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Sample records for air limited type

  1. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) SA 09866SC AGENCY: Federal... DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331- 10 or -12JR turboprop engine installed per... for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331-10 or...

  2. 75 FR 70106 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... fuel tank explosion. Viking Air Limited has revised Chapter 5 of the DHC-7 Maintenance Manual, PSM 1-7... (TR) listed in Chapter 5 of the Viking Dash 7 Series 1/100 Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM), PSM 1-7..., 2008, to Chapter 5 of the Viking Dash 7 Series 100 Maintenance Manual PSM 1-7-2. Note 1: This may...

  3. 75 FR 43092 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... explosion. Viking Air Limited has revised Chapter 5 of the DHC-7 Maintenance Manual, PSM 1-7-2, to introduce..., and 5-113, all dated December 15, 2008, to the Viking DHC-7 Dash 7 Maintenance Manual, PSM-1-7-2... of this AD, to Chapter 5 of the Viking DHC-7 Dash 7 Maintenance Manual (MM), PSM 1- 7-2;...

  4. 75 FR 75932 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    .... This condition could lead to loss of tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator... tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could lead to possible loss of... redundant control linkage installed according to Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) No. SA01059SE; and...

  5. 76 FR 10220 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... condition could lead to loss of tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could... and redundant control linkage installed according to Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) No. SA01059SE... linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could lead to possible loss of...

  6. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  7. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  8. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  9. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  10. 14 CFR 93.319 - Commercial air tour limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.319 Commercial air tour limitations. (a) Unless excepted... 119 for part 121 or 135 operations may conduct more commercial air tours in the Grand Canyon National... conformance with the routes and airspace authorizations as specified in its Grand Canyon National Park...

  11. Air Sanctuaries in Limited War: A Korean War Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    these restrictions, however, FEAF managed to maintain air superiority throughout Korea for the duration of the war. It routinely bombed North Korean air...and National Policy. Vol III, The Korean War, part 2. Washington, Mar 1979. 555p. PERIODICALS Foot, Rosemary. The Sino American Conflict in Korea : The...A07 844 AlR SANCTUARIES IN LIMITED WAR. A KOREAN WAR CASE STWJY i/I (UJ) AIR WAR COLL MAXMd LL AFB AL C M HINKLE MAR 8 AUJ-AWC-86-898

  12. Resistive-Type Fault Current Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; Angeli, G.

    Among the wide range of High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) materials presently known Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) is a very suitable candidate for power applications either at low temperature (e.g. <30K) at any field or at high temperature (e.g. 77K) in self-field conditions. This is due to several advantages of BSCCO from an electrical, thermal, mechanical and economic point of view. In particular, BSCCO has been proven to be particularly suitable for hybrid current leads and HTS cables. However, BSCCO-based Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) applications have been an important issue within the Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico (RSE) S.p.A. R&D portfolio in the last decade. The SFCL project, funded in the framework of a R&D national project, started focusing on a preliminary single-phase device, which was submitted to dielectric and short-circuit current testing. The first success paved the way for the finalization of the remaining two phases and the final result was a three-phase resistive-type 9 kV/3.4 MVA SFCL device, based on first generation (1G) BSCCO tapes that was installed in the S. Dionigi substation, belonging to the Italian utility A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A. (A2A), in the Milan MV distribution grid. The in-field activity lasted for more than two years, demonstrating the SFCL capability to cope with the grid in every-day operating conditions. Moreover, at the end of the experimentation, the SFCL device was able to perform a true limitation during a three-phase fault, thereby becoming one of the first SFCL devices in the world (the first in Italy) installed in a real grid and to have limited a real short-circuit current.

  13. 3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, CIRCA 1978, INTERIOR OF BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  14. Field calibration of two types of microphones in hyperbaric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul F.; Carpenter, Susan; Green, John

    1990-01-01

    The response of two microphones, one a condenser microphone and the other a diaphragm-activated piezoelectric ceramic microphone, were measured in compressed air at pressures as great as 810 kilopascals (8 atmospheres). The response of each microphone was compared to that of a hydrophone operated in air as a microphone. The results show that the two types of microphone respond similarly to high ambient pressure. Both types are less sensitive to sound pressure in compressed air than in air at normal pressures, and the frequency responses of both microphones are altered. The results are useful in the analyses of ambient noise measurements done during experiments in compressed air.

  15. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  16. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  17. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The following table gives the depth versus bottom time limits for single, no-decompression, air dives...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  20. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  1. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  2. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  3. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  4. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  5. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Southern California's Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute. "Poor air quality appears to be a catalyst for obesity and ... Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Air Pollution Diabetes Type 2 Hispanic American Health ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  6. Confidence limits for air quality model evaluations, as estimated by bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven R.

    Air quality models are used to make decisions regarding the construction of industrial plants, the types of fuel that will be burnt and the types of pollution control devices that will be used. It is important to know the uncertainties that are associated with these model predictions. Standard analytical methods found in elementary statistics textbooks for estimating uncertainties are generally not applicable since the distributions of performance measures related to air quality concentrations are not easily transformed to a Gaussian shape. This paper suggests several possible resampling procedures that can be used to calculate uncertainties or confidence limits on air quality model performance. In these resampling methods, many new data sets are drawn from the original data set using an empirical set of rules. A few alternate forms of the socalled bootstrap and jackknife resampling procedures are tested using a concocted data set with a Gaussian parent distributions, with the result that the jackknife is the most efficient procedure to apply, although its confidence bounds are slightly overestimated. The resampling procedures are then applied to predictions by seven air quality models for the Carpinteria coastal dispersion experiment. Confidence intervals on the fractional mean bias and the normalized mean square error are calculated for each model and for differences between models. It is concluded that these uncertainties are sometimes so large for data sets consisting of about 20 elements that it cannot be stated with 95% confidence that the performance measure for the 'best' model is significantly different from that for another model.

  7. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District, California; Final Limited Federal Implementation Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is finalizing a limited Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) to apply to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District (North Coast Unified AQMD or District) in California.

  8. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The... within any 12-hour period. The limit is the maximum bottom time in minutes that a diver can spend at...

  9. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The... within any 12-hour period. The limit is the maximum bottom time in minutes that a diver can spend at...

  10. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Air No-Decompression Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air No-Decompression Limits A Appendix A to Part 197... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Pt. 197, App. A Appendix A to Part 197—Air No-Decompression Limits The... within any 12-hour period. The limit is the maximum bottom time in minutes that a diver can spend at...

  11. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Pan, Jun; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adinolfi, Valerio; Xu, Jixian; Li, Min; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Sun, Jon-Paul; Minor, James; Kemp, Kyle W; Dong, Haopeng; Rollny, Lisa; Labelle, André; Carey, Graham; Sutherland, Brandon; Hill, Ian; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials.

  12. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After... for air curtain incinerators? After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  17. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  18. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  19. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  20. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  1. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  4. A theoretical study of limit cycle oscillations of plenum air cushions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinchey, M. J.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1981-11-01

    Air cushion vehicles (ACV) are prone to the occurrence of dynamic instabilities which frequently appear as stable finite amplitude oscillations. The aim of this work is to ascertain if the non-linearities characteristics of ACV dynamics generate limit cycle oscillations for cushion systems operating at conditions for which a linear theory predicts instability. The types of non-linearity that can occur are discussed, and an analysis is presented for a single cell flexible skirted plenum chamber constrained to move in pure heave only. Two cushion feed cases are considered: a plenum box supply and a duct. The results obtained by a Galerkin/describing function analysis are compared with those generated by a full numerical simulation. For the plenum box supply system, it is shown that the limit cycles can be suppressed by using a piston to introduce high frequency small amplitude volume oscillations into the plenum chamber.

  5. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  7. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  8. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  9. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  10. Thermal analysis of HTS air-core transformer used in voltage compensation type active SFCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Ren, L.

    2010-11-01

    The three-phase voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three HTS air-core transformers and a three-phase four-wire Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter. The primary winding of the each phase HTS air-core transformer is in series with the main system, and the second winding is connected with the PWM converter. The single-phase conduction-cooled HTS air-core transformer is consisting of four double-pancakes wound by the Bi2223/Ag tape. In this paper, according to the electromagnetic analysis on the single-phase HTS air-core transformer, its AC loss corresponding to different operation modes is calculated. Furthermore, the thermal behaviors are studied by the time-stepping numerical simulations. On the basis of the simulation results, the related problems with the HTS air-core transformer's thermal stability are discussed.

  11. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  12. Limiting Cholesterol Biosynthetic Flux Spontaneously Engages Type I IFN Signaling.

    PubMed

    York, Autumn G; Williams, Kevin J; Argus, Joseph P; Zhou, Quan D; Brar, Gurpreet; Vergnes, Laurent; Gray, Elizabeth E; Zhen, Anjie; Wu, Nicholas C; Yamada, Douglas H; Cunningham, Cameron R; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Wilks, Moses Q; Casero, David; Gray, David H; Yu, Amy K; Wang, Eric S; Brooks, David G; Sun, Ren; Kitchen, Scott G; Wu, Ting-Ting; Reue, Karen; Stetson, Daniel B; Bensinger, Steven J

    2015-12-17

    Cellular lipid requirements are achieved through a combination of biosynthesis and import programs. Using isotope tracer analysis, we show that type I interferon (IFN) signaling shifts the balance of these programs by decreasing synthesis and increasing import of cholesterol and long chain fatty acids. Genetically enforcing this metabolic shift in macrophages is sufficient to render mice resistant to viral challenge, demonstrating the importance of reprogramming the balance of these two metabolic pathways in vivo. Unexpectedly, mechanistic studies reveal that limiting flux through the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway spontaneously engages a type I IFN response in a STING-dependent manner. The upregulation of type I IFNs was traced to a decrease in the pool size of synthesized cholesterol and could be inhibited by replenishing cells with free cholesterol. Taken together, these studies delineate a metabolic-inflammatory circuit that links perturbations in cholesterol biosynthesis with activation of innate immunity.

  13. Limiting cholesterol biosynthetic flux spontaneously engages type I IFN signaling

    PubMed Central

    York, Autumn G.; Williams, Kevin J.; Argus, Joseph P.; Zhou, Quan D.; Brar, Gurpreet; Vergnes, Laurent; Gray, Elizabeth E.; Zhen, Anjie; Wu, Nicholas C.; Yamada, Douglas H.; Cunningham, Cameron R.; Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Wilks, Moses Q.; Casero, David; Gray, David H.; Yu, Amy K.; Wang, Eric S.; Brooks, David G.; Sun, Ren; Kitchen, Scott G.; Wu, Ting-Ting; Reue, Karen; Stetson, Daniel B.; Bensinger, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cellular lipid requirements are achieved through a combination of biosynthesis and import programs. Using isotope tracer analysis, we show that type I interferon (IFN) signaling shifts the balance of these programs by decreasing synthesis and increasing import of cholesterol and long chain fatty acids. Genetically enforcing this metabolic shift in macrophages is sufficient to render mice resistant to viral challenge, demonstrating the importance of reprogramming the balance of these two metabolic pathways in vivo. Unexpectedly, mechanistic studies reveal that limiting flux through the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway spontaneously engages a type I IFN response in a STING-dependent manner. The upregulation of type I IFNs was traced to a decrease in the pool size of synthesized cholesterol, and could be inhibited by replenishing cells with free cholesterol. Taken together, these studies delineate a metabolic-inflammatory circuit that links perturbations in cholesterol biosynthesis with activation of innate immunity. PMID:26686653

  14. Confidence limits for Neyman type A-distributed events.

    PubMed

    Morand, Josselin; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Urbanik, Witold; Moss, Raymond; Hachem, Sabet; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The Neyman type A distribution, a generalised, 'contagious' Poisson distribution, finds application in a number of disciplines such as biology, physics and economy. In radiation biology, it best describes the distribution of chromosomal aberrations in cells that were exposed to neutrons, alpha radiations or heavy ions. Intriguingly, no method has been developed for the calculation of confidence limits (CLs) of Neyman type A-distributed events. Here, an algorithm to calculate the 95% CL of Neyman type A-distributed events is presented. Although it has been developed in response to the requirements of radiation biology, it can find application in other fields of research. The algorithm has been implemented in a PC-based computer program that can be downloaded, free of charge, from www.pu.kielce.pl/ibiol/neta.

  15. Fault current limiting characteristics of a new resistive type superconducting fault current limiter using flux linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung-Hun; Choi, Hyo-Sang; Ko, Seokcheol; Kang, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Byoung Sung

    2005-03-01

    The increase in capacities of power transmission and in fault currents of the related grid machinery has resulted in the development of various types of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs). One proposed solution to increase the voltage and current ratings of SFCL for application into real power system is the method to use the magnetically coupled coils or transformer. In this paper, we propose a new resistive type SFCL using flux linkage. The proposed SFCL consists of an YBCO thin film and a reactor, which is two coils wound in series on the same iron core. The operational characteristics were analyzed by using the equivalent circuit of the suggested SFCL and the fault current limiting characteristics were investigated through experiments. Through the analysis, it was shown that the limited fault current and the resistance of the high-TC superconducting (HTSC) element could be adjusted by ranging two coils' inductances and that this new resistive type SFCL could increase the short-circuit capacity of the SFCL.

  16. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  1. 49 CFR 173.431 - Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages. 173.431 Section 173.431 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  2. Ultrafast limited-angle-type x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberle, M.; Fischer, F.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.; Koch, D.; Aktay, K. S. d. C.; Menz, H.-J.; Mayer, H.-G.

    2007-09-17

    The authors present an ultrafast electron beam x-ray computed tomography technique usable for imaging of fast processes, such as multiphase flows or moving parts in technical or biological objects. The setup consists of an electron beam unit with fast deflection capability and an ultrafast multielement x-ray detector and achieves 10 000 frames/s image rate. Since full sampling of the Radon space requires an angular overlap of source path and detector which strongly decreases axial resolution, the authors devised a limited-angle-type tomography. As a demonstration they visualized the movement of particles and gas bubbles rising in a stagnant liquid.

  3. Compressive fatigue limit of four types of dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Öhman, Caroline; Jefferies, Steven R; Gray, Holly; Xia, Wei; Engqvist, Håkan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quasi-static compressive strength and the compressive fatigue limit of four different dental restorative materials, before and after aging in distilled water for 30 days. A conventional glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP; IG), a zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Chemfil rock; CF), a light curable resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC; LC) and a resin-based composite (Quixfil; QF) were investigated. Cylindrical specimens (4mm in diameter and 6mm in height) were prepared according to the manufacturer׳s instructions. The compressive fatigue limit was obtained using the staircase method. Samples were tested in distilled water at 37°C, at a frequency of 10Hz with 10(5) cycles set as run-out. 17 fatigue samples were tested for each group. Two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey׳s post-hoc test were used to analyze the results. Among the four types of materials, the resin-based composite exhibited the highest compressive strength (244±13.0MPa) and compressive fatigue limit (134±7.8MPa), followed by the light-cured resin reinforced glass ionomer cement (168±8.5MPa and 92±6.6MPa, respectively) after one day of storage in distilled water. After being stored for 30 days, all specimens showed an increase in compressive strength. Aging showed no effect on the compressive fatigue limit of the resin-based composite and the light-cured resin reinforced glass ionomer cement, however, the conventional glass ionomer cements showed a drastic decrease (37% for IG, 31% for CF) in compressive fatigue limit. In conclusion, in the present study, resin modified GIC and resin-based composite were found to have superior mechanical properties to conventional GIC.

  4. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  5. Type 0 open string amplitudes and the tensionless limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The sum over planar multiloop diagrams in the NS + sector of type 0 open strings in flat spacetime has been proposed by Thorn as a candidate to resolve nonperturbative issues of gauge theories in the large N limit. With S U (N ) Chan-Paton factors, the sum over planar open string multiloop diagrams describes the 't Hooft limit N →∞ with N gs2 held fixed. By including only planar diagrams in the sum the usual mechanism for the cancellation of loop divergences (which occurs, for example, among the planar and Möbius strip diagrams by choosing a specific gauge group) is not available and a renormalization procedure is needed. In this article the renormalization is achieved by suspending total momentum conservation by an amount p ≡∑ i n ki≠0 at the level of the integrands in the integrals over the moduli and analytically continuing them to p =0 at the very end. This procedure has been successfully tested for the 2 and 3 gluon planar loop amplitudes by Thorn. Gauge invariance is respected and the correct running of the coupling in the limiting gauge field theory was also correctly obtained. In this article we extend those results in two directions. First, we generalize the renormalization method to an arbitrary n -gluon planar loop amplitude giving full details for the 4-point case. One of our main results is to provide a fully renormalized amplitude which is free of both UV and the usual spurious divergences leaving only the physical singularities in it. Second, using the complete renormalized amplitude, we extract the high-energy scattering regime at fixed angle (tensionless limit). Apart from obtaining the usual exponential falloff at high energies, we compute the full dependence on the scattering angle which shows the existence of a smooth connection between the Regge and hard scattering regimes.

  6. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  7. Dispersal in microbes: fungi in indoor air are dominated by outdoor air and show dispersal limitation at short distances.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    The indoor microbiome is a complex system that is thought to depend on dispersal from the outdoor biome and the occupants' microbiome combined with selective pressures imposed by the occupants' behaviors and the building itself. We set out to determine the pattern of fungal diversity and composition in indoor air on a local scale and to identify processes behind that pattern. We surveyed airborne fungal assemblages within 1-month time periods at two seasons, with high replication, indoors and outdoors, within and across standardized residences at a university housing facility. Fungal assemblages indoors were diverse and strongly determined by dispersal from outdoors, and no fungal taxa were found as indicators of indoor air. There was a seasonal effect on the fungi found in both indoor and outdoor air, and quantitatively more fungal biomass was detected outdoors than indoors. A strong signal of isolation by distance existed in both outdoor and indoor airborne fungal assemblages, despite the small geographic scale in which this study was undertaken (<500 m). Moreover, room and occupant behavior had no detectable effect on the fungi found in indoor air. These results show that at the local level, outdoor air fungi dominate the patterning of indoor air. More broadly, they provide additional support for the growing evidence that dispersal limitation, even on small geographic scales, is a key process in structuring the often-observed distance-decay biogeographic pattern in microbial communities.

  8. Upward excursion limits from air saturation at 5 ATA (Atmospheres Absolute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Present USN submarine rescue capability makes a prolonged exposure of the submarine crew to hyperbaric air a distinct possibility. The exposure may be to pressures as great as 5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), and for periods of time of up to 72 hours. A series of experimental dives were conducted to establish the safe, upward excursion from 5 ATA (132 FSWG); that is, the maximum, immediate reduction in pressure which these individuals can safely tolerate. This specifies the required pressure in the compartment of a mother submarine to which the rescued personnel would be transferred. In order to minimize the effects of pulmonary oxygen toxicity, the limits first were established using a nitrox equivalent of air at 5 ATA. The upward limit from 4.36 ATA (111 FSWG) was found to be 2.97 ATA (65 FSWG). Once this limit had been set, a series of dives were conducted to test this up limit from standard air at 5 ATA.

  9. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  10. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  11. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  12. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  13. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  14. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  15. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  16. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  17. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  18. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  19. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

  20. The upper explosion limit of lower alkanes and alkenes in air at elevated pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-01-16

    The upper explosion limit (UEL) of ethane-air, propane-air, n-butane-air, ethylene-air and propylene-air mixtures is determined experimentally at initial pressures up to 30 bar and temperatures up to 250 degrees C. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with an internal diameter of 200 mm. The mixtures are ignited by fusing a coiled tungsten wire, placed at the centre of the vessel, by electric current. Flame propagation is said to have taken place if there is a pressure rise of at least 1% of the initial pressure after ignition of the mixture. In the pressure-temperature range investigated, a linear dependence of UEL on temperature and a bilinear dependence on pressure are found except in the vicinity of the auto-ignition range. A comparison of the UEL data of the lower alkanes shows that the UEL expressed as equivalence ratio (the actual fuel/air ratio divided by the stoichiometric fuel/air ratio) increases with increasing carbon number in the homologous series of alkanes.

  1. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  2. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  3. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  4. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  5. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  6. Fuel-air ratio (Lambda) correcting apparatus for a rotor-type carburetor for integral combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, R.

    1988-02-23

    This patent describes a fuel-air ratio correcting apparatus in a rotor-type carburetor for internal combustion engines with spark ignition for producing ingestion air with fuel-air ratios within a predetermined range defined by lean and rich limits matched to the requirements of the various operational points of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotating element including a turbine which is driven by a turbine driving airstream which is induced by the engine and which becomes at least a portion of the ingested air stream, the rotating element containing a centrifugal pump for delivering a quantity of fuel which is in a substantially constant ratio to the rotational velocity of the rotating element. The fuel is delivered to a coaxial atomization means on the rotating element for broad-casting atomized fuel into the driving airstream. The centrifugal pump is sized to deliver a quantity of fuel to the driving airstream to establish a fuel-air ratio at one limit of the predetermined range, and means for sensing one or more parameters(s) affecting operation of the internal combustion engine and for selectively varying the volume of at least one of the constituents of the fuel-air mixture ingested by the engine for establishing a predetermined fuel-air ratio variable over the remainder of the range of fuel-air ratios in dependence on one or more measured operating parameter(s) of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotor driven via an impeller by the ingested air stream, the rotor containing a centrifugal pump for delivering via at least one lateral fuel discharge bore a qantity of fuel which is in a constant ratio to the ingested air and which is dimensioned for a lean mixture.

  7. All-solid-state cable-type flexible zinc-air battery.

    PubMed

    Park, Joohyuk; Park, Minjoon; Nam, Gyutae; Lee, Jang-soo; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-02-25

    A cable-type flexible Zn-air battery with a spiral zinc anode, gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), and air cathode coated on a nonprecious metal catalyst is designed in order to extend its application area toward wearable electronic devices.

  8. 41 CFR 102-73.65 - Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limitations on leasing certain types of space? 102-73.65 Section 102-73.65 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease § 102-73.65 Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space? Yes, the limitations on leasing certain types of space are as follows: (a)...

  9. 41 CFR 102-73.65 - Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations on leasing certain types of space? 102-73.65 Section 102-73.65 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease § 102-73.65 Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space? Yes, the limitations on leasing certain types of space are as follows: (a)...

  10. 41 CFR 102-73.65 - Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limitations on leasing certain types of space? 102-73.65 Section 102-73.65 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease § 102-73.65 Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space? Yes, the limitations on leasing certain types of space are as follows: (a)...

  11. 41 CFR 102-73.65 - Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations on leasing certain types of space? 102-73.65 Section 102-73.65 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease § 102-73.65 Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space? Yes, the limitations on leasing certain types of space are as follows: (a)...

  12. 41 CFR 102-73.65 - Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limitations on leasing certain types of space? 102-73.65 Section 102-73.65 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease § 102-73.65 Are there any limitations on leasing certain types of space? Yes, the limitations on leasing certain types of space are as follows: (a)...

  13. Variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for propane-air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E; Simon, Dorothy M

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made of the variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for quiescent propane with tube diameter for quiescent propane-air mixtures. Pressure limits were measured in glass tubes of six different inside diameters, with a precise apparatus. Critical diameters for flame propagation were calculated and the effect of pressure was determined. The critical diameters depended on the pressure to the -0.97 power for stoichiometric mixtures. The pressure dependence decreased with decreasing propane concentration. Critical diameters were related to quenching distance, flame speeds, and minimum ignition energy.

