrium is imparted to the pad as it is able to move a limited weight across slightly uneven surfaces.

  5. Design study of an air pump and integral lift engine ALF-504 using the Lycoming 502 core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, D.

    1972-01-01

    Design studies were conducted for an integral lift fan engine utilizing the Lycoming 502 fan core with the final MQT power turbine. The fan is designed for a 12.5 bypass ratio and 1.25:1 pressure ratio, and provides supercharging for the core. Maximum sea level static thrust is 8370 pounds with a specific fuel consumption of 0.302 lb/hr-lb. The dry engine weight without starter is 1419 pounds including full-length duct and sound-attenuating rings. The engine envelope including duct treatment but not localized accessory protrusion is 53.25 inches in diameter and 59.2 inches long from exhaust nozzle exit to fan inlet flange. Detailed analyses include fan aerodynamics, fan and reduction gear mechanical design, fan dynamic analysis, engine noise analysis, engine performance, and weight analysis.

  6. Ultra-long stroke pumping system lowers lifting costs

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, R.L.; Dillingham, D.

    1995-07-01

    Over the course of the last four decades, numerous attempts were made to develop a reliable longstroke pumping system, but their success was limited partially or totally by the design parameters not being of a mechanical nature. In addition, several attempts to manufacture and market hydraulic rod pump units have been relatively unsuccessful. Beam units were the only reliable source of obtaining long strokes due to the design being 100% mechanical. Specifically, modified geometry and air balance units evolved to include longer 216-in. and 240-in. stroke lengths. However, structure and gearbox ratings for Class I and Class III lift systems are a function of stroke length. End results are pumping units requiring gearboxes of 1.28 million to 1.824 million in./lb and massive structural sizes. In 1985, a totally mechanical long stroke unit was designed and placed in limited production. Ten years later, an augmented design of the original ultra-long stroke pumping system (ULSPS) is a proven ULSPS. This paper discusses these lifts. The systems are available with surface stroke lengths of 288-in. and 306-in. These stroke lengths are obtained without the increased gearbox size required by beam units, but by transmitting rotary motion from a 228,000- or 320,000-in./lb gearbox to a 36-in. chain sprocket, therefore an 18-in. torque arm. The continuous rotational movement of the sprocket drives an enclosed chain that is directly tied to a mechanical reversing mechanism. The reversing mechanism has a totally enclosed built in counterweight box. Articulating pumping motion is created by connecting a shock absorbing load belt between the combination reversing mechanism counterweight box and the polish rod.

  7. Analysis of lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for 241-AZ-01A decant pump

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-29

    This supporting document details calculations for the proper design of a lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for the 241AZO1A decant pump. This design is in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and is safety class three. The design and fabrication is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989) and the Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (DOE-RL 1993).

  8. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  9. An experimental study on the airlift pump with air jet nozzle and booster pump.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju; Lee, Chae-Moon; Park, Jung-Won

    2009-01-01

    The experiments for high head airlifting performance with vertical tube were examined for wastewater treatment. Comparing with the centrifugal pump and other pumps, the airlift pump has some problems and limited applications. However, an advantage of an airlift pump is in its geometrical simplicity, not having any moving parts, so it is suitable in lifting fluids including tiny pieces of metal or grit. In this study, for the purpose of high lifting head, an air jet nozzle was used. We have performed experimentally according to various characteristics of the airlift pump system such as the change of submerged depth, lifting head of liquid-air mixture (total head) and air flow rate. This work has verified through experiments that airlift pump shows lifting ability for 3 m (Sr = 0.3) in comparison with conventional height, 2 m (Sr = 0.4). Also, we suggested that the new airlift pump system with the air booster pump be used to improve the higher lifting head performance. PMID:25084423

  10. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  11. Air circuit with heating pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, H.; Bauder, H. J.; Brugger, H.; Reinhart, A.; Spott, K. H.

    1980-12-01

    A pump which draws energy from exhaust air from a paper drying process to heat up the blow air was studied. The use of a heat pump instead of a steam heated exchanger can reduce primary energy consumption for blown air heating by more than half and the costs for air heating up to half. The amortization times for the heat pump extend from 5 to 10 years. Since in the pulp and paper industry, amortization times of less than two years are required for such relatively small investments, the heat pump so far is only used to heat blown air under highly favorable conditions. The rising energy prices shorten the heat pump amortization time. The 100% fuel price increase brought the heat pump with diesel engine drive already to very favorable amortization times of 2 to 5 years. A 20% increase will make the heat pump economically advantageous with an amortization time between 1 and 2 years.

  12. Air-Operated Sump Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Pump removes liquid seepage from small, restricted area and against large pressure head. Developed for moving small amounts of water and oil from sump pit 85 ft (25.91 m) deep. Fits in space only 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm) in diameter and 18 in. (45.7 cm) long. In discharge part of pumping cycle, air forces liquid out of pump chamber through pipe. During filling part of pumping cycle, water enters pump chamber from sump pit. Float in chamber next to pump chamber controls pressurization through timer and solenoid valve.

  13. Darrieus wind-turbine and pump performance for low-lift irrigation pumping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, L.J.; Sharif, M.

    1981-10-01

    In the Great Plains about 15 percent of the irrigation water pumped on farms comes from surface water sources; for the United States as a whole, the figure is about 22 percent. Because of forecast fuel shortages, there is a need to develop alternative energy sources such as wind power for surface water pumping. Specific objectives of this investigation were to: design and assemble a prototype wind-powered pumping system for low-lift (i.e., < 15 m head) irrigation pumping; determine performance of the prototype system; design and test an irrigation system using the wind-powered prototype in a farm application; and determine the size combinations of wind turbines, tailwater pits, and temporary storage reservoirs needed for successful farm application of wind-powered tailwater pumping systems in western Kansas. The power source selected was a two-bladed, 6-m-diameter, 9-m-tall Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine with 0.10 solidity and 36.1 M/sup 2/ swept area.

  14. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 2: Advances in electrical submersible pumping equipment and instrumentation/control, plus other new artificial lift developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1996-04-01

    The Part 1 article presented last month discussed recent industry artificial lift innovations for sucker rod pumping, progressing cavity pumping and gas lift. Described in this presentation are 22 advances recently introduced by 15 different companies for electrical submersible pumping (ESP), and other new developments related to artificial lift field operations. ESP innovations include contributions ranging from new downhole pump equipment, gas separators and cables to various surface controllers/monitors. Other R and D contributions cover desangers, separators, fluid level measurements, chemical injection and well-heads.

  15. Current developments lighter than air systems. [heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lighter than air aircraft (LTA) developments and research in the United States and other countries are reviewed. The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Design concepts include hybrids which combine heavier than air and LTA components and characteristics. Research programs are concentrated on aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and control of hybrid types.

  16. [Performance of internal-loop air-lift nitrifying bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Mei; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Hu, Bao-Lan; Chen, Jian-Song

    2002-07-01

    The performance of internal-loop air-lift nitrifying bioreactor was good with strong tolerance to influent ammonia concentration (78.49 mmol/L), high volume converting rate (163.18 mmol/L.d) and obvious working stability (ammonia removal > 94.42%). During operation of internal-loop air-lift bioreactor, the nitrifying activated sludge was granulated. The nitrifying granular activated sludge began to appear on day 45. Its average diameter was 0.83 mm, settling velocity was 55.53 m/h and specific ammonia removal rate was 0.95 mmol (NH4(+)-N)/g (VS).d. The nitrifying granular activated sludge had the activity for anaerobic ammonia oxidation with ammonia oxidation rate of 0.23 mmol (NH4(+)-N)/g(VS).d and nitrite reduction rate of 0.24 mmol (NO2(-)-N)/g(VS).d. PMID:12385250

  17. Gas-lift pumps for flowing and purifying molten silicon

    DOEpatents

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Carlson, Frederick

    2016-02-23

    The embodiments herein relate to a sheet production apparatus. A vessel is configured to hold a melt of a material and a cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt. This cooling plate configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A pump is used. In one instance, this pump includes a gas source and a conduit in fluid communication with the gas source. In another instance, this pump injects a gas into a melt. The gas can raise the melt or provide momentum to the melt.

  18. Lift system and fan performance of air cushion supported vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.; Jennings, A. N.

    1982-02-01

    An analysis of the AALC JEFF lift systems and fans from the viewpoints of performance and structural design is performed. A summary of performance data related to the JEFF lift systems is presented, and suggested approaches for JEFF (A) lift fan design, for which these data provided the baseline information, are provided. Published methods of scaling fan performance data from model to full-scale are evaluated. Finally, the structural design characteristics of the JEFF fans are discussed.

  19. Experimental studies on an air-air jet exhaust pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial ventilation employing an air-air jet exhaust pump connected to a compressed-air line was investigated. The motive air supply pressure was maintained between 2 and 3 bar. A unique ejector housing was constructed to receive both the convergent-divergent primary nozzle and the mixing chamber. The entire unit adapts readily to any existing compressed-air system. The mixing chamber was so constructed that the length of its cylindrical section may be changed. Pressure variations along the mixing chamber were recorded, and this offered a valuable appreciation of the effects of the length-to-diameter ratios. Results indicate the influence of the supply air pressure and pressure ratio on the jet entrainment capacity and efficiency. It has also been shown that the present design is capable of achieving the maximum reported jet-pump efficiency of around 25% corresponding to a nozzle-to-mixing chamber area ratio of 0.15.

  20. 111. AIR CONDENSATE PUMP. NOTE MAIN DISCHARGE HEADER ABOVE STEAMEND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. AIR CONDENSATE PUMP. NOTE MAIN DISCHARGE HEADER ABOVE STEAM-END CYLINDER. NOTE ALSO, THE 30' DISCHARGE VALVE AND ACTUATER TO THE LEFT OF THE PUMP. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

  2. 28. Main engine air pump located to port side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main engine air pump located to port side of main engine cylinder beside engine bed. Dynamo lies aft of air pump (at right), pipe at extreme left of image carries lake water to condenser valves. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  3. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  4. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid

  5. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  6. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  7. Dynamic Performance of a Residential Air-to-Air Heat Pump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, George E.; Bean, John

    This publication is a study of the dynamic performance of a 5-ton air-to-air heat pump in a residence in Washington, D.C. The effect of part-load operation on the heat pump's cooling and heating coefficients of performance was determined. Discrepancies between measured performance and manufacturer-supplied performance data were found when the unit…

  8. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D

    2015-01-01

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  9. Effect of Impeller Geometry on Lift-Off Characteristics and Rotational Attitude in a Monopivot Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kento; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamane, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the flow path geometry of the impeller on the lift-off and tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller against the hydrodynamic force was investigated in a centrifugal blood pump with an impeller supported by a single-contact pivot bearing. Four types of impeller were compared: the FR model with the flow path having both front and rear cutouts on the tip, the F model with the flow path having only a front cutout, the R model with only a rear cutout, and the N model with a straight flow path. First, the axial thrust and the movement about the pivot point, which was loaded on the surface of the impeller, were calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Next, the lift-off point and the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller were measured experimentally. The CFD analysis showed that the axial thrust increased gently in the FR and R models as the flow rate increased, whereas it increased drastically in the F and N models. This difference in axial thrust was likely from the higher pressure caused by the smaller circumferential velocity in the gap between the top surface of the impeller and the casing in the FR and R models than in the F and N models, which was caused by the rear cutout. These results corresponded with the experimental results showing that the impellers lifted off in the F and N models as the flow rate increased, whereas it did not in the FR and R models. Conversely, the movement about the pivot point increased in the direction opposite the side with the pump outlet as the flow rate increased. However, the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller, which oriented away from the pump outlet, was less than 0.8° in any model under any conditions, and was considered to negligibly affect the rotational attitude of the impeller. These results confirm that a rear cutout prevents lift-off of the impeller caused by a decrease in the axial thrust. PMID:27097844

  10. Exopolysaccharide production and mycelial growth in an air-lift bioreactor using Fomitopsis pinicola.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dubok; Maeng, Jeung-Moo; Ding, Ji-Lu; Cha, Wol-Suk

    2007-08-01

    For effective exopolysaccharide production and mycelial growth by a liquid culture of Fomitopsis pinicola in an air-lift bioreactor, the culture temperature, pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, and mineral source were initially investigated in a flask. The optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were 25degrees C and 6.0, respectively. Among the various carbon sources tested, glucose was found to be the most suitable carbon source. In particular, the maximum mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were achieved in 4% glucose. The best nitrogen sources were yeast extract and malt extract. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract and malt extract were 0.5 and 0.1%, respectively. K2HPO4 and MgSO4 x 7H2O were found to be the best mineral sources for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production. In order to investigate the effect of aeration on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production in an air-lift bioreactor, various aerations were tested for 8 days. The maximum mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were 7.9 g/l and 2.6 g/l, respectively, at 1.5 vvm of aeration. In addition, a batch culture in an air-lift bioreactor was carried out for 11 days under the optimal conditions. The maximum mycelial growth was 10.4 g/l, which was approximately 1.7-fold higher than that of basal medium. The exopolysaccharide production was increased with increased culture time. The maximum concentration of exopolysaccharide was 4.4 g/l, which was about 3.3-fold higher than that of basal medium. These results indicate that exopolysaccharide production increased in parallel with the growth of mycelium, and also show that product formation is associated with mycelial growth. The developed model in an air-lift bioreactor showed good agreement with experimental data and simulated results on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production in the culture of F pinicola. PMID:18051607

  11. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  12. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  13. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  14. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  15. Field evaluation of gas-lift and progressive-cavity pumps as effective dewatering methods for coalbed methane wells. Final report, April 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Hollingsworth, F.C.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-03-01

    Field evaluations of gas-lift and progressive-cavity pumps were conducted to determine their effectiveness as dewatering techniques for coalbed-methane wells in the Warrior Coal Field. AMPCO installed a gas-lift system in AMPCO Well No. 6. Problems included poor performance of all gas-lift valve designs and higher instantaneous water production rates than anticipated due to heading and unloading. The test provided the conclusion that gas lift is an effective start-up dewatering tool for initial removal of large amounts of water and solids but that in use as a long-term dewatering tool, needs additional evaluation relative to capital cost, valve design, and extended performance.

  16. [The application of air-lift loop column filling with porous carrier in wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Ding, F; Yang, H; Chen, S; Zhang, W; Xing, X

    2001-09-01

    An air lift loop reactor filling with porous carrier particles was utilized as aeration column. Experiments were carried out in wide operating conditions. The experimental results showed that in the range of gas flow rate from 0.117 to 0.156 m3/(min.m3), a higher efficiency of removal of ammonium-N was achieved, and when the gas flow rate was above 0.039 m3/(min.m3), the COD was completely degraded in about 1 h. The filling ratio of the porous carriers in the column was an important factor for the removal of C and N compounds, and a filling ratio of 15% was proved to be most suitable in the operation ranges. The experimental results also indicated that the effect of aeration temperature on the removal efficiency was significant and the highest efficiency was obtained at around 25 degrees C. PMID:11769236

  17. Air-lift reactor system for the treatment of waste-gas-containing monochlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pradnya R; Deshmukh, Sharvari C; Morone, Amruta P; Kanade, Gajanan; Pandey, R A

    2013-01-01

    An air-lift bioreactor (ALR) system, applied for the treatment of waste-gas-containing monochlorobenzene (MCB) was seeded with pure culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, isolated from soil as a starter seed. It was found that MCB was biologically converted to chloride as chloride was mineralized in the ALR. After the built up of the biomass in the ALR, the reactor parameters which have major influence on the removal efficiency and elimination capacity were studied using response surface methodology. The data generated by running the reactor for 150 days at varying conditions were fed to the model with a target to obtain the removal efficiency above 95% and the elimination capacity greater than 60%. The data analysis indicated that inlet loading was the major parameter affecting the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of >95%. The reactor when operated at optimized conditions resulted in enhanced performance of the reactor. PMID:24617061

  18. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... electricity. Packaged terminal heat pump means a packaged terminal air conditioner that utilizes reverse cycle... indoor grilles, outdoor louvers, various ventilation options, indoor free air discharges, ductwork,...

  19. Evaluation and testing of metering pumps for high-level nuclear waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Blair, H.T.

    1986-06-01

    The metering pump system that delivers high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) slurry to a melter is an integral subsystem of the vitrification process. The process of selecting a pump for this application began with a technical review of pumps typically used for slurry applications. The design and operating characteristics of numerous pumps were evaluated against established criteria. Two pumps, an air-displacement slurry (ADS) pump and an air-lift pump, were selected for further development. In the development activity, from FY 1983 to FY 1985, the two pumps were subjected to long-term tests using simulated melter feed slurries to evaluate the pumps' performances. Throughout this period, the designs of both pumps were modified to better adapt them for this application. Final reference designs were developed for both the air-displacement slurry pump and the air-lift pump. Successful operation of the final reference designs has demonstrated the feasibility of both pumps. A fully remote design of the ADS pump has been developed and is currently undergoing testing at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Five designs of the ADS pump were tested and evaluated. The initial four designs proved the operating concept of the ADS pump. Weaknesses in the ADS pump system were identified and eliminated in later designs. A full-scale air-lift pump was designed and tested as a final demonstration of the air-lift pump's capabilities.

  20. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  1. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  2. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  3. Vertical axis wind turbine power regulation through centrifugally pumped lift spoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.; Sladky, J.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for lowering the rated windspeeds of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) whose blades are hollow aluminum extrusions. The blades, which when rotating act as centrifugal pumps, are fitted with a series of small perforations distributed along a portion of the blades' span. By valving the ends of the hollow blades, flow into the blade ends and out of the perforations may be controlled. This flow can induce premature aerodynamic stall on the blade elements, thereby reducing both the rated power of the turbine and its cost-of-energy. The concept has been proven on the Sandia National Laboratories 5-m diameter research VAWT and force balance and flow visualization wind tunnel tests have been conducted using a blade section designed for the VAWT application.

  4. Ultra-high vacuum force, low air consumption pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Lasto, C.S.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a multi stage ejector assembly. It includes a solid elongate housing, a longitudinal cylindrical bore through the housing comprising a first venturi pump having a first converging-diverging venturi inlet nozzle opening through a first vacuum chamber in the cylindrical bore into the converging entrance of a first exit passage which opens through a second vacuum chamber into a second vacuum chamber into a second exit passage communicating with an outlet end of the cylindrical bore, first and second transverse bores inwardly from a side of the housing and each opening into the cylindrical bore at the first vacuum chamber, and a third transverse bore inwardly from a side of the housing and opening into the cylindrical bore at the second vacuum chamber. The first transverse bore comprising a second venturi pump having a second venturi inlet nozzle having an air flow consumption which is from about 5 to 15 times smaller than the air flow consumption of the first venturi inlet nozzle. The second venturi inlet nozzle opening through a maximum vacuum chamber into a converging-diverging venturi exit passage which opens into the cylindrical bore at the first vacuum chamber of the first venturi pump adjacent the converging entrance of the first exit passage.

  5. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    Hydrogeologic studies are commonly data-intense. In particular, estimations of hydraulic properties of hard rock often require large amounts of data. In many countries, large quantities of hydrogeologic data have been collected and archived over the years. Therefore, the use of existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies, although the available data may be considered imprecise. Initially, however, the potential usefulness, i.e., the expected accuracy, of the available data in each specific case must be carefully examined. This study investigates the possibilities of obtaining estimates of transmissivity from hard-rock air-lift data in Sweden within an order of magnitude of results obtained from high-quality injection-test data. The expected accuracy of the results was examined analytically and by means of statistical methods. The results were also evaluated by comparison with injection-test data. The results indicate that air-lift data produce estimates of transmissivity within an order of magnitude compared to injection-test data in the studied examples. The study also shows that partial penetration and hydrofracturing may only affect the estimations approximately half an order of magnitude. Thus, existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collection of new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies. Résumé Les études hydrogéologiques reposent en général sur un nombre important de données. En particulier, l'estimation des propriétés hydrauliques des roches indurées exige souvent un grand nombre de données. Dans de nombreuses régions, des données hydrogéologiques très nombreuses ont été recueillies et archivées depuis longtemps. C'est pourquoi le recours à des données existantes peut être une alternative intéressante en termes de coût par rapport à l'obtention de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques, même si

  6. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  7. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... effect of an air conditioner or heat pump (or its produced heating effect, depending on the mode of... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps §...

  8. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    Hydrogeologic studies are commonly data-intense. In particular, estimations of hydraulic properties of hard rock often require large amounts of data. In many countries, large quantities of hydrogeologic data have been collected and archived over the years. Therefore, the use of existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies, although the available data may be considered imprecise. Initially, however, the potential usefulness, i.e., the expected accuracy, of the available data in each specific case must be carefully examined. This study investigates the possibilities of obtaining estimates of transmissivity from hard-rock air-lift data in Sweden within an order of magnitude of results obtained from high-quality injection-test data. The expected accuracy of the results was examined analytically and by means of statistical methods. The results were also evaluated by comparison with injection-test data. The results indicate that air-lift data produce estimates of transmissivity within an order of magnitude compared to injection-test data in the studied examples. The study also shows that partial penetration and hydrofracturing may only affect the estimations approximately half an order of magnitude. Thus, existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collection of new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies. Résumé Les études hydrogéologiques reposent en général sur un nombre important de données. En particulier, l'estimation des propriétés hydrauliques des roches indurées exige souvent un grand nombre de données. Dans de nombreuses régions, des données hydrogéologiques très nombreuses ont été recueillies et archivées depuis longtemps. C'est pourquoi le recours à des données existantes peut être une alternative intéressante en termes de coût par rapport à l'obtention de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques, même si

  9. [Removal of Cr from tannery sludge by bioleaching in air-lift reactor: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Li-xiang; Li, Chao

    2007-09-01

    A bioleaching process performed in 280 L air-lift reactor was developed for extracting Cr from tannery sludge. Cr removal efficiency under different aeration amount with a range from 1.0 m3/h to 3.0 m3/h was investigated. The results showed that the sludge could be homogeneous quickly for different aeration treatment even if aeration amount was as low as 1.0 m3/h. But the obvious effect of aeration amount on pH decrease and subsequent Cr dissolution in tannery sludge during bioleaching was observed. If the aeration amount was below 1.5 m3/h, it at least took 90 h to reach 80% Cr removal efficiency. In the light of Cr removal efficiency and energy consume, the aeration amount of 2.0 m3/h was considered as an optimum one for bioleaching in this trial. Cr removal efficiency could reach above 92.5% at 72 h. In the sludge bioleaching system dissolved oxygen increased obviously with the decrease of pH. Eventually, dissolved oxygen rised to 5 mg/L or more when aeration amount was maintained at 2.0 m3/h or more. Therefore, it was suggested that the aeration amount in ALR could be adjusted to a lower level in the late stage of tannery sludge bioleaching in order to save operation cost. PMID:17990555

  10. Comparisons between cellulase production by Aspergillus fumigatus in agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Wase, D.A.J.; McManamey, W.J.; Raymahasay, S.; Vaid, A.K.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured in disc-turbine-agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor. In the agitated vessels the yield of cellulase was reduced when the agitation rate was increased, although extracellular protein levels rose. The enzyme complex itself was shown to be exceptionally stable under conditions similar to those in the agitated vessels, so probably shear damage to the mycelium had occurred, liberating intracellular contents. These appeared to contain an inhibitor that could be removed by fabricated inorganic protein absorbents, such as kieselguhr and alumina. However, the inhibitor was not likely to be protease, since only relatively low levels could be detected and its identity has not been established. The use of an air-lift fermentor avoided the shear effects due to use of the disc turbine agitator in the conventional fermentors, and yields of enzyme were then found to increase by about 20%, maximum yields being obtained at maximum Kla values.