  14. The impact of Circulation Weather Types in Urban Air Quality in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    It is now clear that emissions of the main air pollutants in Europe have declined significantly in recent decades (EEA, 2011). Nevertheless, many European countries (including Portugal) do not expect to comply with one (or more) pollutant emission ceilings and to air quality limit values, especially for particulate matter (PM), ground level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (EEA, 2011). Consequently, and considering that air pollution (AP) plays a role as a major cause of human mortality and morbidity, exposure to pollutants remains a key environment-related health concern (EEA 2010). Thus, and to comply with the new limits, new strategies must be applied for air quality management. The main objective of this work is to present an objective classification of pre-defined and widely used CWTs affecting Portugal and, based on the most relevant patterns, provide a framework that is useful to characterise the occurrence of pollution episodes, namely its inter-annual and intra-annual variability, as well as the occurrence of extreme events. CWTs were determined using the simple Geostrophic approximation according to the methodology proposed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000). The interannual variability of the resulting CWTs was determined for the period with AP data (2002-2010) and the number of days for each CWT and season for the same period was accounted for. During this period, the most frequent CWTs were found to be the anticyclonic (A), the north (N) and the northeast (NE) types, accounting respectively for 34.7%, 10.9% and 14% of the days. However, higher-than average episodes tend to occur associated predominantly with situations characterized by a few less frequent CWTs, namely easterly (E), northeasterly (NE) and southeasterly (SE) types (that together contributed to less than one fourth of all observed days), are the ones which are associated to higher median and maximum concentrations of the three pollutants. Results obtained highlight the existence of strong

  15. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  16. Gas diffusion-type oxygen electrode using perovskite-type oxides for metal-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, Takeo; Miura, Norio; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1995-12-31

    In order to develop an air cathode of metal-air batteries, oxygen reduction behavior of gas diffusion-type carbon electrodes loaded with perovskite-type oxides, La{sub 1{minus}x}A{prime}{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (A{prime} = Ca, Sr, Ba, 0 {le} x {le} 1.0), was examined in 8 M KOH at 60 C. Among the oxide catalysts tested, La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} (specific surface area: 21.5 m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1}) gave the highest electrode performance. On the basis of electrode reaction kinetics, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition rates, and temperature programmed desorption of oxygen, it was concluded that such a performance was attributable to the active sites of the oxide for the direct 4-electron reduction of oxygen. Moreover, the electrode using La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} was found to be rather stable in a short-term operation for 90 h at 300 mA{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  17. IL-27 Limits Type 2 Immunopathology Following Parainfluenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wagage, Sagie; Sun, Yan; Christian, David A.; Harms Pritchard, Gretchen; Fang, Qun; Buza, Elizabeth L.; Jain, Deepika; Elloso, M. Merle; López, Carolina B.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory paramyxoviruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly of infants and the elderly. In humans, a T helper (Th)2-biased immune response to these infections is associated with increased disease severity; however, little is known about the endogenous regulators of these responses that may be manipulated to ameliorate pathology. IL-27, a cytokine that regulates Th2 responses, is produced in the lungs during parainfluenza infection, but its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. To determine whether IL-27 limits the development of pathogenic Th2 responses during paramyxovirus infection, IL-27-deficient or control mice were infected with the murine parainfluenza virus Sendai virus (SeV). Infected IL-27-deficient mice experienced increased weight loss, more severe lung lesions, and decreased survival compared to controls. IL-27 deficiency led to increased pulmonary eosinophils, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs), and the emergence of Th2 responses. In control mice, IL-27 induced a population of IFN-γ+/IL-10+ CD4+ T cells that was replaced by IFN-γ+/IL-17+ and IFN-γ+/IL-13+ CD4+ T cells in IL-27-deficient mice. CD4+ T cell depletion in IL-27-deficient mice attenuated weight loss and decreased AAMs. Elimination of STAT6 signaling in IL-27-deficient mice reduced Th2 responses and decreased disease severity. These data indicate that endogenous IL-27 limits pathology during parainfluenza virus infection by regulating the quality of CD4+ T cell responses and therefore may have therapeutic potential in paramyxovirus infections. PMID:28129374

  18. Lean-limit extinction of propane/air mixtures in the stagnation-point flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.; Ishizuka, S.; Mizomoto, M.

    1981-01-01

    The extinction limits of lean propane/air mixtures in the stagnation-point flow of a flat surface were mapped as functions of the surface temperature and the mixture concentration, velocity, and temperature. The maximum flame temperatures and the flame locations were also measured. The results show that the extinction limits are extremely insensitive to the nature of the surface, which can be heated to 1000 C. On the other hand preheating the gas mixture increases the flame temperature by an almost equal amount and therefore significantly extends the extinction limits. It is also found that at extinction the maximum flame temperatures and the flame locations, which when scaled with the velocity gradient, assume almost constant values independent of the other system variables investigated.

  19. 41 CFR 302-17.3 - Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Types of moving expenses...-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.3 Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations. The RIT allowance is limited by law as to the types of moving expenses that can be covered....

  20. 41 CFR 302-17.3 - Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Types of moving expenses...-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.3 Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations. The RIT allowance is limited by law as to the types of moving expenses that can be covered....

  1. 41 CFR 302-17.3 - Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of moving expenses...-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.3 Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations. The RIT allowance is limited by law as to the types of moving expenses that can be covered....

  2. 41 CFR 302-17.3 - Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of moving expenses...-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.3 Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations. The RIT allowance is limited by law as to the types of moving expenses that can be covered....

  3. 41 CFR 302-17.3 - Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of moving expenses...-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.3 Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations. The RIT allowance is limited by law as to the types of moving expenses that can be covered....

  4. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenn, M.E.; Lambert, K.F.; Blett, T.F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, L.H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, R. A.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Jeffries, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage. Based on the results of a comprehensive review of air pollution thresholds, we conclude: ??? Ecosystem services such as air and water purification, decomposition and detoxification of waste materials, climate regulation, regeneration of soil fertility, production and biodiversity maintenance, as well as crop, timber and fish supplies are impacted by deposition of nitrogen, sulfur, mercury and other pollutants. The consequences of these changes may be difficult or impossible to reverse as impacts cascade throughout affected ecosystems. ??? The effects of too much nitrogen are common across the U.S. and include altered plant and lichen communities, enhanced growth of invasive species, eutrophication and acidification of lands and waters, and habitat deterioration for native species, including endangered species. ??? Lake, stream and soil acidification is widespread across the eastern United States. Up to 65% of lakes within sensitive areas receive acid deposition that exceeds critical loads. ??? Mercury contamination adversely affects fish in many inland and coastal waters. Fish consumption advisories for mercury exist in all 50

  5. Derivation and implementation of an annual limit on intake and a derived air concentration value for uranium mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Reif, R H; Andrews, D W

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring workers and work areas at the Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is complex because all radionuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains may be present in an airborne uranium mill tailings matrix. Previous monitoring practices involved isotopic analysis of the air filter to determine the activity of each radionuclide of concern and comparing the results to the specified derived air concentration. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values have been derived here for the uranium mill tailings matrix to simplify the procedure for evaluation of air monitoring results and assessment of the need for individual monitoring. Implementation of the derived air concentration for uranium mill tailings involves analyzing air samples for long-lived gross alpha activity and comparing the activity concentration to the derived air concentration. Health physics decisions regarding assessment of airborne concentrations is more cost-effective because isotopic analysis of air samples is not necessary.

  6. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  7. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60.2971 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  1. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  2. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  3. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  4. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  5. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  6. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  7. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  8. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

  9. Computational Study of Near-limit Propagation of Detonation in Hydrogen-air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, S.; Radhakrishnan, K.

    2002-01-01

    A computational investigation of the near-limit propagation of detonation in lean and rich hydrogen-air mixtures is presented. The calculations were carried out over an equivalence ratio range of 0.4 to 5.0, pressures ranging from 0.2 bar to 1.0 bar and ambient initial temperature. The computations involved solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with detailed finite-rate chemistry. The numerical method is based on a second-order spatially accurate total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme, and a point implicit, first-order-accurate, time marching algorithm. The hydrogen-air combustion was modeled with a 9-species, 19-step reaction mechanism. A multi-level, dynamically adaptive grid was utilized in order to resolve the structure of the detonation. The results of the computations indicate that when hydrogen concentrations are reduced below certain levels, the detonation wave switches from a high-frequency, low amplitude oscillation mode to a low frequency mode exhibiting large fluctuations in the detonation wave speed; that is, a 'galloping' propagation mode is established.

  10. Schlieren imaging of loud sounds and weak shock waves in air near the limit of visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael John; Settles, Gary S.; Madalis, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    A large schlieren system with exceptional sensitivity and a high-speed digital camera are used to visualize loud sounds and a variety of common phenomena that produce weak shock waves in the atmosphere. Frame rates varied from 10,000 to 30,000 frames/s with microsecond frame exposures. Sound waves become visible to this instrumentation at frequencies above 10 kHz and sound pressure levels in the 110 dB (6.3 Pa) range and above. The density gradient produced by a weak shock wave is examined and found to depend upon the profile and thickness of the shock as well as the density difference across it. Schlieren visualizations of weak shock waves from common phenomena include loud trumpet notes, various impact phenomena that compress a bubble of air, bursting a toy balloon, popping a champagne cork, snapping a wooden stick, and snapping a wet towel. The balloon burst, snapping a ruler on a table, and snapping the towel and a leather belt all produced readily visible shock-wave phenomena. In contrast, clapping the hands, snapping the stick, and the champagne cork all produced wave trains that were near the weak limit of visibility. Overall, with sensitive optics and a modern high-speed camera, many nonlinear acoustic phenomena in the air can be observed and studied.

  11. Equatorial range limits of an intertidal ectotherm are more linked to water than air temperature.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S; Santos, António M; Gomes, Filipa; Lima, Fernando P

    2016-10-01

    As climate change is expected to impose increasing thermal stress on intertidal organisms, understanding the mechanisms by which body temperatures translate into major biogeographic patterns is of paramount importance. We exposed individuals of the limpet Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, to realistic experimental treatments aimed at disentangling the contribution of water and air temperature for the buildup of thermal stress. Treatments were designed based on temperature data collected at the microhabitat level, from 15 shores along the Atlantic European coast spanning nearly 20° of latitude. Cardiac activity data indicated that thermal stress levels in P. vulgata are directly linked to elevated water temperature, while high air temperature is only stressful if water temperature is also high. In addition, the analysis of the link between population densities and thermal regimes at the studied locations suggests that the occurrence of elevated water temperature may represent a threshold P. vulgata is unable to tolerate. By combining projected temperatures with the temperature threshold identified, we show that climate change will likely result in the westward expansion of the historical distribution gap in the Bay of Biscay (southwest France), and northward contraction of the southern range limit in south Portugal. These findings suggest that even a minor relaxing of the upwelling off northwest Iberia could lead to a dramatic increase in thermal stress, with major consequences for the structure and functioning of the intertidal communities along Iberian rocky shores.

  12. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  13. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B... positive pressures shall not be approved for use on Type B supplied-air respirators. (b) Terminal...

  14. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  15. Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.

  16. Quasi-perpetual discharge behaviour in p-type Ge-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ocon, Joey D; Kim, Jin Won; Abrenica, Graniel Harne A; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-11-07

    Metal-air batteries continue to become attractive energy storage and conversion systems due to their high energy and power densities, safer chemistries, and economic viability. Semiconductor-air batteries - a term we first define here as metal-air batteries that use semiconductor anodes such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) - have been introduced in recent years as new high-energy battery chemistries. In this paper, we describe the excellent doping-dependent discharge kinetics of p-type Ge anodes in a semiconductor-air cell employing a gelled KOH electrolyte. Owing to its Fermi level, n-type Ge is expected to have lower redox potential and better electronic conductivity, which could potentially lead to a higher operating voltage and better discharge kinetics. Nonetheless, discharge measurements demonstrated that this prediction is only valid at the low current regime and breaks down at the high current density region. The p-type Ge behaves extremely better at elevated currents, evident from the higher voltage, more power available, and larger practical energy density from a very long discharge time, possibly arising from the high overpotential for surface passivation. A primary semiconductor-air battery, powered by a flat p-type Ge as a multi-electron anode, exhibited an unprecedented full discharge capacity of 1302.5 mA h gGe(-1) (88% anode utilization efficiency), the highest among semiconductor-air cells, notably better than new metal-air cells with three-dimensional and nanostructured anodes, and at least two folds higher than commercial Zn-air and Al-air cells. We therefore suggest that this study be extended to doped-Si anodes, in order to pave the way for a deeper understanding on the discharge phenomena in alkaline metal-air conversion cells with semiconductor anodes for specific niche applications in the future.

  17. 77 FR 33622 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0279; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-007-AD; Amendment 39-17073; AD 2012-11-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes...

  18. Simulation du fonctionnement de capteurs solaires à air de type tôle et de type absorbeur poreux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Michel; Maurissen, Yves

    1993-12-01

    The comparison between air-heated insolators, no porous and porous plate, often has been made experimentaly. The behaviour model of these insolators permit generalization of the study in the conditions where each insolator is the most performant. La comparaison des capteurs solaires à air à absorbeur de type tôle et de type poreux a été abordée le plus souvent de façon expérimentale. La modélisation du fonctionnement de ces types de capteur permet de généraliser cette comparaison et de définir les domaines de fonctionnement où un type de capteur se montre plus efficace que l'autre.

  19. Air Power and Limited War: An Analysis of the Air Campaigns against North Vietnam as Instruments of National Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    the Pacific. To mAintain "round-the-clock" pressure on Germany, the Army Air Forces commanders resorted to blind bombing techniques that provided...34ac#.e to in arbtistice In a reasonable time.... To keep the attack from becoming overly costly," he observed. "it was clear. that we would have to use... keep the Chinese out of the war. Should they decide to intervene, he remarked. "air power would destroy them.൯ After the Chineon assult. he gave

  20. Experimental study of lean flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures in tubes of different diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshin, Y.L.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2010-04-15

    Lean limit flames in methane/hydrogen/air mixtures propagating in tubes of internal diameters (ID) of 6.0, 8.9, 12.3, 18.4, 25.2, 35.0, and 50.2 mm have been experimentally studied. The flames propagated upward from the open bottom end of the tube to the closed upper end. The content of hydrogen in the fuel gas has been varied in the range 0-40 mol%. Lean flammability limits have been determined; flame shapes recorded and the visible speed of flame propagation measured. Most of the observed limit flames in tubes with diameters in the range of 8.9-18.4 mm had enclosed shape, and could be characterized as distorted or spherical flame balls. The tendency was observed for mixtures with higher hydrogen content to form smaller size, more uniform flame balls in a wider range of tube diameters. At hydrogen content of 20% or more in the fuel gas, limit flames in largest diameters (35.0 mm and 50.2 mm ID) tubes had small, compared to the tube diameter, size and were ''lens''-shaped. ''Regular'' open-front lean limit flames were observed only for the smallest diameters (6.0 mm and 8.9 mm) and largest diameters (35.0 and 50.2 mm ID), and only for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures, except for 6 mm ID tube in which all limit flames had open front. In all experiments, except for the lean limit flames in methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures in the 8.9 mm ID tube, and all limit flames in 6.0 mm ID tube, visible flame speeds very weakly depended on the hydrogen content in the fuel gas and were close to- or below the theoretical estimate of the speed of a rising hot bubble. This observation suggests that the buoyancy is the major factor which determines the visible flame speed for studied limit flames, except that last mentioned. A decrease of the lean flammability limit value with decreasing the tube diameter was observed for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures for tubes having internal diameters in the range

  1. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and length of Class 3, Type 31, air-cured tobacco, but which is a low-nicotine strain or variety... which in its cured state is found by an authorized representative of the Department to have a nicotine... be a suitable low-nicotine strain or variety for the production of Type 31-V, by an agency...

  2. Derivation and implementation of an annual limit on intake and a derived air concentration value for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, R.H.; Andrews, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring workers and work areas at the Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is complex because all radionuclides in the {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U decay chains may be present in an airborne uranium mill tillings matrix. Previous monitoring practices involved isotopic analysis of the air filter to determine the activity of each radionuclide of concern and comparing the results to the specified derived air concentration. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values have been derived here for the uranium mill tailings matrix to simplify the procedure for evaluation of air monitoring results and assessment of the need for individual monitoring. Implementation of the derived air concentration for uranium mill tailings involves analyzing air samples for long-lived gross alpha activity and comparing the activity concentration to the derived air concentration. Health physics decisions regarding assessment of airborne concentrations is more cost-effective because isotopic analysis of air samples is not necessary. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Sooting Limits Of Diffusion Flames With Oxygen-Enriched Air And Diluted Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Chao, B. H.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen-enhanced combustion permits certain benefits and flexibility that are not otherwise available in the design of practical combustors, as discussed by Baukal. The cost of pure and enriched oxygen has declined to the point that oxygen-enhanced combustion is preferable to combustion in air for many applications. Carbon sequestration is greatly facilitated by oxygen enrichment because nitrogen can be eliminated from the product stream. For example, when natural gas (or natural gas diluted with CO2) is burned in pure oxygen, the only significant products are water and CO2. Oxygen-enhanced combustion also has important implications for soot formation, as explored in this work. We propose that soot inception in nonpremixed flames requires a region where C/O ratio, temperature, and residence time are above certain critical values. Soot does not form at low temperatures, with the threshold in nonpremixed flames ranging from about 1250-1650 K, a temperature referred to here as the critical temperature for soot inception, Tc. Soot inception also can be suppressed when residence time is short (equivalently, when the strain rate in counterflow flames is high). Soot induction times of 0.8-15 ms were reported by Tesner and Shurupov for acetylene/nitrogen mixtures at 1473 K. Burner stabilized spherical microgravity flames are employed in this work for two main reasons. First, this configuration offers unrestricted control over convection direction. Second, in steady state these flames are strain-free and thus can yield intrinsic sooting limits in diffusion flames, similar to the way past work in premixed flames has provided intrinsic values of C/O ratio associated with soot inception limits.

  4. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  5. Limiting of microjoule femtosecond pulses in air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, S.O.; Serebryannikov, E.E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D.A.; Bugar, I.; Chorvat, D. Jr.; Chorvat, D.; Bloemer, M.J.; Scalora, M.; Miles, R.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2004-08-01

    Self-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening of laser pulses in air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) is shown to allow the creation of fiber-optic limiters for high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses. The performance of PCF limiters is analyzed in terms of elementary theory of self-phase modulation. Experiments performed with 100 fs microjoule pulses of 800 nm Ti:sapphire laser radiation demonstrate the potential of hollow PCFs as limiters for 10 MW ultrashort laser pulses and show the possibility to switch the limiting level of output radiation energy by guiding femtosecond pulses in different PCF modes.

  6. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  11. The threshold temperature where type-I and type-II interchange in mesoscopic superconductors at the Bogomolnyi limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Isaías G.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we discuss the H - T phase diagram for mesoscopic squared superconducting samples at the Bogomolnyi limit, where the Ginzburg-Landau constant κ = 1 /√{ 2}. We calculate Hp (T), the vortex penetration field, and Hu (T) the upper critical field. Through the study of the temperature dependence on the Hp, it is possible to distinguish the region where the magnetic field penetrates into the sample, like a type-I or a type-II superconductor. It permits to determine the threshold temperature T⋆ (L , H) where the phase transition from type-I to type-II occurs for some different sizes L of the mesoscopic superconducting samples. The calculation of the upper critical field Hu (T), for these samples, shows that, these two curves, Hp (T) and Hu (T), overlap at the threshold temperature mentioned above. The magnetization of the system was calculated for all sizes studied in this work, and for temperatures above and below T⋆ (L , H). This study confirms the existence of the threshold temperature, T⋆ (L , H), where type-I and type-II interchange in mesoscopic superconductors at the Bogomolnyi limit.

  12. Current Limiting Characteristics of a Flux-lock Type SFCL Using Two Triggered HTSC Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, T. H.; Ko, S. C.; Lim, S. H.

    In this paper, a flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) using two triggered high-Tc superconducting (HTSC) elements was proposed and its fault current limiting characteristics according to short-circuit location were analyzed. The flux-lock type SFCL with two triggered HTSC elements consists of two parts. One is two magnetically coupled coils with serial connection. The other, which is connected in series with the second coil, is composed of two HTSC elements in parallel connected through the normal resistor. Since the amplitude of the fault current depends on the fault location in case the fault occurs in a power system, the suggested flux-lock type SFCL can perform the fault current limiting operation through the quench occurrences of one HTSC element or two HTSC elements according to the amplitudes of the fault current. In case a low fault current, the fault current can be limited by utilizing only one HTSC triggered element. On the other hand, a larger fault current can be limited by two HTSC triggered elements. The short-circuit tests for the proposed flux-lock type SFCL according to the fault location were carried out in a feeder line of a power distribution system and its effective limiting operations could be discussed through the analysis on the short- circuit.

  13. [Development of new type plastics air turbine handpiece for dental use].

    PubMed

    Kusano, M

    1989-06-01

    The noise generated by the metal air turbine handpiece employed in dental practice is considerable and attended with predominant high frequency components. Therefore, investigation of the noise generation mechanism and development of a silent air turbine handpiece was only a matter of course. In addition, the metal air turbine hardpiece is comparatively heavy and its production cost is high. From this point of view as well, production of a light air turbine handpiece at low cost is also desirable. In order to overcome the objections to the metal air turbine handpiece, appropriate plastics materials were employed wherever possible. In this study, the number of revolutions, noise level, frequency analysis, start pressure and weight of newly produced plastics handpieces and metal handpieces were examined and compared. The following results were obtained: 1. The number of revolutions of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with metal turbine rotors was higher than that of all-metal air turbine handpieces. The noise level of the former tended to be lower. 2. The number of revolutions of multi-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with turbine rotors with plastics turbine blades was almost equal to that of similar metal handpieces, with the noise level tending to be lower. 3. In the case of handpieces fitted with turbine rotors with dynamic balance, the number of revolutions was high and the noise level was low. This indicated that dynamic balance was a factor affecting the number of revolutions and noise level. 4. Narrow band sound frequency analysis of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces showed a sharp peak at the fundamental frequency which was the same as the number of revolutions multiplied by the number of rotor turbine blades. It is thought that the noise from air turbine handpieces was aerodynamic in origin, being generated by the periodical interruption of steady air flow by

  14. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  19. Nitric Oxide and Oxygen Air-Contamination Effects on Extinction Limits of Non-Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames for a HIFiRE Scramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Dawson, Lucy C.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2009-01-01

    Unique nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen air-contamination effects on the extinction Flame Strength (FS) of non-premixed hydrocarbon (HC) vs. air flames are characterized for 7 gaseous HCs, using a new idealized 9.3 mm straight-tube Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) at 1 atm. FS represents a laminar strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, Uair, that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. Besides ethane, propane, butane, and propylene, the HCs include ethylene, methane, and a 64 mole-% ethylene / 36 % methane mixture, the writer s previously recommended gaseous surrogate fuel for HIFiRE scramjet tests. The HC vs. clean air part of the work is an extension of a May 2008 JANNAF paper that characterized surrogates for the HIFiRE project that should mimic the flameholding of reformed (thermally- or catalytically-cracked) endothermic JP-like fuels. The new FS data for 7 HCs vs. clean air are thus consolidated with the previously validated data, normalized to absolute (local) axial-input strain rates, and co-plotted on a dual kinetically dominated reactivity scale. Excellent agreement with the prior data is obtained for all 7 fuels. Detailed comparisons are also made with recently published (Univ. Va) numerical results for ethylene extinction. A 2009-revised ethylene kinetic model (Univ. Southern Cal) led to predicted limits within approx. 5 % (compared to 45 %, earlier) of this writer s 2008 (and present) ethylene FSs, and also with recent independent data (Univ. Va) obtained on a new OJB system. These +/- 5 % agreements, and a hoped-for "near-identically-performing" reduced kinetics model, would greatly enhance the capability for accurate numerical simulations of surrogate HC flameholding in scramjets. The measured air-contamination effects on normalized FS extinction limits are projected to assess ongoing Arc-Heater-induced "facility test effects" of NO production (e.g., 3 mole-%) and resultant oxygen

  20. Type of wear for the pair Ti6Al4V/PCTFE in ambient air and in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozet, J.-L.

    1993-04-01

    The pair Ti6Al4V/polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) on a pin-on-disk tribometer in ambient air and liquid nitrogen with the contact pressure and sliding speed ranging from 3 to 9 MPa and 0.03 to 0.05 m/s, respectively, is evaluated within the framework of a high pressure valves for cryogenic rocket engines project. Results show that an abrasion wear process, which is closely connected with a tribochemical wear process producing fluorides and an abrasive form of carbon, exists when PCTFE is continuously rubbed against Ti6Al4V in ambient air, liquid nitrogen, and gaseous argon. Degradations detected on the Ti6Al4V surface are found to be unacceptable in most cases, but in the real cryotechnic valves this type of wear was not observed. The latter is attributed to the great dwell time between actuations and the low speed of the reciprocating movements which considerably limit the heating.