  11. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners, heat... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.12 Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps,...

  12. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently. PMID:26270956

  13. Air-Fed Visors Used for Isocyanate Paint Spraying—Potential Exposure When the Visor Is Lifted

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Mike; Baxter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-flow air-supplied breathing apparatus with a visor is the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) of choice within the motor vehicle repair trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. Whilst these devices are capable of providing adequate protection, a common workplace practice of sprayers lifting up the visor of their RPE immediately after spraying when checking the quality of the paint finish is thought to have an impact on the protection afforded. While the visor lift may be only for a few seconds, this action, especially if repeated numerous times during a work shift, could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure. Informal interviews with paint sprayers were conducted to understand the reasons for this behaviour followed by a series of laboratory tests to quantify the potential degree of exposure as a result of a visor lift. The majority of the paint sprayers interviewed explained their reasons for lifting their visors immediately after spraying and before the spray booth had been adequately cleared by ventilation. The main reasons given for a visor lift included a combination of habit, poor visibility due to poor visual clarity of the visor screen material, over spray, scratched visor screens, internal visor reflections, and poor booth lighting. The findings of the tests showed that the degree of protection provided by the visor when in the lifted position is in the approximate range of 1–3.7 (mean 1.7) and over the whole of the exposure period (from start of the lift to recovery of protection after refitting) is in the approximate range of 1.4–9.0 (mean 2.7). This is a significant reduction when compared to the assigned protection factor of 40 for this class of device and the measured protection factors of 5000–10 000 when worn correctly. These results clearly demonstrate that lifting the visor whilst still within a contaminated atmosphere considerably increases the wearer’s exposure and that this is an

  14. Air-Fed Visors Used for Isocyanate Paint Spraying--Potential Exposure When the Visor Is Lifted.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Mike; Baxter, Nick

    2015-11-01

    Continuous-flow air-supplied breathing apparatus with a visor is the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) of choice within the motor vehicle repair trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. Whilst these devices are capable of providing adequate protection, a common workplace practice of sprayers lifting up the visor of their RPE immediately after spraying when checking the quality of the paint finish is thought to have an impact on the protection afforded. While the visor lift may be only for a few seconds, this action, especially if repeated numerous times during a work shift, could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure.Informal interviews with paint sprayers were conducted to understand the reasons for this behaviour followed by a series of laboratory tests to quantify the potential degree of exposure as a result of a visor lift.The majority of the paint sprayers interviewed explained their reasons for lifting their visors immediately after spraying and before the spray booth had been adequately cleared by ventilation. The main reasons given for a visor lift included a combination of habit, poor visibility due to poor visual clarity of the visor screen material, over spray, scratched visor screens, internal visor reflections, and poor booth lighting.The findings of the tests showed that the degree of protection provided by the visor when in the lifted position is in the approximate range of 1-3.7 (mean 1.7) and over the whole of the exposure period (from start of the lift to recovery of protection after refitting) is in the approximate range of 1.4-9.0 (mean 2.7). This is a significant reduction when compared to the assigned protection factor of 40 for this class of device and the measured protection factors of 5000-10 000 when worn correctly.These results clearly demonstrate that lifting the visor whilst still within a contaminated atmosphere considerably increases the wearer's exposure and that this is an example where

  15. Air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor for realized simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiyi; Wang, Lu; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui

    2013-05-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was realized by means of a novel air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor, in which aeration was set in middle of the reactor. During operation, the aeration was adjusted to get appropriate dissolve oxygen (DO) in bulk solution and let aerobic and anoxic zone coexist in one reactor. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, corresponding to DO of 5.8 and 2.5 mg/L in bulk solution, ammonia nitrogen removal percentage reached about 80 and 90 %, but total nitrogen removal percentage was lower than 25 %. While the aeration was reduced to 0.1 L/min, aerobic and anoxic zones existed simultaneously in one reactor to get 75 % of ammonia nitrogen and 50 % of total nitrogen removal percentage. Biofilms were, respectively, taken from aerobic and anoxic zone to verify their function of nitrification and denitrification in two flasks, in which ammonia nitrogen was transferred into nitrate completely by aerobic biofilm, and nitrate was removed more than 80 % by anoxic biofilm. Microelectrode was used to measure the DO distribution inside biofilms in anoxic zone corresponding to different aerations. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, DO inside biofilm was more than 1.5 mg/L, but the DO inside biofilm decreased to anoxic status with depth of biofilm increasing corresponding to aeration of 0.1 L/min. The experimental results indicated that SND could be realized because of simultaneous existence of aerobic and anoxic biofilms in one reactor. PMID:23001679

  16. Cold-air performance of a tip turbine designed to drive a lift fan. 1: Baseline performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.; Hotz, G. M.; Futral, S. M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Full admission baseline performance was obtained for a 0.4 linear scale of the LF460 lift fan turbine over a range of speeds and pressure ratios without leakage air. These cold-air tests covered a range of speeds from 40 to 140 percent of design equivalent speed and a range of scroll inlet to diffuser exit static pressure ratios from 2.0 to 4.2. Results are presented in terms of specific work, torque, mass flow, efficiency, and total pressure drop.

  17. The Use of Compensated Aerological No-Lift Balloons to Determine Relatively Long-Term Dry-Air Parcel Trajectories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terliuc, Benjamin; Asculai, Ephraim; Doron, Eli

    1983-10-01

    A method to compensate the loss of buoyancy due to gas leakage from aerological no-lift balloons is presented. The method is implemented by means of a double vessel device that supplies a constant liquid outflow at constant temperature. It is shown that the average buoyancy loss rate dependence on temperature is almost perfectly matched by the outflow rate dependence on temperature when soya-bean oil is used. The device is simple, inexpensive and can be easily manufactured using standard laboratory equipment.A simple and safe method to carry no-lift systems to prefixed levels is also presented. It is based on a single 30 g pilot balloon provided with a gas leakage nozzle, inflated with H2 to a calibrated initial free-lift. The balloon is totally emptied at the required level, and remains suspended from the no-lift system.The whole system can be easily prepared under field conditions to be used in long travel-time studies of dry-air parcel trajectories in the atmosphere.An example of the use of the improved method over complex terrain is presented. A no-lift system provided with a 1680 MHz radiosonde transmitter, was tracked by two RD-65 radio-theodolites, to investigate the effects of the topographic structure of the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) area on the Mediterranean sea breeze summer regime. The system was tracked for at least one hour, following a trajectory with severe vertical variations. This increases our confidence in the ability to track much longer trajectories, if required.

  18. Recent Research in Compression Refrigeration Cycle Air Source Heat Pumps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Akira; Senshu, Takao

    The most important theme for heat pump air conditioners is the improvement of energy saving and comfort. Recently, cycle components, especially compressores and heat exchangers have been improved greatly in their performance and efficiency. As for compressors, large progress in their efficiencies have been made by detailed analysises such as mechanical losses and by the development of a new type compression mechanism. As for heat exchangers, various high heat transfer surfaces have been developed together with the improvement of the production technologies for them. Further, the effect of the capacity-modulated cycle is evaluated quantitatively through the improvements of static and transient cycle simulation technologies. And in order to realize this cffect, the electrically driven expansion valves heve been marketed. This review introduces the trends of these energy-saving technologies as well as comfort improvement studies.

  19. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  20. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  1. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  2. Artificial lift: Many new developments are emerging

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of artificially lifting oil production are almost countless, testifying to the ingenuity of inventors, engineers, technicians, etc., that have worked in this area. And, artificial lift improvements continue to be important, especially now that product prices are nearly constant and production costs are under closer scruitiny. Some methods of artificial lift thought to be new to industry are mentioned in this article, including: Aluminum sucker rods, Graphite composite lift system, Unique pumping unit geometry, Chain drive pumping unit, Two types of pump-off control, Downhole gas pump, Hydraulic-centrifugal pump, Improvements in submersible pumps, and Submersible pump gas separators.

  3. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  4. Selective lift-off of GaN light-emitting diode from a sapphire substrate using 266-nm diode-pumped solid-state laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaegu; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Sung-Hak; Whang, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Selective laser lift-off of GaN from a sapphire substrate was demonstrated using 266-nm diode-pumped solid-state laser irradiation. To fabricate a single GaN light-emitting diode (LED) with a size of 100 μm × 100 μm, we used a simple direct scanning technique with a defocused beam and investigated the lift-off parameter in terms of the intensity. Two processing windows corresponding to lower- and higher-intensity regimes were observed experimentally. In the lower-intensity regime, the larger beam size worked better than with the higher regime. Although fluence is generally explained as a processing condition, the total input fluence for a single LED was not crucial to lift-off in case of the scanning technique using a defocused laser beam. However, an intensity of ~37 kW/cm2 was required to initiate the thermal decomposition reaction in GaN at any sample position.

  5. Combined hydrolysis acidification and bio-contact oxidation system with air-lift tubes and activated carbon bioreactor for oilfield wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunmei; Chen, Yi; Chen, Jinfu; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guangqing; Wang, Jingxiu; Cui, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigated the enhancement of the COD reduction of an oilfield wastewater treatment process by installing air-lift tubes and adding an activated carbon bioreactor (ACB) to form a combined hydrolysis acidification and bio-contact oxidation system with air-lift tubes (HA/air-lift BCO) and an ACB. Three heat-resistant bacterial strains were cultivated and subsequently applied in above pilot plant test. Installing air-lift tubes in aerobic tanks reduced the necessary air to water ratio from 20 to 5. Continuous operation of the HA/air-lift BCO system for 2 months with a hydraulic retention time of 36 h, a volumetric load of 0.14 kg COD/(m(3)d) (hydrolysis-acidification or anaerobic tank), and 0.06 kg COD/(m(3)d) (aerobic tanks) achieved an average reduction of COD by 60%, oil and grease by 62%, total suspended solids by 75%, and sulfides by 77%. With a COD load of 0.56 kg/(m(3)d), the average COD in the ACB effluent was 58 mg/L. PMID:25105268

  6. Microalgae cultivation in air-lift reactors: modeling biomass yield and growth rate as a function of mixing frequency.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria J; Janssen, Marcel; Ham, Nienke; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

    2003-04-20

    The slow development of microalgal biotechnology stems from the failure in the design of large-scale photobioreactors where light energy is efficiently utilized. Due to the light gradient inside the reactor and depending on the mixing properties, algae are subjected to certain light/dark cycles where the light period is characterized by a light gradient. These light/dark cycles will determine productivity and biomass yield on light energy. Air-lift reactors can be used for microalgae cultivation and medium-frequency light/dark cycles will be found in these systems. Light/dark cycles are associated with two basic parameters: first, the light fraction, i.e., the ratio between the light period and the cycle time and second, the frequency of the light/dark cycle. In the present work, light/dark cycles found in air-lift reactors were simulated taking into account the light gradient during the light period. The effect of medium-frequency cycle time (10-100 s) and light fraction (0.1-1) on growth rate and biomass yield on light energy of the microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta was studied. The biomass yield and growth rates were mainly affected by the light fraction, while cycle time had little influence. Response surface methodology was used and a statistical model describing the effect of light fraction and cycle time on growth rate and biomass yield on light energy was developed. The use of the model as a reactor design criterion is discussed. PMID:12584758

  7. A PHYSICALLY BASED MODEL FOR AIR-LIFT PUMPING. (R825689C061)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Customized design of electronic noses placed on top of air-lift bioreactors for in situ monitoring the off-gas patterns.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Pablo E; Miscoria, Silvia A; Bernik, Delia L; Martín Negri, R

    2012-06-01

    A specially designed electronic nose was coupled to an air-lift bioreactor in order to perform on-line monitoring of released vapors. The sensor array was placed at the top of the bioreactor sensing the headspace in equilibrium with the evolving liquor at any time without the need of aspiration and pumping of gases into a separated sensor chamber. The device was applied to follow the off-gas of a bioreactor with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans grown on beds of elemental sulfur under aerobic conditions. Evolution was monitored by acid titration, pH and optical density measurements. The electronic nose was capable to differentiate each day of reactor evolution since inoculation within periods marked off culture medium replacements using multivariate data analysis. Excellent discrimination was obtained indicating the potentiality for on-line monitoring in non-perturbed bioreactors. The prospects for electronic nose/bioreactor merging are valuable for whatever the bacterial strain or consortium used in terms of scent markers to monitor biochemical processes. PMID:22212349

  9. User's manual for steady-state computer simulation for air-to-air heat pumps with selected examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    A steady-state computer simulation model has been developed for conventional, vapor compression cycle, electrically driven air-to-air heat pumps. Comparison between the heat pump simulation model predictions and available data from three heat pump experiments indicate that the predictions generally are within accepted tolerances. A sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effect of possible variations in some of the input parameters on the system's thermal performance. The computer simulation model is briefly described for heating and cooling modes, and simulation model input data and output are given. (LEW)

  10. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  11. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  12. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  13. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  14. Influence of HX size and augmentation on performance potential of mixtures in air-to-air heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    1993-05-01

    A modified Carnot analysis with finite heat exchanger (HX) sizes, counterflow HX configurations, and ideal glide matching was conducted for an air-to-air heat pump application. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the envelope of potential HX size and refrigerant-side augmentation benefits for ideal mixtures relative to pure refrigerant alternatives. The mixture COP benefits examined are those due to exact external fluid glide-matching of idealized mixtures in more effective heat exchangers. Maximum possible mixture COP gains are evaluated for four steady-state air-to-air heat pump conditions. Performance improvement opportunities are found to be primarily in the cooling mode. The effects of deviation from counterflow by use of crossflow and countercrossflow HX configurations are addressed. Refrigerant-side augmentation with pure and mixed refrigerants is examined for air-side dominant and air-to-refrigerant balanced HXs.

  15. H2 production by Anabaena variabilis mutant in computer controlled two-stage air-lift tubular photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hall, D. O.; Rao, K. K.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Sveshnikov, D. A.

    2000-06-01

    A 4.34 liter two-stage air-lift photobioreactor incorporating Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413 mutant PK84 was used to study H2 production. Results showed that H2 production increased with increasing light intensity from 47 μE/(m2·s) up to 190 μE/(m2·s), but that further increase of light intensity decreased the H2 production because of the inhibition due to the high pO2. The data also indicated that longer argon gas charge resulted in more H2 produced due to the increase of nitrogenase activities and heterocyst frequency, and that more than 1.3 L net H2 was produced from this computer controlled photobioreactor.

  16. Biocatalytic desulfurization of diesel oil in an air-lift reactor with immobilized Gordonia nitida CYKS1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Su; Bae, Hee-Sung; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Chang, Yong Keun

    2005-01-01

    A new type of air-lift reactor with immobilized Gordonia nitida CYKS1 cells on a fibrous support was designed and used for the biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of diesel oil. Its performance was evaluated at different phase ratios of the oil to the aqueous medium (or oil phase fractions) and different sucrose concentrations. When the reaction mixture contained 10% diesel oil (v/v), 61-67% of sulfur was removed as the sulfur content decreased from 202-250 to 76-90 mg L(-1) in 72 h. The sulfur content did not decrease any further because the remaining sulfur compounds were recalcitrant to BDS. During the desulfurization, the strain CYKS1 consumed hydrocarbons in the diesel oil, mainly n-alkanes with 10-26 carbons, as carbon source even though an easily available carbon source, sucrose, was supplied. PMID:15932256

  17. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic studies on anatase nano-TiO{sub 2} at internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hang Li, Mei; Jun, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The micro morphological structure of the nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was also observed with TEM, as shown in figure. The TEM images clearly exhibited the homogeneous microstructure of particles with a size of around 10–15 nm. - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} was prepared by complex techniques of sol–gel, micro-emulsion and solvent thermal. • The size of TiO{sub 2} was nano level and uniformity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} exhibited high photo-catalytic activity at internal air lift circulating reactor. • The best nano-TiO{sub 2} dosage was obtained. - Abstract: Anatase nano-titania (TiO{sub 2}) powder was prepared by using a sol–gel process mediated in reverse microemulsion combined with a solvent thermal technique. The structures of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB) on nano-TiO{sub 2} was studied by using an internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor. The results show that the anatase structure appears in the calcination temperature range of 400–510 °C, while the transformation of anatase into rutile takes place above 510 °C. The homogeneous microstructure of nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was obtained with a size of around 10–15 nm. In the photocatalytic performance, degradation process follows pseudo first order kinetics with different dosages of photocatalyst and initial MB concentrations and optimal TiO{sub 2} dosage is 0.1 g/L with neutral medium.

  18. After Boyle and the Leviathan: the second generation of British air pumps.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the second generation of British air pumps, covering the period 1700-1750. The air pump originated in the 1650s and 1660s thanks to the work of Otto von Guericke in Magdeburg, Robert Boyle in Oxford and London, and Accademia del Cimento in Florence. While these first models were often seen as unreliable and temperamental, and available to a small group only, the next period saw the air pump transformed into a publicly accessible device for use in public and private demonstrations, in practical applications, as well as in the production of new knowledge. In England, the instrument maker Francis Hauksbee and his followers played a decisive role in this process, which was connected, among other things, to popular medicine, anatomy and health. In this period, pneumatics (the field of air pumps and air-pump practice) reached a state where the pump came to be regarded as an unproblematic tool; and where a vacuum' came to be thought of and handled as an object. PMID:21466004

  19. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  20. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  1. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale air-lift internal-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Using sodium fluoride as tracer, residence time distribution technique was employed to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale Internal-Loop Airlift Bio-particle (ILAB) bioreactor that was a novel system for ammonia removal from wastewater. The results showed that the flow pattern of ILAB reactor was close to completely mixed reactor under all the tested air flow rates and liquid flow rates (with average N of 1.88). The total dead zone (TDZ) was 32.43% with biological dead zone (BDZ) of 20.66% and hydraulic dead zone (HDZ) of 8.95%. At higher air flow rates, the flow pattern of reactor approached that of completely mixed reactor (N from 2.72 to 1.54), and the increase of air flow rate gave rise to the decrease of TDZ in the reactor (from 36.24% to 23.00%). Whereas at higher liquid flow rates, the flow pattern of ILAB reactor got away from that of completely mixed reactor (N from 1.51 to 1.72), and the increase of liquid flow rate yielded a rise of TDZ in the reactor (from 28.48% to 36.84%). The study highlighted that the effect of air flow rate on flow pattern and TDZ of the reactor was greater than that of liquid flow rate. PMID:25594127

  2. Comparison of residential air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems in 16 California climatic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.M.; Lau, H.

    1987-06-01

    Heat pumps with coefficients of performance ranging from 2.5 to 3.1 and gas furnaces with thermal efficiencies of 75% to 90% are analyzed through DOE-2 computer simulations and life-cycle cost analyses. The annual heating performances and the life-cycle costs of air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems operating in single-family detached residences located in 16 climatic zones defined by the California Energy Commission are compared. With standard performance equipment, heat pumps cost more in all zones except for China Lake and Sacramento, but with high performance equipment, heat pumps cost less in all zones except for Fresno and Mt. Shasta.

  3. Pressure charged airlift pump

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Gene K.

    1983-01-01

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections (44, 46) adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum (55). A compressed air-driven pump (62) is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit (46) to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  4. Pressure charged airlift pump

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.K.

    1980-08-15

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum. A compressed air-driven pump is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  5. Pressure charged airlift pump

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.K.

    1983-02-15

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum. A compressed air-driven pump is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  6. Industrial Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A flow inducer is a device that increases the pump intake capacity of a Worthington Centrifugal pump. It lifts the suction pressure sufficiently for the rotating main impeller of the centrifugal pump to operate efficiently at higher fluid intake levels. The concept derives from 1960's NASA technology which was advanced by Worthington Pump Division. The pumps are used to recirculate wood molasses, a highly viscous substance.

  7. Performance comparison of air- and ground-coupled heat pump systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.D.; Kavanaugh, S.; Ramanathan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Research initiated in 1979 to compare the performance of air-coupled and ground-coupled heat pumps is described. Three heat pump systems were installed in small, neighboring all-electric residences served by the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company in Perkins, Oklahoma. An air-coupled heat pump and two ground-coupled heat pumps - one with solar assistance - were field tested. However, equipment and instrumentation problems precluded gathering meaningful data for the solar-assisted ground-coupled system. Generally, the unassisted ground-coupled heat pump system proved superior to the air-coupled system, both in reducing peak demand and in consuming less energy on an annual basis. The unassisted ground-coupled system reduced summer and winter peak demand, and experienced no performance degradation due to buildup of rejected waste heat in the ground well. A polyethylene U-tube ground heat exchanger was installed in both ground-coupled systems midway through the project, replacing a five-inch annular PVC pipe arrangement that had functioned poorly. The U-tube performed well throughout the remainder of research. Differing lifestyles and thermostat changes by building occupants during the monitoring period produced quite different demands and loads in the test houses, but when results were normalized through simulation, the superior performance of the unassisted ground-coupled heat pump was confirmed.

  8. Final report: Long Term Test of a Gear-Type Pump for the Am/Cm Project

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1998-04-01

    At the request of the Immobilization Technology section, the Experimental Thermal Fluids group carried out a test to determine the operational characteristics of a gear-type pump. This pump was under consideration as a replacement for the air-lift melter feed pumping system of the Americium and Curium Project.

  9. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery ... the position of the areola and nipple. Description Cosmetic breast surgery can be done at an outpatient ...

  10. Eyelid lift

    MedlinePlus

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging ... An eyelid lift is needed when eyelid drooping reduces your vision. You may be asked to have your eye doctor test ...

  11. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead lift ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  12. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    PubMed Central

    Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell’Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

  13. Air-lift bioreactors for algal growth on flue gas: Mathematical modeling and pilot-plant studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Kim, Y.; Wu, X.X.; Berzin, I.; Merchuk, J.C.

    2005-08-03

    Air-lift reactors (ALRs) have great potential for industrial bioprocesses, because of the low level and homogeneous distribution of hydrodynamic shear. One growing field of application is the flue-gas treatment using algae for the absorption of CO{sub 2}, In this paper, we discuss the requirements for photosynthetic biomass growth in an ALR. The effects of the operating variables are analyzed using a mathematical model that accounts for the effects of ALR geometry, fluid flow, and illumination on the biomass growth. On the basis of the ALR principles and the specific requirements of photosynthetic processes, we developed a 'triangular' ALR configuration that is particularly suitable for algal growth. We describe the design and operation of this novel bioreactor and present the first series of experimental data obtained for two different algal species in a pilot-scale unit supplied with flue gases from a small power plant. The measured removal efficiency of CO{sub 2} was significant (82.3 12.5% on sunny days and 50.1 6.5% on cloudy days) and consistent with the increase in the algal biomass.

  14. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell'Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

  15. Effects of electromagnetic field on the batch cultivation and nutritional composition of Spirulina platensis in an air-lift photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Si-Yuan; Li, Lin; Cai, Miao-Yan

    2007-02-01

    Spirulina platensis was batch cultivated in a novel 3.5l magnetic air-lift photobioreactor with external-loop on which 0-0.55 T electromagnetic field (EMF) was imposed to investigate the EMF effects on the algal growth and nutrition composition. At the same time, the correlative mechanism was discussed mainly based on C, N, P uptake. It was found that, EMF has double-side effects on S. platensis cultivation depend on EMF intensity. 0.25 T EMF stress was found to be suitable for the algal cultivation enhancement increasing the maximum cell dry weight by 22% in a time period two days less than that of the control at 35 degrees C and 252 micromol photonsm(-2)S(-1). In addition, the nutritional composition of S. platensis was improved in both essential amino acids such as histidine and trace elements Ni, Sr, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ca, Co and V. It was suggested it was possible to optimize the cultivation process of S. platensis by imposing suitable weak EMF which may enhance the nutrition assimilation e.g. C, N, P and minerals by S. platensis. PMID:16581244

  16. [Treatment of a 2,4-dichlorophenol contaminated wastewater in an air-lift inner-loop bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Jianlong; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2002-07-01

    An air lift inner-loop bioreactor packed with honeycomb-like ceramic carrier was immobilized with a 2,4-Dichlorophenol-degrading pure culture and was investigated to degrade 2,4-Dichlorophenol and phenol. In fed-batch operation mode, 2,4-DCP biodegradation rate increased with run numbers and followed zero-order kinetics model when it existed alone, but when 2,4-DCP was present in the mixture with phenol, phenol degradation rate had an apparent trend to increase whereas 2,4-DCP removal rate became slower and slower. In continuous operation, 2,4-DCP at the concentration ranged from 6.9 to 102.4 mg/L could be degraded well at the dilution rate of 0.16 h-1 and the average removal percentage was 96.5%. Carbon sources changed from 2,4-DCP to acetate sodium and peptone in the course of operation for 12 days did not cause the bacteria loss the DCP-degrading ability. PMID:12371101

  17. Comparative performance of air-lift partial nitritation processes with attached growth and suspended growth without biomass retention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2014-01-01

    Partial nitritation is an essential first step in anaerobic ammonium oxidation. This study compared the performance of air-lift partial nitritation reactors with attached growth (AG) and suspended growth (SG) without biomass retention using ammonium-rich recirculated liquor produced from the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge. The steady-state results showed that the AG can effectively retain ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) with high activity and allow minimizing biomass discharge (approximately 10 mg volatile suspended solids/L) in the effluent. The nitrogen loading (based on the total reactor volume) satisfying the effluent characteristics could be suggested to be 0.42 g N/L/d for the SG, and 0.76 g N/L/d for the AG, respectively. Compared with the SG, the AG achieved a higher ammonium loading rate (approximately 1.8 times), maximal ammonium oxidation activity (48 mg N/L-h based on liquid-phase volume) under a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) and a long solids retention time (SRT > 80 d). The overall performance confirmed that AG is a promising configuration for partial nitritation in terms of the process stability, maximization of the AOB activity and minimization of the effluent biomass under a short HRT and high nitrogen loading rate. PMID:24701930

  18. Enhanced anthocyanin production from grape callus in an air-lift type bioreactor using a viscous additive-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kousuke; Nagamori, Eiji; Omote, Mariko; Kato, Yoshihito; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    An N-medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was applied to an air-lift type bioreactor culture of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bailey alicant A.) callus, and anthocyanin production was investigated. Grape callus grew well at an air flow rate of 80 ml/min and anthocyanin production was significantly increased in the N-medium, reaching 17 mg/l after 7 d of culture. The anthocyanin content of the N-medium was about two times higher than that of the conventional medium without CMC. The effect of air flow rate was also investigated within the range from 40 to 160 ml/min. A twofold increase in anthocyanin content was obtained at all the air flow rates tested in the N-medium. The distribution of grape callus size obtained after 7 d of the bioreactor culture was investigated. The average callus size was 490 mum which was 1.6 times larger than that obtained in the conventional medium. It was found that large calli with a relatively high anthocyanin pigment content were formed in the bioreactor culture using the N-medium. The fluid dynamics in the bioreactor was also investigated at three points (top, middle and bottom) in the bioreactor by laser doppler velocimetry. The average axial velocity of the circulated medium was 0.4 times lower than that of the conventional medium while their average radial velocities were almost the same (zero). The standard deviation of radial velocity fluctuation in the N-medium was also 0.4 times less than that in the conventional medium. These results suggest that turbulent flow occurred in the bioreactor culture using the conventional medium and the degree of turbulent flow decreased significantly when 0.8% CMC was added to the medium to prepare the N-medium. A change of the flow pattern is considered to be the cause of the decrease in hydrodynamic stress, resulting in enhanced pigment production due to the enlargement of the callus. PMID:16233283

  19. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming; Baxter, Van D; Iu, Ipseng

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  20. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  1. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  3. Painting as Rhetorical Performance: Joseph Wright's "An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmers, Marguerite

    2001-01-01

    Explores three broad areas of inquiry: what significance visual images have for rhetorical analysis; how a study of nonverbal material might be conducted; and whether visual explanations depend on the image or the viewer. Argues that viewers understand Joseph Wright's painting "The Air Pump" in terms of its subject, its exhibition space, the…

  4. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  5. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-10-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  6. Culture of East Indian sandalwood tree somatic embryos in air-lift bioreactors for production of santalols, phenolics and arabinogalactan proteins

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; Dey, Satyahari

    2013-01-01

    The East Indian sandalwood tree, Santalum album, yields one of the costliest heartwoods and precious essential oil. Unsurprisingly, this endangered forest species is severely affected due to unmet global demands, illegal trade and harvesting, overharvesting and an epidemic mycoplasmal spike disease. In vitro micropropagation endeavours have resulted in defined in vitro stages such as somatic embryos that are amenable to mass production in bioreactors. We report on somatic embryo production in a 10-L air-lift-type bioreactor, and compare the growth and biochemical parameters with those of a 2-L air-lift-type bioreactor. For the 10-L bioreactor with biomass (475.7 ± 18 g fresh weight; P < 0.01), concomitantly santalols (5.2 ± 0.15 mg L−1; P < 0.05), phenolics (31 ± 1.6 mg L−1) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) (39 ± 3.1 mg L−1; P < 0.05) are produced in 28 days. In addition, we identified and quantified several santalols and phenolics by means of high-performance thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analyses, respectively. Results indicate that 10-L-capacity air-lift bioreactors are capable of supporting somatic embryo cultures, while the extracellular medium provides opportunities for production of industrial raw materials such as santalols, phenolics and AGPs. This will prove useful for further optimization and scale-up studies of plant-produced metabolites.

  7. Operability test procedure for 241-U compressed air system and heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R.D.

    1994-08-31

    The 241-U-701 compressed air system supplies instrument quality compressed air to Tank Farm 241-U. The supply piping to the 241-U Tank Farm is not included in the modification. Modifications to the 241-U-701 compressed air system include installation of a 15 HP Reciprocating Air Compressor, Ingersoll-Rand Model 10T3NLM-E15; an air dryer, Hankinson, Model DH-45; and miscellaneous system equipment and piping (valves, filters, etc.) to meet the design. A newly installed heat pump allows the compressor to operate within an enclosed relatively dust free atmosphere and keeps the compressor room within a standard acceptable temperature range, which makes possible efficient compressor operation, reduces maintenance, and maximizes compressor operating life. This document is an Operability Test Procedure (OTP) which will further verify (in addition to the Acceptance Test Procedure) that the 241-U-701 compressed air system and heat pump operate within their intended design parameters. The activities defined in this OTP will be performed to ensure the performance of the new compressed air system will be adequate, reliable and efficient. Completion of this OTP and sign off of the OTP Acceptance of Test Results is necessary for turnover of the compressed air system from Engineering to Operations.

  8. Performance evaluation of a selected three-ton air-to-air heat pump in the heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Domingorena, A.A.; Ball, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    An air-to-air split system residential heat pump of nominal three-ton capacity was instrumented and tested in the heating mode under laboratory conditions. This was the second of a planned series of experiments to obtain a data base of system and component performance for heat pumps. The system was evaluated under both steady-state and frosting-defrosting conditions; sensitivity of the system performance to variations in the refrigerant charge was measured. From the steady-state tests, the heating capacity and coefficient of performance were computed, and evaluations were made of the performance parameters of the fan and fan motor units, the heat exchangers and refrigerant metering device, and the compressor. System heat losses were analyzed. The frosting-defrosting tests allowed the observation of system and component performance under dynamic conditions, and measurement of performance degradation under frosting conditions.

  9. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  10. Optimization of the Slot Suction of Air from a Circular Vortex Cell on a Thick NACA0022 Airfoil with a Maximum Lift-Drag Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Kalinin, E. I.; Sudakov, A. G.; Kharchenko, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of multiblock computational technologies and the Menter model of shear-stress transfer modified with account of the curvature of streamlines, the optimum position of a slot for air suction on the leeward side of the contour of a vortex cell built in a thick NACA0022 airfoil was determined for the purpose of increasing its lift-drag ratio to a maximum value in a nondisturbed air flow at a Mach number of 0.05 and an angle of attack of 7°.

  11. Development of New Air-Cooled Heat Pump Chiller 'Compact Cube'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ookoshi, Yasushi; Ito, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Yohei; Ochiai, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kosuke; Uji, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Hiroshi

    Further improvement of the performance is requested to air-cooled heat pump chiller from the viewpoint of the global warming prevention. Smaller unit is needed to facilitate the renewal from absorption chiller to air-cooled heat pump chiller. To meet such needs, we developed compact new air-cooled heat pump chiller with high efficiency, 'Compact cube'. The developed machine is side-flow type with U-shaped fin and tube heat exchangers. With this structure, the uniform air velocity, high packed density of the heat exchangers, and the unit miniaturization have been implemented. The refrigeration cycle with two-evaporating temperature has also been implemented. The cooling COP of this cycle is 2% higher compared with conventional one-evaporating temperature cycle because of the rise of average evaporating temperature. In a new model, a new control system, which controls both capacity of compressors and air flow rate corresponding to heat load, has been implemented. As a result, the developed machine achieved IPLV(Integrated Part load Value) to 6.2(MCHV-P1800AE) which is 29% better than the conventional unit.

  12. Rating procedure for mixed-air-source unitary air conditioners and heat pumps operating in the cooling mode

    SciTech Connect

    Domanski, P.A.

    1986-02-01

    A procedure is presented for rating split, residential air conditioners and heat pumps operating in the cooling mode that are made up of an evaporator unit combined with a condensing unit that has been rated under current procedures in conjunction with a different evaporator unit. The procedure allows calculation of capacity at the 95/sup 0/ F rating point and seasonal energy efficiency ratio, SEER, without performing laboratory tests of the complete system.

  13. Assessment of residual heat removal and containment spray pump performance under air and debris ingesting conditions. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, P.S.; Tantillo, T.J.; Swift, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of the performance of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) and Containment Spray (CS) pumps during the recirculation phase of reactor core and containment cooldown following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The pumped fluid is expected to contain debris such as insulation and may ingest air depending on sump conditions. Findings are based on information collected from the literature and from interviews with pump and seal manufacturers. These findings show that for pumps at normal flow rates operating with sufficient Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH), pump performance degradation is negligible if air ingestion quantities are less than 2% by volume. For air ingestion between 3% and 15% by volume, head degradation depends on individual pump design and operating conditions and for air quantities greater than 15% performance of most pumps will be fully degraded. Also, small quantities of air will increase NPSH requirements for these pumps. For the types and quantities of debris likely to be present in the recirculating fluid, pump performance degradation is expected to be negligible.

  14. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    SciTech Connect

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  15. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  16. An experimental and analytical investigation into the performance of centrifugal pumps operating with air-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterrett, John Douglas

    1994-01-01

    An investigation was made into the performance of centrifugal pumps when two-phase non-condensable mixtures of gas and liquid are flowing. This problem is encountered during loss-of-coolant accidents in nuclear reactor systems and in the pumping of oil where natural gas may be present in the mixture. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to address the issues of scaling between a model and a prototype pump and the validity of the single-phase pump affinity laws when two-phase flows are present. The results from this effort have also provided insight into the physical phenomena which cause the degradation in pump performance. An analytical model for the motion of a single bubble through a pump impeller is provided. The results from this fundamental problem show that the Coriolis and buoyancy forces are important in describing the kinematics of a gas phase. These results show that dynamic similitude is not preserved between a model and prototype impeller when the standard single-phase pump scaling relationships are used. The motion of a single bubble is also shown to be influenced by the magnitude of the pump suction pressure. The results from an extensive series of air-water two phase pump tests are provided. A 1/4 scale pump, modeled after the Savannah River Site K-reactor pumps, was tested over a wide range of pump speeds, flow rates, and suction pressures. These results indicate that the single-phase pump affinity laws are not applicable to two-phase pump flows and that the magnitude of the pump suction pressure is an important quantity in determining the pump performance. A second analytical model is developed for two-phase flow through a pump impeller. The results from this one-dimensional, two-fluid, non-homogeneous streamline model show good agreement with the experimental data. The model results support the experimental data in showing that the single-phase pump affinity relationships are not valid for two-phase pump flows and that dynamic

  17. Air transport of the patient requiring intra-aortic balloon pumping.

    PubMed

    Mertlich, G; Quaal, S J

    1989-09-01

    Air transport of the IABC patient requires a high level of skill and competence. The nurse caring for the IABP patient must be experienced in balloon pumping in a variety of settings (catheterization laboratory, operating room) and during unstable hemodynamic conditions, such as occur with arrhythmias, pacemakers, severe cardiogenic shock, and cardiac arrest. The nurse must be trained in all aspects of console operation and troubleshooting. Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, examined its experiences in ground transportation of 50 IABP patients over a 5-year period. The hospital has put forth several important principles that we have incorporated into our recommendations for air transport of the IABC patient: 1. Transport personnel should be completely familiar with the function of the IABP console; capable of handling bleeding at the balloon site, should it occur; capable of delivering intravenous medications, CPR, and ACLS; and proficient in operation of the ventilator, hemodynamic monitoring, and aerohemodynamics. 2. All patients must be stabilized before transfer. Appropriate management of hemodynamic instability and/or respiratory distress should be undertaken prior to beginning transport. 3. Medical personnel delivering care must transfer patients into and out of transport vehicles with minimal interruption of IABP. 4. Health-care professionals present during transport should be thoroughly familiar with the patient's medical status and anticipated complications. This article was not intended to teach basic principles of intra-aortic balloon pumping; rather its purpose was to discuss those characteristics of balloon pumping that are unique to flight transport and how they impact on balloon pumping. Console operation should follow manufacturer's recommendations. Table 3 summarizes features of the Aries, Datascope, Kontron, and Mansfield transport balloon pumps. Manufacturers and aircraft suppliers should be consulted for specific balloon-pump operating

  18. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  19. Performance tests of air source heat pumps under frosting conditions. Quality of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlen, P.

    This report focuses on the analysis of uncertainties in research regarding air-source heat pumps. The principles recommended by the Western European Calibration Conference (WECC) are applied and the generated information is condensed in the form of uncertainty budgets. The ensuring discussion, and the Measurement Assurance Program that was applied during the research work are also relevant to general testing of cooling coils, e.g. for air source heat pumps. The general conclusion of the analysis is that the method of determining frost mass by continuous weighing and frost density by inference from pressure drop considerations, which is presented in the report, has the potential to produce results with an accuracy on a par with the best previously used techniques to investigate frosting and defrosting phenomena. Furthermore, the methodology has the distinct advantage of yielding online measuring possibilities and being much less time consuming than traditional techniques.

  20. Development of an algorithm to regulate pump output for a closed air-loop type pneumatic biventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jung Joo; Hwang, Chang Mo; Choi, Jaesoon; Choi, Hyuk; Choi, Seong Wook; Sun, Kyung

    2009-12-01

    The closed air space-type of extracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) developed by the Korea Artificial Organ Center utilizes a bellows-transforming mechanism to generate the air pressure required to pump blood. This operating mechanism can reduce the size and weight of the driving unit; however, the output of the blood pump can be affected by the pressure loading conditions of the blood sac. Therefore, to guarantee a proper pump output level, regardless of the pressure loading conditions that vary over time, automatic pump output regulation of the blood pump is required. We describe herein a pump output regulation algorithm that was developed to maintain pump output around a reference level against various afterload pressures, and verified the pump performance in vitro. Based on actual operating conditions in animal experiments, the pumping rate was limited to 40-84 beats per minute, and the afterload pressure was limited to 80-150 mm Hg. The tested reference pump output was 4.0 L/min. During experiments, the pump output was successfully and automatically regulated within the preset area regardless of the varying afterload conditions. The results of this preliminary experiment can be used as the basis for an automatic control algorithm that can enhance the stability and reliability of the applied VAD. PMID:19604228

  1. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  2. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  3. Turbulent Navier-Stokes Flow Analysis of an Advanced Semispan Diamond-Wing Model in Tunnel and Free Air at High-Lift Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad; Biedron, Robert T.; Luckring, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Turbulent Navier-Stokes computational results are presented for an advanced diamond wing semispan model at low-speed, high-lift conditions. The numerical results are obtained in support of a wind-tunnel test that was conducted in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model incorporated a generic fuselage and was mounted on the tunnel sidewall using a constant-width non-metric standoff. The computations were performed at to a nominal approach and landing flow conditions.The computed high-lift flow characteristics for the model in both the tunnel and in free-air environment are presented. The computed wing pressure distributions agreed well with the measured data and they both indicated a small effect due to the tunnel wall interference effects. However, the wall interference effects were found to be relatively more pronounced in the measured and the computed lift, drag and pitching moment. Although the magnitudes of the computed forces and moment were slightly off compared to the measured data, the increments due the wall interference effects were predicted reasonably well. The numerical results are also presented on the combined effects of the tunnel sidewall boundary layer and the standoff geometry on the fuselage forebody pressure distributions and the resulting impact on the configuration longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics.

  4. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  5. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A. . Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A.

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  7. Analysis of several methods of pumping cooling air for turbojet engine afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, John C; Yanowitz, Herbert

    1953-01-01

    Several methods of pumping air to an annular cooling passage surrounding a typical axial-flow turbojet-engine afterburner were evaluated and compared on the basis of thrust and specific fuel consumption of the systems. Each system was analyzed over a range of afterburner-wall temperatures, flight Mach numbers, and exhaust-gas temperatures at sea level and 35,000 feet. Ram pressure recovery, boundary-layer pressure recovery, and the engine-jet actuated ejector appear to be satisfactory systems at high Mach numbers. Cooling with compressor-exit air bleed was found to be unsatisfactory,but the use of compressor-exit bleed air as the primary fluid in a high-performance ejector was satisfactory. The use of an auxiliary compressor driven from the engine shaft increased the thrust and decreased the specific fuel consumption of the engine for many of the conditions investigated.

  8. The effect of clay particles on the activity of suspended autotrophic nitrifying bacteria and on the performance of an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Vieira, M J; Pacheco, A P; Pinho, I A; Melo, L F

    2001-02-01

    Clay minerals have some properties, namely a high surface area and the ability of ion exchange that may exert some effects on microbial systems. It is often difficult to know the way the clay is exerting its influence and whether its presence improves a given metabolic process. The present work concerns the study of the effect of the addition of powdered kaolin to autotrophic nitrification systems, and includes the study of the effects of the particles on the activity of a suspended nitrifying bacteria consortium and on the performance of an air-lift biofilm reactor used for tertiary nitrification. Concerning the suspended culture, kaolin particles produced stimulation on the specific endogenous and exogenous respiration rates of the bacteria, probably due to a nutritional effect supplied by the clay. This effect was more pronounced for the ammonia oxidation rates, although nitrite oxidation was also enhanced but to a lesser extent. In respect to the presence of kaolin particles in the air-lift reactor, the results obtained indicate that the clay particles become incorporated in the biofilm pellets, but do not change significantly their thickness or their shape. However, nitrate production decreased when the concentration of particles increased. The low adsorption of ammonia by the kaolin indicated that the clay particles embedded in the biofilm did not probably retain the ions. Although it was not proved, precipitation of salts may have occurred. PMID:11349371

  9. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  10. Artificial lift alternatives offer operators options for best production at low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-03-01

    An operator can produce wells cheaper and make equipment last longer with the right artificial lift combination for the task at hand. This paper describes beam pumps, long stroke pumping units, electric submersible pumps, a plunger lift, progressive cavity pumps, hydraulic pumps.