  1. Analysis on current limiting characteristics of a transformer type SFCL with two triggering current levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung-Hun; Ko, Seckcheol; Han, Tae-Hee

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two triggering current levels was suggested and its current limiting characteristics were analyzed. The structure of the suggested transformer type SFCL with two triggering current levels largely consists of two parts. One is the transformer with two magnetically coupled coils, which correspond to the primary winding and the secondary one connected with one high-TC superconducting (HTSC) element. The other is third coil, or, another secondary winding with one HTSC element, which is wound on the same iron core together with two coils. This suggested transformer type SFCL can limit the fault current by generating its limiting impedance with two different amplitudes, which are dependent on the initial amplitude of the fault current in case of the fault occurrence. To confirm the usefulness of the proposed SFCL, the current limiting tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle, one of the effective fault conditions to affect the amplitude of the initial fault current, were carried out and its effective limiting operations were discussed.

  2. Apparent contact angles induced by evaporation into air: interferometric measurements and lubrication-type modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colinet, Pierre; Tsoumpas, Yannis; Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey

    2014-11-01

    For volatile liquids, finite contact angles on solid substrates can occur even in the case of perfect wetting, immobile contact lines and ideally smooth surfaces. This is a fluid-dynamic effect due to evaporation typically intensifying towards a small vicinity of the contact line. In the present talk, we first overview recent theoretical results on the subject, where we focus primarily on the case of diffusion-limited evaporation into air. The model is based upon the so-called de Gennes' paradigm, incorporating simultaneously the spreading coefficient and the disjoining pressure in the form of an inverse cubic law. Then we carry out comparison with experimental results for the contact angles of evaporating sessile drops of several perfectly-wetting HFE liquids of different volatility recently obtained by Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The scaling-type theoretical prediction for the apparent contact angle is found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Another model based upon the Kelvin effect (curvature dependence of the saturation conditions) is also briefly discussed, an important conceptual feature of which being that contact-line singularities (both evaporation- and motion-induced) can be fully regularized, in contrast with the first model. Support from ESA, BELSPO and FRS-FNRS is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Continuous Choreographies as Limiting Solutions of N-body Type Problems with Weak Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneira, Reynaldo; Padilla, Pablo; Sánchez-Morgado, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    We consider the limit Nto +∞ of N-body type problems with weak interaction, equal masses and -σ-homogeneous potential, 0<σ<1. We obtain the integro-differential equation that the motions must satisfy, with limit choreographic solutions corresponding to travelling waves of this equation. Such equation is the Euler-Lagrange equation of a corresponding limiting action functional. Our main result is that the circle is the absolute minimizer of the action functional among zero mean (travelling wave) loops of class H^1.

  4. Thoron ( 220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-02-01

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the "electrical" filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny "depleted" air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/ 220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored.

  5. Experimental study of limit lean methane/air flame in a standard flammability tube using particle image velocimetry method

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshin, Yuriy; Gorecki, Grzegorz; Jarosinski, Jozef; Fodemski, Tadeusz

    2010-05-15

    Lean limit methane/air flame propagating upward in a standard 50 mm diameter and 1.8 m length tube was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry method. Local stretch rate along the flame front was determined by measured gas velocity distributions. It was found that local stretch rate is maximum at the flame leading point, which is in agreement with earlier theoretical results. Similar to earlier observations, extinction of upward propagating limit flame was observed to start from the flame top. It is stated that the observed behavior of the extinction of the lean limit methane/air flame can not be explained in terms of the coupled effect of flame stretch and preferential diffusion. To qualitatively explain the observed extinction behavior, it is suggested that the positive strain-induced flame stretch increases local radiation heat losses from the flame front. An experimental methodology for PIV measurements in a round tube is described. (author)

  6. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I – a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient

    PubMed Central

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K.; Connor, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported. PMID:24945421

  7. Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints.

    PubMed

    Som, Sanjoy M; Catling, David C; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Polivka, Peter M; Buick, Roger

    2012-03-28

    According to the 'Faint Young Sun' paradox, during the late Archaean eon a Sun approximately 20% dimmer warmed the early Earth such that it had liquid water and a clement climate. Explanations for this phenomenon have invoked a denser atmosphere that provided warmth by nitrogen pressure broadening or enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Such solutions are allowed by geochemical studies and numerical investigations that place approximate concentration limits on Archaean atmospheric gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen. But no field data constraining ground-level air density and barometric pressure have been reported, leaving the plausibility of these various hypotheses in doubt. Here we show that raindrop imprints in tuffs of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa, constrain surface air density 2.7 billion years ago to less than twice modern levels. We interpret the raindrop fossils using experiments in which water droplets of known size fall at terminal velocity into fresh and weathered volcanic ash, thus defining a relationship between imprint size and raindrop impact momentum. Fragmentation following raindrop flattening limits raindrop size to a maximum value independent of air density, whereas raindrop terminal velocity varies as the inverse of the square root of air density. If the Archaean raindrops reached the modern maximum measured size, air density must have been less than 2.3 kg m(-3), compared to today's 1.2 kg m(-3), but because such drops rarely occur, air density was more probably below 1.3 kg m(-3). The upper estimate for air density renders the pressure broadening explanation possible, but it is improbable under the likely lower estimates. Our results also disallow the extreme CO(2) levels required for hot Archaean climates.

  8. Impacts of grassland types and vegetation cover changes on surface air temperature in the regions of temperate grassland of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui; Li, Guangdi; Yu, Pujia; Zhou, Daowei

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of surface air temperature response to different grassland types and vegetation cover changes in the regions of temperate grassland of China was analyzed by observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method. The basis of the OMR approach is that reanalysis data are insensitive to local surface properties, so the temperature differences between surface observations and reanalysis can be attributed to land effects. Results showed that growing-season air temperature increased by 0.592 °C/decade in the regions of temperate grassland of China, with about 31 % of observed warming associated with the effects of grassland types and vegetation cover changes. For different grassland types, the growing-season OMR trend was the strongest for temperate desert steppe (0.259 °C/decade) and the weakest for temperate meadow (0.114 °C/decade). Our results suggest that the stronger intraseasonal changes of grassland vegetation are present, the more sensitive the OMR trend responds to the intraseasonal vegetation cover changes. In August and September, the OMR of temperate meadow showed a weak cooling trend. For temperate meadow, about 72.2 and 72.6 % of surface cooling were explained by both grassland type and increase of vegetation cover for August and September, respectively. For temperate steppe and temperate desert steppe, due to the limited soil moisture and little evaporative cooling feedback, the vegetation changes have no significant effect on the surface air temperature. These results indicate that the impact of grassland types and vegetation cover changes should be considered when projecting further climate change in the temperate grassland region of China.

  9. Measurements of two types of dilatational waves in an air-filled unconsolidated sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.J.; Sabatier, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    This study consists of laboratory measurements of dilatational waves propagating through an air-filled unconsolidated sand. One excitation technique consists of a loudspeaker suspended in the air above the packing of sand. A second excitation technique uses a mechanical shaker in contact with the sand. The transmitted signals are received using microphones and geophones located at various depths within the sand. An interpretation based on measured phase speeds indicates that the transmitted energy from the suspended loudspeaker source is partitioned primarily but not exclusively into the type-II dilatational wave. This wave attenuates rapidly and is only detected at depths of less than about 15 cm for this particular sample. At the deeper depths the detected signal is associated with the type-I dilatational wave. The mechanical shaker produces only a type-I dilatational wave. Both the geophone and microphone sensors can detect both types of dilatational waves. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  10. The brain parenchyma has a type I interferon response that can limit virus spread

    PubMed Central

    Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Soh, Timothy K.; Chrenek, Ryan; O’Loughlin, Elaine; Madore, Charlotte; Butovsky, Oleg; Cepko, Constance L.

    2017-01-01

    The brain has a tightly regulated environment that protects neurons and limits inflammation, designated “immune privilege.” However, there is not an absolute lack of an immune response. We tested the ability of the brain to initiate an innate immune response to a virus, which was directly injected into the brain parenchyma, and to determine whether this response could limit viral spread. We injected vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a transsynaptic tracer, or naturally occurring VSV-derived defective interfering particles (DIPs), into the caudate–putamen (CP) and scored for an innate immune response and inhibition of virus spread. We found that the brain parenchyma has a functional type I interferon (IFN) response that can limit VSV spread at both the inoculation site and among synaptically connected neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the response of microglia to VSV infection and found that infected microglia produced type I IFN and uninfected microglia induced an innate immune response following virus injection. PMID:27980033

  11. The Evaluation of Unitary & Central Type Air-Conditioning Systems in Selected Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William B.

    The study reported here was conducted in an effort to obtain data for comparing the combined owning and operating costs of two different types of air-conditioning systems in two elementary schools. Both schools were built during 1969-70 in the same geographical area along the southeast coast of Florida and are also served by the same electric…

  12. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements. 84.148 Section 84.148 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... flow class; minimum requirements. (a) Respirators tested under this section shall be approved only...

  13. Effects of hole localization on limiting p-type conductivity in oxide and nitride semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2014-01-07

    We examine how hole localization limits the effectiveness of substitutional acceptors in oxide and nitride semiconductors and explain why p-type doping of these materials has proven so difficult. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we find that anion-site substitutional impurities in AlN, GaN, InN, and ZnO lead to atomic-like states that localize on the impurity atom itself. Substitution with cation-site impurities, on the other hand, triggers the formation of polarons that become trapped on nearest-neighbor anions, generally leading to large ionization energies for these acceptors. Unlike shallow effective-mass acceptors, these two types of deep acceptors couple strongly with the lattice, significantly affecting the optical properties and severely limiting prospects for achieving p-type conductivity in these wide-band-gap materials.

  14. The effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean blowout limit, lean stability limit and NO(x) emissions in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, W.-P.; Lee, J. G.; Santavicca, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for both land-based and aircraft propulsion applications are facing regulations on NOx emissions which cannot be met with current combustor technology. A number of alternative combustor strategies are being investigated which have the potential capability of achieving ultra-low NOx emissions, including lean premixed combustors, direct injection combustors, rich burn-quick quench-lean burn combustors and catalytic combustors. The research reported in this paper addresses the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit performance and the NOx emissions characteristics of lean premixed combustors.

  15. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  16. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  17. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  18. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  19. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  20. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  1. Development of 72/84kV Dry Air Insulated Dead Tank Type VCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hitoshi; Nagatake, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Hideki; Takeshita, Yukihiro; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Katsumata, Kiyohito; Sakaki, Masayuki

    As a circuit breaker for over 84kV, SF6 gas circuit breaker (GCB) has been used for a long time, in virtue of its excellent characteristics as arc extinction and insulating medium. Although, SF6 gas has very high global warming potential (GWP) of 23,900, and it was designated to regulation object in COP3 in Kyoto in 1997. A lot of efforts have been done to reduce the amount of SF6 gas usage and emission from conventional equipments. On the other hand, SF6 gas free equipment has been researching and one strong candidate is air-insulated type switchgears with vacuum interrupters. In last few years, air-insulated switchgears, which include GIS, Cubicle type GIS (C-GIS) and dead tank type VCB, have been developed in succession. So far, we have already more than three years operation record for the air-insulated dead tank type VCB, and over 100 units is in-service in power systems. Recently, VCB technology, that is essential for SF6 gas-free equipments, has been advanced in the field of high-voltage, large current interruption and environment-conscious design. In this paper, the advanced dead tank type VCB and its technology is descried.

  2. MISR Aerosol Air Mass Type Mapping over Mega-City: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, F.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Most aerosol air-quality monitoring in mega-city environments is done from scattered ground stations having detailed chemical and optical sampling capabilities. Satellite instruments such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can retrieve total-column Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), along with some information about particle microphysical properties. Although the particle property information from MISR is much less detailed than that obtained from the ground sampling stations, the coverage is extensive, making it possible to put individual surface observations into the context of regional aerosol air mass types. This paper presents an analysis of MISR aerosol observations made coincident with aircraft and ground-based instruments during the INTEX-B field campaign. These detailed comparisons of satellite aerosol property retrievals against dedicated field measurements provide the opportunity to validate the retrievals quantitatively at a regional level, and help to improve aerosol representation in retrieval algorithms. Validation of MISR retrieved AOD and other aerosol properties over the INTEX-B study region in and around Mexico City will be presented. MISR’s ability to distinguish among aerosol air mass types will be discussed. The goal of this effort is to use the MISR aerosol property retrievals for mapping both aerosol air mass type and AOD gradients in mega-city environments over the decade-plus that MISR has made global observations.

  3. Increasing the Upper Temperature Oxidation Limit of Alumina Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Unocic, Kinga A; Lance, Michael J; Santella, Michael L; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Walker, Larry R

    2011-01-01

    A family of alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels is under development for use in aggressive oxidizing conditions from {approx}600-900 C. These alloys exhibit promising mechanical properties but oxidation resistance in air with water vapor environments is currently limited to {approx}800 C due to a transition from external protective alumina scale formation to internal oxidation of aluminum with increasing temperature. The oxidation behavior of a series of AFA alloys was systematically studied as a function of Cr, Si, Al, C, and B additions in an effort to provide a basis to increase the upper-temperature oxidation limit. Oxidation exposures were conducted in air with 10% water vapor environments from 800-1000 C, with post oxidation characterization of the 900 C exposed samples by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSLS). Increased levels of Al, C, and B additions were found to increase the upper-temperature oxidation limit in air with water vapor to between 950 and 1000 C. These findings are discussed in terms of alloy microstructure and possible gettering of hydrogen from water vapor at second phase carbide and boride precipitates.

  4. A method to derive the relationship between the annual and short-term air quality limits--analysis using the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for health protection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) were launched in 2006, but gaps remain in evidence on health impacts and relationships between short-term and annual AQG needed for health protection. We tested whether relationships between WHO short-term and annual AQG for particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are concordant worldwide and derived the annual limits for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) based on the short-term AQG. We obtained air pollutant data over seven years (2004-2010) in seven cities from Asia-Pacific, North America and Europe. Based on probability distribution concept using maximum as the short-term limit and arithmetic mean as the annual limit, we developed a new method to derive limit value one from another in each paired limits for each pollutant with capability to account for allowable exceedances. We averaged the limit derived each year for each city, then used meta-analysis to pool the limit values in all cities. Pooled mean short-term limit for NO2 (140.5μg/m(3) [130.6-150.4]) was significantly lower than the WHO AQG of 200μg/m(3) while for PM10 (46.4μg/m(3) [95CI:42.1-50.7]) and PM2.5 (28.6μg/m(3) [24.5-32.6]) were not significantly different from the WHO AQG of 50 and 25μg/m(3) respectively. Pooled mean annual limits for SO2 and O3 were 4.6μg/m(3) [3.7-5.5] and 27.0μg/m(3) [21.7-32.2] respectively. Results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. The distribution relationships between the current WHO short-term and annual AQG are supported by empirical data from seven cities for PM10 and PM2.5, but not for NO2. The short-term AQG for NO2 should be lowered for concordance with the selected annual AQG for health protection.

  5. Do air quality targets really represent safe limits for lung cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Morawska, L; Giovinco, G; Querol, X

    2017-02-15

    In order to estimate the lung cancer risk associated to airborne particles, exposure and risk-assessment studies ordinarily use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter. Consequently, the corresponding air quality targets are based on this metrics, neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles (UFPs) due to their negligible mass. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of air quality targets in protecting Italian non-smoking people from lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation. A modified risk-assessment scheme was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both sub-micron (mainly UFPs) and super-micron particles. We found a very high lung cancer risk related to the actual target levels due to the contribution of UFPs, in particular from indoor microenvironments. Therefore, as possible actions to reduce the lung cancer risk, we have hypothesized and tested three different scenarios: a) a reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic chemicals condensed onto particles in agreement with the current EU air pollution policy; b) the use of local ventilation systems to mitigate the exposure to cooking-generated particles; c) the improvement of the overall indoor air quality by considering a mechanical ventilation system instead of the widespread natural ventilation in order to increase the air exchange rates. Even with the simultaneous application of specific actions, performed with the best technologies available, the corresponding estimated lifetime lung cancer risk (ELCR) values for the Italian population for the entire life were equal to 1.25×10(-4) and 1.23×10(-4) for males and females, respectively, well higher with respect to the maximum tolerable lifetime cancer risk, 1×10(-5).

  6. The new type of intermittency at chaotic surface waves in cylindrical tanks under limited excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolskaya, Tatyana; Shvets, Alexander

    2007-11-01

    The problem of scenario disclosure of transition from one type steady-stated regimes to another's, in particular, from the regular regimes to chaotic is one of the most interesting in theory of dynamic systems. In space of parameters of the considered system (fluid free surface waves in cylindrical rigid tanks and process of the shaft rotation of the electromotor with a limited power, energizing spatial oscillations of a tank) the new scenario of transition such as chaos - ``chaos'' is found. This scenario belongs to type of transitions to chaos through intermittency. It is generalization of the known scenario of transition from a limit cycle to chaos through intermittency of the first type on Pomeau - Manneville. At the new scenario the role of a vanishing limit cycle of Pomeau -- Manneville's scenario plays vanishing, at a bifurcation, a chaotic attractor. A laminar phase of the detected intermittency is chaotic motion along of an originating new attractor in a neighbourhood of trajectories of a vanishing chaotic attractor. A turbulent phase is unpredictable beforehand drifts of trajectories in the remote fields of a phase space.

  7. Flammability limits of lithium-ion battery thermal runaway vent gas in air and the inerting effects of halon 1301

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Matthew Eugene

    Lithium-ion (rechargeable) and lithium-metal (non-rechargeable) battery cells put aircraft at risk of igniting and fueling fires. Lithium batteries can be packed in bulk and shipped in the cargo holds of freighter aircraft; currently lithium batteries are banned from bulk shipment on passenger aircraft [1]. The federally regulated Class C cargo compartment extinguishing system's utilization of a 5 %vol Halon 1301 knockdown concentration and a sustained 3 %vol Halon 1301 may not be sufficient at inerting lithium-ion battery vent gas and air mixtures [2]. At 5 %vol Halon 1301 the flammability limits of lithium-ion premixed battery vent gas (Li-Ion pBVG) in air range from 13.80 %vol to 26.07 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Testing suggests that 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 is required to render all ratios of the Li-Ion pBVG in air inert. The lower flammability limit (LFL) and upper flammability limit (UFL) of hydrogen and air mixtures are 4.95 %vol and 76.52 %vol hydrogen, respectively. With the addition of 10 %vol and 20 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 9.02 %vol and 11.55 %vol hydrogen, respectively, and the UFL is 45.70 %vol and 28.39 %vol hydrogen, respectively. The minimum inerting concentration (MIC) of Halon 1301 in hydrogen and air mixtures is 26.72 %vol Halon 1301 at 16.2 %vol hydrogen. The LFL and UFL of Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures are 7.88 %vol and 37.14 %vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively. With the addition of 5 %vol, 7 %vol, and 8 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 13.80 %vol, 16.15 %vol, and 17.62 % vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively, and the UFL is 26.07 %vol, 23.31 %vol, and 21.84 %vol Li- Ion pBVG, respectively. The MIC of Halon 1301 in Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures is 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 at 19.52 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Le Chatelier's mixing rule has been shown to be an effective measure for estimating the flammability limits of Li-Ion pBVGes. The LFL has a 1.79 % difference while the UFL has a 4.53 % difference. The state of charge (SOC) affects the flammability limits in an apparent parabolic

  8. Dying on the Vine: Air Combat Command’s Struggle to Provide Combat-Ready Aircrews with Limited Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    results from this experience- balance problem. First, by becoming “experienced” while executing a single mission-type, the aircrew will receive fewer...experience, funding, and sortie generation is a delicate balance that if not closely managed can rapidly devolve into an unrecoverable downward...to comply with the legally mandated budget cuts. Like the Air Force, the US Army plans to balance its budget by reducing readiness costs. To cope

  9. A comparison of measured radiances from AIRS and HIRS across different cloud types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Staten, P.

    2015-12-01

    The observation of Earth's atmosphere with passive remote sensing instruments is ongoing for decades and resulting in a long-term global dataset. Two prominent examples are operational satellite platforms from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or research platforms like NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The observed spectral ranges of these observations are often similar among the different platforms, but have large differences when it comes to resolution, accuracy and quality control. Our approach is to combine different kinds of instruments at the pixel-scale to improve the characterization of infrared radiances. We focus on data from the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and compare the observations to radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua. The high spectral resolution of AIRS is used to characterize and possibly recalibrate the observed radiances from HIRS. Our approach is unique in that we use additional information from other passive instruments on the same platforms including the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We will present comparisons of radiances from HIRS and AIRS within different types of clouds that are determined from the imagers. In this way, we can analyze and select the most homogeneous conditions for radiance comparisons and a possible re-calibration of HIRS. We hope to achieve a cloud-type-dependent calibration and quality control for HIRS, which can be extrapolated into the past via inter-calibration of the different HIRS instruments beyond the time of AIRS.

  10. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  11. Epidemiological and experimental links between air pollution and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Ying, Zhekang; Harkema, Jack; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting links between exposure to environmental toxins and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence to support this association that has been noted in many epidemiologic studies. Inflammation in response to particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure in air pollution represents a common mechanism that may interact with other pro-inflammatory influences in diet and life style to modulate susceptibility to cardiometabolic diseases. The role of innate immune cytokines released from macrophages in the lung is well known. In addition, chemokine triggers in response to air-pollution exposure may mediate a cellular response from the bone marrow/spleen through toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain receptors (NLRs) pathways to mediate inflammatory response in organs. Emerging data also seem to support a role for PM(2.5) exposure in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and in brown adipose tissue dysfunction. Decreased expression of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue may account for reduced thermogenesis providing another link between PM(2.5) and insulin resistance. The implications of an experimental link between air-pollution exposure and type 2 DM are profound as air pollution is a pervasive risk factor throughout the world and even modest alleviation in exposure may provide substantial public health benefits.

  12. Limits on the fluctuating part of y-type distortion monopole from Planck and SPT results

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid E-mail: sunyaev@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2015-08-01

    We use the published Planck and SPT cluster catalogs [1,2] and recently published y-distortion maps [3] to put strong observational limits on the contribution of the fluctuating part of the y-type distortions to the y-distortion monopole. Our bounds are 5.4× 10{sup −8} < ( y) < 2.2× 10{sup −6}. Our upper bound is a factor of 6.8 stronger than the currently best upper 95% confidence limit from COBE-FIRAS of ( y) <15× 10{sup −6}. In the standard cosmology, large scale structure is the only source of such distortions and our limits therefore constrain the baryonic physics involved in the formation of the large scale structure. Our lower limit, from the detected clusters in the Planck and SPT catalogs, also implies that a Pixie-like experiment should detect the y-distortion monopole at >27-σ. The biggest sources of uncertainty in our upper limit are the monopole offsets between different HFI channel maps that we estimate to be <10{sup −6}.

  13. Limits on the fluctuating part of y-type distortion monopole from Planck and SPT results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2015-08-01

    We use the published Planck and SPT cluster catalogs [1,2] and recently published y-distortion maps [3] to put strong observational limits on the contribution of the fluctuating part of the y-type distortions to the y-distortion monopole. Our bounds are 5.4× 10-8 < langle yrangle < 2.2× 10-6. Our upper bound is a factor of 6.8 stronger than the currently best upper 95% confidence limit from COBE-FIRAS of langle yrangle <15× 10-6. In the standard cosmology, large scale structure is the only source of such distortions and our limits therefore constrain the baryonic physics involved in the formation of the large scale structure. Our lower limit, from the detected clusters in the Planck and SPT catalogs, also implies that a Pixie-like experiment should detect the y-distortion monopole at >27-σ. The biggest sources of uncertainty in our upper limit are the monopole offsets between different HFI channel maps that we estimate to be <10-6.