  11. Is the Air Handling Capability of the Quadrox D Pump Dependent within an ECMO Circuit? An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin C.; Dando, Hayden; Dittmer, John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The occurrence of gaseous microemboli (GME) within the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is largely overlooked, as are methods to ameliorate this occurrence. We aimed to determine if the air handling capability of the Quadrox D oxygenator was dependent upon whether it was used in conjunction with a centrifugal or roller pump; and if application of a Pall air eliminating filter (AEF) would prevent circuit air introduction from intravenous infusions. Using a blood primed circuit 1 mL of air was infused pre pump. GME were quantified post pump and post oxygenator using the EDAC® Quantifier. Trials were conducted at 1 and 2 L/min flow. To prevent GME recirculation a Capiox SX18 was used in circuit with negative pressure applied to its oxygenator; an EDAC® cuvette distal to this device quantified GME recirculation. Following air infusion, 3–5 minute data recordings were carried out for each trial. Separate trials were carried out for centrifugal and roller pumps, and for each flow rate. The process was then repeated following the application of the AEF to the air infusion line. More GME were detected post Quadrox D when the centrifugal pump was used in comparison to the roller pump at 1 L/min (p ≤ .05), and 2 L/min (p = .05). A greater volume of air was detected post Quadrox D when used in conjunction with the centrifugal device at 1 L/min (p ≤ .05), and 2 L/min (p ≤ .05). Application of the AEF resulted in zero GME detected at any circuit location. The results of this study confirm that a greater total count and volume of GME are detected distal to the Quadrox D when used in conjunction with a Rotaflow centrifugal pump. Application of a Pall AEF to infusion and drug lines can prevent air introduction from this source. PMID:21114223

  12. Study of the potential of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production in fed-batch cultures by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bibbins, Belinda; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Torrado, Ana; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cell immobilization has shown to be especially adequate for xylitol production. This work studies the suitability of the air lift bioreactor for xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in Ca-alginate operating in fed-batch cultures to avoid substrate inhibition. The results showed that the air lift bioreactor is an adequate system since the minimum air flow required for fluidization was even lower than that leading to the microaerobic conditions that trigger xylitol accumulation by this yeast, also maintaining the integrity of the alginate beads and the viability of the immobilized cells until 3 months of reuses. Maximum productivities and yields of 0.43 g/l/h and 0.71 g/g were achieved with a xylose concentration of 60 g/l after each feeding. The xylose feeding rate, the air flow, and the biomass concentration at the beginning of the fed-batch operation have shown to be critical parameters for achieving high productivities and yields. Although a maximum xylitol production of 139 g/l was obtained, product inhibition was evidenced in batch experiments, which allowed estimating at 200 and 275 g/l the IC50 for xylitol productivity and yield, respectively. The remarkable production of glycerol in the absence of glucose was noticeable, which could not only be attributed to the osmoregulatory function of this polyol in conditions of high osmotic pressure caused by high xylitol concentrations but also to the role of the glycerol synthesis pathway in the regeneration of NAD(+) in conditions of suboptimal microaeration caused by insufficient aeration or high oxygen demand when high biomass concentrations were achieved. PMID:24136467

  13. Direct calculation of acoustic streaming including the boundary layer phenomena in an ultrasonic air pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-05-01

    Direct finite difference fluid simulation of acoustic streaming on the fine-meshed three-dimensiona model by graphics processing unit (GPU)-oriented calculation array is discussed. Airflows due to the acoustic traveling wave are induced when an intense sound field is generated in a gap between a bending transducer and a reflector. Calculation results showed good agreement with the measurements in the pressure distribution. In addition to that, several flow-vortices were observed near the boundary of the reflector and the transducer, which have been often discussed in acoustic tube near the boundary, and have never been observed in the calculation in the ultrasonic air pump of this type.

  14. A static air flow visualization method to obtain a time history of the lift-induced vortex and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A recently proposed method of flow visualization was investigated at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center. This method of flow visualization is particularly applicable to the study of lift-induced wing tip vortices through which it is possible to record the entire life span of the vortex. To accomplish this, a vertical screen of smoke was produced perpendicular to the flight path and allowed to become stationary. A model was then driven through the screen of smoke producing the circular vortex motion made visible as the smoke was induced along the path taken by the flow and was recorded by highspeed motion pictures.

  15. USING AIR-LIFT PUMPING AS AN IN-SITU AQUIFER REMEDIATION TECHNIQUE. (R825689C061)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  17. Rational design of a culture medium for the intensification of lipid storage in Chlorella sp. Performance evaluation in air-lift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Pablo C; Beccaria, Alejandro J; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-04-01

    An optimal medium to culture Chlorella sp., microalgae capable of storage intracellular lipids was obtained. This culture medium consists of a saline base plus carbon-energy and nitrogen sources. Significant factors exerting influence on the culture parameters were selected. Then, by applying response surface methodology coupled to desirability function, an optimal formulation, specific for the heterotrophic growth of Chlorella sp. that allows maximizing lipid concentration was obtained. During the experimental verification, the possibility of replacing commercial glucose by hydrolysates obtained from lignocellulosic materials was evaluated. Biochemical hydrolysate of corn bran allowed obtaining important improvements in lipid concentration. Finally, the optimal formulation was evaluated in an air-lift bioreactor performing a fed-batch culture. Culturing the strain in these conditions allowed rising lipid concentrations. PMID:24607464

  18. Bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated sediment by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an air-lift bioreactor: effects of sulfur concentration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shen-Yi; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2004-01-01

    The effects of sulfur concentration on the bioleaching of heavy metals from the sediment by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were investigated in an air-lift reactor. Increasing the sulfur concentration from 0.5 to 5 g/l enhanced the rates of pH reduction, sulfate production and metal solubilization. A Michaelis-Menten type equation was used to explain the relationships between sulfur concentration, sulfate production and metal solubilization in the bioleaching process. After 8 days of bioleaching, 97-99% of Cu, 96-98% of Zn, 62-68% of Mn, 73-87% of Ni and 31-50% of Pb were solubilized from the sediment, respectively. The efficiency of metal solubilization was found to be related to the speciation of metal in the sediment. From economical consideration, the recommended sulfur dosage for the bioleaching of metals from the sediment is 3g/l. PMID:15276736

  19. [Growth and polysaccharide formation in Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in an air-lift-type fermentor. Effect on nodulation velocity in alfalfa plants].

    PubMed

    Lorda, G S; Castaño, R C; Pordomingo, A B; Pastor, M D; Balatti, A P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the exopolysaccharides produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti strains on the nodulation rates in alfalfa plants has been considered. The experiments were performed in a rotary shaker and in an air-lift type fermentor. Different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains were used. Bacterial growth rates were determined by viable cell counts. Exopolysaccharide concentration was determined by precipitation with ethanol. It was observed that maximum cell concentration was in the order of 1 x 10(10) cell/ml and exopolysaccharide content was approximately 11 g/l. The experiments performed with alfalfa plants in a controlled environment chamber showed that, when inoculation was carried out with diluted suspensions (1/10), nodulation time was reduced from 10 to 4 days, while the strains retained their symbiotic properties. PMID:12920984

  20. Miscellaneous component design for Tank 241SY101 pump removal

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-03-02

    A mixer pump has been used to mitigate the hydrogen build-up in tank 241SY101 (SY101), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. New equipment is being prepared for the removal, transport, storage, and disposal of the test pump. The disposal equipment for the test pump now in tank SY101 includes a shipping container, a strong back, a lifting beam, a test weight, container support stands, a modified mock-up pump, a flexible receiver blast shield, a lifting yoke, and a yoke brace. The structural evaluations of container and strong back are detailed in another supporting document (WHC 1994a), the engineering analyses of flexible receiver blast shield/lifting yoke and yoke brace are given in other supporting documents (WHC 1994b, WHC 1994c), respectively. Engineering tasks that were contracted to Advanced Engineering Consultants (AEC) include the design and analysis of the following. Two spreader-beam lifting devices. a Container test weight. Container support saddles. Mock-up pump modification. This report documents the work description, design basis, assumptions, and design calculations provided by AEC for the above components. All AEC documents appear in Appendix A. Additional work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the modified container test weight, modification to the mock-up pump, the removable support for the transport assembly, and saddle modification for air pallets also are included in this document.

  1. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  2. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Control Effectiveness of the HL-20 Lifting Body Configuration at Mach 10 in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1999-01-01

    A 0.0196-scale model of the HL-20 lifting-body, one of several configurations proposed for future crewed spacecraft, was tested in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to determine the effectiveness of fin-mounted elevons, a lower surface flush-mounted body flap, and a flush-mounted yaw controller at hypersonic speeds. The nominal angle-of-attack range, representative of hypersonic entry, was 2 deg to 41 deg, the sideslip angles were 0 deg, 2 deg, and -2 deg, and the test Reynolds number was 1.06 x 10 E6 based on model reference length. The aerodynamic, longitudinal, and lateral control effectiveness along with surface oil flow visualizations are presented and discussed. The configuration was longitudinally and laterally stable at the nominal center of gravity. The primary longitudinal control, the fin-mounted elevons, could not trim the model to the desired entry angle of attack of 30 deg. The lower surface body flaps were effective for roll control and the associated adverse yawing moment was eliminated by skewing the body flap hinge lines. A yaw controller, flush-mounted on the lower surface, was also effective, and the associated small rolling moment was favorable.

  3. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  4. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.

  5. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  6. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  7. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  8. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  9. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  10. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  11. Submersible pump

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D. B.

    1985-08-27

    A method and apparatus for using a submersible pump to lift reservoir fluids in a well while having the tubing/casing annulus isolated from the produced fluids. The apparatus allows the submersible pump to be positioned above the annular packoff device. The apparatus comprises an outer shield that encloses the pump and can be attached to the production tubing. The lower end of the shield attaches to a short tubing section that seals with the annular packoff device or a receptacle above the annular packoff device.

  12. Artificial lift with coiled tubing for flow testing the Monterey formation, offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, M.A.; Fahel, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper provides a technical comparison of jet-pump and nitrogen lift during the drillstem tests (DST's) of a low-gravity, high-viscosity crude on a semisubmersible drilling vessel. Eight DST testing sequences are presented to demonstrate that jet-pump-lift operations are better suited than nitrogen-lift techniques for obtaining reservoir data during Monterey DST's.

  13. Effects of wing flexibility and variable air lift upon wing bending moment during landing impacts of a small seaplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merten, Kenneth F; Beck, Edgar B

    1951-01-01

    A smooth-water-landing investigation was conducted with a small seaplane to obtain experimental wing-bending-moment time histories together with time histories of the various parameters necessary for the prediction of wing bending moments during hydrodynamic forcing functions. The experimental results were compared with calculated results which include inertia-load effects and the effects of air-load variation during impact. The responses of the fundamental mode were calculated with the use of the measured hydrodynamic forcing functions. From these responses, the wing bending moments due to the hydrodynamic load were calculated according to the procedure given in R.M. No. 2221. The comparison of the time histories of the experimental and calculated wing bending moments showed good agreement both in phase relationship of the oscillations and in numerical values.

  14. Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kislin, Mikhail; Mugantseva, Ekaterina; Molotkov, Dmitry; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Khirug, Stanislav; Kirilkin, Ilya; Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kolikova, Julia; Toptunov, Dmytro; Yuryev, Mikhail; Giniatullin, Rashid; Voikar, Vootele; Rivera, Claudio; Rauvala, Heikki; Khiroug, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the use of general anesthetics can undermine the relevance of electrophysiological or microscopical data obtained from a living animal’s brain. Moreover, the lengthy recovery from anesthesia limits the frequency of repeated recording/imaging episodes in longitudinal studies. Hence, new methods that would allow stable recordings from non-anesthetized behaving mice are expected to advance the fields of cellular and cognitive neurosciences. Existing solutions range from mere physical restraint to more sophisticated approaches, such as linear and spherical treadmills used in combination with computer-generated virtual reality. Here, a novel method is described where a head-fixed mouse can move around an air-lifted mobile homecage and explore its environment under stress-free conditions. This method allows researchers to perform behavioral tests (e.g., learning, habituation or novel object recognition) simultaneously with two-photon microscopic imaging and/or patch-clamp recordings, all combined in a single experiment. This video-article describes the use of the awake animal head fixation device (mobile homecage), demonstrates the procedures of animal habituation, and exemplifies a number of possible applications of the method. PMID:24998224

  15. Effects of hydraulic retention time and nitrobenzene concentration on the performance of sequential upflow anaerobic filter and air lift reactors in treating nitrobenzene-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Gu, Jingjing; Yin, Weizhao; Lu, Mengxiong; Li, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Sequential upflow anaerobic filter (UAF)/air lift (ALR) reactors were employed to investigate the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrobenzene (NB) concentration on treatment of NB-containing wastewater. The results showed that NB was effectively reduced to aniline (AN) with glucose as co-substrate in the UAF reactor. The AN and the remaining intermediates after the UAF reactor were then efficiently degraded in the ALR reactor. A removal efficiency of 100% and 96% was obtained for NB and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively, using sequential UAF/ALR reactors with an HRT of 8-72 h in the UAF reactor and 2-18 h in the ALR reactor. The corresponding optimal influent NB concentration varied between 100 and 400 mg l(-1) to achieve the optimal NB and COD removal. The NB removal efficiency decreased to 90% and to 97% if the HRT in the UAF reactor decreased from 8 to 2 h and the influent NB concentration increased from 400 to 800 mg l(-1), respectively. The results showed that sequential UAF/ALR system can be operated at low HRTs and high NB concentrations without significantly affecting the removal efficiency of NB in the reactor system. The UAF/ALR system can provide an effective yet low cost method for treatment of NB-containing industrial wastewater. PMID:24969431

  16. Flat-floored air-lifted platform: a new method for combining behavior with microscopy or electrophysiology on awake freely moving rodents.

    PubMed

    Kislin, Mikhail; Mugantseva, Ekaterina; Molotkov, Dmitry; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Khirug, Stanislav; Kirilkin, Ilya; Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kolikova, Julia; Toptunov, Dmytro; Yuryev, Mikhail; Giniatullin, Rashid; Voikar, Vootele; Rivera, Claudio; Rauvala, Heikki; Khiroug, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the use of general anesthetics can undermine the relevance of electrophysiological or microscopical data obtained from a living animal's brain. Moreover, the lengthy recovery from anesthesia limits the frequency of repeated recording/imaging episodes in longitudinal studies. Hence, new methods that would allow stable recordings from non-anesthetized behaving mice are expected to advance the fields of cellular and cognitive neurosciences. Existing solutions range from mere physical restraint to more sophisticated approaches, such as linear and spherical treadmills used in combination with computer-generated virtual reality. Here, a novel method is described where a head-fixed mouse can move around an air-lifted mobile homecage and explore its environment under stress-free conditions. This method allows researchers to perform behavioral tests (e.g., learning, habituation or novel object recognition) simultaneously with two-photon microscopic imaging and/or patch-clamp recordings, all combined in a single experiment. This video-article describes the use of the awake animal head fixation device (mobile homecage), demonstrates the procedures of animal habituation, and exemplifies a number of possible applications of the method. PMID:24998224

  17. Development of grapevine somatic embryogenesis using an air-lift bioreactor as an efficient tool in the generation of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Eduardo; Sequeida, Alvaro; Castro, Alvaro; Montes, Christian; Zamora, Pablo; López, Reinaldo; Acevedo, Fernando; Prieto, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    The grapevine genetic transformation programs have relayed on the use of solid media-based somatic embryogenesis. To reach a high throughput of candidate gene evaluation in 'Thompson Seedless', a semi-automatic system allowing viable transformation of explants was designed. An intermediate procedure using liquid media and agitated flasks was first characterized, leading to reduction in the biomass duplication time of pro-embryogenic (PE) cells from 30 d in dishes to 14 d. The oxygen transfer coefficient value in this system was 213h(-1) at 120rpm and 25 degrees C with a 16/8-h (light/darkness) photoperiod. The scaling-up to the air-lift bioreactor decreased the biomass duplication time of PE cells up to 5.3 d post-inoculation (pi) and an average volumetric productivity of 1.6g/(dxL). Although slight browning was seen in the explants during the phase of 8-14 d pi, no losses in their viability and regenerative capability were observed. Cultured cells showed normal elongation in the transition from heart- to the torpedo-shape and finally to advanced developmental stages, with radicle emergence and whole plant generation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cells was efficiently incorporated after this multiplication process by use of conventional procedures in dishes, allowing the generation of transgenic plantlets confirmed by PCR. PMID:18984020

  18. Enhanced Cr bioleaching efficiency from tannery sludge with coinoculation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Brettanomyces B65 in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Zhou, Li-Xiang

    2007-09-01

    Bioleaching process has been demonstrated to be an effective technology in removing Cr from tannery sludge, but a large quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in tannery sludge often exhibits a marked toxicity to chemolithoautotrophic bioleaching bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The purpose of the present study was therefore to enhance Cr bioleaching efficiencies through introducing sludge DOM-degrading heterotrophic microorganism into the sulfur-based sludge bioleaching system. An acid-tolerant DOM-degrading yeast strain Brettanomyces B65 was successfully isolated from a local Haining tannery sludge and it could metabolize sludge DOM as a source of energy and carbon for growth. A combined bioleaching experiment (coupling Brettanomyces B65 and A. thiooxidans TS6) performed in an air-lift reactor indicated that the rates of sludge pH reduction and ORP increase were greatly improved, resulting in enhanced Cr solubilization. Compared with the 5 days required for maximum solubilization of Cr for the control (single bioleaching process without inoculation of Brettanomyces B65), the bioleaching period was significantly shorten to 3 days for the combined bioleaching system. Moreover, little nitrogen and phosphorous were lost and the content of Cr was below the permitted levels for land application after 3 days of bioleaching treatment. PMID:17537479

  19. A pilot study on lignocelluloses to ethanol and fish feed using NMMO pretreatment and cultivation with zygomycetes in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2011-03-01

    A complete process for the production of bioethanol and fungal biomass from spruce and birch was investigated. The process included milling, pretreatment with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), washing of the pretreated wood, enzymatic hydrolysis, and cultivation of the zygomycetes fungi Mucor indicus. Investigated factors included wood chip size (0.5-16 mm), pretreatment time (1-5h), and scale of the process from bench-scale to 2m high air-lift reactor. Best hydrolysis yields were achieved from wood chips below 2mm after 5h of pretreatment. Ethanol yields (mg/g wood) of 195 and 128 for spruce, and 175 and 136 for birch were achieved from bench-scale and airlift, respectively. Fungal biomass yields (mg/g wood) of 103 and 70 for spruce, and 86 and 66 for birch from bench scale and airlift respectively were simultaneously achieved. NMMO pretreatment and cultivation with M. indicus appear to be a good alternative for ethanol production from birch and spruce. PMID:21247759

  20. Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 22, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970, and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC-now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  1. Lift enhancement in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Barba, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. We present a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, which show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, for Reynolds numbers 2000 and above. Previous experiments on physical models also demonstrated an increased lift and at the same angle of attack. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift. In physical experiments, the flow is inherently 3-D due to fluid instabilities, and it is intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations.

  2. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  3. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  4. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  5. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  6. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  7. Two-phase numerical study of the flow field formed in water pump sump: influence of air entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Simonet, S.; Bois, G.; Issa, A.

    2012-11-01

    In a pump sump it is imperative that the amount of non-homogenous flow and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices reduce pump performances, may have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs.This work is an extended study starting from 2006 in LML and published by ISSA and al. in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Several cases of sump configuration have been numerically investigated using two specific commercial codes and based on the initial geometry proposed by Constantinescu and Patel. Fluent and Star CCM+ codes are used in the previous studies. The results, obtained with a structured mesh, were strongly dependant on main geometrical sump configuration such as the suction pipe position, the submergence of the suction pipe on one hand and the turbulence model on the other hand. Part of the results showed a good agreement with experimental investigations already published. Experiments, conducted in order to select best positions of the suction pipe of a water-intake sump, gave qualitative results concerning flow disturbances in the pump-intake related to sump geometries and position of the pump intake. The purpose of this paper is to reproduce the flow pattern of experiments and to confirm the geometrical parameter that influences the flow structure in such a pump. The numerical model solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and VOF multiphase model. STAR CCM+ with an adapted mesh configuration using hexahedral mesh with prism layer near walls was used. Attempts have been made to calculate two phase unsteady flow for stronger mass flow rates and stronger submergence with low water level in order to be able to capture air entrainment. The results allow the knowledge of some limits of numerical models, of mass flow rates and of submergences for air entrainment. In the validation of this

  8. Rotating cylinder design as a lifting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Halim Ahmad, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The airfoil shape of a wing has always been the design to generate lift. But few realized that a simple rotating cylinder can also create lift. However, the explanation and study of how a rotating cylinder creates lift are still complex. In remote area where it is difficult for air vehicle to access, the exploration and discovery of different configuration for design concept is rather important. Due to this reason, there is a need to think of a lift generator that can produce better lift (few fold better than conventional airfoil) at lower speed to take off in a short distance of time. This paper will explain the conditions and the design of such a wing using the rotating cylinder concept that will take off in a short time and requires little takeoff and landing strip. Spokes will be attached to the cylinder to force the surrounding air to rotate along with the cylinder. This will create a vortex that hastens the speed of the air on top of the cylinder and at the same time retarding the speed of air below the cylinder. From the results, the rougher surface cylinder produces more lift when rotating and also, higher speed rotation of the cylinder greatly changes the speed of the surrounding air, thus better lift.

  9. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  10. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  11. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  12. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings. PMID:22486664

  13. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  14. Study and development of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle (design and testing of flow directors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication, design of flow director, fluid flow direction analysis and testing of flow director of a magnetic heat pump. The objectives of the project are: (1) to fabricate a demonstration magnetic heat pump prototype with flow directors installed; and (2) analysis and testing of flow director and to make sure working fluid loops flow through correct directions with minor mixing. The prototype was fabricated and tested at the Development Testing Laboratory of Kennedy Space Center. The magnetic heat pump uses rear earth metal plates rotate in and out of a magnetic field in a clear plastic housing with water flowing through the rotor plates to provide temperature lift. Obtaining the proper water flow direction has been a problem. Flow directors were installed as flow barriers between separating point of two parallel loops. Function of flow directors were proven to be excellent both analytically and experimentally.

  15. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  16. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  17. Benchmark performance analysis of an ECM-modulated air-to-air heat pump with a reciprocating compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    A benchmark analysis was conducted to predict the maximum steady- state performance potential of a near-term modulating residential- size heat pump. Continuously variable-speed, permanent-magnet electronically commutated motors (ECMs) were assumed to modulate the compressor and the indoor and outdoor fans in conjunction with existing modulating reciprocating compressor technology. A modulating heat pump design tool was used to optimize this ECM benchmark heat pump, using speed ranges and total heat exchanger sizes per-unit-capacity equivalent to that used by the highest SEER-rated variable-speed unit presently on the market (SEER = 16.4). Parametric steady-state performance optimization was conducted at a nominal design cooling ambient of 95 F (35 C) and at three off-design ambients of 82 F (27.8 C) cooling and 47 F and 17 F (8.3 C and minus 8.3 C) heating. In comparison to the reference commercially available residential unit, the analysis for the ECM benchmark predicted steady-state heating COPs about 35 percent higher and a cooling EER almost 25 percent higher at the nominal design cooling condition. The cooling EER at 82 F (27.8 C) was 13 percent higher than that of the reference unit when a comparable sensible heat ratio of 0.71 was maintained, while an EER gain of 24 percent at the 82 F (27.8 C) rating point was predicted when the sensible heat ratio was relaxed to 0.83.

  18. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  19. Pumped spoiling experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Sladky, J. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This report documents a series of wind tunnel tests on a sample airfoil designed to evaluate and quantify the ''pumped spoiling'' concept. The test airfoil was a Sandia National Laboratories natural laminar flow section designated SAND-1850. All tests were operated at a Reynolds Number of 1.5 million with a model having a 1-ft chord and a 9-ft span. The spoiling perforations consisted of 1.6 mm diameter holes on 6.35 mm centers. The pressure in the internal plenum that supplied the spoiling air to the perforations was maintained at the tunnel dynamic head. Test results were consistent and repeatable. Up to an angle of attack of 6/sup 0/, there was very little difference in the lift coefficient among the many test arrangements studied. Past 8/sup 0/, however, the lift coefficient trends were very sensitive to the test configuration of the model. The report includes the test results for 32 combinations of the spoiling arrangements ranging from ''clean'' baseline airfoil to spoiling flow through all perforations. In addition to the section coefficients, the report presents model force data and section pressure profiles. 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The Impact of Refrigerant Charge, Air Flow and Expansion Devices on the Measured Performance of an Air-Source Heat Pump Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes extensive tests performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. The tests contain 150 steady-state performance tests, 18 cyclic tests and 18 defrost tests. During the testing work, the refrigerant charge level was varied from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value; the outdoor temperature was altered by three levels at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C); indoor air flow rates ranged from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate; and the expansion device was switched from a fixed-orifice to a thermal expansion value. Detailed performance data from the extensive steady state cyclic and defrost testing performed were presented and compared.

  1. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  2. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  3. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  4. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  5. Efficiency characteristics of speed modulated drives at predicted torque conditions for air-to-air heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. K.

    Examples of system (motor + inverter drive) efficiencies of two types of adjustable speed control are compared for predicted compressor and indoor blower load profiles. The two classifications are inverter-driven induction motors (IDIMs) and permanent-magnet electronically commutated motors (PM-ECMs). Reference sine-wave-driven induction motor (SWDIM) efficiencies are also given. Available bench data on late 70's IDIM compressor drives are compared to recent data on IDIM and PM-ECM drives. The drive efficiencies are compared over common operating torque requirements for heating and cooling. A modulating heat pump model was used to develop predicted reciprocating compressor torque/drive-frequency mappings and the expected operating torque ranges. The variation in modulating compressor torque requirements is analyzed. Ways to adjust the torque relation for different compressor types and sizing strategies are also discussed. Modulating blower performance data on an early '80s generation modulating heat pump with an IDIM drive (and SWDIM reference drive) were obtained and compared to bench data on recent IDIM and PM-ECM drives under similar torque conditions. In both compressor and blower applications, the combined system efficiency of the PM-ECM drives is nearly equal to or higher than that of the reference SWDIM cases and significantly better than IDIMs available in the late '70s. When compared to more recent IDIMs, the PM-ECM efficiency advantage over IDIM compressors has been reduced 40 to 50 percent between half and nominal speed (3600 rpm) but still remains 14 to 9 percent higher, respectively.

  6. Is mudflow in Sidoarjo, East Java due to the pumping mechanism of hot air bubbles? : Laboratory simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2015-09-01

    Extraordinary mudflow has happened in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia since 2006. This mud comes from the giant crater that is located close to the BJP - 01. Thousands of homes have been submerged due to mudflow. Till today this giant mud crater is still has great strength despite the mud flowing over 8 years. This is a very rare phenomenon in the world. This mud flow mechanism raises big questions, because it has been going on for years, naturally the mudflow will stop by itself because the pressure should be reduced. This research evaluates all aspects of integrated observations, laboratory tests and field observations since the beginning of this ongoing mudflow. Laboratory tests were done by providing hot air bubbles into the fluid inside the inverted funnel showed that the fluid can flow with a high altitude. It is due to the mechanism of buoyant force from air bubbles to the water where the contrast density of the water and the air is quite large. Quantity of air bubbles provides direct effect to the debit of fluid flow. Direct observation in the field, in 2006 and 2007, with TIMNAS and LPPM ITB showed the large number of air bubbles on the surface of the mud craters. Temperature observation on the surface of mud crater is around 98 degree C whereas at greater depth shows the temperature is increasingly rising. This strengthens the hypothesis or proves that the mud pumping mechanism comes from buoyant force of hot air bubbles. Inversion gravity images show that the deep subsurface of main crater is close to volcanic layers or root of Arjuna mountain. Based on the simulation laboratory and field observation data, it can be concluded that the geothermal factor plays a key role in the mudflow mechanism.

  7. What is the role of wind pumping on heat and mass transfer rates at the air-snow interface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the turbulent exchange of sensible heat and water vapour between the atmosphere and snowpack remains a challenging task under all but the most ideal conditions. Heat and mass transfer coefficients that recognize the unique properties of the snow surface are warranted. A particular area requiring improvement concerns the role of the porous nature of snow which provides a large surface area for heat and mass exchange with the atmosphere. Wind-pumping has long been considered as a viable mechanism for incorporating aerosols into snowpacks; however these processes are not considered in parameterization schemes for heat and mass transfer near the surface. This study attempts to determine the degree to which wind pumping can increase the rates of heat and mass transfer to snow, and to ascertain which structural properties of the snowpack are needed for inclusion in heat and mass transfer coefficients that reflect wind pumping processes. Based upon a review of recent geophysical and engineering literature where porous surfaces are exploited for their ability to augment heat and mass transfer rates, a technical analysis was conducted. Numerous conceptual mechanisms of wind pumping were considered: topographically-induced flow; barometric pressure changes; high frequency pressure fluctuations at the surface; and steady flow in the interfacial region. A sensitivity analysis was performed, subjecting each conceptual model to varying thermal and hydraulic conditions at the air-snow interface, as well as variable micro-structural properties of snow. It is shown that the rate of heat and mass exchange is most sensitive to the interfacial thermal conditions and factors controlling the energy balance of the uppermost snow grains. The effect upon the thermal regime of the snowpack was found to be most significant for mechanisms of wind pumping that result in shorter flow paths near the surface, rather than those caused by low frequency pressure changes. In

  8. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  9. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  10. Modeling of a Membrane-Based Absorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, J.; Pellegrino, J.; Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.; Burch, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a membrane heat pump is proposed and analyzed. Fundamentally, the proposed heat pump consists of an aqueous CaCl{sub 2} solution flow separated from a water flow by a vapor-permeable membrane. The low activity of the solution results in a net flux of water vapor across the membrane, which heats the solution stream and cools the water stream. This mechanism upgrades water-side low-temperature heat to solution-side high-temperature heat, creating a 'temperature lift.' The modeling results show that using two membranes and an air gap instead of a single membrane increases the temperature lift by 185%. The model predicts temperature lifts for the air-gap design of 24, 16, and 6 C for inlet temperatures of 55, 35, and 15 C, respectively. Membranes with lower thermal conductivities and higher porosities improve the performance of single-membrane designs while thinner membranes improve the performance of air-gap designs. This device can be used with a solar heating system which already uses concentrated salt solutions for liquid-desiccant cooling.

  11. Characteristic Analysis of Vuilleumier Cycle Machine and Its Application to Air-Conditioning Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroshi

    The Vuilleumier (VM) cycle machine is realized as a regenerative and external-combustion machine in the same way as a Stirling (ST) cycle machine. In the VM cycle, heat enters the cyc1e from hot and cold temperature heat sources and is delivered to an intermediate temperature heat source by a working gas. In consequence of the theoretical cycle, output power is not produced. The VM cycle machine is made of the same elements as the ST cycle machine and also closely connected with the ST cycle machine in its working principle. By means of analysis using an isothermal model, it is found that the VM cycle machine is internally divided into a ST engine and a ST refrigerator. In addition, the calculated results by a simulation model based on a so-called 3rd-order method clarify that the VM cycle machine has different featuers from the ST cycle macine with regard to the working gas behavior, the energy flow and the performance depending on the revolution speed. Application of the VM cycle machine to a heat pump for heating and cooling takes effect on the environment and energy problems arising on a terrestrial scale. In reacent years, research and development have been making on the VM haet pumps.

  12. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  13. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  14. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  15. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  16. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... split system air conditioner incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units... resistance, steam, hot water, or gas. The equipment incorporates a single refrigerant circuit, with one...

  17. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  19. [Effect of gas-lift device on nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor ].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Da-lini; Huang, Yong; Chen, Zong-heng; Yuan, Yi

    2014-09-01

    The effect of air-lift device on the nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor was studied by increasing the substrate concentration to improve nitrogen load rate and inoculate ANAMMOX sludge. The results showed that the effluent recirculation was achieved by using nitrogen gas produced from the ANAMMOX process as power in the air-lift room. With the increase of nitrogen removal rate, the rate of effluent recirculation was increased, which diluted influent substrate concentration and alleviated the inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria,. After 183 d operation, the effluent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 46. 3 mg L-1 and 53.21 mg.L-1, and the nitrogen removal rate was kept stable at 28.3 kg (m3.d)-1, when the influent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 700 mg.L-1 and 840 mgL-1, respectively. The effluent recirculation system formed by gas-lift devices is an economic and effective solution to the inhibition caused by high substrate concentration in traditional reactor, meanwhile, the power consumption of the external reflux pump was reduced. PMID:25518664

  20. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  4. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  5. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  6. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  7. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  8. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970 and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  9. A low energy, bio-secure, 'hybrid' recirculation system incorporating air lift pumps for water circulation, aeration, and CO2 degassing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ‘Hybrid’ recirculating aquaculture system design utilizes elements of both a ‘Centralized’ design concept with a single water treatment system for a number of fish tanks and the ‘Modular’ design concept which employs a individual treatment system for each fish culture tank. The ‘Hybrid’ recirculat...

  10. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  11. Dubai gas lift automation

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Khokhar, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dubai Petroleum Company has recently installed a computer gas lift surveillance and gas lift gas injection control system in the Fateh and S.W. Fateh Fields located in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. This system is the fourth generation of the computer control system installed in California in 1971 by Conoco, Inc. This paper describes the advantages and problems in this system to monitor and control the gas lift operation of 116 wells through 30 intelligent remote terminal units (RTU). In addition, this system monitors the condition of critical operational

  12. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  13. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  14. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  15. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  16. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  17. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-02-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  18. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  19. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  1. Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  4. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  7. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  8. [Subperiosteal midface lifting].

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, A

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, when we had found the solutions about the oval of the face and the neck problems by the vertical lift, our whole attention was focused on the midface. We have been through the "cheek lift", high SMAS incision. We followed Oscar Ramirez and Richard Anderson in the subperiosteal undermining of the mid face under endoscopic control by a buccal and temporal incision. The actual technic made possible by Paul Tessier's work who initiated the subperiosteal undermining and Oscar Ramirez who initiated the endoscopy. The endoscopy allowed us to go through this technic, but now we don't use it anymore. We have to credit Thierry Besins who mixed these concepts alltogether to obtain a complete and effective technic. The idea is to move up the centrofacial structures and to secure them reliably because of the perioste strengh. This technic solve in an unparallel way, all the stigmata of the centrofacial aging; so, we have a scarless lifting. For the one who have a neck problem, we associate the deep vertical lift. PMID:16631299

  9. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  10. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    GRANDO, C.J.

    1999-11-18

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

  12. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  13. Mathematical analysis of actuator forces in a scissor lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, H.

    1994-05-01

    In 1985, NCCOSC began development of a tele-operated vehicle as part of the U.S. Marine Corps' Ground-Air Tele-Robotics Systems Program. One of the required vehicle components was a rigid, light-weight, and compact lift mechanism capable of deploying a surveillance package 10 feet above the vehicle bed. The lift mechanism that was eventually built and implemented was a 3-level scissor lift. In order to analyze the forces throughout the lift structure, a set of mathematical equations was derived. From these equations it was discovered that prudent placement of a lift's actuator can significantly reduce the forces required of the actuator and the stress levels in the adjacent scissor members. The purpose of this paper is to present the equations that were derived for analyzing the actuator forces. Using these equations, a designer can quickly determine the optimal locations for mounting an actuator and the resulting forces.

  14. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-07-14

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  15. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  16. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  17. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  18. Advanced heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Joseph L.; Matthews, John D.

    1989-09-01

    This patent application discloses a heat pump which includes a first packed bed of liquid desiccant for removing moisture from outside air in the heating mode of operation, and a pump for transferring the moisture laden desiccant to a second packed bed which humidifies condenser heated inside air by adding water vapor to the air. The first packed bed, by removing moisture from the outside air before it passes through the heat pump's evaporator coils, prevents frost from forming on the coils. In the cooling mode of operation the second packed bed of liquid desiccant removes water vapor from the air inside of the building. The moisture laden desiccant is then transferred to the first packed bed by a second pump where condenser heat transfers the moisture from the desiccant to outside air.

  19. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  20. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  1. [Subperiosteal face-lift].

    PubMed

    Tessier, P

    1989-01-01

    The "facial mask" is composed of all of the tissues lying on top of the skeleton: periosteum, deep adipose tissue, superficial musculo-aponeurotic tissue and skin. The periosteum is the intermediate zone between the skeleton, responsible for the shape of the face, and the more superficial tissues which complete the shapes and, most importantly, represent the mobile part of the face and consequently the site of facial expression. The secret of an effective "mask-lift" depends on complete subperiosteal dissection of the malar bones, zygomatic arches and orbital margins. This dissection can be performed via a coronal approach, but it is easier to start the subperiosteal dissection via a short vestibular incision. Subperiosteal dissection via a coronal incision is not only useful to lift the facial mask; it is also useful for remodelling the orbital margins and to obtain bone grafts from the parietal area in order to reinforce the glabella, check bones and nasogenial folds. PMID:2473674

  2. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  3. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  4. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    peaked on the Boeing 747, which has a VC Krueger flap and triple-slotted, inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps. Since then, the tendency in high-lift system development has been to achieve high levels of lift with simpler devices in order to reduce fleet acquisition and maintenance costs. The intent of this paper is to: (1) review available high-lift devices, their functions, and design criteria; (2) appraise high-lift systems presently in service on commercial air liners; (3) present personal study results on high-lift systems; (4) develop a weight and cost model for high-lift systems; and (5) discuss the development tendencies of future high-lift systems.

  5. A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

  6. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Shahbazian, Honeyeh; Behniafard, Nasim; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention. Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction. Conclusion: A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies. PMID:26877998

  7. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  8. International Conference on Underground Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air Energy Storage, San Francisco, CA, September 20-22, 1982, Collection of Technical Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-08-01

    Topics discussed include an assessment of the market potential of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, turbocompressor considerations in CAES plants, subsurface geological considerations in siting an underground pumped hydro (UPH) project, and the preliminary assessment of waste heat recovery system for CAES plants. Also considered are CAES caverns design for leakage, simulation of the champagne effect in CAES plants, design of wells and piping for an aquifer CAES plant, various aspects of the Huntor CAES facility, low-pressure CAES, subsurface instrumentation plan for the Pittsfield CAES field test facility, and the feasibility of UPH storage in the Netherlands.

  9. Acoustic streaming in an ultrasonic air pump with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain analysis and comparison to the measurement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2014-12-01

    The direct finite-difference fluid simulation of acoustic streaming on a fine-meshed three-dimensional model using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based calculation array is discussed. Airflows are induced by an acoustic traveling wave when an intense sound field is generated in a gap between a bending transducer and a reflector. The calculation results showed good agreement with measurements in a pressure distribution. Several flow vortices were observed near the boundary layer of the reflector and the transducer, which have often been observed near the boundary of acoustic tubes, but have not been observed in previous calculations for this type of ultrasonic air pump. PMID:25001051

  10. Single-mode pumped high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fiber taper for high-power deep-blue supercontinuum sources.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Simon T; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, Christian; Thomsen, Carsten L; Bang, Ole

    2014-02-15

    Dispersion control with axially nonuniform photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) permits supercontinuum (SC) generation into the deep-blue from an ytterbium pump laser. In this Letter, we exploit the full degrees of freedom afforded by PCFs to fabricate a fiber with longitudinally increasing air-fill fraction and decreasing diameter directly on the draw-tower. We demonstrate SC generation extending down to 375 nm in one such monolithic fiber device that is single-mode at 1064 nm at the input end. PMID:24562287

  11. Analysis of electric-submersible-pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, K.B.; Gibbs, S.G.

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents a field-proven analytical method of evaluating electric-submersible-pumping equipment and well performance jointly. A computerized mathematical model that considers the effects of free gas, pump speed (variable-frequency drives), and pump tapering is described. The method allows accurate calculations of important downhole parameters, including pump intake pressure, pump intake volume (including free gas), pump pressure, and fluid density profile. Lifting cost parameters - such as pump and motor power requirements, monthly power consumption, pump and motor performance, and overall system efficiency - are also determined. Once operating conditions are known, decisions can be made on ways to increase production (if additional potential exists) or to reduce operating costs. Thus, the same basic goals that often justify frequent analysis of rod pumping systems can be applied to submersible pumping.

  12. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  13. Hanger-lifting procedure in knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Daijo; Otani, Toshiro; Masumoto, Ko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Niki, Yasuo; Yuzawa, Itsuki; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    We propose a unique arthroscopic technique, the "hanger-lifting procedure." Unlike conventional arthroscopy, the space in which the arthroscope is placed is not a joint space filled with water but a subcutaneous space filled with air. The space is kept lifted by a semi-loop-shaped hanger and a retraction system by use of a wire. In general, arthroscopes are unable to be applied outside the joint because of the lack of a cavity. However, this method can provide extra-articular visualization of the knee in addition to standard intra-articular visualization. This approach is useful for lateral release of the knee extensor and bipartite patellae, allowing direct vision from both outside and inside the joint. One possible complication is subcutaneous effusion or interstitial edema. Compressive dressings should be applied to prevent subcutaneous effusion after surgery. However, the combination of conventional arthroscopy by use of saline solution and the hanger-lifting technique by use of air arthroscopy can provide an excellent view inside and outside the joint. This technique may continue to evolve, and although some points in the technique can be improved, this method is useful in joint surgeries. PMID:19038715

  14. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction: Use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-04-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for the use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 single-shell tank (SST) during salt well pumping and other routine activities at the tank. Approval for salt well pumping is not being requested as this is a routine activity performed to manage the waste within the SST Tank System. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to the 241-A-101 tank is to satisfy the requirements of a Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that requires postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other routine activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the National Fire Protection Association guidelines, which mandate that flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limits. The LANL SAR indicates that the lower flammability limit may be exceeded during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potentials for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the increase in released flammable gases, active ventilation will be required to reduce the ``time at risk`` while performing routine operations at the tank.

  15. Design Optimization and the Limits of Steady-State Heating Efficiency for Conventional Single-Speed Air-Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-06

    The ORNL Heat Pump Model and an optimizing program were used to explore the limits of steady-state heating efficiency for conventional air-source heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of ten selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. Designs were optimized for a fixed heating capacity, but the results may be scaled to other capacities. Substantial performance improvement is predicted compared to today's state of the art heat pump. With increased component efficiencies that are expected in the near future and with modest increases in heat exchanger area, a 28% increase in heating efficiency is predicted; for long-term improvements with considerably larger heat exchangers, a 56% increase is possible. The improved efficiencies are accompanied by substantial reductions in the requirements for compressor and motor size. The predicted performance improvements are attributed not only to improved components and larger heat exchangers but also to the use of an optimizing design procedure. Deviations from the optimized design may be necessary to make use of available component sizes and to maintain good cooling-mode performance while improving the heating efficiency. Sensitivity plots (i.e., COP as a function of one or more design parameters) were developed to explore design flexibilities and to evaluate their consequences. The performance of the optimized designs was compared to that of modified ideal cycles to assess the factors that limit further improvement. It is hoped that the design methods developed will be useful to designers in the heat pump industry.

  16. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 2: Parametric analysis (task 3). [lift, weight (mass)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of lighter-than-air vehicles from fully buoyant to semibuoyant hybrids were examined. Geometries were optimized for gross lifting capabilities for ellipsoidal airships, modified delta planform lifting bodies, and a short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle concept. It is indicated that: (1) neutrally buoyant airships employing a conservative update of materials and propulsion technology provide significant improvements in productivity; (2) propulsive lift for VTOL and aerodynamic lift for cruise significantly improve the productivity of low to medium gross weight ellipsoidal airships; and (3) the short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle, consisting of a simple combination of an ellipsoidal airship hull and existing helicopter componentry, provides significant potential for low-cost, near-term applications for ultra-heavy lift missions.

  17. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  18. The hydraulic ram (or impulse) pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-03-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described, along with a working demonstration model constructed from plastic waste pipe and fittings.

  19. The Hydraulic Ram (Or Impulse) Pump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described,…

  20. Endoscopic brow lifts: have they replaced coronal lifts?

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Hedyeh; Sykes, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the use of the endoscopic brow-lifting technique in addressing periorbital aging. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantage of the endoscopic versus traditional techniques of brow lifting and gives our treatment algorithm depending on patient needs. PMID:23731581

  1. Effects of range and mode on lifting capability and lifting time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 lifting ranges and 3 lifting modes on maximum lifting capability and total lifting time. The results demonstrated that the maximum lifting capability for FK (from floor to knuckle height) was greater than that for KS (from knuckle height to shoulder height) or FS (from floor to shoulder height). Additionally, asymmetric lifting with initial trunk rotation decreased maximum lifting capability compared with symmetric lifting or asymmetric lifting with final trunk rotation. The difference in total lifting time between KS and FS was not significant, while FK increased total lifting time by ~20% compared with FS even though the travel distance was 50% shorter. PMID:22995136

  2. Optimization of Wastewater Lift Stations for Reduction of Energy Usage and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (WERF Report INFR3R11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major contributions of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from water resource recovery facilities results from the energy used by the pumping regime of the lift stations. This project demonstrated an energy-efficient control method of lift station system operation that uti...

  3. Lifting Loads With Two Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical equilibrium characteristics of dual-helicopter lifting system. Analysis presented provides mathematical basis for selection of lifting configurations and flight parameters. Force-balance equations serve as basis for coordination in flight. Employed in both military and civilian sectors to deliver weapons, vehicles, and construction materials.

  4. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  5. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  6. The development and testing of a fieldworthy system of improved fluid pumping device and liquid sensor for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, W.G.