  14. Effects of radiation and compression on propagating spherical flames of methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zheng

    2010-12-15

    Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)

  15. High resolution optical spectroscopy of air-induced electrical instabilities in n-type polymer semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Riccardo; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2012-07-03

    We use high-resolution charge-accumulation optical spectroscopy to measure charge accumulation in the channel of an n-type organic field-effect transistor. We monitor the degradation of device performance in air, correlate the onset voltage shift with the reduction of charge accumulated in the polymer semiconductor, and explain the results in view of the redox reaction between the polymer, water and oxygen in the accumulation layer.

  16. Relationships of Type A Behavior with Biographical Characteristics and Training Performance of Air Traffic Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Helmreich, Beane , predictive of performance in the Academy screen and Lucker (1980), using the Jenkins Activity Survey, program. demonstrated that...Making it without losing it: Type A, achievement Matthews, K. A., Helmreich, R. L., Beane , W. F., & motivation, and scientific attainment revisited. Lucker...Aviation Medicine Report, the new aptitude testing procedures for selection DOT/ FAVA /A I-78-39. of FAA air traffic control specialists. In Schroeder, D. J

  17. The impact of a change to inhalable occupational exposure limits: strontium chromate exposure in the U.S. Air Force.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Gary N

    2003-01-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has announced its intention to replace all total particulate threshold limit values (TLVs) with size-selective TLVs. Because the U.S. Air Force has adopted the TLVs as its occupational exposure limits, the impact of this change is of interest, specifically for hexavalent chromium. This article reviews historical strontium chromate sampling data in the Air Force and the impact of its reinterpretation in comparison to an inhalable TLV. Based on the measured conversion factor between the 37-mm cassette and the IOM inhalable sampler, inhalable strontium chromate exposures will continue to exceed the TLV during all aircraft priming and most sanding procedures. In addition, inhalable exposures are expected to exceed 1000 times the TLV, greater than the highest currently assigned protection factor for airline respirators, during 25% of priming procedures. Without a change in the value of the current TLV time-weighted average of 0.5 microg/m(3), the Air Force will need to reduce strontium chromate levels, either by incorporating work practices that decrease worker productivity or considering a change to nonchromated primers.

  18. Development of an algorithm to regulate pump output for a closed air-loop type pneumatic biventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jung Joo; Hwang, Chang Mo; Choi, Jaesoon; Choi, Hyuk; Choi, Seong Wook; Sun, Kyung

    2009-12-01

    The closed air space-type of extracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) developed by the Korea Artificial Organ Center utilizes a bellows-transforming mechanism to generate the air pressure required to pump blood. This operating mechanism can reduce the size and weight of the driving unit; however, the output of the blood pump can be affected by the pressure loading conditions of the blood sac. Therefore, to guarantee a proper pump output level, regardless of the pressure loading conditions that vary over time, automatic pump output regulation of the blood pump is required. We describe herein a pump output regulation algorithm that was developed to maintain pump output around a reference level against various afterload pressures, and verified the pump performance in vitro. Based on actual operating conditions in animal experiments, the pumping rate was limited to 40-84 beats per minute, and the afterload pressure was limited to 80-150 mm Hg. The tested reference pump output was 4.0 L/min. During experiments, the pump output was successfully and automatically regulated within the preset area regardless of the varying afterload conditions. The results of this preliminary experiment can be used as the basis for an automatic control algorithm that can enhance the stability and reliability of the applied VAD.

  19. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  20. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-02-01

    AIM: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. LOCATION: Western North America. METHODS: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. RESULTS: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  1. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  2. 75 FR 64673 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds From Consumer Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 1141 (formerly SIP Regulation No. 41)--Limiting Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from ] Consumer... Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Consumer and Commercial Products. The SIP revision...

  3. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Ashley P; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years) were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  4. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Ashley P.; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46–70 years) were taken on a 1.5hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics. PMID:26656561

  5. Effects of platinum stagnation surface on the lean extinction limits of premixed methane/air flames at moderate surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiswall, J.T.; Li, J.; Wooldridge, M.S.; Im, H.G.

    2011-01-15

    A stagnation flow reactor was used to study the effects of platinum on the lean flammability limits of atmospheric pressure premixed methane/air flames at moderate stagnation surface temperatures. Experimental and computational methods were used to quantify the equivalence ratio at the lean extinction limit ({phi}{sub ext}) and the corresponding stagnation surface temperature (T{sub s}). A range of flow rates (57-90 cm/s) and corresponding strain rates were considered. The results indicate that the gas-phase methane/air flames are sufficiently strong relative to the heterogeneous chemistry for T{sub s} conditions less than 750 K that the platinum does not affect {phi}{sub ext}. The computational results are in good agreement with the experimentally observed trends and further indicate that higher reactant flow rates (>139 cm/s) and levels of dilution (>{proportional_to}10% N{sub 2}) are required to weaken the gas-phase flame sufficiently for surface reaction to play a positive role on extending the lean flammability limits. (author)

  6. Combustion rate limits of hydrogen plus hydrocarbon fuel: Air diffusion flames from an opposed jet burner technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Reeves, Ronald N.; Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    Combustion of H2/hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures may be considered in certain volume-limited supersonic airbreathing propulsion applications. Effects of HC addition to H2 were evaluated, using a recent argon-bathed, coaxial, tubular opposed jet burner (OJB) technique to measure the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames. The OJB flames were formed by a laminar jet of (N2 and/or HC)-diluted H2 mixture opposed by a similar jet of air at ambient conditions. The OJB data, derived from respective binary mixtures of H2 and methane, ethylene, or propane HCs, were used to characterize BLOWOFF and RESTORE. BLOWOFF is a sudden breaking of the dish-shaped OJB flame to a stable torus or ring shape, and RESTORE marks sudden restoration of the central flame by radial inward flame propagation. BLOWOFF is a measure of kinetically-limited flame reactivity/speed under highly stretched, but relatively ideal impingement flow conditions. RESTORE measures inward radial flame propagation rate, which is sensitive to ignition processes in the cool central core. It is concluded that relatively small molar amounts of added HC greatly reduce the reactivity characteristics of counterflow hydrogen-air diffusion flames, for ambient initial conditions.

  7. 76 FR 53633 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ...: Jim displacement of 0.070'' at the (the effective Rutherford, 901 trailing edge), report the date of... report to: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; facsimile: (816) 329-4090; e-mail: jim.rutherford@faa.gov . Figure 1...

  8. 76 FR 34011 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... lead to loss of tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could lead to... elevator control tabs could develop. This condition could lead to loss of tab control linkage and severe..., all serial numbers, that do not have the new elevator servo tab and redundant control...

  9. Limited temperature-sensitive transactivation by mutant adenovirus type 2 E1a proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fahnestock, M L; Lewis, J B

    1989-01-01

    A series of linker-scanning and deletion mutations was generated in the transactivating domain of the larger, 289-amino-acid-residue E1a protein of adenovirus type 2. Mutant genes were recombined into virus to assay the ability of the variant E1a proteins to activate expression of an E1a-dependent viral gene during infection. Results of assays performed at 32, 37, and 40 degrees C indicated that at least 2 of the 10 mutants tested showed limited temperature sensitivity for transactivation. Images PMID:2523001

  10. Limited open repair of ruptured Achilles tendons with Bunnel-type sutures.

    PubMed

    Park, H G; Moon, D H; Yoon, J M

    2001-12-01

    A new method of repairing Achilles tendons, which uses a small medial skin incision with a Bunnel-type suture, was performed on 14 patients, and the clinical results were found satisfying. In order to restore the Achilles tendon to its original length, restore tensile strength in the suture site, and minimize injury to the sural nerve, an operative procedure has been devised which uses a limited open repair with a Bunnel-type suture. We followed 14 patients who had undergone the new procedure for a mean interval of 26 months after the injury. They returned to work in six weeks and to playing sports in 25 weeks. There were no cases of late rerupture nor injuries to the sural nerve. This technique approximated the preinjury length and resting tension of the musculo-tendinous apparatus and minimized sural nerve injury.

  11. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-05-06

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.

  12. Type Six Secretion System of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Adaptive Immune Components Limit Intracellular Survival During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bendor, Liron; Weyrich, Laura S.; Linz, Bodo; Rolin, Olivier Y.; Taylor, Dawn L.; Goodfield, Laura L.; Smallridge, William E.; Kennett, Mary J.; Harvill, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    The Type Six Secretion System (T6SS) is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica cytotoxicity, cytokine modulation, infection, and persistence. However, one-third of recently sequenced Bordetella bronchiseptica strains of the predominantly human-associated Complex IV have lost their T6SS through gene deletion or degradation. Since most human B. bronchiseptica infections occur in immunocompromised patients, we determine here whether loss of Type Six Secretion is beneficial to B. bronchiseptica during infection of immunocompromised mice. Infection of mice lacking adaptive immunity (Rag1-/- mice) with a T6SS-deficient mutant results in a hypervirulent phenotype that is characterized by high numbers of intracellular bacteria in systemic organs. In contrast, wild-type B. bronchiseptica kill their eukaryotic cellular hosts via a T6SS-dependent mechanism that prevents survival in systemic organs. High numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered from immunodeficient mice but only low numbers from wild-type mice demonstrates that B. bronchiseptica survival in an intracellular niche is limited by B and T cell responses. Understanding the nature of intracellular survival during infection, and its effects on the generation and function of the host immune response, are important to contain and control the spread of Bordetella-caused disease. PMID:26485303

  13. Type Six Secretion System of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Adaptive Immune Components Limit Intracellular Survival During Infection.

    PubMed

    Bendor, Liron; Weyrich, Laura S; Linz, Bodo; Rolin, Olivier Y; Taylor, Dawn L; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Kennett, Mary J; Harvill, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    The Type Six Secretion System (T6SS) is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica cytotoxicity, cytokine modulation, infection, and persistence. However, one-third of recently sequenced Bordetella bronchiseptica strains of the predominantly human-associated Complex IV have lost their T6SS through gene deletion or degradation. Since most human B. bronchiseptica infections occur in immunocompromised patients, we determine here whether loss of Type Six Secretion is beneficial to B. bronchiseptica during infection of immunocompromised mice. Infection of mice lacking adaptive immunity (Rag1-/- mice) with a T6SS-deficient mutant results in a hypervirulent phenotype that is characterized by high numbers of intracellular bacteria in systemic organs. In contrast, wild-type B. bronchiseptica kill their eukaryotic cellular hosts via a T6SS-dependent mechanism that prevents survival in systemic organs. High numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered from immunodeficient mice but only low numbers from wild-type mice demonstrates that B. bronchiseptica survival in an intracellular niche is limited by B and T cell responses. Understanding the nature of intracellular survival during infection, and its effects on the generation and function of the host immune response, are important to contain and control the spread of Bordetella-caused disease.

  14. 76 FR 31800 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... marking the airspeed indicator accordingly. There is also a requirement for the installation of a..., have airspeed indicators with color band markings that do not comply with 14 CFR 23.1505(c). This could... requires incorporating revised airspeed limitations and marking the airspeed indicator accordingly....

  15. 75 FR 77758 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds From Portable Fuel Containers AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Fuel Containers. This amendment will reduce VOC emissions from portable fuel containers, and therefore... VOCs from portable fuel containers (i.e. gas cans) in Delaware (Regulation No. 1141--Limiting...

  16. 75 FR 77798 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds From Portable Fuel Containers AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., Portable Fuel Containers. In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA is approving the State's... Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Portable Fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operate, but no later than 180 days after its initial startup, you must meet the two limitations specified... percent (6-minute average) during the startup period that is within the first 30 minutes of operation. (b... rate at which it will operate, but no later than 180 days after its initial startup, you must meet...

  18. Radio emission and mass loss rate limits of four young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtinger, Bibiana; Güdel, Manuel; Mutel, Robert L.; Hallinan, Gregg; Gaidos, Eric; Skinner, Stephen L.; Lynch, Christene; Gayley, Kenneth G.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Observations of free-free continuum radio emission of four young main-sequence solar-type stars (EK Dra, π1 UMa, χ1 Ori, and κ1 Cet) are studied to detect stellar winds or at least to place upper limits on their thermal radio emission, which is dominated by the ionized wind. The stars in our sample are members of The Sun in Time programme and cover ages of 0.1-0.65 Gyr on the main-sequence. They are similar in magnetic activity to the Sun and thus are excellent proxies for representing the young Sun. Upper limits on mass loss rates for this sample of stars are calculated using their observational radio emission. Our aim is to re-examine the faint young Sun paradox by assuming that the young Sun was more massive in its past, and hence to find a possible solution for this famous problem. Methods: The observations of our sample are performed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) with excellent sensitivity, using the C-band receiver from 4-8 GHz and the Ku-band from 12-18 GHz. Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillitmeter Array (ALMA) observations are performed at 100 GHz. The Common Astronomy Software Application (CASA) package is used for the data preparation, reduction, calibration, and imaging. For the estimation of the mass loss limits, spherically symmetric winds and stationary, anisotropic, ionized winds are assumed. We compare our results to 1) mass loss rate estimates of theoretical rotational evolution models; and 2) to results of the indirect technique of determining mass loss rates: Lyman-α absorption. Results: We are able to derive the most stringent direct upper limits on mass loss so far from radio observations. Two objects, EK Dra and χ1 Ori, are detected at 6 and 14 GHz down to an excellent noise level. These stars are very active and additional radio emission identified as non-thermal emission was detected, but limits for the mass loss rates of these objects are still derived. The emission of χ1 Ori does not come from the main target

  19. Vibration amplitude and induced temperature limitation of high power air-borne ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic impedances of matching layers, their internal loss and vibration amplitude are the most important and influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers. In this paper, the optimum acoustic impedances of the transducer matching layers were determined by using a genetic algorithm, the powerful tool for optimizating domain. The analytical results showed that the vibration amplitude increases significantly for low acoustic impedance matching layers. This enhancement is maximum and approximately 200 times higher for the last matching layer where it has the same interface with the air than the vibration amplitude of the source, lead zirconate titanate-pizo electric while transferring the 1 kW is desirable. This large amplitude increases both mechanical failure and temperature of the matching layers due to the internal loss of the matching layers. It has analytically shown that the temperature in last matching layer with having the maximum vibration amplitude is high enough to melt or burn the matching layers. To verify suggested approach, the effect of the amplitude of vibration on the induced temperature has been investigated experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  20. Chronic air-flow limitation does not increase respiratory epithelial permeability assessed by aerosolized solute, but smoking does

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Russell, J.A.; Barritault, L.G.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    To determine the separate influences of smoking and severe air-flow limitation on aerosol deposition and respiratory epithelial permeability, we studied 26 normal nonsmokers, 12 smokers without airway obstruction, 12 nonsmokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 11 smokers with COPD. We aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid to particles approximately 1 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter. Levels of radioactivity were plotted semilogarithmically against time to calculate clearance as percent per minute. The distribution of radioactivity was homogeneous in control subjects and in smokers, but patchy in both groups with COPD. No difference was found between clearances of the control group (1.18 +/- 0.31% min-1), and nonsmoker COPD group (1.37 +/- 0.82% min-1), whereas values in smokers without COPD (4.00 +/- 1.70% min-1) and smokers with COPD (3.62 +/- 2.88% min-1) were significantly greater than in both nonsmoking groups. We conclude that (1) small particles appear to deposit peripherally, even with severe COPD; (2) respiratory epithelial permeability is normal in nonsmokers with COPD; (3) smoking increases permeability by a mechanism unrelated to air-flow limitation.

  1. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    PubMed

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  2. Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 limits germinal center responses and humoral type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Brachs, Sebastian; Turqueti-Neves, Adriana; Stein, Merle; Reimer, Dorothea; Brachvogel, Bent; Bösl, Michael; Winkler, Thomas; Voehringer, David; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Mielenz, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Activated B cells are selected for in germinal centers by regulation of their apoptosis. The Ca2+ -binding cytoskeletal adaptor protein Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 (EFhd2) can promote apoptosis in activated B cells. We therefore hypothesized that EFhd2 might limit humoral immunity by repressing both the germinal center reaction and the expected enhancement of immune responses in the absence of EFhd2. Here, we established EFhd2(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6 background, which revealed normal B- and T-cell development, basal Ab levels, and T-cell independent type 1, and T-cell independent type 2 responses. However, T cell-dependent immunization with sheep red blood cells and infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N.b) increased production of antibodies of multiple isotypes, as well as germinal center formation in EFhd2(-/-) mice. In addition, serum IgE levels and numbers of IgE+ plasma cells were strongly increased in EFhd2(-/-) mice, both after primary as well as after secondary N.b infection. Finally, mixed bone marrow chimeras unraveled an EFhd2-dependent B cell-intrinsic contribution to increased IgE plasma cell numbers in N.b-infected mice. Hence, we established a role for EFhd2 as a negative regulator of germinal center-dependent humoral type 2 immunity, with implications for the generation of IgE.

  3. Water-Processable, Air-Stable Organic Nanoparticle-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Exhibiting n-Type Thermoelectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Tani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Goto, Chigusa; Tanifuji, Naoki; Uda, Ryoko M; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Water-dispersed organic base nanoparticles are utilized for the highly stable n-type doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersion. Long-term stability is often a critical challenge in the application of n-type organic conductors. The present n-type organic materials exhibit almost no degradation in the thermoelectric properties over months, in air.

  4. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static...) per minute shall not exceed the static pressure in the facepiece by more than 51 mm. (2 inches)...

  5. [Studies on the performance of the dental air turbine handpieces. (Part 1). Air pressure and bur length to be influenced over the rotational performance of the air bearing type handpieces (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyairi, H; Muramatsu, A

    1979-07-01

    Air turbine handpieces are used as the dental cutting instruments for the clinical use and many appliances. But, there are no studies on the performance of air turbine handpieces. So, this paper shows the rotational performance of air turbine handpieces which are influenced over the supplying air pressure and cutting bur length. Experimentally used air turbine handpieces is air bearing type and it's set up air pressure to be supplied is 3.5 kg/cm2. So, in this experiments, the range of air pressure is 1.8 approximately 3.5 kg/cm2, which is established five stages. And the bur length of the rotational parts is 5 approximately 9 mm with five steps. As the results, the rotational performance of air handpieces are influenced over these factors of the air pressure and the bur length. And air pressure to be supplied are influenced to be not only over the rotational speed but the load for the putting a stop to the revolutions.

  6. Effect of Fuel Composition, Engine Operating Variables, and Spark-Plug Type and Condition on Preignition-Limited Performance of an R-2800 Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfender, John F.

    1946-01-01

    The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and condition, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-limited performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition limit was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition limits of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order of increased

  7. Swift X-Ray Upper Limits on Type Ia Supernova Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. R.; Immler, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have considered 53 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope. None of the SNe Ia are individually detected at any time or in stacked images. Using these data and assuming that the SNe Ia are a homogeneous class of objects, we have calculated upper limits to the X-ray luminosity (0.2-10 keV) and mass-loss rate of L(sub 0.2-10) < 1.7 X 10(exp 38) erg/s and M(dot) < l.l X 10(exp -6) solar M/ yr x (V(sub w))/(10 km/s), respectively. The results exclude massive or evolved stars as the companion objects in SN Ia progenitor systems, but allow the possibility of main sequence or small stars, along with double degenerate systems consisting of two white dwarfs, consistent with results obtained at other wavelengths (e.g., UV, radio) in other studies.

  8. Discovering a Defect that Imposes a Limit to Mg Doping in p-TypeGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; O'Keefe, M.A.

    2006-07-20

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is the III-V semiconductor used to produce blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue and ultraviolet solid-state lasers. To be useful in electronic devices, GaN must be doped with elements that function either as electron donors or as acceptors to turn it into either an n-type semiconductor or a p-type semiconductor. It has been found that GaN can easily be grown with n-conductivity, even up to large concentrations of donors--in the few 10{sup 19}cm{sup -3} range. However, p-doping, the doping of the structure with atoms that provide electron sinks or holes, is not well understood and remains extremely difficult. The only efficient p-type dopant is Mg, but it is found that the free hole concentration is limited to 2 x 10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}, even when Mg concentrations are pushed into the low 10{sup 19}cm{sup -3} range. This saturation effect could place a limit on further development of GaN based devices. Further increase of the Mg concentration, up to 1 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3} leads to a decrease of the free hole concentration and an increase in defects. While low- to medium-brightness GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are remarkably tolerant of crystal defects, blue and UV GaN lasers are much less so. We used electron microscopy to investigate Mg doping in GaN. Our transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed the formation of different types of Mg-rich defects [1,2]. In particular, high-resolution TEM allowed us to characterize a completely new type of defect in Mg-rich GaN. We found that the type of defect depended strongly on crystal growth polarity. For crystals grown with N-polarity, planar defects are distributed at equal distances (20 unit cells of GaN); these defects can be described as inversion domains [1]. For growth with Ga-polarity, we found a different type of defect [2]. These defects turn out to be three-dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids (or trapezoids) with their base on the (0001) plane and their six walls

  9. Power flow analysis and optimal locations of resistive type superconducting fault current limiters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuchang; Ruiz, Harold S; Geng, Jianzhao; Shen, Boyang; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Heng; Coombs, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Based on conventional approaches for the integration of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) on electric distribution networks, SFCL models largely rely on the insertion of a step or exponential resistance that is determined by a predefined quenching time. In this paper, we expand the scope of the aforementioned models by considering the actual behaviour of an SFCL in terms of the temperature dynamic power-law dependence between the electrical field and the current density, characteristic of high temperature superconductors. Our results are compared to the step-resistance models for the sake of discussion and clarity of the conclusions. Both SFCL models were integrated into a power system model built based on the UK power standard, to study the impact of these protection strategies on the performance of the overall electricity network. As a representative renewable energy source, a 90 MVA wind farm was considered for the simulations. Three fault conditions were simulated, and the figures for the fault current reduction predicted by both fault current limiting models have been compared in terms of multiple current measuring points and allocation strategies. Consequently, we have shown that the incorporation of the E-J characteristics and thermal properties of the superconductor at the simulation level of electric power systems, is crucial for estimations of reliability and determining the optimal locations of resistive type SFCLs in distributed power networks. Our results may help decision making by distribution network operators regarding investment and promotion of SFCL technologies, as it is possible to determine the maximum number of SFCLs necessary to protect against different fault conditions at multiple locations.

  10. Implicit high-order discontinuous Galerkin method with HWENO type limiters for steady viscous flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.

  11. Progress Toward a Global, EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    The MISR and MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra Satellite have been collecting data containing information about the state of Earth's atmosphere and surface for over eleven years. Data from these instruments have been used to develop a global, monthly climatology of aerosol amount that is widely used as a constraint on climate models, including those used for the 2007 IPCC assessment report. The next frontier in assessing aerosol radiative forcing of climate is aerosol type, and in particular, the absorption properties of major aerosol air masses. This presentation will focus on the prospects for constraining aerosol type globally, and the steps we are taking to apply a combination of satellite and suborbital data to this challenge.

  12. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  14. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  15. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  16. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  17. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  18. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  19. Limitations to soybean photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide in free-air enrichment and open top chamber systems.

    PubMed

    Bunce, James A

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the stimulation of soybean photosynthesis by elevated CO2 was less in free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems than in open top chambers (OTC), which might explain smaller yield increases at elevated CO2 in FACE systems. However, this has not been tested using the same cultivars grown in the same location. I tested whether soybean photosynthesis at high light and elevated CO2 (ambient+180 μmol mol(-1)) was limited by electron transport (J) in FACE systems but by ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylation capacity (VCmax) in OTC. FACE systems with daytime and continuous CO2 enrichment were also compared. The results indicated that in both cultivars examined, midday photosynthesis at high light was always limited by VCmax, both in the FACE and in the OTC systems. Daytime only CO2 enrichment did not affect photosynthetic parameters or limitations, but did result in significantly smaller yields in both cultivars than continuous elevation. Photosynthesis measured at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was not higher at elevated than at ambient CO2, because of an acclimation to elevated CO2 which was only evident at low measurement PPFDs.