    1992-10-05

    An economical gas lift system has been designed that uses the airlift principles of the APOP system to enable one to pump deep wells which have been initially pumped using jack pumps. It can be constructed and installed in oil and/or gas wells where jack pumps have been operating. The 2 in. tubing in the bore hole is left in place and the rods are pulled from the normally 2 in. tubing. A 1 in. or greater diameter tubing containing a one way valve near its bottom and several small holes near the bottom of the 1 in. tube and just above the one way valve is installed into the 2 in. tubing. The one inch tube extends the total length of the 2 in. tubing and is seated on the seating nipple at the bottom of the 2 in. tubing. The space between the concentric tubes can serve as the gas(air) line and the center 1 in. tube serves as the liquid discharge line. This enables this pump to be used in many marginal wells which ordinarily would be uneconomical to pump. This is especially true for deep wells because the cost of jack pumps and the tubing as well as the maintenance to pump liquids from bore holes that are several thousand feet deep is substantial.

  7. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  8. Facile and Scalable Fabrication of Highly Efficient Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells in Air Using Gas Pump Method.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Liang, Lusheng; Chu, Qianqian; Song, Xiaoxuan; Li, Yan; Yang, Guanjun; Fan, Bin; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chengxin; Li, Changjiu

    2016-08-10

    Control of the perovskite film formation process to produce high-quality organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films with uniform morphology, high surface coverage, and minimum pinholes is of great importance to highly efficient solar cells. Herein, we report on large-area light-absorbing perovskite films fabrication with a new facile and scalable gas pump method. By decreasing the total pressure in the evaporation environment, the gas pump method can significantly enhance the solvent evaporation rate by 8 times faster and thereby produce an extremely dense, uniform, and full-coverage perovskite thin film. The resulting planar perovskite solar cells can achieve an impressive power conversion efficiency up to 19.00% with an average efficiency of 17.38 ± 0.70% for 32 devices with an area of 5 × 2 mm, 13.91% for devices with a large area up to 1.13 cm(2). The perovskite films can be easily fabricated in air conditions with a relative humidity of 45-55%, which definitely has a promising prospect in industrial application of large-area perovskite solar panels. PMID:27428311

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes, Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  10. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2007-05-01

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  11. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  12. Mechanism of the lift force acting on a levitating drop over a moving surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masafumi; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kameda, Masaharu

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the levitation mechanism of a drop over a moving surface. In our experiment we softly deposit a silicon-oil drop onto the inner wall of a rotating hollow cylinder. With sufficiently large velocity of the wall, the drop steadily levitates. The drop reaches a stable angular position in the cylinder, where the drag and lift balance the weight of the drop. The lift force, which is vital for the levitation, is generated inside a thin air film existing between the drop and the wall. Here three-dimensional shape of the air film plays a crucial role for the magnitude of the lift force. Note that, although the shapes of some levitating drops had been reported, the lift estimated from the shape had not been validated. Using interferometric technique, we measure the three-dimensional shape of the air film under the drop. We then calculate the lift by applying the lubrication theory. This lift is compared with that estimated from the angular position. Both lifts show a fair agreement. In addition, we investigate the shapes of the air film under drops with various sizes, viscosities and wall velocities. We discuss effects of these parameters on the shape and the lift. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26709007.

  13. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, W.P.; O'Brien, J.B.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Co., acting as contractor for the City of Long Beach, operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Co. currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four manmade islands and one landfill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100% pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and to lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump-performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from using more efficient pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  14. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, W.P.; O'Brien, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Company, acting as Contractor of the City of Long Beach, Operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Company currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four man-made islands and one land fill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100 percent pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from utilizing higher efficiency pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  15. Analysis of the flexible receiver lifting yoke and blast shield assembly. Tank 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-03-02

    The analysis of the lifting yoke and blast shield assembly considers the bending stress, weld strength, and resistance of the lug hole to tear out. The bending stress of the lifting lugs is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). Also considered in the calculations is the capability of the thick lugs to withstand the weight of the pump together with that of the container and strongback during rotation to the horizontal position.

  16. Lift force of delta wings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming )

    1990-09-01

    On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

  17. Lifting hydro's potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihach, N.

    1980-12-01

    The advantages of hydroelectric power, in terms of capital, operating and maintenance costs and in terms of fuel and environmental considerations, are causing an upgrading of existing installations to provide more generating capacity. Hydrocapacity supplies 1/8 of the U.S. electric energy and will probably increase from 50 to 100% by the early 2000's as the price of other forms of energy rises. Ways of increasing output are: better water control, uprating of hydrogenerators, standardization of turbines, and methods of pumped hydro, an energy storage technique. An obstacle to this aim is the cumbersome licensing process of competing federal agencies which places a particular burden on small projects.

  18. Estimates of nitric oxide production for lifting spacecraft reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1971-01-01

    The amount of nitric oxide which may be produced by heating of air during an atmospheric reentry of a lifting spacecraft is estimated by three different methods. Two assume nitrogen fixation by the process of sudden freezing, and the third is a computer calculation using chemical rate equations.

  19. Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

  20. Requirements for munitions lift trailers to support strategic bombers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-21

    Munitions lift trailers are large support vehicles used to transport and load air launched cruise missiles and other nuclear weapons onto strategic bombers. The Air Force has identified total requirements for 245 trailers for B-52 and B-1B bombers. About one-third of these trailers have been acquired. The Air Force Aeronautical Systems Command is considering remanufacturing 80 of the lift trailers it has acquired for B-52s to incorporate recent design improvements which are expected to make these trailers easier to operate and less costly to support. GAO believes Air Force requirements for new trailers may be overstated by as many as 39 trailers. This could result in the unnecessary expenditure of up to $13 million. GAO also questions the cost effectiveness of remanufacturing the 80 trailers, which would cost $20 million.

  1. The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1999-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

  2. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  3. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  4. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  5. 11. PUMP HOUSE AND WEIGHING ROOM Fish were pumped from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. PUMP HOUSE AND WEIGHING ROOM Fish were pumped from floating hoppers, to the pump house (on the far right). From there they were either lifted by conveyor belt to the weighing room (top center) and thence to the holding tanks, or were washed through sealers, weighed and then sluiced to holding tanks. The process used depended upon the type and size of fish. The square cement vat (center) was to be a settling tank from which fish oil, reclaimed from the reduction process, was to be pumped into the round metal tank (above the vat). This process however, was never fully utilized before the sardines ran out. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  7. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  8. Subperiosteal brow lifts without fixation.

    PubMed

    Troilius, Carl

    2004-11-01

    Most surgeons today advocate an endoscopic subperiosteal brow lift for surgical correction of the upper third of the face. At the author's clinic, this operation has been performed since 1994 and the subgaleal bicoronal brow lift is no longer used. In earlier investigations, the author showed that the subperiosteal approach (n = 60) gives a better result than the subgaleal method (n = 60) when compared 1 year after surgery. In the literature, however, there are no published data regarding the long-term results of subperiosteal brow lifts. The author took material from his earlier investigations and looked at the same patients 5 years postoperatively. He compared the subperiosteal approach (n = 30) with the subgaleal brow lift (n = 15) and found that after 5 years the brows of the subgaleal patients were on the same level as they were before surgery, but in the group of subperiosteal brow lifts, almost all of the brows were higher 5 years after surgery than they were 1 year after surgery, with a mean increase in height of 2.5 mm. These findings led the author to the question whether scalp fixation was necessary at all when performing a subperiosteal brow lift. He performed 20 subperiosteal endoscopic brow lifts where scalp fixation was not used at all, relying only on changing the balance of muscle vectors around the eyebrows. Using a computerized instrument, measurements were made of the distance between the medial canthus and the top of the eyebrow, the midpupil and the top of the eyebrow, and the lateral canthus and the top of the eyebrow. All patients were measured before and 1 year after surgery. The author found an increase of the vertical height from the midpupil to the top of the brow, with an average increase of 3.9 mm. There were no differences between patients who had only a brow lift and those who had a brow lift and an upper blepharoplasty at the same time. The author concludes that for most cases where an increased vertical height of the brows of more

  9. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  10. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  11. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turnquist, Norman; Qi, Xuele; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Salas, Ken; Samudrala, Omprakash; Shah, Manoj; Van Dam, Jeremy; Yin, Weijun; Zia, Jalal

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  12. Vacuum system pump down analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrdanz, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    My assignment on the SP-100 Vacuum Vessel Vacuum System Team was to perform a transient pump down analysis for the vacuum vessel that will house the SP-100 reactor during testing. Pump down time was calculated for air and helium. For all cases the proposed vacuum system will be able to pump down the vessel within the required time. The use of a larger rotary piston pump (DUO250) improves the pump down time by 35 minutes and therefore should be considered. The 6-inch duct for the roughing line is optimal, however, because all cases are well below the 24 hour time frame, the 4-inch duct is sufficient. The use of the single turbomolecular pump during pump down is sufficient. A pump down with helium in the vessel and a helium inleakage delays the time to achieve the base pressure marginally and is acceptable.

  13. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  14. The development and testing of a fieldworthy system of improved fluid pumping device and liquid sensor for oil wells. Technical progress report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, W.G.

    1992-10-05

    An economical gas lift system has been designed that uses the airlift principles of the APOP system to enable one to pump deep wells which have been initially pumped using jack pumps. It can be constructed and installed in oil and/or gas wells where jack pumps have been operating. The 2 in. tubing in the bore hole is left in place and the rods are pulled from the normally 2 in. tubing. A 1 in. or greater diameter tubing containing a one way valve near its bottom and several small holes near the bottom of the 1 in. tube and just above the one way valve is installed into the 2 in. tubing. The one inch tube extends the total length of the 2 in. tubing and is seated on the seating nipple at the bottom of the 2 in. tubing. The space between the concentric tubes can serve as the gas(air) line and the center 1 in. tube serves as the liquid discharge line. This enables this pump to be used in many marginal wells which ordinarily would be uneconomical to pump. This is especially true for deep wells because the cost of jack pumps and the tubing as well as the maintenance to pump liquids from bore holes that are several thousand feet deep is substantial.

  15. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  16. Wing rotation and lift in SUEX flapping wing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateti, Kiron; Byrne-Dugan, Rory A.; Tadigadapa, Srinivas A.; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents detailed modeling and experimental testing of wing rotation and lift in the LionFly, a low cost and mass producible flapping wing mechanism fabricated monolithically from SUEX dry film and powered by piezoelectric bimorph actuators. A flexure hinge along the span of the wing allows the wing to rotate in addition to flapping. A dynamic model including aerodynamics is developed and validated using experimental testing with a laser vibrometer in air and vacuum, stroboscopic photography and high definition image processing, and lift measurement. The 112 mg LionFly produces 46° flap and 44° rotation peak to peak with 12° phase lag, which generates a maximum average lift of 71 μN in response to an applied sinusoidal voltage of 75 V AC and 75 V DC at 37 Hz. Simulated wing trajectories accurately predict measured wing trajectories at small voltage amplitudes, but slightly underpredict amplitude and lift at high voltage amplitudes. By reducing the length of the actuator, reducing the mechanism amplification and tuning the rotational hinge stiffness, a redesigned device is simulated to produce a lift to weight ratio of 1.5.

  17. A simplified palatal lift prosthesis for neurogenic velopharyngeal incompetence.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; Fernández-Formoso, Noelia; da Silva, Luis; Pinho, Joâo Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Velopharyngeal incompetence is a contributing factor to speech disorders and implies the presence of hypernasality, inappropriate nasal escape, and decreased air pressure during speech. One prosthetic treatment is a rehabilitative procedure employing a palatal lift prosthesis (PLP), which reduces hypernasality by approximating the incompetent soft palate to the posterior pharyngeal wall and consists of two parts, the anterior denture base and the palatal lifting plate, which are connected with steel wires; however, it seems difficult to reproduce the mobility of the soft palate in speaking, and it is therefore likely that the palatal lifting plate stimulates or oppresses the tissue of the soft palate and hinders rather than assists articulatory function. To avoid these disturbances we devised an adjustable PLP with a flexible conjunction between the denture base and the palatal lifting plate to obtain the optimal vertical lifting angle. The palatal plate was adapted to conform in a passive manner to the soft palate with light-cured resin. The designed PLP simplified the procedure and reduced the number of adjustments and visits. PMID:23387878

  18. Lift on Flexible and Rigid Cambered Wings at High Incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anya; Mancini, Peter; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The effects of camber and camber change due to elastic deflection of a membrane wing were investigated for wings in rectilinear translation with parameter variations in wing incidence and acceleration. Direct force and moment measurements were performed on a rigid flat plate wing, rigid cambered wings, and a membrane wing. Features in the force histories were further examined via flow visualization by planar laser illumination of fluorescent dye. Below 10 degrees of incidence, Wagner's approximation accurately predicts the time-evolution of lift for the rigid wings. At higher incidence, flow separation results in force transients, and the effect of wing camber is no longer additive. Both the rigid flat plate and rigid cambered wings reach peak lift at a 35 degree angle of attack, whereas the flexible wing experiences stall delay and reaches peak lift at 50 degrees. Due to the aeroelasticity of the flexible membrane, flow over the suction surface remains attached for much higher incidence angles than for the rigid wings. For incidence angles less than 30 degrees, the peak lift of the flexible wing is lower than that of its rigid counterparts. Beyond 30 degrees, the flexible wing experiences an aeroelastically induced stall delay that allows lift to exceed the rigid analogs. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) program.

  19. Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.

  20. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  1. Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

  2. Slug bucket lifting yoke analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, A.J.

    1994-11-14

    There are baskets of fuel in the storage pools in the Purex facility (202-A). These baskets (called slug buckets) need to be removed from Purex and taken to the K-Basins. The current slug bucket lifting yoke is of sufficient age to be in question structurally. Therefore new yokes need to be fabricated. Prior to fabricating new yokes, the slug bucket lifting yoke DWG needs to be updated for fabrication. However, the design needs to be refined so that the yoke will be easier to fabricate. These calculations are prepared to demonstrate the adequacy of the new design. The objective of these calculations is to select appropriately sized structural members and weld sizes to serve as components in the slug bucket lifting yoke.

  3. Lift-Off Instability During the Impact of a Drop on a Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Shmuel; Kolinski, John; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-11-01

    We directly measure the rapid spreading dynamics succeeding the impact of a droplet of fluid on a solid, dry surface. Upon impact, the air separating the liquid from the solid surface fails to drain and wetting is delayed as the liquid rapidly spreads outwards over a nanometer thin film of air. We show that the approach of the spreading liquid front toward the surface is unstable and the spreading front lifts off away from the surface. Lift-off ensues well before the liquid contacts the surface, in contrast with prevailing paradigm where lift-off of the liquid is contingent on solid-liquid contact and the formation of a viscous boundary layer. Here I will discuss the dynamics of liquid spreading over a thin film of air and its lift-off away from the surface over a large range of fluid viscosities.

  4. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  5. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  6. Cooling molten salt reactors using "gas-lift"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Pavel; Valenta, Vaclav; Klimko, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a "Two-phase flow demonstrator" (TFD) used for experimental study of the "gas-lift" system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for "gas-lift" (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

  7. Engineers evaluate submersible pumps in North Sea field

    SciTech Connect

    Way, A.R.; Hewett, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    Experimentation with several different electric submersible pump designs and installations in the UK's Montrose field, whose oil production has been hindered by increasing water cuts and highly deviated wells turning up marginal amounts of sand is described. Gas lift is a possible alternative to the pumps since there is platform space for facilities to be installed, and sufficient gas production during the major part of the field life. Submersible pumps as artificial lifts require a continuing operating cost to pull and regularly replace failed units.

  8. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  9. 123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON LEFT; HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL FOR UMBILICAL MAST AND TRENCH DOORS IN CENTER OF ROOM, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Optimum design for LRE centrifugal pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zuchao; Zhang, Guoqian; Sun, Jiren

    1995-05-01

    We set up a mathematical model to predict low specific speed liquid rocket engine (LRE) centrifugal pump unit performance. Using the model in question, performance predictions were carried out for 10 types of LRE centrifugal pumps. Relative errors between experimental values and predicted values associated with efficiency and lift were all within 4%. Using the model in question, design optimization with efficiency as the target function was carried out on AM-7H and O pumps as well as AM-1R pumps and AM-50 pumps. Results clearly show that, with a presupposition of surety systems possessing high vapor corrosion characteristics, the efficiencies of these four types of pumps can be respectively raised 6.5%, 5.22%, 5.2%, and 4.41%.

  11. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  12. Oxygen pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Special considerations to be given to the design, fabrication, and use of centrifugal pumps for liquid O2 to avoid conditions that lead to system failure are given. Emphasis was placed on turbine pumps for flight applications.

  13. Casing pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.E.; Bass, R.E.

    1987-09-29

    A natural gas operated pump is described for use in the casing of an oil well, comprising: a tubular pump body having an open lower end for admitting well fluids to the interior of the pump body and an open upper end, wherein a downwardly facing seating surface is formed on the inner periphery of the pump body adjacent the upper end thereof; means for forming a seal between the pump body and the casing of the well; a rod extending longitudinally through the seating surface formed in the pump body and protruding from the upper end of the pump body; a valve member mounted on the rod below the seating surface and shaped to mate with the seating surface; and means for vertically positioning the rod in proportion to fluid pressure within the pump body.

  14. Magnetocaloric pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  17. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  18. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  19. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  20. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  1. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  2. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  3. Gas Interference in Sucker Rod Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Abdus

    2010-10-01

    Commonly used artificial lift or dewatering system is sucker rod pump and gas interference of the pump is the biggest issue in the oil and gas industry. Gas lock or fluid pound problems occur due to the gas interference when the pump has partially or completely unfilled plunger barrel. There are several techniques available in the form of patents to solve these problems but those techniques have positive as well as negative aspects. Some of the designs rely on the leakage and some of the designs rely on the mechanical arrangements etc to break the gas lock. The present article compares the existing gas interference handling techniques.

  4. Offshore installation and maintenance of submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Verdina, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Pertamina/IIAPCO operates a large offshore production complex in the Southeast Sumatra Contract Area of Indonesia. The use of submersible centrifugal electric pumps both for artificial lift and for pipeline transfer of produced fluids has played an important role in the success enjoyed by this contract area during its 10-year producing life. This paper describes the conditions and considerations contributing to the initial selection and eventual standardized use of these pumps by the company. Also included are a discussion of operational experience gained and a summary of the submersible pumps' performance record.

  5. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  6. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  7. Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

  8. [Lifting procedures in cosmetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Vissink, A

    2014-10-01

    A prominent characteristic of the aging face is the descent of skin and subcutaneous tissues. In order to reduce this and create a more youthful appearance, several lifting procedures can be employed. In the forehead and eyebrow region the transblepharoplastic brow lift, the direct brow lift, the temporal brow lift, the coronal brow lift and the endoscopic brow lift can be distinguished. For the mid-face, the facelift is known to be an effective treatment for aging characteristics. Classic facelifts can be divided into the one layer-, two layer- and the deep plane facelift. Nowadays the minimal access cranial suspension lift is popular. The lifting capacity of this lift may be less, but the risk of complications is lower and the result is often more natural. A neck lift improves the chin-neck angle and a submental liposuction/lipectomy can contribute to this. Complications in lifting procedures are rare. Hematoma is the most frequent complication. Skin necrosis of the wound edges and laceration of the end branches of the facial nerve can also occur. There is a tendency towards minimally invasive procedures with smaller risk of complications and shorter recovery periods. PMID:26185994

  9. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  10. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  11. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  12. High-Lift Engine Aeroacoustics Technology (HEAT) Test Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, Fanny A.; Smith, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA High-Speed Research program developed the High-Lift Engine Aeroacoustics Technology (HEAT) program to demonstrate satisfactory interaction between the jet noise suppressor and high-lift system of a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration at takeoff, climb, approach and landing conditions. One scheme for reducing jet exhaust noise generated by an HSCT is the use of a mixer-ejector system which would entrain large quantities of ambient air into the nozzle exhaust flow through secondary inlets in order to cool and slow the jet exhaust before it exits the nozzle. The effectiveness of such a noise suppression device must be evaluated in the presence of an HSCT wing high-lift system before definitive assessments can be made concerning its acoustic performance. In addition, these noise suppressors must provide the required acoustic attenuation while not degrading the thrust efficiency of the propulsion system or the aerodynamic performance of the high-lift devices on the wing. Therefore, the main objective of the HEAT program is to demonstrate these technologies and understand their interactions on a large-scale HSCT model. The HEAT program is a collaborative effort between NASA-Ames, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Douglas Aircraft Corp., Lockheed-Georgia, General Electric and NASA - Lewis. The suppressor nozzles used in the tests were Generation 1 2-D mixer-ejector nozzles made by General Electric. The model used was a 13.5%-scale semi-span model of a Boeing Reference H configuration.

  13. Overview of NASA HSR high-lift program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program being conducted to develop the technologies essential for the successful U.S. development of a commercial supersonic air transport in the 2005 timeframe are provided. The HSR program is being conducted in two phases, with the first phase stressing technology to ensure environmental acceptability and the second phase stressing technology to make the vehicle economically viable (in contrast to the current Concorde design). During Phase 1 of the program, a key element of the environmental emphases is minimization of community noise through effective engine nozzle noise suppression technology and through improving the performance of high-lift systems. An overview of the current Phase 1 High-Lift Program, directed at technology for community noise reduction, is presented. The total target for takeoff engine noise reduction to meet expected regulations is believed to be about 20 EPNdB. The high-lift research is stressing the exploration of innovative high-lift concepts and advanced flight operations procedures to achieve a substantial (approximately 6 EPNdB) reduction in community noise to supplement the reductions expected from engine nozzle noise suppression concepts; primary concern is focused on the takeoff and climbout operations where very high engine power settings are used. Significant reductions in aerodynamic drag in this regime will allow substantial reductions in the required engine thrust levels and therefore reductions in the noise generated.

  14. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests. PMID:22643137

  15. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Baseload Cooling Equipment: FY08 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, P. R.; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-01-31

    Documentation of a study to investigate one heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option, low-lift cooling, which offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004.