  20. Aerospace technology development of three types of solid state remote power controllers for 120VDC with current ratings of five, and thirty amperes, one type having current limiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The first generation of remote power controllers (RPC) developed included: a 5-ampere design (Type 1), capable of limiting maximum overload current to 15 amperes for .1 sec; and 5-ampere noncurrent (Type 2) and 30-ampere noncurrent (Type 3) limiting designs, both with selectable instant trip levels for high-current overload. Each design provides overcurrent protection through an inverse I squared T trip-out function with an automatic reset option and demonstrates step-applied fault capability with a 4000-ampere surge, fast-risetime (low-inductance) power source. They also meet MIL - STD - 461A specification for electromagnetic interference. The second generation RPCs traded off specification compliance for reduction in cost and complexity for the Type 1 and 2 designs and give comparable or improved performance in most areas. The noncurrent limiting RPC proved to be a more economical and feasible method of overload protection for certain load types.

  1. Study of boron detection limit using the in-air PIGE set-up at LAMFI-USP

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-11

    The quantification of small amounts of boron in materials is of extreme importance in different areas of materials science. Boron is an important contaminant and also a silicon dopant in the semiconductor industry. Boron is also extensively used in nuclear power plants, either for neutron shielding or for safety control and boron is an essential nutrient for life, either vegetable or animal. The production of silicon solar cells, by refining metallurgical-grade silicon (MG-Si) requires the control and reduction of several silicon contaminants to very low concentration levels. Boron is one of the contaminants of solar-grade silicon (SG-Si) that must be controlled and quantified at sub-ppm levels. In the metallurgical purification, boron quantification is usually made by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, (ICP-MS) but the results need to be verified by an independent analytical method. In this work we present the results of the analysis of silicon samples by Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) aiming the quantification of low concentrations of boron. PIGE analysis was carried out using the in-air external beam line of the Laboratory for Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP) by the {sup 10}B(p,αγ({sup 7}Be nuclear reaction, and measuring the 429 keV γ-ray. The in-air PIGE measurements at LAMFI have a quantification limit of the order of 10{sup 16} at/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Study of boron detection limit using the in-air PIGE set-up at LAMFI-USP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of small amounts of boron in materials is of extreme importance in different areas of materials science. Boron is an important contaminant and also a silicon dopant in the semiconductor industry. Boron is also extensively used in nuclear power plants, either for neutron shielding or for safety control and boron is an essential nutrient for life, either vegetable or animal. The production of silicon solar cells, by refining metallurgical-grade silicon (MG-Si) requires the control and reduction of several silicon contaminants to very low concentration levels. Boron is one of the contaminants of solar-grade silicon (SG-Si) that must be controlled and quantified at sub-ppm levels. In the metallurgical purification, boron quantification is usually made by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, (ICP-MS) but the results need to be verified by an independent analytical method. In this work we present the results of the analysis of silicon samples by Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) aiming the quantification of low concentrations of boron. PIGE analysis was carried out using the in-air external beam line of the Laboratory for Materials Analysis with Ion Beans (LAMFI-USP) by the 10B ( p ,αγ(7Be nuclear reaction, and measuring the 429 keV γ-ray. The in-air PIGE measurements at LAMFI have a quantification limit of the order of 1016 at/cm2.

  3. Criterion of the boundedness of a fractional integration type operator with variable upper limit in weighted Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abylayeva, Akbota

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the boundedness of a fractional integration type operator with variable upper limit are obtained under different parameters in weighted Lebesgue spaces.

  4. Effects of Outdoor Air Pollutants on Platelet Activation in People with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Mark W.; Bausch, Jan; Chalupa, David; Hopke, Philip K.; Little, Erika L.; Oakes, David; Stewart, Judith C.; Utell, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that increases in exposure to ambient air pollution are associated with platelet activation and formation of circulating tissue-factor-expressing microparticles. We studied 19 subjects with type 2 diabetes, without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, who had previously participated in a human clinical study of exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP). Blood was obtained for measurements of platelet activation following an overnight stay in the Clinical Research Center, prior to each of their two pre-exposure visits. Air pollution and meteorological data, including UFP counts, were analyzed for the 5 days prior to the subjects’ arrival at the Clinical Research Center. Contrary to expectations, increases in UFP were associated with decreases in surface expression of platelet activation markers. The number of platelet-leukocyte conjugates decreased by −80 (95% confidence interval (CI) −123 to −37, p=0.001) on the first lag day (20–44 hours prior to the blood draw) and by −85 (CI −139 to −31, p=0.005) on combined lag days 1 to 5, per interquartile range (IQR) increase in UFP particle number (2482). However, levels of soluble CD40L increased 104 (CI 3 to 205, p=0.04) pg/ml per IQR increase in UFP on lag day 1, a finding consistent with prior platelet activation. We speculate that, in people with diabetes, exposure to UFP activates circulating platelets within hours of exposure, followed by an increase in soluble CD40L and a rebound reduction in circulating platelet surface markers. PMID:23033996

  5. Effects of outdoor air pollutants on platelet activation in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Mark W; Bausch, Jan; Chalupa, David; Hopke, Philip K; Little, Erika L; Oakes, David; Stewart, Judith C; Utell, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that increases in exposure to ambient air pollution are associated with platelet activation and formation of circulating tissue factor-expressing microparticles. We studied 19 subjects with type 2 diabetes, without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, who had previously participated in a human clinical study of exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP). Blood was obtained for measurements of platelet activation following an overnight stay in the Clinical Research Center, prior to each of their two pre-exposure visits. Air pollution and meteorological data, including UFP counts, were analyzed for the 5 days prior to the subjects' arrival at the Clinical Research Center. Contrary to expectations, increases in UFP were associated with decreases in surface expression of platelet activation markers. The number of platelet-leukocyte conjugates decreased by -80 (95% confidence interval (CI) -123 to -37, p = 0.001) on the first lag day (20-44 h prior to the blood draw) and by -85 (CI -139 to -31, p = 0.005) on combined lag days 1 to 5, per interquartile range (IQR) increase in UFP particle number (2482). However, levels of soluble CD40L increased 104 (CI 3 to 205, p = 0.04) pg/ml per IQR increase in UFP on lag day 1, a finding consistent with prior platelet activation. We speculate that, in people with diabetes, exposure to UFP activates circulating platelets within hours of exposure, followed by an increase in soluble CD40L and a rebound reduction in circulating platelet surface markers.

  6. Identifying nitrogen limitations to organic sediments accumulation in various vegetation types of arctic tundra (Hornsund, Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, G.; Wojtuń, B.; Hua, Q.; Richter, D.; Jakubas, D.; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, K.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions play important roles in the global carbon balance. However, nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major constraint for organic carbon sequestration in the High Arctic. Hence, the identification of the relative contributions from different N-sources is critical for understanding the constraints that limit tundra growth. The stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources and numerous plants were analyzed in ten tundra types in the Fuglebekken catchment (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard, 77°N 15°E). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by seabirds' feces (colonially breeding, planktivorous Alle alle), ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by N2-fixation. The results clearly show that N-pool in the tundra is significantly supplemented by nesting seabirds. Thus, if they experienced substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, it would adversely influence the tundra N-budget [1]. The growth rates and the sediment thickness (<15 cm) in different tundra types varied considerably but the tundra age was similar, <450 cal BP. The only exception was Ornithocoprophilous tundra with very diverse ages ranging from 235 to 2300 cal BP and thickness up to 110cm. The growth rates for this tundra (62 cm core, 18 AMS 14C dates) were high (1.5-3.0 mm/yr) between 1568 and 1804 AD and then substantially declined for the period between 1804 and 1929 AD (0.2 mm/yr). These findings deliver an additional argument, that the organic matter accumulation is driven not only directly by climatic conditions but also by birds' contribution to the tundra N-pool. [1] Skrzypek G, Wojtuń B, Richter D, Jakubas D, Wojczulanis-Jakubas K, Samecka-Cymerman A, 2015. Diversification of nitrogen sources in various tundra vegetation types in the high Arctic. PLoS ONE

  7. Response of duffing-type harvesters to band-limited noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to experimentally investigate the influence of stiffness-type nonlinearities on the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters (VEHs) under band-limited noise. For the purpose of the study, an energy harvester consisting of a clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam bi-morph is considered. The shape of the harvester's potential function is altered by applying a static compressive axial load at one end of the beam. The axial load permits the harvester to operate with different potential energy characteristics, namely, the mono-stable (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) configurations. The performance of the harvester in both the configurations is investigated and compared by tuning the harvester's oscillation frequencies around the static equilibria such that they have equal values in both scenarios. The harvester is then subjected to random base excitations of different levels, bandwidths, and center frequencies. The variance of the output voltage is measured across an arbitrary, purely resistive load and used for the purpose of performance comparison. Critical conclusions pertinent to the influence of the nonlinearity and relative performance in both configurations are presented and discussed.

  8. Limitations of IL-2 and rapamycin in immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Baeyens, Audrey; Pérol, Louis; Fourcade, Gwladys; Cagnard, Nicolas; Carpentier, Wassila; Woytschak, Janine; Boyman, Onur; Hartemann, Agnès; Piaggio, Eliane

    2013-09-01

    Administration of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone or combined with rapamycin (RAPA) prevents hyperglycemia in NOD mice. Also, low-dose IL-2 cures recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, partially by boosting pancreatic regulatory T cells (Treg cells). These approaches are currently being evaluated in humans. Our objective was to study the effect of higher IL-2 doses (250,000-500,000 IU daily) as well as low-dose IL-2 (25,000 IU daily) and RAPA (1 mg/kg daily) (RAPA/IL-2) combination. We show that, despite further boosting of Treg cells, high doses of IL-2 rapidly precipitated T1D in prediabetic female and male mice and increased myeloid cells in the pancreas. Also, we observed that RAPA counteracted IL-2 effects on Treg cells, failed to control IL-2-boosted NK cells, and broke IL-2-induced tolerance in a reversible way. Notably, the RAPA/IL-2 combination failure to cure T1D was associated with an unexpected deleterious effect on glucose homeostasis at multiple levels, including β-cell division, glucose tolerance, and liver glucose metabolism. Our data help to understand the therapeutic limitations of IL-2 alone or RAPA/IL-2 combination and could lead to the design of improved therapies for T1D.

  9. SWIFT X-RAY UPPER LIMITS ON TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, B. R.; Immler, S.

    2012-04-01

    We have considered 53 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope. None of the SNe Ia are individually detected at any time or in stacked images. Using these data and assuming that the SNe Ia are a homogeneous class of objects, we have calculated upper limits to the X-ray luminosity (0.2-10 keV) and mass-loss rate of L{sub 0.2-10} < 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} and M-dot < 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} Multiplication-Sign (v{sub w})/(10 km s{sup -1}), respectively. The results exclude massive or evolved stars as the companion objects in SN Ia progenitor systems, but allow the possibility of main sequence or small stars, along with double degenerate systems consisting of two white dwarfs, consistent with results obtained at other wavelengths (e.g., UV, radio) in other studies.

  10. Type 1 Interferons and NK Cells Limit Murine Cytomegalovirus Escape from the Lymph Node Subcapsular Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic, systemic infections. Peripheral infection spreads via lymph nodes, which are also a focus of host defence. Thus, this is a point at which systemic infection spread might be restricted. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM) captured murine CMV (MCMV) from the afferent lymph and poorly supported its replication. Blocking the type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFNAR) increased MCMV infection of SSM and of the fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) lining the subcapsular sinus, and accelerated viral spread to the spleen. Little splenic virus derived from SSM, arguing that they mainly induce an anti-viral state in the otherwise susceptible FRC. NK cells also limited infection, killing infected FRC and causing tissue damage. They acted independently of IFN-I, as IFNAR blockade increased NK cell recruitment, and NK cell depletion increased infection in IFNAR-blocked mice. Thus SSM restricted MCMV infection primarily though IFN-I, with NK cells providing a second line of defence. The capacity of innate immunity to restrict MCMV escape from the subcapsular sinus suggested that enhancing its recruitment might improve infection control. PMID:27926941

  11. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians.

  12. An assessment of prognostic factors, adjuvant treatment and outcomes of stage IA polyp-limited versus endometrium-limited type II endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lusha W.; Perez, Alexendar R.; Cangemi, Nicholas A.; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Makker, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine clinical outcomes in patients with stage IA polyp-limited versus endometrium-limited high-grade (type II) endometrial carcinoma (EC). Methods We identified all cases of stage IA polyp-limited or endometrium-limited high-grade EC (FIGO Grade 3 endometrioid, Serous, Clear Cell, or Mixed) who underwent simple hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal washings, omental biopsy, and pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection and received adjuvant treatment at our institution from 10/1995–11/2012. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by histology, adjuvant therapy, and polyp-limited vs endometrium-limited disease status were determined using log-rank test. We analyzed three treatment groups: patients who received chemotherapy with or without Radiation Therapy (RT) (intravaginal or pelvic); patients who received RT (intravaginal RT or pelvic RT) alone; and patients who received no adjuvant treatment. Results In all, 85 women underwent hysterectomy/salpingo-oophorectomy; all were surgically staged with lymph node assessment and had stage IA EC with no lymphovascular or myometrial invasion. Median follow-up for survivors was 46.5 months (range, 1.98–188.8 months). Forty-nine patients (57.6%) had polyp-limited disease and 36 (42.4%) had endometrium-limited disease. There were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics between patients within the three treatment groups with regards to age at diagnosis, mean BMI, ECOG performance status, polyp-limited, endometrium-limited disease, diabetes, or race. The 3-year PFS rate was 94.9% and the 3-year OS rate was 98.8%. Univariate PFS and OS analysis revealed that age was a relevant prognostic factor [(PFS:HR (95%CI):1.13(1.02–1.25); P=0.022 and OS HR (95%CI):1.19(1.02–1.38); P=0.03]. Adjuvant treatment did not impact outcomes. Conclusions Clinical outcomes of surgical stage IA, type II polyp- or endometrium-limited high-grade epithelial EC are

  13. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-01-31

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m(2) ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m(2) were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes.

  14. Air-water ‘tornado’-type microwave plasmas applied for sugarcane biomass treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Amorim, J.

    2014-02-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane biomass is an attractive alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Pretreatment is needed to separate the cellulosic material, which is packed with hemicellulose and lignin in cell wall of sugarcane biomass. A microwave ‘tornado’-type air-water plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz and atmospheric pressure has been applied for this purpose. Samples of dry and wet biomass (˜2 g) have been exposed to the late afterglow plasma stream. The experiments demonstrate that the air-water highly reactive plasma environment provides a number of long-lived active species able to destroy the cellulosic wrapping. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to analyse the morphological changes occurring due to plasma treatment. The effluent gas streams have been analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Optical emission spectroscopy and FT-IR have been applied to determine the gas temperature in the discharge and late afterglow plasma zones, respectively. The optimal range of the operational parameters is discussed along with the main active species involved in the treatment process. Synergistic effects can result from the action of singlet O2(a 1Δg) oxygen, NO2, nitrous acid HNO2 and OH hydroxyl radical.

  15. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes.

  16. [Unusual and fatal type of burn injury: hot air sauna burn].

    PubMed

    García-Tutor, E; Koljonen, V

    2007-01-01

    Sauna bathing is a popular recreational activity in Finland and is generally considered safe even for pregnant women and patients suffering from heart problems; but mixing alcohol with sauna bathing can be hazardous. In the normal Finnish recreational sauna the temperature is usually between 80 and 90 degrees C. A wide variety of burn injuries, in all age groups, are related to sauna bathing; scalds and contact burns account for over 85% while hot air, steam and flame burns for only 15%. Dehydration in patients under the influence of alcohol heightens the risk of hypotension which impairs skin blood circulation. This increased warming of the skin is an effect that is more marked on the outer and upper parts of the body exposed to hot air. Such patients require intensive care on admission: fluid replacement according to the Parkland formula, forced diuresis and immediate correction of acidosis and myoglobinuria. These patients have significant rhabdomyolysis on admission. The best predictor of survival is the creatine kinase level on the second post-injury day. CT scans are necessary to diagnose the underlying conditions of unconsciousness. The necrotic area extends to subcutaneous fat tissue and even to the underlying muscles. The level of excision is typically fascial and, in some areas, layers of the muscle must be removed. Owing to the popularity of sauna bathing throughout the world, it is important to know the extent of damage in this type of injury, in order not to underestimate the severity of such lesions.

  17. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  18. A genomics study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Lott, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    The military community is at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially as it relates to military beneficiaries, although preventive measures can be implemented to reduce disease onset. This study evaluates the prevalence of risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients diagnosed with T2D within active duty, retired military, and military-dependent populations on Lackland Air Force Base compared to nondiabetic controls. Results will be used as a basis of comparison to analyze risk-conferring genotypes in the young, healthy active duty population to generate the prevalence of T2D risk-associated factors in our current and future war fighters. Identifying genetic markers of T2D prior to abnormal glucose control and insulin resistance may ultimately adjust future risk through early detection, healthy lifestyle modifications, and disease management programs.

  19. N-type doping of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) with air-stable dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingtao; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2011-10-01

    The electron transport in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives blended with the air-stable n-type dopant (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl)dimethylamine (N-DMBI) is investigated. This dopant is activated after thin film deposition by annealing and strongly enhances the electron transport due to filling of electron traps as well as donation of free electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of PPV. As a result, the electron current in a doped device exceeds the trap-free hole current. The total generated free electron density in the LUMO by the dopant typically amounts to 1023 m-3.

  20. Cost analysis of new and retrofit hot-air type solar assisted heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Hawkins, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed cost analysis/cost improvement study was performed on two Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration operational test sites to determine actual costs and potential cost improvements of new and retrofit hot air type, solar assisted heating and hot water systems for single family sized structures. This analysis concentrated on the first cost of a system which included procurement, installation, and integration of a solar assisted heating and hot water system on a new or retrofit basis; it also provided several cost projections which can be used as inputs to payback analyses, depending upon the degree of optimism or future improvements assumed. Cost definitions were developed for five categories of cost, and preliminary estimates were developed for each. The costing methodology, approach, and results together with several candidate low cost designs are described.

  1. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.861 Emission limitations. The rules in this section govern the spectral characteristics of emissions for commercial aviation systems in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service. Commercial aviation air-ground systems may use any type...

  2. Inferring cell type innovations by phylogenetic methods-concepts, methods, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Kin, Koryu

    2015-12-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of distinct cell types that have specific roles in the body. Each cell type is a product of two kinds of historical processes-development and evolution. Although the concept of a cell type is difficult to define, the cell type concept based on the idea of the core regulatory network (CRN), a gene regulatory network that determines the identity of a cell type, illustrates the essential aspects of the cell type concept. The first step toward elucidating cell type evolution is to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of cell types, or the cell type tree. The sister cell type model assumes that a new cell type evolves through divergence from a multifunctional ancestral cell type, creating tree-like evolutionary relationships between cell types. The process of generating a cell type tree can also be understood as the sequential addition of a new branching point on an ancestral cell differentiation hierarchy in evolution. A cell type tree thus represents an intertwined history of cell type evolution and development. Cell type trees can be reconstructed from high-throughput sequencing data, and the reconstruction of a cell type tree leads to the discovery of genes that are functionally important for a cell type. Although many issues including the lack of cross-species comparisons and the lack of a proper model for cell type evolution remain, the study of the origin of a new cell type using phylogenetic methods offers a promising new research avenue in developmental evolution. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 653-661, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Limited transmission of bla(CTX-M-9)-type-positive Escherichia coli between humans and poultry in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shuhei; Ngan, Bui Thi Kim; Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Hirai, Itaru; Tuyen, Le Danh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Escherichia coli isolates that produce CTX-M-9-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are transferred between humans and chickens in a Vietnamese community. The phylogenetic group compositions, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance profiles, the prevalence of plasmid antibiotic resistance genes, and the plasmid replicon types generally differed between the human and chicken E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that transmission of the bla(CTX-M-9)-positive E. coli between humans and poultry was limited.

  4. New mass limit for white dwarfs: super-Chandrasekhar type ia supernova as a new standard candle.

    PubMed

    Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-02-15

    Type Ia supernovae, sparked off by exploding white dwarfs of mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit, play the key role in understanding the expansion rate of the Universe. However, recent observations of several peculiar type Ia supernovae argue for its progenitor mass to be significantly super-Chandrasekhar. We show that strongly magnetized white dwarfs not only can violate the Chandrasekhar mass limit significantly, but exhibit a different mass limit. We establish from a foundational level that the generic mass limit of white dwarfs is 2.58 solar mass. This explains the origin of overluminous peculiar type Ia supernovae. Our finding further argues for a possible second standard candle, which has many far reaching implications, including a possible reconsideration of the expansion history of the Universe.

  5. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  6. Limitations and barriers for adopting sustainable management practices in different farm types across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Pedrera, Ana; Jesús Gaitán, Antonio; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Although apparently the conservation of natural resources such as water and soil does not represent important concerns for our society, the evolution of the world population and the degradation of these resources pose a challenge to improving agricultural food production capacity and conserving, and in some cases restoring, the environmental quality. Unfortunately, the history contains numerous examples of abandonment of these resources (McNeill 1992, Montgomery 2007). Although most of the agronomic conservation practices have been known for millennia, their implementation has often been hindered by non-agricultural motives (Davis et al. 2012). The European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) started last year with the aim of evaluating sustainable soil management practices and exploring the difficulties for their adoption, both at farm and institutional level, to overcome them in the near future. As a first step with that purpose, a selection of best management practices (BMPs) based on interviews with advisors and scientific knowledge were proposed for each of the considered farm typologies: arable crops, permanent crops and pasture. These farm types are representative of the Mediterranean area in terms of agroecological properties, extension, economical importance and soil degradation problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out by addressing different profiles of farmers to identify in a qualitative way the main limitations for adopting these BMPs on their farms. Different questionnaires were prepared based on the farmers' responses and launched at a larger scale, with the aim of achieving approximately 100 responses per each farm typology. Finally, responses from the questionnaires will be analyzed to explore the causes that hinder or impede the adoption of BMPs in different farm typologies. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. McNeill, J.R. 1992. The mountains of the Mediterranean world. Cambridge

  7. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  8. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  9. Limited Effects of Type I Interferons on Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Bradley W. M.; Ranadheera, Charlene; Nikiforuk, Aidan M.; Cutts, Todd A.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Court, Deborah A.; Theriault, Steven S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The tick-borne flavivirus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) causes seasonal infections and periodic outbreaks in south-west India. The current vaccine offers poor protection with reported issues of coverage and immunogenicity. Since there are no approved prophylactic therapeutics for KFDV, type I IFN-α/β subtypes were assessed for antiviral potency against KFDV in cell culture. Methodology/Principal Findings The continued passage of KFDV-infected cells with re-administered IFN-α2a treatment did not eliminate KFDV and had little effect on infectious particle production whereas the IFN-sensitive, green fluorescent protein-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-GFP) infection was controlled. Further evaluation of the other IFN-α/β subtypes versus KFDV infection indicated that single treatments of either IFN-αWA and IFN-αΚ appeared to be more effective than IFN-α2a at reducing KFDV titres. Concentration-dependent analysis of these IFN-α/β subtypes revealed that regardless of subtype, low concentrations of IFN were able to limit cytopathic effects (CPE), while significantly higher concentrations were needed for inhibition of virion release. Furthermore, expression of the KFDV NS5 in cell culture before IFN addition enabled VSV-GFP to overcome the effects of IFN-α/β signalling, producing a robust infection. Conclusions/Significance Treatment of cell culture with IFN does not appear to be suitable for KFDV eradication and the assay used for such studies should be carefully considered. Further, it appears that the NS5 protein is sufficient to permit KFDV to bypass the antiviral properties of IFN. We suggest that other prophylactic therapeutics should be evaluated in place of IFN for treatment of individuals with KFDV disease. PMID:27479197

  10. A SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITOR MODEL FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE HIGHLY EXCEEDING THE CHANDRASEKHAR MASS LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) suggest that some of the progenitor white dwarfs (WDs) had masses up to 2.4-2.8 M{sub Sun }, highly exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass limit. We present a new single degenerate model for SN Ia progenitors, in which the WD mass possibly reaches 2.3-2.7 M{sub Sun }. Three binary evolution processes are incorporated: optically thick winds from mass-accreting WDs, mass stripping from the binary companion star by the WD winds, and WDs being supported by differential rotation. The WD mass can increase by accretion up to 2.3 (2.7) M{sub Sun} from the initial value of 1.1 (1.2) M{sub Sun }, consistent with high-luminosity SNe Ia, such as SN 2003fg, SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, and SN 2009dc. There are three characteristic mass ranges of exploding WDs. In the extreme massive case, differentially rotating WDs explode as an SN Ia soon after the WD mass exceeds 2.4 M{sub Sun} because of a secular instability at T/|W| {approx} 0.14. For the mid-mass range of M{sub WD} = 1.5-2.4 M{sub Sun }, it takes some time (spinning-down time) until carbon is ignited to induce an SN Ia explosion after the WD mass has reached maximum, because it needs a loss or redistribution of angular momentum. For the lower mass case of rigidly rotating WDs, M{sub WD} = 1.38-1.5 M{sub Sun }, the spinning-down time depends on the timescale of angular momentum loss from the WD. The difference in the spinning-down time may produce the 'prompt' and 'tardy' components. We also suggest that the very bright super-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia are born in a low-metallicity environment.

  11. Analysis on current limiting characteristics of a flux-lock type SFCL with two triggering current levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. H.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two triggering current levels was suggested and its current limiting characteristics were analyzed. The structure of the suggested flux-lock type SFCL with two triggering current levels largely consists of two parts. One is the flux-lock type SFCL with two magnetically coupled coils with series or parallel connection and one high-TC superconducting (HTSC) element, which is connected in series or parallel with one of two coils. The other is constructed in the third coil with another HTSC element. This suggested flux-lock type SFCL can limit the fault current by generating its limiting impedance with two different amplitudes, which are dependent on the initial amplitude of the fault current in case of the fault occurrence. To confirm the usefulness of the proposed SFCL, the limiting tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle, which is one of the effective fault conditions to affect the amplitude of the initial fault current, were carried out and its effective limiting operations were discussed.

  12. Model-based flow rate control for an orfice-type low-volume air sampler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard method of measuring air suspended particulate matter concentration per volume of air consists of continuously drawing a defined volume of air across a filter over an extended period of time, then measuring the mass of the filtered particles and dividing it by the total volume sampled ov...

  13. AN IMPROVED AIR-DRIVEN TYPE OF ULTRACENTRIFUGE FOR MOLECULAR SEDIMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Johannes H.; Pickels, Edward G.

    1937-01-01

    1. A description is given of the construction details and operation characteristics of an improved type of air-driven ultracentrifuge operating in vacuum and suitable for the determination of sedimentation constants of protein molecules. 2. The rotor of the centrifuge is made of a forged aluminum alloy; it is oval in shape, measures 185 mm. at its greatest diameter, and weighs 3,430 gm. It carries a transparent cell located at a distance of 65 mm. from the axis of rotation and designed to accommodate a fluid column 15 mm. high. 3. The rotor has been run repeatedly over long periods at a speed of 60,000 R.P.M., which corresponds to a centrifugal force of 260,000 times gravity in the center of the cell. At this speed no deformation of the rotor nor leakage of the cell has been observed. 4. The sharp definition of sedimentation photographs taken at high speed serves to indicate the absence of detectable vibrations in the centrifuge. 5. When a vacuum of less than 1 micron of mercury is maintained in the centrifuge chamber, the rise in the rotor temperature amounts to only 1 or 2°C. after several hours' run at high speed. 6. There has been no evidence of convection currents interfering with normal sedimentation of protein molecules in the centrifugal field. 7. A driving air pressure of about 18 pounds per square inch is sufficient to maintain the centrifuge at a steady speed of 60,000 R.P.M. With a driving pressure of 80 pounds per square inch, it can be accelerated to this speed in less than 20 minutes, and also brought to rest in about the same length of time by the application of the braking system. 8. The adaptation of Svedberg's optical systems to this centrifuge for photographically recording the movement of sedimentation boundaries is described. PMID:19870619

  14. Clark Lake microbursts - On a lower limit to type III burst brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. M.; Kundu, M. R.; Szabo, A.

    1987-01-01

    Further observations of solar microbursts by the Clark Lake radioheliograph are reported. The microbursts have properties consistent with weak type III bursts, with the implication that type III's can have brightness temperatures as low as 1 million K. The importance of this result is explored. A single model to explain the stronger type III bursts and the weaker microbursts is sought. It is shown that none of the models for stabilizing the strongest type III electron streams can explain the observed microbursts: these models have threshold levels of Langmuir waves which imply emission (due to spontaneous scattering off ions) with brightness temperatures in excess of those observed. It appears that either some vital physics is still missing from models for type III bursts, or that microbursts should have properties significantly different from those of type III bursts. In the latter case further observations should allow important tests of type III models.

  15. Foliage response of young central European oaks to air warming, drought and soil type.

    PubMed

    Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Vollenweider, P

    2013-01-01

    Three Central European oak species, with four provenances each, were experimentally tested in 16 large model ecosystem chambers for their response to passive air warming (AW, ambient +1-2 °C), drought (D, -43 to -60% irrigation) and their combination (AWD) for 3 years on two forest soil types of pH 4 or 7. Throughout the entire experiment, the influence of the different ambient and experimental climates on the oak trees was strong. The morphological traits of the Quercus species were affected in opposing ways in AW and D treatments, with a neutral effect in the AWD treatment. Biochemical parameters and LMA showed low relative plasticity compared to the morphological and growth parameters. The high plasticity in physiologically important parameters of the three species, such as number of intercalary veins or leaf size, indicated good drought acclimation properties. The soil type influenced leaf chlorophyll concentration, C/N and area more than drought, whereas foliage mass was more dependent on drought than on soil type. Through comparison of visible symptom development with the water deficits, a drought tolerance threshold of -1.3 MPa was determined. Although Q. pubescens had xeromorphic leaf characteristics (small leaf size, lower leaf water content, high LMA, pilosity, more chlorophyll, higher C/N) and less response to the treatments than Q. petraea and Q. robur, it suffered more leaf drought injury and shedding of leaves than Q. petraea. However, if foliage mass were used as the criterion for sustainable performance under a future climate, Q. robur would be the most appropriate species.

  16. Ambient air quality and emission characteristics in and around a non-recovery type coke oven using high sulphur coal.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Saikia, Prasenjit; Boruah, Ratan; Saikia, Binoy K

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of gaseous species and aerosols in and around a non-recovery type coke making oven using high sulphur coals. In this paper, physico-chemical properties of the feed coal sample are reported along with the collection and measurement of the emitted gases (SO2, NO2, and NH3) and aerosol particles (PM2.5, PM10) during the coal carbonization in the oven. The coals used are from northeast India and they are high sulphur in nature. The concentrations of the gases e.g., SO2, NO2 and NH3 emitted are observed to be within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 24h. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are found to be 125.4 μg/m(3) and 48.6 μg/m(3) respectively, as measured during three days of coke oven operations. About 99% of the SO2 in flue gases is captured by using an alkali treatment during the coke oven operation. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) after Centred Log Ratio (clr) transformation is also performed to know the positive and negative correlation among the coal properties and the emission parameters.

  17. Synergistic COX2 Induction by IFNγ and TNFα Self-Limits Type-1 Immunity in the Human Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jeffrey L; Obermajer, Nataša; Odunsi, Kunle; Edwards, Robert P; Kalinski, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Maintenance of CTL-, Th1-, and NK cell-mediated type-1 immunity is essential for effective antitumor responses. Unexpectedly, we observed that the critical soluble mediators of type-1 immune effector cells, IFNγ and TNFα, synergize in the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), the key enzyme in prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis, and the subsequent hyperactivation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) within the tumor microenvironment (TME) of ovarian cancer patients. MDSC hyperactivation by type-1 immunity and the resultant overexpression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2), IL10, and additional COX2 result in strong feedback suppression of type-1 immune responses. This paradoxical immune suppression driven by type-1 immune cell activation was found to depend on the synergistic action of IFNγ and TNFα, and could not be reproduced by either of these factors alone. Importantly, from a therapeutic standpoint, these negative feedback limiting type-1 responses could be eliminated by COX2 blockade, allowing amplification of type-1 immunity in the ovarian cancer TME. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism underlying the self-limiting nature of type-1 immunity in the human TME, driven by the synergistic induction of COX2 by IFNγ and TNFα, and provide a rationale for targeting the COX2-PGE2 axis to enhance the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies.

  18. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Rothia aeria Type Strain JCM 11412, Isolated from Air in the Russian Space Laboratory Mir.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Takayuki; Tsuzukibashi, Osamu; Uchibori, Satoshi; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hugo; Wang, Pao-Li; Mugita, Naho; Morioka, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kazuya; Komasa, Yutaka; Mashimo, Chiho

    2016-12-29

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Rothia aeria type strain JCM 11412, isolated from air in the Russian space laboratory Mir. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports on infections caused by R. aeria The genomic information will enable researchers to identify the pathogenicity of this organism.

  20. Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation?

    PubMed

    Kobler, Alexander; Klefoth, Thomas; Mehner, Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Intra-population variation in behaviour unrelated to sex, size or age exists in a variety of species. The mechanisms behind behavioural diversification have only been partly understood, but density-dependent resource availability may play a crucial role. To explore the potential coexistence of different behavioural types within a natural fish population, we conducted a radio telemetry study, measuring habitat use and swimming activity patterns of pike (Esox lucius), a sit-and-wait predatory fish. Three behavioural types co-occurred in the study lake. While two types of fish only selected vegetated littoral habitats, the third type opportunistically used all habitats and increased its pelagic occurrence in response to decreasing resource biomasses. There were no differences in size, age or lifetime growth between the three behavioural types. However, habitat-opportunistic pike were substantially more active than the other two behavioural types, which is energetically costly. The identical growth rates exhibited by all behavioural types indicate that these higher activity costs of opportunistic behaviour were compensated for by increased prey consumption in the less favourable pelagic habitat resulting in approximately equal fitness of all pike groups. We conclude that behavioural diversification in habitat use and activity reduces intraspecific competition in preferred littoral habitats. This may facilitate the emergence of an ideal free distribution of pike along resource gradients.

  1. [Aerodynamics study on pressure changes inside pressure-type whole-body plethysmograph produced by flowing air].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2010-02-25

    When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes.

  2. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  4. How Small Can We Go: Exploring the Limitations and Scaling laws of Air-Microfluidic Particulate Matter Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air-microfluidics is a field that has the potential to dramatically reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) that can be ap...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  13. Exact solution of the Dirac equation with the Mie-type potential under the pseudospin and spin symmetry limit

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogdu, Oktay Sever, Ramazan

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the exact solution of the Dirac equation for the Mie-type potentials under the conditions of pseudospin and spin symmetry limits. The bound state energy equations and the corresponding two-component spinor wave functions of the Dirac particles for the Mie-type potentials with pseudospin and spin symmetry are obtained. We use the asymptotic iteration method in the calculations. Closed forms of the energy eigenvalues are obtained for any spin-orbit coupling term {kappa}. We also investigate the energy eigenvalues of the Dirac particles for the well-known Kratzer-Fues and modified Kratzer potentials which are Mie-type potentials.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL LIMITS ON TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACCRETION RATE IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared; Kelly, Brandon C.; Elvis, Martin; Hao Heng; Huchra, John P.; Merloni, Andrea; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Cappelluti, Nico; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Koekemoer, Anton; Nagao, Tohru; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2009-07-20

    We present black hole masses and accretion rates for 182 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in COSMOS. We estimate masses using the scaling relations for the broad H {beta}, Mg II, and C IV emission lines in the redshift ranges 0.16 < z < 0.88, 1 < z < 2.4, and 2.7 < z < 4.9. We estimate the accretion rate using an Eddington ratio L{sub I}/L{sub Edd} estimated from optical and X-ray data. We find that very few Type 1 AGNs accrete below L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.01, despite simulations of synthetic spectra which show that the survey is sensitive to such Type 1 AGNs. At lower accretion rates the broad-line region may become obscured, diluted, or nonexistent. We find evidence that Type 1 AGNs at higher accretion rates have higher optical luminosities, as more of their emission comes from the cool (optical) accretion disk with respect to shorter wavelengths. We measure a larger range in accretion rate than previous works, suggesting that COSMOS is more efficient at finding low accretion rate Type 1 AGNs. However, the measured range in accretion rate is still comparable to the intrinsic scatter from the scaling relations, suggesting that Type 1 AGNs accrete at a narrow range of Eddington ratio, with L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.1.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Tensile Strength of a Type IV Gypsum Using Microwave and Air Drying Methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuraag; Shetty, Manoj; Hegde, Chethan; Shetty, N Sridhar; Prasad, D Krishna

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate dimensional accuracy and tensile strength of a type IV gypsum product, at different time intervals, dried in air or a microwave oven. Eighty specimens prepared from a cylindrical mould were used for measuring tensile strength (group A). Twenty specimens from a master die mould were used for determining dimensional accuracy (group B). In group A, 40 specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (A1). The other 40 were removed after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were subjected to microwave oven drying for 5 min (A2). Ten specimens each were tested under diametral compression at each of the following time periods: 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after drying. In group B, ten specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (B1). Ten specimens were removed from the mould after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were then dried in a microwave oven for 5 min (B2). The data was statistically analyzed using students unpaired "t" test. At all time intervals, diametral tensile strength (DTS) values for specimens dried in microwave oven were significantly higher than for those dried in open air. There were no significant differences between the dimensional accuracy of the two groups. In this study, microwave oven drying had a positive effect on the DTS of a type IV gypsum and the microwave oven dried specimens were as accurate as the air dried specimens over the same time period.

  16. 78 FR 37821 - Tribal Self-Governance Program, Negotiation Cooperative Agreement, Announcement Type: New-Limited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Tribal Self-Governance Program, Negotiation Cooperative Agreement... (IHS) Office of Tribal Self-Governance (OTSG) is accepting limited competition Negotiation Cooperative... Tribe should contact the respective ALN to begin the Self-Governance negotiations process and...

  17. Household air pollution following replacement of traditional open fire with an improved rocket type cookstove.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Caroline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Tonne, Cathryn

    2017-02-15

    Cooking with biomass fuel is an important source of household air pollution (HAP) in developing countries, and a leading risk factor for ill-health. Although various designs of "improved cookstoves" (ICS) have been promoted as HAP interventions in these settings, few of them have undergone in-field evaluation, partly due to the challenge of conducting field measurements in remote settings. In this study we assessed the change in carbon monoxide (CO) exposure following the replacement of the traditional three-stone stove with a popular ICS in 49 homes in Western Kenya. We also assessed the suitability of using kitchen CO as a proxy for kitchen PM2.5. Reduction in 48h mean kitchen CO was 3.1ppm (95% CI: -8.1, 1.8) and in personal CO was 0.9ppm (95% CI: -4.3, 2.6) following stove replacements. Overall, 48-h kitchen and personal CO exposures were lower after stove replacement (28% and 12%, respectively) but with wide confidence intervals that also suggested possible increases in exposure. There were statistically significant reductions in peak kitchen and personal CO concentrations represented by the 8-h 95th percentile: reductions of 26.1ppm (95% CI: -44.6, -7.6) and 8.0ppm (95% CI: -12.2, -3.8), respectively. This is equivalent to 53% reduction in kitchen CO and 39% reduction in personal CO. We found good correlation between kitchen CO and PM2.5 concentrations overall (r=0.73, n=33 over averaging periods approximating 1day), which varied by time of day and exposure setting. These variations limit the applicability of CO as a proxy measure for PM2.5 concentrations. A combination of interventions, including better designed stoves, improved ventilation and cleaner fuels, may be needed to reduce HAP to levels that are likely to improve health.

  18. Similarity in Joint Function Limitation in Type 3 Von Willebrand Disease and Moderate Haemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Sood, S.L.; Cuker, A.; Wang, C.; Metjian, A.D.; Chiang, E.Y.; Soucie, J.M.; Konkle, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 3 von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is a rare bleeding diathesis with complete or near complete deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and low factor VIII (FVIII) levels. In contrast, only FVIII is decreased in haemophilia A (HA). Both disorders are complicated by arthropathy. Aim The purpose of this study was to further clarify the roles of FVIII and VWF: Antigen (VWF:Ag) in joint range of motion (ROM) loss over time. Methods We compared joint ROM loss and other bleeding manifestations in 100 Type 3 VWD subjects (FVIII≤5%) and 1814 moderate HA subjects (FVIII 1–5%) within the U.S. Universal Data Collection (UDC) database. Results High rates of bleeding were reported at baseline. During follow up, moderate HA patients reported a joint (46% vs. 34%, p<0.0001) or muscle bleed (27% vs. 16%, p< 0.0001) in a higher proportion of visits than VWD patients. Other bleeds, including mucosal, were reported in a greater proportion of visits among patients with Type 3 VWD than among those with HA (49% vs. 32%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no difference in joint ROM loss over time in the Type 3 VWD versus moderate HA populations. A higher FVIII level was protective in both VWD and HA (p<0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis of primacy of the FVIII level in determining risk of joint hemorrhage, and may help target therapy in Type 3 VWD and moderate HA to prevent joint disability. PMID:23534856

  19. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

    2014-07-01

    From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead.

  20. On the association between daily mortality and air mass types in Athens, Greece during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Gryparis, Alexandros; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we examined the short-term effects of air mass types on mortality in Athens, Greece. An objective air mass types classification was used, based on meteorological parameters measured at the surface. Mortality data were treated with generalized additive models (GAM) and extending Poisson regression, using a LOESS smoother to control for the confounding effects of seasonal patterns, adjusting also for temperature, long-term trends, day of the week, and ambient particle concentrations. The introduced air mass classification explains the daily variation of mortality to a statistically significant degree. The highest daily mortality was observed on days characterized by southerly flow conditions for both the cold (increase in relative risk for mortality 9%; with a 95% confidence interval: 3-14%), and the warm period (7%; with a 95% confidence interval: 2-13%) of the year. The northeasterly flow is associated with the lowest mortality. Effects on mortality, independent of temperature, are observed mainly for lag 0 during the cold period, but persist longer during the warm period. Not adjusting for temperature and/or ambient particle levels slightly alters the results, which then reflect the known temperature and particle effects, already reported in the literature. In conclusion, we find that air mass types have independent effects on mortality for both the cold and warm season and may be used to predict weather-related adverse health effects.

  1. An Investigation of the Effects of Density, Size and Shape Upon the Air Classification of Municipal Type Solid Waste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    municipal solid waste type materials into more than two fractions by passing the material through a vertical air classifier. This feasibility was demonstrated by suspending specimens of varying densities, sizes, and shapes in a vertical air classifier and noting the terminal velocities of the materials. Since most shredded solid waste approximates flat plates of varying sizes and shapes, flat plates of six different materials in aspect ratios (length over width) from one to four and in four different sizes from 0.0625 to 1.000 square inches (0.4032 to 6.4516

  2. X-ray upper limits on the progenitor of the Type Ia supernova 2017cbv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2017-04-01

    Following the discovery of the Type Ia supernova 2017cbv (ATel #10158), we examined a combined archival Chandra observation of the host galaxy NGC 5643 taken in 2015 May 21 and Dec 26 to search for the X-ray progenitor.

  3. Information Technology, Type II Classroom Integration, and the Limited Infrastructure in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne D.; Johnson D. Lamont

    2006-01-01

    In this second special issue on Type II applications of information technology in education, the focus is on classroom integration. This editorial explores some possible explanations for the fact that information technology in schools has not fulfilled its considerable potential. One reason may be that individualized instruction is not part of the…

  4. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  5. Zero Temperature Limits of Gibbs-Equilibrium States for Countable Alphabet Subshifts of Finite Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, O.; Mauldin, R. D.; Urbański, M.

    2005-05-01

    Let Σ A be a finitely primitive subshift of finite type on a countable alphabet. For appropriate functions f:Σ A → IR, the family of Gibbs-equilibrium states (μ tf ) t⩾1 for the functions tf is shown to be tight. Any weak*-accumulation point as t→∞ is shown to be a maximizing measure for f.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Yogasanas and Pranayama in limiting the Cognitive decline in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Santhakumari; Archana, Rajagopalan; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Rajesh, P

    2016-01-01

    Background Out of many complications that were observed in type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment is the most neglected. Aim and Objectives The aim of the present study is to assess the cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and to observe the role of yogasanas and pranayama in ameliorating the cognitive decline. Materials and methods Sixty eight type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited in the study, 34 of them did specific yogasanas and pranayama (test group) for six months and the remaining age and sex matched 34 subjects were recruited as (control group) who were not on any specific exercise regimen. Glycaemic index was estimated by measuring the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration with Bio-Rad apparatus and cognition was assessed by using Addenbrook’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), which is a neuropsychological battery. Statistical analysis Data was analysed with unpaired student t test. P value<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Validity was assessed by receiver operating characteristics Results Analysis of data indicated more cognitive scores in the test group when compared with the control group. In test group six months practice of yogasanas and pranayama has also significantly brought down the high glycaemic values which were observed in the control group. Conclusion These findings allow the study to conclude that regular practice of yogasanas and pranayama has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance in type 2 diabetic subjects by stabilizing blood glucose.

  7. Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD): a prospective study investigating the impact of air pollution exposure and propensity for type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhichao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Brook, Robert D; Gatts, Geoffrey A; Yang, Fumo; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Jeffrey R; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-03-15

    There is a paucity of prospective cohort studies investigating the impact of environmental factors on the development of cardiometabolic (CM) disorders like type II diabetes (T2DM). The objective of the Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD) study is to investigate the impact of personal level air pollution measures [personal black carbon (BC)/sulfate measures] and ambient fine particulate matter [(PM2.5)/NO2] levels on propensity to type II diabetes in Beijing, China. Subjects with metabolic syndrome will undergo four repeated study visits within each season over a one year period following an initial screening visit. At each study visit, subjects will be monitored for sub-acute exposure to personal and ambient measures of air-pollution exposure and will undergo a series of functional CM outcomes. The primary endpoints include independent associations between integrated 5-day mean exposure to PM2.5 and BC and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) measures, 24-hour mean diastolic and mean arterial pressure and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. The secondary endpoints will explore the mechanistic explanation for a causal relationship between exposures and propensity for type II diabetes and will include additional functional outcomes such as arterial compliance, heart rate variability and plasma adipokines. The novel aspects of the study include the launch of infrastructure for future translational investigations in highly polluted urbanized environments and the creation of novel methodologies for linking personalized exposure measurements with functional CM outcomes. We believe that AIRCMD will allow for unprecedented new investigations into the association between environmental risk factors and CM disorders.

  8. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-09-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types.

  9. Mediatorless glucose biosensor and direct electron transfer type glucose/air biofuel cell enabled with carbon nanodots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Gao, Yue; Sun, Junyong; Gao, Feng

    2015-03-03

    Utilization of carbon nanodots (CNDs), newcomers to the world of carbonaceous nanomaterials, in the electrochemistry realm has rarely been reported so far. In this study, CNDs were used as immobilization supports and electron carriers to promote direct electron transfer (DET) reactions of glucose oxidase (GOx) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD). At the CNDs electrode entrapped with GOx, a high rate constant (k(s)) of 6.28 ± 0.05 s(-1) for fast DET and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) as low as 0.85 ± 0.03 mM for affinity to glucose were found. By taking advantage of its excellent direct bioelectrocatalytic performances to glucose oxidation, a DET-based biosensor for glucose detection ranging from 0 to 0.64 mM with a high sensitivity of 6.1 μA mM(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.07 ± 0.03 μM (S/N = 3) was proposed. Additionally, the promoted DET of BOD immobilized on CNDs was also observed and effectively catalyzed the reduction of oxygen to water at the onset potential of +0.51 V (vs Ag/AgCl). On the basis of the facilitated DET of these two enzymes at CNDs electrodes, a mediator-free DET-type glucose/air enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC), in which CNDs electrodes entrapped with GOx and BOD were employed for oxidizing glucose at the bioanode and reducing oxygen at the biocathode, respectively, was successfully fabricated. The constructed BFC displayed an open-circuit voltage (OCV) as high as 0.93 V and a maximum power density of 40.8 μW cm(-2) at 0.41 V. These important features of CNDs have implied to be promising materials for immobilizing enzymes and efficient platforms for elaborating bioelectrochemical devices such as biosensors and BFCs.