  16. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  17. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  18. Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by Pump-and-Treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2011-01-01

    Pump and Treat (P&T) remediation is the primary technique used to contain and remove trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products cis 1-2,dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. Three methods were used to determine the masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed from groundwater by the P&T system since it became fully operational in 1996. Method 1, is based on the flow volume and concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater that entered the P&T building as influent. Method 2 is based on withdrawal volume from each active recovery well and the concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in the water samples from each well. Method 3 compares the maximum monthly amount of TCE, cDCE, and VC from Method 1 and Method 2. The greater of the two values is selected to represent the masses of TCE, cDCE and VC removed from groundwater each month. Previously published P&T monthly reports used Method 1 to determine the mass of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed. The reports state that 8,666 pounds (lbs) of TCE, 13,689 lbs of cDCE, and 2,455 lbs of VC were removed by the P&T system during 1996-2010. By using Method 2, the mass removed was determined to be 8,985 lbs of TCE, 17,801 lbs of cDCE, and 3,056 lbs of VC removed, and Method 3, resulted in 10,602 lbs of TCE, 21,029 lbs of cDCE, and 3,496 lbs of VC removed. To determine the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater, the individual masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC (determined using Methods 1, 2, and 3) were converted to numbers of moles, summed, and converted to pounds of original TCE. By using the molar conversion the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater by Methods 1, 2, and 3 was 32,381 lbs, 39,535 lbs, and 46,452 lbs, respectively, during 1996-2010. P&T monthly reports state that 24,805 lbs of summed TCE, cDCE, and VC were removed from groundwater. The simple summing method underestimates the mass of original TCE removed by the P&T system.

  19. Application of an artificial neural network to pump card diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenayi, K. ); Lea, J.F. ); Kemp, F. , Dallas, TX ); Nazi, G.A.

    1994-12-01

    Beam pumping is the most frequently used artificial-lift technique for oil production. Downhole pump cards are used to evaluate performance of the pumping unit. Pump cards can be generated from surface dynamometer cards using a 1D wave equation with viscous damping, as suggested by Gibbs and Neely. Pump cards contain significant information describing the behavior of the pump. However, interpretation of these cards is tedious and time-consuming; hence, an automated system capable of interpreting these cards could speed interpretation and warn of pump failures. This work presents the results of a DOS-based computer program capable of correctly classifying pump cards. The program uses a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) to identify significant features of the pump card. The hybrid ANN uses classical and sinusoidal perceptrons. The network is trained using an error-back-propagation technique. The program correctly identified pump problems for more than 180 different training and test pump cards. The ANN takes a total of 80 data points as input. Sixty data points are collected from the pump card perimeter, and the remaining 20 data points represent the slope at selected points on the pump card perimeter. Pump problem conditions are grouped into 11 distinct classes. The network is capable of identifying one or more of these problem conditions for each pump card. Eight examples are presented and discussed.

  20. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  1. Cold-air investigation of a 3 1/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 1: Turbine design and performance of first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Schum, H. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The design of the 3 1/2-stage turbine is described, and the cold-air performance of the first stage, modified for axial inlet conditions, is presented. The performance of the modified single-stage turbine and of two comtemporary high-stage-loading-factor turbines is compared with that estimated with a reference prediction method.

  2. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  3. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  4. Simulated lift testing using computerized isokinetics.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, J A; Mostardi, R A; King, S; Ariki, P; Moats, E; Noe, D

    1987-09-01

    Eighty-four volunteer asymptomatic men between 18 and 40 years of age were evaluated as to their ability to lift. An innovative isokinetic device was used to measure lifting force. This device does not isolate any specific body part, yet it measures the muscular force of lifting an object whose speed of ascent is controlled. Two lifting methods (bent knee, straight leg) and two foot positions were used. The results indicate the bent-knee lift method and forward-foot position was the position of optimal force production. Force production increase was inversely proportional to age. The authors concluded that the isokinetic lift device has promising capabilities to produce repeatable data and may be advantageous in generating standards for rehabilitation and specific job criteria. PMID:3686220

  5. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  6. Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walitt, L.; Liu, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of 0 and 2 degrees. These conditions were such that, at 2 degrees incidence unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Although no unsteady measurements were made for the NACA 64A010 airfoil at these flow conditions, interpolated steady measurements of lift, drag, and surface static pressures compared favorably with corresponding computed time-averaged lift, drag, and surface static pressures.

  7. HL-10 pilots assist with pilot entry into lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Not every moment of a test pilot's day is serious business. In a moment of levity, NASA pilots Bill Dana (left) and John A. Manke try to drag Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag away from the HL-10 lifting body while Air Force Major Jerauld R. Gentry helps from the cockpit. These four men were the principal pilots for the HL-10 program. This was not the only prank involving the HL-10 and its pilots. Once 'Captain Midnight' (Gentry) and the 'Midnight skulkers' sneaked into the NASA hangar and put 'U.S. Air Force' on the aircraft using stick-on letters. Later, while Gentry was making a lifting-body flight, his 1954 Ford was 'borrowed' from the parking lot, painted with yellow-green zinc-chromate primer, and decorated with large stick-on flowers about one foot in diameter. After Gentry returned from the flight, he was surprised to see what had happened to his car. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting

  8. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  9. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  10. New life for heavy lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently planned four and any funding for a fifth orbiter should be utilized instead for the development of a new heavy lift launch vehicle. These recommendations have led to increased design proposals under the Advanced Launch Development (ADLP) Program such as the Shuttle C (cargo), an unmanned version that could orbit 100,00 to 150,000 lb for two- and three-engine versions, respectively, and would make maximum utilization of present Shuttle processing and pad facilities. Other concepts under investigation by ADLP include electromechanical actuators to replace hydraulic systems, advanced modular avionics and common avionics/payload interfaces, and laser-initiated ordnance for component separation and staging. It is noted that the drive to evolve a heavy lift system will fully employ the total quality management approach, with producibility and operability built into the system from the start.

  11. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  12. EXTERNAL EFFECTS OF IRRIGATORS' PUMPING DECISIONS, HIGH PLAINS AQUIFER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Schefter, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, which underlies about 174,000 square miles (1 square mile equals 2. 59 km**2) in the Great Plains, is the principal source of water in one of the nation's major agricultural areas. This paper examines relationships between the scale of management areas and physical factors, resulting from the lateral movement of groundwater, that limit the ability of irrigators in the High Plains to reduce their own future pumping lifts. At the scale of individual farms, irrigators have very limited ability to 'bank' water in order to obtain reduced future pumping lifts.

  13. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  14. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... vehicles with lift systems must comply with objective safety requirements in order to be sold. \\1\\ 67 FR... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY:...

  15. Solar-powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  16. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  17. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  19. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  20. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  1. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van lift. In the…

  2. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  3. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  4. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  6. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  7. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  8. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  9. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  10. An advanced CFD model to study the effect of non-condensable gas on cavitation in positive displacement pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannetti, Aldo; Stickland, Matthew T.; Dempster, William M.

    2015-09-01

    An advanced transient CFD model of a positive displacement reciprocating pump was created to study its behavior and performance in cavitating condition during the inlet stroke. The "full" cavitation model developed by Singhal et al. was utilized, and a sensitivity analysis test on two air mass fraction amounts (1.5 and 15 parts per million) was carried out to study the influence of the dissolved air content in water on the cavitation phenomenon. The model was equipped with user defined functions to introduce the liquid compressibility, which stabilizes the simulation, and to handle the two-way coupling between the pressure field and the inlet valve lift history. Estimation of the performance is also presented in both cases.

  11. Lift-Off Instability During the Impact of a Drop on a Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolinski, John M.; Mahadevan, L.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2014-04-01

    We directly measure the rapid spreading dynamics succeeding the impact of a droplet of fluid on a solid, dry surface. Upon impact, the air separating the liquid from the solid surface fails to drain and wetting is delayed as the liquid rapidly spreads outwards over a nanometer thin film of air. We show that the approach of the spreading liquid front toward the surface is unstable and the spreading front lifts off away from the surface. Lift-off ensues well before the liquid contacts the surface, in contrast with prevailing paradigm where lift-off of the liquid is contingent on solid-liquid contact and the formation of a viscous boundary layer. Here we investigate the dynamics of liquid spreading over a thin film of air and its lift-off away from the surface over a large range of fluid viscosities and find that the lift-off instability is dependent on viscosity and occurs at a time that scales with the viscosity to the power of one half.

  12. Prompting correct lifting posture using signs.

    PubMed

    Burt, C D; Henningsen, N; Consedine, N

    1999-08-01

    The use of a symbol to prompt the adoption of correct lifting posture was examined in three studies. Study 1 used an Appropriateness Test to evaluate nine symbols designed to encourage the adoption of correct lifting posture. Four symbols met the appropriateness criteria and were tested for comprehension in Study 2. Study 3 examined the effect of the best performing symbol from Study 2 in a field setting which involved subjects lifting a small box. Results indicate significant increases in the adoption of the use of correct lifting posture when the symbol was present compared to a control condition. The study also identified the placement of a lifting criterion symbol onto packaging as a useful technique for communicating safety information. PMID:10416848

  13. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, I.H. . Dept. of Physics); Lee, J.H. . Langley Research Center)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on the efficiencies and threshold pump intensities of various solid-state laser materials that have been estimated to compare their performance characteristics as direct solar-pumped CW lasers. Among the laser materials evaluated in this research, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6%; however, it does not seem to be practical for solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AMO) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12% when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  14. Lunar base heat pump, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar base habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and heat pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum heat rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of heat pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-based prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were

  15. Mars to orbit with pumped hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    1999-04-27

    A propulsion point design is presented for lifting geological samples from Mars. Vehicle complexity is kept low by choosing a monopropellant single stage. Little new development is needed, as miniature pump fed hydrazine has been demonstrated. Loading the propellant just prior to operation avoids structural, thermal, and safety constraints otherwise imposed by earlier mission phases. Hardware mass and engineering effort are thereby diminished. The Mars liftoff mass is 7/8 hydrazine, <5% propulsion hardware, and >3% each for the payload and guidance.

  16. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  17. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  18. Adapting the sucker rod pump to your well's requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Devices must be incorporated in sucker rod pumps to keep an insert pump or the standing valve of a tubing pump in their working positions, yet permit their retrieval. Pump holddowns or anchors may be either cup type or mechanical; normally they are located either at the tip or the bottom of the pump. Most common in wells of approx. 6000 ft and shallower is the 3-cup holddown utilizing cups approx. 30 to 40 thousandths of an inch larger than the I.D. of their seating nipple. The hydrostatic head on the cups does most of the work. Should it be necessary to pull the anchored pump, its holddown cups function like swab cups within the restricted I.D. of the seating nipple. The pump barrel becomes a plunger in the tubing. Until the holddown cups emerge from the seating nipple into the larger tubing I.D., the pulling unit must lift, not only the rods and pump, but also all the fluid in the tubing. In deep wells, the preference is for mechanical holddowns, which release in response to a predetermined pull so that no lifting of the fluid column is involved in unseating the pump.

  19. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOEpatents

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  20. NOAA-L satellite is lifted for mating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the lifting and rotating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite to allow for mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (AKM). NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. «

  21. 17
  22. 18
  23. 19
  24. 20
  25. 21
  26. »
  1. An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

  2. Large eddy simulation of a lifted turbulent jet flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, S.A.; Wen, J.X.

    2007-09-15

    The flame index concept for large eddy simulation developed by Domingo et al. [P. Domingo, L. Vervisch, K. Bray, Combust. Theory Modell. 6 (2002) 529-551] is used to capture the partially premixed structure at the leading point and the dual combustion regimes further downstream on a turbulent lifted flame, which is composed of premixed and nonpremixed flame elements each separately described under a flamelet assumption. Predictions for the lifted methane/air jet flame experimentally tested by Mansour [M.S. Mansour, Combust. Flame 133 (2003) 263-274] are made. The simulation covers a wide domain from the jet exit to the far flow field. Good agreement with the data for the lift-off height and the mean mixture fraction has been achieved. The model has also captured the double flames, showing a configuration similar to that of the experiment which involves a rich premixed branch at the jet center and a diffusion branch in the outer region which meet at the so-called triple point at the flame base. This basic structure is contorted by eddies coming from the jet exit but remains stable at the lift-off height. No lean premixed branches are observed in the simulation or and experiment. Further analysis on the stabilization mechanism was conducted. A distinction between the leading point (the most upstream point of the flame) and the stabilization point was made. The later was identified as the position with the maximum premixed heat release. This is in line with the stabilization mechanism proposed by Upatnieks et al. [A. Upatnieks, J. Driscoll, C. Rasmussen, S. Ceccio, Combust. Flame 138 (2004) 259-272]. (author)

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 2: Project design criteria: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    The design criteria for an underground pumped hydroelectric (JPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal head of 5000 ft are documented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single stage reversible pump turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. Overall design criteria including operating requirements, civil/structural criteria, geotechnical criteria, mechanical criteria and electrical criteria are detailed. Specific requirements are given for the upper reservoir, intake/outlet structure, penstock and draft tubes, powerhouses, transformer galleries, intermediate reservoir, lower reservoir, shafts and hoists, switchyard and surface buildings. The requirements for the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump turbine and motor generator units, are referred to. Electrical design criteria are given to meet the requirements of two power houses located underground at different depths, but these criteria may not necessarily reflect PEPCO's current engineering practice. The criteria refer to a specific site and take into account the site investigation results. The design criteria given were used as the basis for the plant design.

  4. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  5. Dynamic ECA lift-off compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Benoit; Brillon, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Good control on lift-off is crucial in Eddy Current Testing (ECT) as the signal amplitude, directly affected by lif-toff changes, can potentially lead to reduced detection performance and/or false positives. This is especially true in automated inspections with Eddy Current Array (ECA) technology, where lift-off cannot be mechanically compensated for at each coil position. Here, we report on a novel method for compensating sensitivity variations induced by varying lift-off for an ECA probe. This method makes use of a single ECA probe operated in two different ways: One is to create a set of detection channels and the other is to create a set of lift-off measurement channels. Since a simple relationship exists between the two measurements, an improved calibration process can be used which combines the calibration of both detection and lift-off measurement channels on a simple calibration block exhibiting a reference indication, thus eliminating the need for a predefined lift-off condition. In this work, we will show results obtained on a weld cap, where lift-off condition is known to vary significantly over the scanning area.

  6. A Child with Signs of Developmental Apraxia of Speech with Whom a Palatal Lift Prosthesis Was Used to Manage Palatal Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl who exhibited characteristics consistent with developmental apraxia of speech, including excessive nasal resonance and nasal emission of air resulting from velopharyngeal port dysfunction, was fitted with a palatal lift prosthesis and followed for 11 years. Results of use of the lift and speech/language remedial programing are…

  7. Representing pump-capacity relations in groundwater simulation models.

    PubMed

    Konikow, L F

    2010-01-01

    The yield (or discharge) of constant-speed pumps varies with the total dynamic head (or lift) against which the pump is discharging. The variation in yield over the operating range of the pump may be substantial. In groundwater simulations that are used for management evaluations or other purposes, where predictive accuracy depends on the reliability of future discharge estimates, model reliability may be enhanced by including the effects of head-capacity (or pump-capacity) relations on the discharge from the well. A relatively simple algorithm has been incorporated into the widely used MODFLOW groundwater flow model that allows a model user to specify head-capacity curves. The algorithm causes the model to automatically adjust the pumping rate each time step to account for the effect of drawdown in the cell and changing lift, and will shut the pump off if lift exceeds a critical value. The algorithm is available as part of a new multinode well package (MNW2) for MODFLOW. PMID:19732161

  8. Ignition kernel formation and lift-off behaviour of jet-in-hot-coflow flames

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenhof, E.; Tummers, M.J.; van Veen, E.H.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2010-06-15

    The stabilisation region of turbulent non-premixed flames of natural gas mixtures burning in a hot and diluted coflow is studied by recording the flame luminescence with an intensified high-speed camera. The flame base is found to behave fundamentally differently from that of a conventional lifted jet flame in a cold air coflow. Whereas the latter flame has a sharp interface that moves up and down, ignition kernels are continuously being formed in the jet-in-hot-coflow flames, growing in size while being convected downstream. To study the lift-off height effectively given these highly variable flame structures, a new definition of lift-off height is introduced. An important parameter determining lift-off height is the mean ignition frequency density in the flame stabilisation region. An increase in coflow temperature and the addition of small quantities of higher alkanes both increase ignition frequencies, and decrease the distance between the jet exit and the location where the first ignition kernels appear. Both mechanisms lower the lift-off height. An increase in jet Reynolds number initially leads to a significant decrease of the location where ignition first occurs. Higher jet Reynolds numbers (above 5000) do not strongly alter the location of first ignition but hamper the growth of flame pockets and reduce ignition frequencies in flames with lower coflow temperatures, leading to larger lift-off heights. (author)

  9. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  10. Remote lift fan study program, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study program to select and conduct preliminary design of advanced technology lift fan systems to meet low noise goals of future V/STOL transport aircraft is discussed. This volume contains results of additional studies conducted to support the main preliminary design effort done under the Remote Lift Fan Study Program (Contract NAS3-14406) and a companion effort, the Integral Lift Fan Study (NAS3-14404). These results cover engine emission study, a review of existing engines for research aircraft application and support data for aircraft studies.

  11. Airfoil Lift with Changing Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1927-01-01

    Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.

  12. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  13. Insulin pumps.

    PubMed

    Pickup, J

    2011-02-01

    The last year has seen a continued uptake of insulin pump therapy in most countries. The USA is still a leader in pump use, with probably some 40% of type 1 diabetic patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), but the large variation in usage within Europe remains, with relatively high use (> 15%) in, for example, Norway, Austria, Germany and Sweden and low use (< 5%) in Spain, the UK, Finland and Portugal. There is much speculation on the factors responsible for this variation, and the possibilities include physician attitudes to CSII and knowledge about its benefits and indications for its use (and inappropriate beliefs about dangers), the availability of reimbursement from insurance companies or funding from national health services, the availability of sufficient diabetes nurse educators and dietitians trained in pump procedures, and clear referral pathways for the pump candidate from general practitioner or general hospital to specialist pump centre. There are now several comprehensive national guidelines on CSII use (see ATTD Yearbook 2009) but more work needs to be done in unifying uptake and ensuring all those who can benefit do so. Technology developments recently include increasing use of pumps with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) connectivity (see elsewhere in this volume) and the emergence of numerous manufacturers developing so-called 'patch pumps', often for the type 2 diabetes market. Interestingly, the evidence base for CSII in this group is not well established, and for this reason the selected papers on CSII in this section include several in this area. The use of CSII in diabetic pregnancy is a long-established practice, in spite of the lack of evidence that it is superior to multiple daily injections (MDI), and few randomised controlled trials have been done in recent years. Several papers in this field this year continue the debate about the usefulness of CSII in diabetic pregnancy and are reviewed here. It is pleasing

  14. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  15. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  16. Midface lift: our current approaches.

    PubMed

    Botti, G; Botti, C

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years, surgery of the ageing face seems to have shifted from tissue uplifting and tightening to mere filling. We do not agree with this trend. We are positive that ageing brings about 2 basic phenomena: on one hand bone and fat volume reduction, whilst on the other a deterioration of the skin lining (elastosis) leading to an increase in its compliance and extension. We therefore deem of the utmost importance to couple soft tissue filling with indispensable tightening and repositioning together with resection of overabundant skin. For what concerns the mid-face area in particular, we suggest to resort to 3 different lifting techniques, according to the kind of defect to be treated. It is important to take the right pulling vector into consideration as well as the need of skin excess removal. The procedures can be tailored to suit any peculiar need such as malar bag, lower lid border malposition, tear trough deformity, etc. Different cases will be taken into consideration as examples of the various indications and techniques. PMID:25162240

  17. Outbuilding at end of lowlift pumping station parking lot. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outbuilding at end of low-lift pumping station parking lot. Note the concrete wall and light standard base, which are remnants of the former preliminary sedimentation basin. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  18. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  19. Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)

  20. How good is jet lift VTOL technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Petersen, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The status of technologies for jet-lift V/STOL aircraft is examined, and a critical review of the performance of jet-lift VTOL aircraft built to date is made. Most jet-lift aircraft have suffered from adverse propulsion-induced effects during takeoff and landing. Flight dynamics of jet-lift aircraft have suffered from shortcomings in static and dynamic stability, control characteristics, and flight path control. Some of the main problems to be considered during the selection of a propulsion system arrangement for a V/STOL fighter are discussed. At present, experimental and analytical data on supersonic V/STOL configurations are insufficient to permit evaluating propulsion system arrangements.

  1. More Americans Opting for Butt Implants, Lifts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overall, the number of U.S. plastic surgery procedures rose 115 percent between 2000 and 2015, and the ... example, the rate of people undergoing buttock lifts rose 252 percent between 2000 and 2015 -- from 1, ...

  2. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  3. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  4. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  5. Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.

  6. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  7. Heat pump R and D at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, R. D.; Creswick, F. A.

    Heat pump system and component performance evaluations at steady state and under frosting conditions are described. A computer model of electric motor driven heat pumps was developed to explore the practical limits of steady-state heating efficiency of conventional air-source heat pumps, and to demonstrate an approach to computer-aided heat pump design techniques. Scoping calculations of alternative heat pump systems, such as aircycle heat pumps and electric motor driven Stirling heat pumps are presented. Computer programs were written to model the expected performance of vertical-pipe ground-coupled heat exchangers, and for the detailed performance analysis of air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers with complex refrigerant circuiting by calculating the performance of each tube of the heat exchanger individually. Seasonal performance factors for air-source heat pumps using hour-by-hour calculations with empirical temperature dependent degradation factors were estimated.

  8. Numerical modeling of the gas lift process in gas lift wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, N. M.; Turarov, A. K.; Baigereyev, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric motion of gas, liquid and a gas-liquid mixture in a gas-lift well is studied. Numerical simulation of the one-dimensional model of gas-lift process is considered where the movement in a gas-lift well is described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. Difference schemes for the gas-lift model of the process are developed on a nonuniform grid condensing in subdomains with big gradients of the solution. The results of the proposed algorithm are illustrated on the example of a real well.

  9. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

  10. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification. PMID:9703354

  11. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  12. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a few times. Hold the bottle with your thumb at the bottom and the first two fingers at the top on either side of the nozzle. Tilt your head slightly forward. Gently insert the ...

  13. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  15. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  17. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  18. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  19. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  20. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  2. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  3. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Testing of IBCs § 178.812 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the...

  4. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  5. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily ...

  6. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  7. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  8. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  9. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  10. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  11. Microgravity heat pump for space station thermal management.