  10. Phylogeny of Collembola based on cuticular compounds:inherent usefulness and limitation of a character type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, David; Deharveng, Louis

    2009-08-01

    The phylogeny of Collembola, originally discussed from a morphological point of view, has more recently benefited from novel insights brought by molecular analyses. Both morphological and molecular characters produced a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis including all orders, most families, and a large number of genera. However, several conflicting points exist between molecular and morphological data, and new characters are clearly needed to resolve these inconsistencies. In this study the usefulness of a new character type not previously used in the phylogenetic study of Collembola was tested: the epicuticular chemical compounds. Our phylogenetic analysis was based on 380 compounds from 26 Collembola species. The results show good resolution for terminal branches but not for internal nodes. This is probably due to the partial involvement of epicuticular lipids in ecological functions such as water conservation and sexual attraction. Thus, this character type is appropriate for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among recently diversified groups.

  11. Capital accumulation, aspiration adjustment, and population growth: limit cycles in an Easterlin-type model.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, G; Sorger, G

    1990-01-01

    "One of the recent interesting hypotheses of population growth is due to Easterlin who suggests the possibility of self-generating fluctuations in birth numbers. The present paper tries to answer the question whether feedback mechanisms produce persistent oscillations in population growth. A system of two nonlinear differential equations for the per capita capital stock and the aspiration level is studied by a phase portrait analysis. Using the Poincare-Bendixson theorem we derive sufficient conditions for the existence of a stable limit cycle." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  12. Influence of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on the transient stability of power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Chen, N.; Song, M.; Cheng, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Chen, X. S.

    2009-10-01

    We have proposed a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). In this paper, the influence of the SFCL on the transient stability of power system is investigated. For the typical one-machine infinite-bus system, the power-angle characteristics of generator with SFCL are studied in different working conditions, and the transient physical process is analyzed. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the power-angle swing curves are simulated under different current-limiting modes, fault types and fault clearance times. The results show that the proposed SFCL can effectively reduce the transient swing amplitude of rotor and extend the critical clearance time under mode 1, compared with mode 2 and mode 3 having few effects on enhancing the transient stability.

  13. The rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung.

    PubMed

    Post, M; Batenburg, J J; Van Golde, L M; Smith, B T

    1984-10-04

    The rate-limiting reaction in the formation of phosphatidylcholine by type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung was examined. Studies on the uptake of [Me-3H]choline and its incorporation into its metabolites indicated that in these cells the choline phosphate pool was much larger than both the choline and CDPcholine pools. Chemical measurements of the pool sizes showed that the choline phosphate pool was indeed much larger than the intracellular choline and CDPcholine pools. Pulse-chase studies with [Me-3H]choline revealed that labelled choline taken up by the cells was rapidly phosphorylated to choline phosphate and that the radioactivity lost from choline phosphate during the chase period appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Little change was observed in the labelling of CDPcholine during the chase period. These results indicate that cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes a rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine formation by fetal rat lung type II cells.

  14. Analysis on the thermal and electrical characteristics of impregnating materials for the bifilar winding-type superconducting fault current limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seong Eun; Bae, Duck Kweon; Yoon, Kyung Yong; Yoon, Yong Soo; Ko, Tae Kuk; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2006-05-01

    The resistive type high temperature superconducting fault current limiter (HTSFCL) limits the fault current with the resistance that generated by fault current. The generated resistance by fault current makes large pulse power which makes the operation of HTSFCL unstable. So, the cryogenic cooling system of the resistive type HTSFCL must diffuse and eliminate the pulse energy very quickly. Although the best way is to make wide direct contact area between HTS winding and coolant as much as possible, HTS winding also need the impregnation layer which fixes and protects it from electromagnetic force. This paper deals with thermal conductivity and dielectric strength of some epoxy compounds for the impregnation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) winding at 77 K. The measured data can be used in the optimal design of impregnation for HTS winding. Aluminar filling increased the thermal conductivity of epoxy compounds. Hardener also affected the thermal conductivity and the dielectric strength of epoxy compounds.

  15. Typing of field rabies virus strains in FR Yugoslavia by limited sequence analysis and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stankov, S

    2001-01-01

    A total of 32 rabies virus isolates (15 of fox, 14 of cat and 3 of dog origin) from the territory of FR Yugoslavia were collected from December 1996 till February 1998 and analyzed by limited sequencing of N gene and by indirect immunofluorescence and a panel of 20 antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All examined strains were characterized as sylvatic fox strains. Two main genetic variants were detected, 15 isolates belonging to Group I, 14 belonging to Group II, while the remaining 3 could not be classified into any group. This classification was confirmed by MAbs. The obtained results indicate at least two independent cycles of rabies transmission, probably resulting from multiple modes of transmission to the territories now belonging to FR Yugoslavia.

  16. [Limitations of insulin-dependent drugs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Valerón, Pino Fuente; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro L

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we review the efficacy and safety limitations of insulin-dependent oral antidiabetic agents. In terms of efficiency, the main drawback of metformin, sulfonylureas, gliptins and -to a lesser extent-glitazones is durability. No drug per se is able to maintain stable blood glucose control for years. Metformin, sulfonylureas and gliptins have demonstrated safety. Experience with the first two drug groups is more extensive. The main adverse effect of metformin is gastrointestinal discomfort. Major concerns related to the use of sulfonylureas are hypoglycemia and weight gain. The use of pioglitazone has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, edema, heart failure, weight gain, and distal bone fractures in postmenopausal women. The most common adverse reactions associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are gastrointestinal discomfort that sometimes leads to treatment discontinuation.

  17. Type III Collagen Directs Stromal Organization and Limits Metastasis in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Becky K; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Lei, Weiwei; Vogel, Laurie K; Power, Ashley M; Lo, Albert; Dopkin, Derek; Khanna, Chand; Wells, Rebecca G; Puré, Ellen; Volk, Susan W

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Collagen in the tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in regulating tumor progression. We have shown that type III collagen (Col3), a component of tumor stroma, regulates myofibroblast differentiation and scar formation after cutaneous injury. During the course of these wound-healing studies, we noted that tumors developed at a higher frequency in Col3(+/-) mice compared to wild-type littermate controls. We, therefore, examined the effect of Col3 deficiency on tumor behavior, using the murine mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. Notably, tumor volume and pulmonary metastatic burden after orthotopic injection of 4T1 cells were increased in Col3(+/-) mice compared to Col3(+/+) littermates. By using murine (4T1) and human (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells grown in Col3-poor and Col3-enriched microenvironments in vitro, we found that several major events of the metastatic process were suppressed by Col3, including adhesion, invasion, and migration. In addition, Col3 deficiency increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of 4T1 cells both in vitro and in primary tumors in vivo. Mechanistically, Col3 suppresses the procarcinogenic microenvironment by regulating stromal organization, including density and alignment of fibrillar collagen and myofibroblasts. We propose that Col3 plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment by suppressing metastasis-promoting characteristics of the tumor-associated stroma.

  18. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila from air-conditioning cooling waters using mip gene, SBT, and FAFLP methods.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiangli; Li, Juntao; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Shuiping; Qu, Pinghua; Yang, Zhicong; Chen, Shouyi

    2017-04-07

    Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens. Molecular typing has become an important method for outbreaks investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. In a survey program conducted by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, multiple serotypes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) were isolated from waters in air-conditioning cooling towers in urban Guangzhou region, China between 2008 and 2011. Three genotyping methods, mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) genotyping, SBT (sequence-based typing), and FAFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) were used to type these waterborne L. pneumophila isolates. The three methods were capable of typing all the 134 isolates and a reference strain of L. pneumophila (ATCC33153), with discriminatory indices of 0.7034, 0.9218, and 0.9376, for the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. Among the 9 serotypes of the 134 isolates, 10, 50, and 34 molecular types were detected by the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. The mip genotyping and SBT typing are more feasible for inter-laboratory results sharing and comparison of different types of L. pneumophila. The SBT and FAFLP typing methods were rapid with higher discriminatory abilities. Combinations of two or more of the typing methods enables more accurate typing of Legionella isolates for outbreak investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires.

  19. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  20. Current limiting behavior in three-phase transformer-type SFCLs using an iron core according to variety of fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sun; Jung, Byung-Ik; Ha, Kyoung-Hun; Choi, Soo-Geun; Park, Hyoung-Min; Choi, Hyo-Sang

    To apply the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to the power system, the reliability of the fault-current-limiting operation must be ensured in diverse fault conditions. The SFCL must also be linked to the operation of the high-speed recloser in the power system. In this study, a three-phase transformer-type SFCL, which has a neutral line to improve the simultaneous quench characteristics of superconducting elements, was manufactured to analyze the fault-current-limiting characteristic according to the single, double, and triple line-to-ground faults. The transformer-type SFCL, wherein three-phase windings are connected to one iron core, reduced the burden on the superconducting element as the superconducting element on the sound phase was also quenched in the case of the single line-to-ground fault. In the case of double or triple line-to-ground faults, the flux from the faulted phase winding was interlinked with other faulted or sound phase windings, and the fault-current-limiting rate decreased because the windings of three phases were inductively connected by one iron core.

  1. Limits in the characteristic-function description of non-Lindblad-type open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2005-08-15

    In this paper I investigate the usability of the characteristic functions for the description of the dynamics of open quantum systems focussing on non-Lindblad-type master equations. I consider, as an example, a non-Markovian generalized master equation containing a memory kernel which may lead to nonphysical time evolutions characterized by negative values of the density matrix diagonal elements [S. M. Barnett and S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033808 (2001)]. The main result of the paper is to demonstrate that there exist situations in which the symmetrically ordered characteristic function is perfectly well-defined while the corresponding density matrix loses positivity. Therefore, nonphysical situations may not show up in the characteristic function. As a consequence, the characteristic function cannot be considered an alternative complete description of the non-Lindblad dynamics.

  2. Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 CAI: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.

    1993-01-01

    Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of CAI. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 CAI from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 CAIs, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.

  3. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently.

  4. Multiple limit cycles in a Gause type predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response and Allee effect on prey.

    PubMed

    González-Olivares, Eduardo; Rojas-Palma, Alejandro

    2011-06-01

    This work aims to examine the global behavior of a Gause type predator-prey model considering two aspects: (i) the functional response is Holling type III and, (ii) the prey growth is affected by the Allee effect. We prove the origin of the system is an attractor equilibrium point for all parameter values. It has also been shown that it is the ω-limit of a wide set of trajectories of the system, due to the existence of a separatrix curve determined by the stable manifold of the equilibrium point (m,0), which is associated to the Allee effect on prey. When a weak Allee effect on the prey is assumed, an important result is obtained, involving the existence of two limit cycles surrounding a unique positive equilibrium point: the innermost cycle is unstable and the outermost stable. This property, not yet reported in models considering a sigmoid functional response, is an important aspect for ecologists to acknowledge as regards the kind of tristability shown here: (1) the origin; (2) an interior equilibrium; and (3) a limit cycle of large amplitude. These models have undoubtedly been rather sensitive to disturbances and require careful management in applied conservation and renewable resource contexts.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification...

  7. Type 2C Protein Phosphatase Is a Key Regulator of Antiviral Extreme Resistance Limiting Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Cho, Won Kyong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an active immune response triggered by interactions between host resistance proteins and their cognate effectors. Although ETI is often associated with the hypersensitive response (HR), various R genes mediate an HR-independent process known as extreme resistance (ER). In the soybean-Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) pathosystem, the strain-specific CI protein of SMV functions as an effector of Rsv3-mediated ER. In this study, we used the soybean (Rsv3)-SMV (CI) pathosystem to gain insight into the molecular signaling pathway involved in ER. We used genome-wide transcriptome analysis to identify a subset of the type 2C protein phophatase (PP2C) genes that are specifically up-regulated in Rsv3-mediated ER. Gain-of-function analysis of the most significantly expressed soybean PP2C gene, GmPP2C3a, showed that ABA-induced GmPP2C3a functions as a key regulator of Rsv3-mediated ER. Our results further suggest that the primary mechanism of ER against viruses is the inhibition of viral cell-to-cell movement by callose deposition in an ABA signaling-dependent manner. PMID:25082428

  8. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  9. Crystal Structure of Barley Limit Dextrinase-Limit Dextrinase Inhibitor (LD-LDI) Complex Reveals Insights into Mechanism and Diversity of Cereal Type Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Vester-Christensen, Malene B.; Jensen, Johanne M.; Hachem, Maher Abou; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Molecular details underlying regulation of starch mobilization in cereal seed endosperm remain unknown despite the paramount role of this process in plant growth. The structure of the complex between the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase (LD), hydrolyzing α-1,6-glucosidic linkages, and its endogenous inhibitor (LDI) was solved at 2.7 Å. The structure reveals an entirely new and unexpected binding mode of LDI as compared with previously solved complex structures of related cereal type family inhibitors (CTIs) bound to glycoside hydrolases but is structurally analogous to binding of dual specificity CTIs to proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis establishes that a hydrophobic cluster flanked by ionic interactions in the protein-protein interface is vital for the picomolar affinity of LDI to LD as assessed by analysis of binding by using surface plasmon resonance and also supported by LDI inhibition of the enzyme activity. A phylogenetic analysis identified four LDI-like proteins in cereals among the 45 sequences from monocot databases that could be classified as unique CTI sequences. The unprecedented binding mechanism shown here for LDI has likely evolved in cereals from a need for effective inhibition of debranching enzymes having characteristic open active site architecture. The findings give a mechanistic rationale for the potency of LD activity regulation and provide a molecular understanding of the debranching events associated with optimal starch mobilization and utilization during germination. This study unveils a hitherto not recognized structural basis for the features endowing diversity to CTIs. PMID:25792743

  10. Conjugate acene fused buckybowls: evaluating their suitability for p-type, ambipolar and n-type air stable organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, Uppula; Sastry, G Narahari

    2013-04-14

    Elaborate and exhaustive first principles calculations were carried out to screen the novel properties of a series of acene fused buckybowls. The acene fused compounds exhibit hole transport property due to their higher electron injection and lower hole transport barrier relative to the work function potential of Au electrodes. The higher HOMO and lower LUMO energy levels suggest lower hole and electron injection barriers of F and CN substituted and boron doped bowls which indicates ambipolar property of these bowls. The dicyano substituted pentacene fused bowls show only electron transport property with lower LUMO (-4.26 eV to -4.27 eV) and higher HOMO (-5.56 eV to -5.90 eV) energy levels. High electron affinity (>2.80 eV) and low LUMO energy (< -4.00 eV) attributes air stability to these bowls. Curvature decreased frontier orbital energies and increased ionization energy and electron affinity of bowls. This study reveals substitution of electron withdrawing groups and boron doped acene fused bowls can be a prominent materials for ambipolar and electron transport organic semiconductors.

  11. Palaeodistribution modelling of European vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum using modern analogues from Siberia: Prospects and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janská, Veronika; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Divíšek, Jan; Anenkhonov, Oleg; Korolyuk, Andrey; Lashchinskyi, Nikolai; Culek, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We modelled the European distribution of vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using present-day data from Siberia, a region hypothesized to be a modern analogue of European glacial climate. Distribution models were calibrated with current climate using 6274 vegetation-plot records surveyed in Siberia. Out of 22 initially used vegetation types, good or moderately good models in terms of statistical validation and expert-based evaluation were computed for 18 types, which were then projected to European climate at the LGM. The resulting distributions were generally consistent with reconstructions based on pollen records and dynamic vegetation models. Spatial predictions were most reliable for steppe, forest-steppe, taiga, tundra, fens and bogs in eastern and central Europe, which had LGM climate more similar to present-day Siberia. The models for western and southern Europe, regions with a lower degree of climatic analogy, were only reliable for mires and steppe vegetation, respectively. Modelling LGM vegetation types for the wetter and warmer regions of Europe would therefore require gathering calibration data from outside Siberia. Our approach adds value to the reconstruction of vegetation at the LGM, which is limited by scarcity of pollen and macrofossil data, suggesting where specific habitats could have occurred. Despite the uncertainties of climatic extrapolations and the difficulty of validating the projections for vegetation types, the integration of palaeodistribution modelling with other approaches has a great potential for improving our understanding of biodiversity patterns during the LGM.

  12. A Review and a Limited Comparison of Methods for Measuring Total Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.

    1995-04-01

    A number of methods attempt to measure the combined concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air as total VOCs (TVOC). This paper reviews TVOC methods recently presently in the literature and in an international conference on indoor air quality for the purposes of identifying common practices and of assessing the impacts that choices of sample collection media and analytical methods and instrumentation can have on TVOC results. The paper also presents the results of laboratory and field comparisons of three TVOC methods. These are a flame-ionization-detector (FID) method, a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, and a method employing a photoacoustic infra-red (IR) gas monitor. The laboratory experiments were conducted with eight different mixtures of VOCs. the FID method demonstrated an average accuracy of 93 {+-} 18% when the measured values were calculated as concentrations of carbon. The FID and GC/MS methods demonstrated average accuracies of 75 {+-} 22 and 77 {+-} 37%, respectively, when the measured hydrocarbon-equivalent values were compared to the expected mass concentrations of the mixtures. The higher uncertainty for the FID was largely due to the low mass response of 27% for chlorinated compounds. The response of the IR gas monitor varied between 6 and 560% for different classes of compounds. Air samples from ten buildings were analyzed by both the FID and GC/MS methods. The results were highly correlated and similar, with the GC/MS values approximately 20% higher on average.

  13. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution.

    PubMed

    Amoore, J E; Hautala, E

    1983-12-01

    The body of information in this paper is directed to specialists in industrial health and safety, and air and water pollution, who need quantitative data on the odor thresholds of potentially hazardous chemical vapors and gases. The literature, largely unorganized, has been reviewed for 214 compounds and condensed into tables based on consistent units. Data on the volatility, solubility, ionization and water-air distribution ratio at 25 degrees C are included. From the currently recommended threshold limit value (TLV), a safe dilution factor and an odor safety factor are calculated for each compound. The equivalent data are presented for both air and water dilutions of the chemicals. Available data are summarized on the variability of odor sensitivities in the population, and the increased odor concentrations that are required to elicit responses from persons whose attention is distracted, or who are sleeping. This information is reduced to calibration charts that may be used to estimate the relative detectability, warning potential and rousing capacity of the odorous vapors. Each compound has been assigned a letter classification, from A to E, to indicate the margin of safety, if any, that may be afforded by the odor of the compound as a warning that its threshold limit value is being exceeded.

  14. The effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit and emissions characteristics of a Lean Prevaporized Premixed (LPP) combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santavicca, D. A.; Steinberger, R. L.; Gibbons, K. A.; Citeno, J. V.; Mills, S.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental study of the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit and emissions characteristics of a lean, prevaporized, premixed (LPP), coaxial mixing tube combustor. Two-dimensional exciplex fluorescence was used to characterize the degree of fuel vaporization and mixing at the combustor inlet under non-combusting conditions. These tests were conducted at a pressure of 4 atm., a temperature of 400 C, a mixer tube velocity of 100 m/sec and an equivalence ratio of .8, using a mixture of tetradecane, 1 methyl naphthalene and TMPD as a fuel simulant. Fuel-air mixtures with two distinct spatial distributions were studied. The exciplex measurements showed that there was a significant amount of unvaporized fuel at the combustor entrance in both cases. One case, however, exhibited a very non-uniform distribution of fuel liquid and vapor at the combustor entrance, i.e., with most of the fuel in the upper half of the combustor tube, while in the other case, both the fuel liquid and vapor were much more uniformly distributed across the width of the combustor entrance. The lean limit and emissions measurements were all made at a pressure of 4 atm. and a mixer tube velocity of 100 m/sec, using Jet A fuel and both fuel-air mixture distributions. Contrary to what was expected, the better mixed case was found to have a substantially leaner operating limit. The two mixture distributions also unexpectedly resulted in comparable NO(x) emissions, for a given equivalence ratio and inlet temperature, however, lower NO(x) emissions were possible in the better mixed case due to its leaner operating limit.

  15. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Ultra-lean, hydrogen-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames and flame balls. Direct numerical simulations are performed of flames that develop into steadily and stably propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word"flamelet'' when they were observed in lean flammability studies conducted early in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified and are contrasted with the properties of one-dimensional flame balls and flat flames. Although lean hydrogen-air flames are subject to thermo-diffusive effects, in this case the result is to stabilize the flame rather than to render it unstable. The flame cells may be useful as basic components of engineering models for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable.

  16. Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Haisch, B. M.; Stern, R. A.; Bookbinder, J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant and supergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with the Einstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants or subgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solar masses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than 3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-ray luminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large G giants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solar values. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantly lower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, except for one spectroscopic binary.

  17. Calculations of relative optical air masses for various aerosol types and minor gases in Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Petkov, Boyan H.

    2014-02-01

    The dependence functions of relative optical air mass on apparent solar zenith angle θ have been calculated over the θ < 87° range for the vertical profiles of wet-air molecular number density in the Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres, extinction coefficients of different aerosol types, and molecular number density of water vapor, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen dimer. The calculations were made using as weight functions the seasonal average vertical profiles of (i) pressure and temperature derived from multiyear sets of radiosounding measurements performed at Ny-Ålesund, Alert, Mario Zucchelli, and Neumayer stations; (ii) volume extinction coefficients of background summer aerosol, Arctic haze, and Kasatochi and Pinatubo volcanic aerosol measured with lidars or balloon-borne samplings; and (iii) molecular number concentrations of the above minor gases, derived from radiosonde, ozonesonde, and satellite-based observations. The air mass values were determined using a formula based on a realistic atmospheric air-refraction model. They were systematically checked by comparing their mutual differences with the uncertainties arising from the seasonal and daily variations in pressure and temperature conditions within the various ranges, where aerosol and gases attenuate the solar radiation most efficiently. The results provide evidence that secant-approximated and midlatitude air mass values are inappropriate for analyzing the Sun photometer measurements performed at polar sites. They indicate that the present evaluations can be reliably used to estimate the aerosol optical depth from the Arctic and Antarctic measurements of total optical depth, after appropriate corrections for the Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption optical depths.

  18. Application of modern anticoincidence (AC) system in HPGe γ-spectrometry for the detection limit lowering of the radionuclides in air filters.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    The use of active and passive shields can substantially reduce the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of the γ-ray counting systems, rejecting events induced by cosmic-rays or by environmental radioactivity. However, the size and geometry of the samples lead to limitations in the background reduction in routine measurements. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) values for low energy of γ-ray emitting radionuclides (<200 keV) deposited in three typical air filter geometries have been compared for anticoincidence and single HPGe detector mode of γ-spectrometry systems. The relative increase in the Figure Of Merit (FOM) values from to 10-37% has been achieved for AC counting mode for radionuclides of (210)Pb, (234)Th, (235)U and (226)Ra deposited on the three kinds of air filters.

  19. Chiral discrimination of a gemini-type surfactant with rigid spacer at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Shankar, B Vijai; Patnaik, Archita

    2007-10-04

    Spontaneous separation of chiral phases was observed in the monolayers of a racemate of gemini-type twin-tailed, twin-chiral amphiphiles, (2R,3R)-(+)-bis(decyloxy)succinic acid and (2S,3S)-(-)-bis(decyloxy)succinic acid. The pressure-area isotherms of the interfacial monolayers formed at the liquid-air interface, and the 2D lattice structures studied through surface probe measurements revealed that the racemate exhibits a homochiral discrimination of the enantiomers in two dimensions. An enantiomeric excess (e,e) of 20% was sufficient to break the chiral symmetry at the air-water interface for a homochiral interaction. Langmuir monolayers on ZnCl2 and CaCl2 subphases manifested chiral discrimination with Zn2+ evidencing homochiral interaction with a chelate-type complex, whereas Ca2+ resulted in a heterochiral interaction forming an ionic-type complex. For the chiral asymmetric units, oblique and rectangular unit cells of the racemic monolayer had exclusive requirements of homo- and heterochiral recognitions for Zn2+ and Ca2+ ions, respectively. Monolayers transferred from the condensed phase at 25 mN/m onto hydrophilic Si(100) and quartz substrates revealed the formation of bilayers through transfer-induced monolayer buckling. The emergence of homochiral discrimination was explained using the effective-pair-potential (EPP) approach.