    PubMed

    Domitrovic, R E; Chen, F C; Mei, V C; Spezia, A L

    2003-01-01

    A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations--LBU-I and LBU--II, for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an ac motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 +/- 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55 degrees F (30.6 degrees C) +/- 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift. PMID:14632004

  12. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  13. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  14. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  15. Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolin, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

  16. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  17. 4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket Gate Linkages, view to the north. The jacking pump, located along the wall on the left side of photograph, is used for pumping oil to lift the thrust bearing prior to starting the unit. Note the wicket gate linkages attached to the operating ring and visible in the lower center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  18. Factor analysis of H2S emission at a wastewater lift station: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Odor and corrosion are common problems in domestic wastewater collection, transportation, pumping, and treatment processes. Based on the comparison among odorous compounds and onsite observations at a wastewater lift station, H2S is more likely to have caused the odor and corrosion problems than methanethiol and other organic sulfides. The field data from both air and wastewater quality monitoring demonstrated that more H2S (1 ppmv) was formed at a more negative redox potential, lower pH, and a higher temperature of wastewater. Since the lower detection level of most current analytical techniques is much greater than human's smell and the reference concentration for adverse health effects, automatic monitoring on the threshold of H2S formation provides a mechanism to trigger control techniques only when necessary for cost saving purposes. Based on Gibbs free energy, a more negative redox potential is required to form H2S with an increase in pH and a decrease in temperature and SO 4(2-) concentration. However, pH effect is more significant than both temperature and SO 4(2-) concentration for H2S formation. It is recommended that H2S control techniques be started when the redox potential is below -44 mV, the pH is lower than 5.6, and the temperature is higher than 11.5 °C to control H2S below the reference concentration. Corroded concrete particles were examined by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the dominant crystal form was quartz. PMID:22941185

  19. HEP (hydraulic, electronic, pneumatic) pumping unit: performance characteristics, potential applications, and field trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Jesperson, P.J.; Laidlaw, R.N.; Scott, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    THe HEP pumping unit constitutes an alternative to the familiar beam pumping unit as a means of transferring energy from the prime mover to the sucker rod string of a pumping well. This paper addresses some basic concepts which are part of the HEP system design and describes some of the resultant unit performance characteristics. The potential for enhancement of pumping well operations utilizing the high degree of control over rod string motion attainable with the HEP system, is discussed together with the results of a number of field trials and some plans for further unit evaluation and development. A lift capacity comparison with conventional beam pumping units is also included. 8 refs.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coefficient calculation. 3.9 Test procedures for Frost Accumulation heating mode tests (the H2, H22, H2V, and... during cyclic tests and frost accumulation tests, if needed, to produce stabilized room air temperatures... system (see Definition 1.42), the manufacturer must specify the frosting interval to be used during...

  1. Graphene oxide electrocatalyst on MnO2 air cathode as an efficient electron pump for enhanced oxygen reduction in alkaline solution

    PubMed Central

    Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Sookhakian, Mehran; Baradaran, Saeid; Endut, Zulkarnain; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, Hanieh; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on the surface of a MnO2 air cathode by thermal evaporation at 50°C from a GO colloidal suspension. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of GO on the MnO2 air cathode (GO-MnO2). Voltammetry and chrono-amperometry showed increased currents for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 6 M KOH solution for GO-MnO2 compared to the MnO2 cathode. The GO-MnO2 was used as an air cathode in an alkaline tin-air cell and produced a maximum power density of 13 mW cm−2, in contrast to MnO2, which produced a maximum power density of 9.2 mW cm−2. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that the chemical step for the ORR is the rate determining step, as proposed earlier by different researchers. It is suggested that the presence of GO and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on the MnO2 surface are responsible for the increased rate of this step, whereby GO and ERGO accelerate the process of electron donation to the MnO2 and to adsorbed oxygen atoms. PMID:25765731

  2. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  3. Mathematical model for lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft simulator programming data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Fajfar, B.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation data are reported for the purpose of programming the flight simulator for advanced aircraft for tests of the lift/cruise fan V/STOL Research Technology Aircraft. These simulation tests are to provide insight into problem areas which are encountered in operational use of the aircraft. A mathematical model is defined in sufficient detail to represent all the necessary pertinent aircraft and system characteristics. The model includes the capability to simulate two basic versions of an aircraft propulsion system: (1) the gas coupled configuration which uses insulated air ducts to transmit power between gas generators and fans in the form of high energy engine exhaust and (2) the mechanically coupled power system which uses shafts, clutches, and gearboxes for power transmittal. Both configurations are modeled such that the simulation can include vertical as well as rolling takeoff and landing, hover, powered lift flight, aerodynamic flight, and the transition between powered lift and aerodynamic flight.

  4. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  5. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  6. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  7. Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.

  8. Large-capacity pump vaporizer for liquid hydrogen and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Pump vaporizer system delivers 500 standard cubic feet per minute of hydrogen or nitrogen, one system delivers both gases. Vacuum-jacketed pump discharges liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen into vaporizing system heated by ambient air. Principal characteristics of the flow and discharge system, pump, and vaporizer are given.

  9. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift-enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil has been conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. An NACA 63(2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30% chord fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Lift-enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. A combination of tabs located at the main element and flap trailing edges increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11% relative to the highest lift coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of 0 deg, and C(sub 1max) was increased by 3%. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computed results predicted all of the trends observed in the experimental data quite well. In addition, a simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift-enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the air-foil or flap trailing edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the dominant effects of the tabs on the pressure distribution of each element of the airfoil can be captured with a potential flow model for cases with no flow separation.

  10. Constant lift rotor for a heavier than air craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, R. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A rotor blade extended radially from a hub, characterized by an elongated spar and a plurality of axially aligned shells pivotally mounted on the spar is presented. Each has an aerodynamic center located in trailing relation with the spar and supported thereby for simultaneous axial and angular displacement as centrifugal forces are applied, a pitch controller plus a plurality of pivotal pitch limiting arms transversely related to the spar. A push-pull link interconnecting the arms is used for imparting simultaneous pivotal motion, whereby the angular relationship of the arms to the spar is varied for varying the motion of the trucks along the arms for thus limiting the pitch of the segments about the spar.

  11. Development of a Through Tubing (Microhole) Artificial Lift System

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Bodden

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop a small diameter pump system capable of being deployed through existing production tubing strings in oil/gas wells. The pump system would then pump water up an inner tubing string (likely coil tubing) and allow gas to flow in the annulus between the coil tubing and production tubing. Accomplishing this would allow wells that are currently loaded up (unable to flow at high enough rates to lift the fluid out of the wellbore) to continue to produce additional gas/oil reserves. The project was unable to complete a working test system due to unforeseen complexities in coupling the system components together in part due to the small diameter. Although several of the individual components were sourced and secured, coupling them together and getting electricity to the motor proved technically more difficult than expected. Thus, the project is no longer active due primarily to the complications realized in coupling the components and the difficulties in getting electricity to the submersible motor in a slimhole system. The other problem in finishing this project was the lack of financial resources. When the grant was first applied for it was expected that it would be awarded in early 2004. Since the grant was not actually awarded until the end of August 2004, GPS had basically run out of $$$ and the principle developer (Steve Bodden) had to find a full time job which began in late July 2004. When the grant was finally awarded in late August, it was still hoped that the project could proceed as a part time development but with less financial exposure to the partners in GPS. This became very problematic as it still had many technical obstacles to overcome to get it to the stage of prototype testing.

  12. Dual source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  13. [Effect of gas-lift device on the morphology and performance of ANAMMOX sludge].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Zong-Heng; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The upflow reactor with gas-lift device was started up by inoculating ANAMMOX sludge granules of less than 0.9 mm. The effects of gas lift device system on the morphology and performance of ANAMMOX sludge were studied by using the nitrogen gas produced in ANAMMOX to drive the effluent circulation in the reactor. The results showed that, the airlift circulation function was not clear in the startup stage of the reactor, because the nitrogen gas production was very low. At the same time, the ANAMMOX granular sludge was easy to condensate. When the load rate of nitrogen removal reached 3.4 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the function of gas lift was significant, resulting in gradually increased effluent self-circulation, and the granules were dispersed and grew gradually. After 183d of operation, the granular sludge was dominated by the granules with sizes of 1.6-2.5 mm, which accounted for 53.2% of the total sludge volume. The MLVSS content increased with the increase of sludge particle size. The gas lift device had the same function as the external reflux pump, and was helpful for sludge granulation in the ANAMMOX reactor, while reducing power consumption and the cost of the equipment. PMID:25826935

  14. Model pump performance program. Data report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, W.L.

    1982-05-01

    A 1/20-scale model of a reactor coolant pump has been tested under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. Air/water and steam/water mixtures have been used to obtain two-phase pump performance and information about flow regime effects throughout three quadrants of pump operation. This report contains extensive pump performance data from low pressure air/water and high pressure steam/water steady state tests, results from cavitation tests at temperatures from 100/sup 0/F and 420/sup 0/F and results from transient blowdown tests in which flow through the pump was two-phase. The data should be useful for: formulating empirical models of two-phase pump performance, examining scaling relations for two-phase flow in jumps, unifying air/water and steam/water data, determining relationships between steady-state and transient performance of pumps in two-phase flow and developing an understanding of two-phase flow physics in pumps.

  15. Evaluation of tunnel sidewall boundary-layer-control systems for high-lift airfoil testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, K.; Goodman, W.; Mcghee, R.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to evaluate a suction sidewall boundary-layer-control (BLC) technique used in testing 2D high-lift airfoils. Sidewall BLC is required to maintain spanwise two-dimensionality of the flow over the airfoil at large angles of attack. A supercritical-type high-lift air-foil, equipped with a double-slotted flap and a leading-edge slat, was used for the study which was conducted at a Mach number of 0.2 and Reynolds numbers based on chord of 9 and 16 million. The sidewall BLC technique, which features distributed suction through porous endplates connected to a venting system, was able to control sidewall boundary-layer separation and maintain two-dimensional flow over the high-lift configuration for both Reynolds numbers tested. Discussions on porous endplate optimization and effects of suction on section lift are presented. Results obtained with the suction system were also compared with previous data obtained with a tangential blowing BLC system for the same high-lift configuration.

  16. Solar preheater for residential heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Preheater for Residential Heat PUmps was designed to offset the weakest points in a heat pump system using solar energy. These weak points affect both energy efficiency and comfort, and are: (1) the heat pumps need to defrost its outside coils, and (2) its use of resistance coils when outside air is very cold. While a heat pump can claim close to 100% efficiency in its conversion of electricity to heat, these efficiencies drop way off under the above circumstances. Less dramatic energy savings should also occur during the heat pump's normal operation, since a heat pump takes available heat and condenses it to heat the house. It seems reasonable to say that if there is more heat in the outside air it will take less time to raise the temperature inside. The net effect should be similar to having the heat pump located several hundred miles south of the home it is heating. There are several ways to achieve solar augmentation of heat pump operation, but most are either too expensive, too difficult for do-it-yourselfers, or are not easily adaptable to existing units. The solar preheater for residential heat pumps gets around all the above restrictions.

  17. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  18. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  19. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  20. Well pump

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  1. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

    2010-11-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  2. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Graetzel, Chauncey F.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Fry, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  3. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  4. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  5. Submersible pumping, Long Beach Unit of East Wilmington Field: A 17-year review

    SciTech Connect

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1983-10-01

    The electric submersible pump was selected as the primary form of lift when Thums Long Beach Company initiated production operations in August 1965. Deviated wells with ever-increasing volumes resulting from water flooding required a flexibility offered by this method of lift. Numerous problems have been solved in 17 years of these operations to provide a respectable run life and continue on a sound economic operational basis.

  6. Submersible pumping, Long Beach unit of East Wilmington field: a 17-year review

    SciTech Connect

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The electric submersible pump was selected as the primary form of lift when THUMS Long Beach Co. initiated production operations in Aug. 1965. Deviated wells with ever-increasing volumes resulting from waterflooding required a flexibility offered by this method of lift. Numerous problems have been solved in 17 yr of these operations to provide a respectable run life and continue on a sound economic operational basis.

  7. Submersible pumping--long beach unit of east wilmington field: A 17-year review

    SciTech Connect

    Allis, D.H.; Capps, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    The electric submersible pump (ESP) was selected as the primary form of lift when Thums Long Beach Co. initiated production operations in Aug. 1965. Deviated wells with ever increasing volumes resulting from waterflooding required the flexibility offered by this lift method. Many problems have been solved in the 17 years of these operations to provide a respectable run life and a sound economic operational basis.

  8. Portable Heat Pump Testing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłosowiak, R.; Bartoszewicz, J.; Urbaniak, R.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and working principle of a portable testing device for heat pumps in the energy recirculation system. The presented test stand can be used for any refrigerating/reverse flow cycle device to calculate the device energy balance. The equipment is made of two portable containers of the capacity of 250 liters to simulate the air heat source and ground heat source with a system of temperature stabilization, compressor heat pump of the coefficient of performance (COP) of = 4.3, a failsafe system and a control and measurement system.

  9. The Distribution of Lift Over Wing Tips and Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, David L

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in the 5-foot wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of obtaining more complete information on the distribution of lift between the ends of wing spars, the stresses in ailerons, and the general subject of airflow near the tip of a wing. It includes one series of tests on four models without ailerons, having square, elliptical, and raked tips respectively, and a second series of positively and negatively raked wings with ailerons adjusted to different settings. The results show that negatively raked tips give a more uniform distribution of air pressure than any of the other three arrangements, because the tip vortex does not disturb the flow at the trailing edge. Aileron loads are found to be less severe on wings with negative application to the calculation of aileron and wing stresses and also to facilitate the proper distribution of load in sand testing. Contour charts show in great detail the complex distribution lift over the wing.

  10. Thrust Characteristics of Multiple Lifting Jets in Ground Proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Edwin E.; Spreeman, Kenneth P.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine the thrust characteristics within ground proximity of a series of models which might represent vertical take-off-and-landing (VTOL) aircraft with multiple exit jet engines exhausting vertically downward beneath a lifting surface. Variations in simulated engine configurations were provided by a series of nozzle insert plugs in which the number of jet exits, located symmetrically on a fixed circle, was varied, or the diameter of the circle was varied for a given number of jet exits. represent lifting surfaces, and high-pressure air was used to simulate jet-engine exhaust. Plywood plates were used to The results of the investigation showed that increasing the number of exits, such that an annular jet configuration was approached, provided more favorable thrust characteristics within ground proximity than any other variation in the geometry of these multiple jets. Tests of a configuration with two nozzles approximating a fan-in-wing VTOL aircraft with fans located at different spanwise locations indicated that the augmentation in thrust within ground proximity was greater for the arrangement with the more inboard location of the nozzles.

  11. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  12. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  13. Condoms hitch lift with truckers.

    PubMed

    Kilimwiko, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reports on the efforts being made in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and other road stops in central Tanzania to provide condoms to long-haul drivers and the women who serve on-the-road-companionship. The Truck Driver's AIDS Intervention Project (TDAIP) in collaboration with the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) and Tanzania's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) are working to protect these 2 at risk populations. Along the 1000 km Tanzania/Zambia highway, gasoline pump attendants offer drivers condoms. Prostitutes at these stops also offer condoms. There are meter long stickers with "condoms prevent AIDs" available. The message from the NACP regional office is that those at risk, such as truck drivers, are unlikely to attend rallies, or hear radio message when behind the wheel. Research has shown that men are more receptive to messages given in a work setting. Barmaids at 5 of the most frequented truckstops have been trained as peer health educators. Their job is to sensitize the men to the dangers of AIDs. An operating example is given of the barmaid serving drinks, and when approached, replies with the messages of how protection can be accomplished. One partner only is recommended, and if this is not possible, then one should avoid assuming "labda huyu hana ukimwi" (hopefully this one is AIDs free). There is no safe sex. The peer educators are trained in AIDs prevention and communication skills, and are paid a monthly wage. 725,000 condoms and 250,000 pieces of educational literature were distributed by TDAIP at these 5 truckstops in the 1st 6 months of 1990. Several drawbacks to this effort have occurred. It is difficult to sustain the distribution system outside a medical setting, and it is difficult to effectively monitor and support peer educators spread out across the country. One barmaid observed that those seeking condoms were primarily from outside Tanzania: Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi, where better information about the

  14. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  15. Camera trocar lifting in office gasless laparoscopic sterilization under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Bo S

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated 35 cases of a mechanical approach to abdominal wall lifting, used in office-based gasless laparoscopic sterilization under local anesthesia. Lifting of the abdominal wall, using the camera trocar as an anchoring device and complemented by suprapubic lifting by means of a towel clamp, led to passive intra-abdominal air filling, giving sufficient space to identify, anesthetize, coagulate and cut the Fallopian tubes. Only mild sedation was necessary. All women walked to and from the operating room. All had successful tubal ligation. The overall satisfaction rate was 97%. The mechanical lifting moment was not painful. With the exception of one woman with failed tubal anesthesia, all women had a low mean pain score of 2.6 (VAS 0-10). No complications occurred except one wound infection. The costs were < or = 1/4 of those of traditional laparoscopic sterilization and office hysteroscopic sterilization. This approach is effective for office-based laparoscopic sterilization. Room air, two strings and a needle replace active gas insufflation and narcosis. PMID:20450443

  16. Camera trocar lifting in office gasless laparoscopic sterilization under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Bo S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated 35 cases of a mechanical approach to abdominal wall lifting, used in office-based gasless laparoscopic sterilization under local anesthesia. Lifting of the abdominal wall, using the camera trocar as an anchoring device and complemented by suprapubic lifting by means of a towel clamp, led to passive intra-abdominal air filling, giving sufficient space to identify, anesthetize, coagulate and cut the Fallopian tubes. Only mild sedation was necessary. All women walked to and from the operating room. All had successful tubal ligation. The overall satisfaction rate was 97%. The mechanical lifting moment was not painful. With the exception of one woman with failed tubal anesthesia, all women had a low mean pain score of 2.6 (VAS 0–10). No complications occurred except one wound infection. The costs were < ¼ of those of traditional laparoscopic sterilization and office hysteroscopic sterilization. This approach is effective for office-based laparoscopic sterilization. Room air, two strings and a needle replace active gas insufflation and narcosis. PMID:20450443

  17. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    SciTech Connect

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-30

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  18. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi; Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-01

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  19. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  20. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  1. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  2. Complications of lower blepharoplasty and midface lifting.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Robert M; Kotlus, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Lower eyelid blepharoplasty and midface lifting share a complex anatomy, which should be mastered before attempting these types of surgeries. In recent years, there have been significant contributions to rejuvenating this area. A thorough understanding of the rejuvenative approaches and their outcomes is imperative. Thus, the problem must be preoperatively evaluated to offer the appropriate technique and minimize complications. PMID:25440742

  3. Civil benefits of the JVX. [Joint Services Advanced Lift Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1984-01-01

    The inherently high productivity, VTOL capability, and low noise and vibration features of a civil version of the Joint Services Advanced Vertical Lift Aircraft, or 'JVX', are recommended for commercial exploitation. This tilt-rotor vehicle can provide ground and air traffic congestion relief through direct, city center-to-city center service, economically transporting 30 passengers for distances of up to 600 miles. Additional commercial opportunities emerge in the JVX's servicing of offshore, remote and infrastructureless areas. It is noted that Alaska, more than any other American state, would benefit from the JVX's VTOL access to natural resources and otherwise isolated settlements. The civilian development of the JVX could lead to the development of commercial tilt rotor aircraft for other size classes.

  4. Performance characteristics of a model VTOL lift fan in crossflow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, S.; Yuska, J. A.; Diedrich, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of principal results obtained from crossflow tests of a model 15-in.-diam lift fan installed in a wing in the NASA Lewis Research Center, 9 by 15 ft V/STOL Propulsion Wind Tunnel. Tests were run with and without exit louvers over a range of tunnel air speeds, fan speeds, and wing angle of attack. Fan thrust in crossflow was influenced by two principal factors: the effects of inflow distortion on blade-row performance, and changes in fan stage operating point brought about by changes in back pressure ratio. In this particular fan, flow separation on the inlet bellmouth did not appear to be a serious problem for crossflow operation.

  5. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  6. Biomechanical exploration on dynamic modes of lifting.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1992-03-01

    Whatever the lifting method used, dynamic factors appear to have an effect on the safe realization of movement, and NIOSH guidelines recommend smooth lifting with no sudden acceleration effects. On the other hand, inertial forces may play an important role in the process of transfer of momentum to the load. The direction by which these inertial forces may affect the loadings on body structures and processes of energy transfers cannot be determined a priori. A biomechanical experiment was performed to examine if there were differences in the execution processes between a slow-continuous lift and an accelerated-continuous lift, and also between accelerated lifts either executed continuously or interrupted with a pause. The lifts were executed from a height of 15 cm to a height of 185 cm above the head and with two different loads (6.4 and 11.6 kg). Five experienced workers in manual materials handling were used as subjects. Films and force platforms recordings supplied the data; dynamic segmental analyses were performed to calculate net muscular moments at each joint; a planar single-muscle equivalent was used to estimate compression loadings at L5/S1; total mechanical work, joint work distribution, and energy transfers were determined from a kinetic approach based on the integration of joint power as a function of time. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were applied to the three treatments. The results showed that joint muscular moments, spinal loadings, mechanical work, and muscular utilization ratios were generally increased by the presence of acceleration without inducing benefits of improved energy transfers; therefore slower lifts with reduced acceleration may be safer when handling moderately heavy loads. The maximum values of kinematic and kinetic factors were generally not affected by the pause, but the occurrence of jerks in the movement (acceleration, ground forces, and muscular moments) suggests that the pause may not be indicated when

  7. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  10. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES AND BEARINGS WITH HOUSING AND SHEAVE HOODS REMOVED - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  13. Investigation of hydrogen and helium pumping by sputter ion pumps for Jupiter and outer planets mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomena of ion pumping is reviewed with emphasis on the pumping mechanism for hydrogen and helium. The experimental tests measure the performance of a small, flight proven ion pump which has a nominal four liter/second pumping speed for air. The speed of this pump for hydrogen and helium, and for hydrogen/helium mixes, is presented with particular detail regarding the time dependence. Pump test results are related to anticipated performance of the mass spectrometer by the pumping speeds for the gases to the partial pressure in the ion source. From this analysis, the pump specifications are quantified in terms of mission goals and in terms of observed pumping speeds for the various gases, load levels, and time periods.

  14. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p

  15. Case history - installation of high volume pumping equipment in Talco Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The work presents a case history study of Exxon's high volume artificial lift program at Talco Field in Franklin and Titus Counties, Texas. The field produces heavy crude oil from the Paluxy sandstone at an approximate depth of 4200 ft. Discussion includes (1) screening parameters used to optimized selection of high volume artificial lift equipment; (2) representative production flowstreams to quantify the additional recovery expected; (3) analysis of incremental expenses and costs associated with electric submersible pumps and large capacity beam pumping units; and (4) case production histories and operational problems encountered.

  16. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  17. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  18. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  19. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  20. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to public... with disabilities with the use of securement systems, ramps and lifts. If it is necessary for...