  20. Performance Characteristics of a Micro Air Grinder Operated by a Two-Stages Axial-Type Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Choi, Sang-Kyu

    Performance characteristics are experimentally studied with various nozzles, stators and rotors on a partially admitted small axial-type turbine, which could be applied to a driver of micro air grinders. When air tools adopt axial-type turbines as a driver, they could operate without friction and abrasion because the turbine rotor does not make contact with the casing. In order to maintain these merits on a small axial-type turbine without reducing power, performance characteristics are examined through measuring the specific output power with eight different stators and three different rotors and nozzles. The tested turbine consists of two-stages and its mean radius of flow passage is 9.2mm. The experimental results show that the output power improvement on the first stage is significant comparing with that on the second stage because partially admitted flow is fully diffused in the second stage. Meanwhile, the output power is increased to 16-22% by changing the nozzle blade angle from 60° to 70° because the first stage performance is directly affected by the flow spouted from the nozzle. These results indicate that blade angles greatly influence the performance of a micro turbine operating in partial admission. When an appropriate stator and rotor that are designed in accordance with the flow spouted from the nozzle are installed in the rotating part, the output power is increased up to 38% depending on the blade angle.

  1. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  2. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  3. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  4. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  5. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  6. The Effects of Highlighting, Validity, and Feature Type on Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cultura I taget Target type Validity X target X leadin interaction on initial response time (highlighted trials) WRONG HIGHLIGHTING ÖU - M ea...natural - leadin cultural ndurd cultura taget I taget Target type Figure 3.10: Validity X lead-in X Target interaction Confirmation time A

  7. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  8. Type III secretion system expression in oxygen-limited Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures is stimulated by isocitrate lyase activity

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jade C. S.; Rzhepishevska, Olena; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Welch, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and a common cause of chronic infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Oxygen limitation was recently reported to regulate the expression of a major virulence determinant in P. aeruginosa, the type III secretion system (T3SS). Here, we show that expression of the T3SS in oxygen-limited growth conditions is strongly dependent on the glyoxylate shunt enzyme, isocitrate lyase (ICL; encoded by aceA), which was previously shown to be highly expressed in CF isolates. ICL-dependent regulation of the T3SS did not alter the expression level of the master transcriptional regulator, ExsA, but did affect expression of the T3 structural proteins, effectors and regulators (ExsC, ExsD and ExsE). An aceA mutant displayed enhanced biofilm formation during anaerobic growth, which suggested that AceA-dependent modulation of type III secretion might impinge upon the RetS/LadS signalling pathways. Indeed, our data suggest that RetS is able to mediate some of its effects through AceA, as expression of aceA in trans partially restored T3SS expression in a retS mutant. Our findings indicate that AceA is a key player in the metabolic regulation of T3SS expression during oxygen-limited growth of P. aeruginosa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the T3SS can be regulated by factors that do not affect ExsA expression levels. PMID:23363478

  9. Spatiotemporal variations of air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, and VOCs) with land-use types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Kim, D.; Stockwell, W. R.; Yang, J.-H.; Shin, H.-W.; Lee, M.-I.; Song, C.-K.; Lee, S.-D.

    2015-09-01

    The spatiotemporal variations of surface air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10) with four land-use types, residence (R), commerce (C), industry (I) and greenbelt (G), have been investigated at 283 stations in South Korea during 2002-2013, using routinely observed data. The volatile organic compound (VOC) data at nine photochemical pollutant monitoring stations available since 2007 were utilized in order to examine their effect on the ozone chemistry. The land-use types, set by the Korean government, were generally consistent with the satellite-derived land covers and with the previous result showing anti-correlation between O3 and NO2 in diverse urban areas. The relationship between the two pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) residence land-use areas was substantially different from that outside of the SMA, probably due to the local differences in vehicle emissions. The highest concentrations of air pollutants in the diurnal, weekly, and annual cycles were found in industry for SO2 and PMPM10, in commerce for NO2 and CO, and in greenbelt for O3. The concentrations of air pollutants, except for O3, were generally higher in big cities during weekdays, while O3 showed its peak in suburban areas or small cities during weekends. The weekly cycle and trends of O3 were significantly out of phase with those of NO2, particularly in the residential and commercial areas, suggesting that vehicle emission was a major source in those areas. The ratios of VOCs to NO2 for each of the land-use types were in the order of I (10.2) > C (8.7) > G (3.9) > R (3.6), suggesting that most areas in South Korea were likely to be VOC-limited for ozone chemistry. The pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, and PMPM10 except for O3 have decreased, most likely due to the effective government control. The total oxidant values (OX = O3 + NO2) with the land-use types were analyzed for the local and regional (or background) contributions of O3, respectively, and the order of OX (ppb) was C (57

  10. Spatiotemporal variations of air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, and VOCs) with land-use types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Kim, D.; Stockwell, W. R.; Yang, J.-H.; Shin, H.-W.; Lee, M.-I.; Song, C.-K.; Lee, S.-D.

    2015-06-01

    The spatiotemporal variations of surface air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10) with four land-use types: residence (R), commerce (C), industry (I) and greenbelt (G) have been investigated at 283 stations in South Korea during 2002-2013, using routinely observed data. The VOCs data at 9 photochemical pollutant monitoring stations available since 2007 were utilized in order to examine their effect on the ozone chemistry. The land-use types, set by the Korean government, were generally consistent with the satellite-derived land covers and with the previous result showing anti-correlation between O3 and NO2 in diverse urban areas. The relationship between the two pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) residence land-use areas was substantially different from that outside of the SMA, probably due to the local differences in vehicle emissions. The highest concentrations of air pollutants in the diurnal, weekly, and annual cycles were found in industry for SO2 and PM10, in commerce for NO2 and CO, and in greenbelt for O3, respectively. The concentrations of air pollutants, except for O3, were generally higher in big cities during weekdays while O3 showed its peak in suburban areas or small cities during weekends. The weekly cycle and trends of O3 were significantly out of phase with those of NO2, particularly in the residential and commercial areas, suggesting that vehicle emission was a major source in those areas. The ratios of VOCs to NO2 for each of the land-use types were in the order of I (10.2) > C (8.7) > G (3.9) > R (3.6), suggesting that most areas in South Korea were likely to be VOCs-limited for ozone chemistry. The pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10) except for O3 have decreased most likely due to the effective government control. The total oxidant values (OX = O3 + NO2) with the land-use types were analyzed for the local and regional (or background) contributions of O3, respectively, and the order of OX (ppb) was C (57.4) > R (53.6) > I (50

  11. VOCs Emissions from Multiple Wood Pellet Types and Concentrations in Indoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia; Ashley, William J.; Bregg, Sandar; Walier, Drew; LeBouf, Ryan; Hopke, Philip K.; Rossner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Wood pellet storage safety is an important aspect for implementing woody biomass as a renewable energy source. When wood pellets are stored indoors in large quantities (tons) in poorly ventilated spaces in buildings, such as in basements, off-gassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can significantly affect indoor air quality. To determine the emission rates and potential impact of VOC emissions, a series of laboratory and field measurements were conducted using softwood, hardwood, and blended wood pellets manufactured in New York. Evacuated canisters were used to collect air samples from the headspace of drums containing pellets and then in basements and pellet storage areas of homes and small businesses. Multiple peaks were identified during GC/MS and GC/FID analysis, and four primary VOCs were characterized and quantified: methanol, pentane, pentanal, and hexanal. Laboratory results show that total VOCs (TVOCs) concentrations for softwood (SW) were statistically (p < 0.02) higher than blended or hardwood (HW) (SW: 412 ± 25; blended: 203 ± 4; HW: 99 ± 8, ppb). The emission rate from HW was the fastest, followed by blended and SW, respectively. Emissions rates were found to range from 10−1 to 10−5 units, depending upon environmental factors. Field measurements resulted in airborne concentrations ranging from 67 ± 8 to 5000 ± 3000 ppb of TVOCs and 12 to 1500 ppb of aldehydes, with higher concentrations found in a basement with a large fabric bag storage unit after fresh pellet delivery and lower concentrations for aged pellets. These results suggest that large fabric bag storage units resulted in a substantial release of VOCs into the building air. Occupants of the buildings tested discussed concerns about odor and sensory irritation when new pellets were delivered. The sensory response was likely due to the aldehydes. PMID:27022205

  12. Air backed mandrel type fiber optic hydrophone with low noise floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, R.; V, Sreehari C.; N, Praveen Kumar; Awasthi, R. L.; K, Vivek; B, Vishnu M.; Santhanakrishnan, T.; Moosad, K. P. B.; Mathew, Basil

    2014-10-01

    Low noise fiber optic hydrophone based on optical fiber coil wound on air-backed mandrel was developed. The sensor can be effectively used for underwater acoustic sensing. The design and characterization of the hydrophone is illustrated in this paper. A fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) was developed and coupled with a Distributed Feedback (DFB) fiber laser source and an optical phase demodulation system, with an active modulation in one of the arms. The sensor head design was optimized to achieve noise spectral density <10 μrad/√Hz, for yielding sufficient sensitivity to sense acoustic pressure close to Deep Sea Sate Zero (DSS0).

  13. Formation of H-type liquid crystal dimer at air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik, C. Gupta, Adbhut Joshi, Aditya Manjuladevi, V. Gupta, Raj Kumar; Varia, Mahesh C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-04-24

    We have formed the Langmuir monolayer of H-shaped Azo linked liquid crystal dimer molecule at the air-water interface. Isocycles of the molecule showed hysteresis suggesting the ir-reversible nature of the monolayer formed. The thin film deposited on the silicon wafer was characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The images showed uniform domains of the dimer molecule. We propose that these molecules tend to take book shelf configuration in the liquid phase.

  14. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type glass ceramics in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Y.; Zhang, T.; Johnson, P.; Imanishi, N.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Sammes, N.

    The stability of a NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LTAP), in acetic acid and formic acid solutions was examined. XRD patterns of the LTAP powders immersed in 100% acetic acid and formic acid at 50 °C for 4 months showed no change as compared to the pristine LTAP. However, the electrical conductivity of LTAP drastically decreased. On the other hand, no significant electrical conductivity change of LTAP immersed in lithium formate saturated formic acid-water solution was observed, and the electrical conductivity of LTAP immersed in lithium acetate saturated acetic acid-water increased. Cyclic voltammogram tests suggested that acetic acid was stable up to a high potential, but formic acid decomposed under the decomposition potential of water. The acetic acid solution was considered to be a candidate for the active material in the air electrode of lithium-air rechargeable batteries. The cell reaction was considered as 2Li + 2 CH 3COOH + 1/2O 2 = 2CH 3COOLi + H 2O. The energy density of this lithium-air system is calculated to be 1477 Wh kg -1 from the weights of Li and CH 3COOH, and an observed open-circuit voltage of 3.69 V.

  15. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hatayama, Takahiro; Jiangxu, Dong; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Endo, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-08-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key cytokine that exacerbates allergic and fibrotic reactions. Several microbes and virus components have been shown to induce TSLP production, mainly in epithelial cells. TLR4 activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce TSLP production in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enhanced by IL-1β and LPS in the PAM212 cells. These results demonstrated that TNF-α and IL-1β, which are partly produced by LPS-activated leukocytes, contribute to TSLP production via TLR4 activation in vivo.

  17. Magnetically insulated coaxial vacuum diode with partial space-charge-limited explosive emission from edge-type cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Belomyttsev, S. Ya.; Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Kolomiets, M. D.; Mesyats, G. A.; Yalandin, M. I.

    2016-01-14

    The vacuum current associated with any type of electron emission for arbitrary configuration of the diode depends on the combination of the applied electric field and vacuum space charge (VSC) field created by the current. Such fundamental statement should give very close links between the diode current and the normalized cathode field θ which has been introduced by Forbes in 2008 for planar diodes as a reduction in the cathode surface field: θ = field-with/field-without VSC. This article reports the universal approximation of the type of cos(πθ/2) that is the ratio of the actual current and the fully space-charge-limited current. Also, the theoretical treatment and the experimental method of determination of the dynamic emissive characteristics of the macroscopic explosive emission from edge-type cathodes in the coaxial diode are developed. The experimental results obtained with a picosecond time reference between the cathode voltage and the onset of the high-current electron beam exhibit a good coincidence with the theoretical predictions. The presented methods enable the analysis of a real-time-resolved dynamics associated with the dense, magnetized electron beam formation, acceleration and drift motion, including kinematic effects and the phase-stable excitation of high-power microwave oscillators.

  18. Magnetically insulated coaxial vacuum diode with partial space-charge-limited explosive emission from edge-type cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belomyttsev, S. Ya.; Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Shunailov, S. A.; Kolomiets, M. D.; Mesyats, G. A.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Ulmaskulov, M. R.; Yalandin, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The vacuum current associated with any type of electron emission for arbitrary configuration of the diode depends on the combination of the applied electric field and vacuum space charge (VSC) field created by the current. Such fundamental statement should give very close links between the diode current and the normalized cathode field θ which has been introduced by Forbes in 2008 for planar diodes as a reduction in the cathode surface field: θ = field-with/field-without VSC. This article reports the universal approximation of the type of cos(πθ/2) that is the ratio of the actual current and the fully space-charge-limited current. Also, the theoretical treatment and the experimental method of determination of the dynamic emissive characteristics of the macroscopic explosive emission from edge-type cathodes in the coaxial diode are developed. The experimental results obtained with a picosecond time reference between the cathode voltage and the onset of the high-current electron beam exhibit a good coincidence with the theoretical predictions. The presented methods enable the analysis of a real-time-resolved dynamics associated with the dense, magnetized electron beam formation, acceleration and drift motion, including kinematic effects and the phase-stable excitation of high-power microwave oscillators.

  19. Estimation of upper flammability limits of C-H compounds in air at standard atmospheric pressure and evaluation of temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Mendiburu, Andrés Z; de Carvalho, João A; Coronado, Christian R

    2016-03-05

    This study focuses on estimating the upper flammability limits of C-H compounds. A method was developed to determine the upper flammability limits in air at standard atmospheric pressure for the following cases: (a) estimation of the UFLs of pure C-H compounds at standard ambient temperature (25°C); (b) estimation of the UFLs of binary mixtures of C-H compounds at standard ambient temperature (25°C); (c) estimation of the UFLs of C-H compounds at different initial temperatures. The method was accurate in all cases. In case (a), for a total set of 115 compounds, the absolute average relative error was 7.27% and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.9248 was obtained. In case (b), the average absolute relative error was 5.55%; in case (c) it was 2.19%.

  20. An upper limit of muon flux of energies above 100 TeV determined from horizontal air showers observed at Akeno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, M.; Yoshii, H.; Hara, T.; Kamata, K.; Kawaguchi, S.; Kifune, T.

    1985-01-01

    Muon energy spectrum above 100 TeV was determined by observing the extensive air showers (EAS) from the horizontal direction (HAS). No definite muon originated shower of sizes above 100,000 and zenith angles above 60 deg was observed. The upper limits of HAS intensity is 5x10/12 m/2 s/1 sn/1 above 100,000. It is indicated that the upper limit of muon flux above 100 TeV is about 1.3x10/8 m/2 s/1 sr/1 and is in agreement with that expected from the primary spectrum with a knee assuming scaling in the fragmentation region and 40% protons in the primary beam. The critical energy at which muon flux from prompt processes take over that from the conventional process is higher than 100 Tev at horizontal direction.

  1. 3c/4e σ-type long-bonding: a novel transitional motif toward the metallic delocalization limit.

    PubMed

    Landis, C R; Weinhold, F

    2013-05-06

    We describe a novel "long-bonding" motif that appears in the framework of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis as a surprising form of 3-center, 4-electron (3c/4e) L···A···L' bonding with "inverted" electronegativity pattern Ξ(A) > Ξ(L), Ξ(L'). Such long-bonding (denoted L(^)L') underlies the predicted (meta)stability of exotic rare gas species with highly electronegative ligands (e.g., HeF2, NeF2) as well as the absolute stability of low-electronegativity metallic triads (e.g., BeLi2, ZnCu2, and related species) that are experimentally unknown but can be anticipated from simple valency and electronegativity trends. We focus particularly on the BeLi2 triad, whose Lewis-type Li(^)Li' long bond is of paradoxical antibonding phase pattern, denoted σ*(LiLi') to suggest its essential 2(-1/2)(s(Li) - s(Li')) orbital composition. We demonstrate how the long-bonded triad serves as a fundamental building-block for numerous 1-, 2-, and 3-d structures that are predicted to exhibit extraordinary calorimetric, vibrational, and electric polarizability properties, commonly associated with the delocalized metallic limit. Both thermodynamic and kinetic results support the NBO inference that σ/σ*-type long-bonding signals the transition to a fundamentally new regime of chemical association, separated by significant activation barriers from the covalent molecular domain and characterized by reversed perturbative precedence of Lewis-type vs resonance-type donor-acceptor contributions. Long-bond resonance therefore appears to be of central importance to a broadened conceptual picture of molecular and metallic interaction phenomena.

  2. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  3. Entropy for Zero-Temperature Limits of Gibbs-Equilibrium States for Countable-Alphabet Subshifts of Finite Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, I. D.

    2007-01-01

    Let Σ A be a finitely primitive subshift of finite type over a countable alphabet. For suitable potentials f : Σ A → ℝ we can associate an invariant Gibbs equilibrium state μ tf to the potential tf for each t ≥ 1. In this note, we show that the entropy h(μ tf ) converges in the limit t→ ∞ to the maximum entropy of those invariant measures which maximize ∫ f dμ. We further show that every weak-* accumulation point of the family of measures μ tf has entropy equal to this value. This answers a pair of questions posed by O. Jenkinson, R. D. Mauldin and M. Urbański.

  4. Nearly quantum limited nanoSQUIDs based on cross-type Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, M.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schönau, T.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Stolz, R.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development of nearly quantum limited SQUIDs with miniature pickup loop dimensions. The implemented high quality and low capacitance cross-type Nb/AlO x /Nb Josephson junctions offer large I C R N -products and therefore enable an exceptional low noise level of the SQUIDs. Devices with loop dimensions of 1 μm exhibit white flux noise levels as low as 45 nΦ0 Hz-1/2 corresponding to an energy resolution ɛ of about 1 h at 4.2 K, with h being Planck’s constant. Moreover, the large usable voltage swings of the devices of about 300 μV allow highly sensitive and easy single-stage operation while exploring nearly the intrinsic noise of the SQUIDs, beneficial e.g. for sensor arrays in SQUID microscopy.

  5. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of septic-system absorption-field architecture types in a profile-limited soil.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Amanda J; Brye, Kristofor R; Dunn, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Managing household wastewater is an issue that affects hundreds of thousands of people in rural communities nationwide, many of whom rely on septic systems as their primary means of household wastewater disposal. Septic system absorption field products with architectures quite different from traditional pipe-and-gravel systems are being installed in many states with variances from initial design specifications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, as measured by the in-product height of stored solution, of four differing absorption-field product architecture types in a profile-limited soil that was loaded at the maximum allowable rate based on soil morphology. Five chamber, two gravel-less pipe, two polystyrene aggregate, and four pipe-and-gravel systems were installed in a profile-limited, Captina silt loam soil (fine-silty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult) and dosed with raw effluent at rates determined by current State of Arkansas regulations via individual peristaltic pumps. Free-solution monitoring ports were installed within each product, where the depth to free solution was measured periodically and used to evaluate product performance. Data collected from January through August 2009 indicated that preliminary system performance was unaffected by product architecture type. All products performed similarly under dry soil conditions. However, differences among individual products were observed during periods of hydrologic stress (i.e., wet soil conditions). Surfacing of effluent was not observed atop any product, indicating that the current loading rate design method is functioning properly. Preliminary results indicate that some alternative absorption-field products perform similarly to the traditional pipe-and-gravel system, thus providing flexibility and options for homeowners.

  7. Analysis of MUSIC-type imaging functional for single, thin electromagnetic inhomogeneity in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.

  8. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population’s vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals’ movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers. PMID:26820404

  9. Comprehensive analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome reveals limited, call type specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Roy, Snigdha; Watkins, Nick; Heck, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a well-recognized form of inherited mental retardation, caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene. The gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome and encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Absence of FMRP in fragile X patients as well as in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice results, among other changes, in abnormal dendritic spine formation and altered synaptic plasticity in the neocortex and hippocampus. Clinical features of FXS include cognitive impairment, anxiety, abnormal social interaction, mental retardation, motor coordination and speech articulation deficits. Mouse pups generate ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when isolated from their mothers. Whether those social ultrasonic vocalizations are deficient in mouse models of FXS is unknown. Here we compared isolation-induced USVs generated by pups of Fmr1-KO mice with those of their wild type (WT) littermates. Though the total number of calls was not significantly different between genotypes, a detailed analysis of 10 different categories of calls revealed that loss of Fmr1 expression in mice causes limited and call-type specific deficits in ultrasonic vocalization: the carrier frequency of flat calls was higher, the percentage of downward calls was lower and that the frequency range of complex calls was wider in Fmr1-KO mice compared to their WT littermates.

  10. Nearby solar-type star with a low-mass companion - New sensitivity limits reached using speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; McCarthy, Donald W., Jr.; Freeman, Jonathan; Christou, Julian C.

    1992-04-01

    The low-mass companion to the nearby solar-type star Gliese 67 is imaged using 2D IR speckle imaging techniques. The binary is resolved at J (1.25 micron), H (1.65 micron), and K (2.2 microns) to determine the magnitudes and colors of the components. In observations spanning 14 months the secondary is found at separations and position angles predicted by the astrometric orbit, and the component masses are found to be 0.97 and 0.29 solar mass. With a magnitude difference of 4.5 mag at K, these observations define a new sensitivity limit for companions at subarcsecond scales, 6-9 AU for the observations reported here of the Gliese 67 system. For the G dwarf/M dwarf pair, this brightness ratio corresponds to 7.5 mag at V, or a flux ratio of 1000. The data indicate that even greater sensitivity is possible, to companions six magnitudes fainter than their primaries in the infrared, thereby allowing us to search for very low-mass secondaries orbiting nearby solar-type stars.

  11. Extraction of CO2 from air samples for isotopic analysis and limits to ultra high precision delta18O determination in CO2 gas.

    PubMed

    Werner, R A; Rothe, M; Brand, W A

    2001-01-01

    The determination of delta18O values in CO2 at a precision level of +/-0.02 per thousand (delta-notation) has always been a challenging, if not impossible, analytical task. Here, we demonstrate that beyond the usually assumed major cause of uncertainty - water contamination - there are other, hitherto underestimated sources of contamination and processes which can alter the oxygen isotope composition of CO2. Active surfaces in the preparation line with which CO2 comes into contact, as well as traces of air in the sample, can alter the apparent delta18O value both temporarily and permanently. We investigated the effects of different surface materials including electropolished stainless steel, Duran glass, gold and quartz, the latter both untreated and silanized. CO2 frozen with liquid nitrogen showed a transient alteration of the 18O/16O ratio on all surfaces tested. The time to recover from the alteration as well as the size of the alteration varied with surface type. Quartz that had been ultrasonically cleaned for several hours with high purity water (0.05 microS) exhibited the smallest effect on the measured oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 before and after freezing. However, quartz proved to be mechanically unstable with time when subjected to repeated large temperature changes during operation. After several days of operation the gas released from the freezing step contained progressively increasing trace amounts of O2 probably originating from inclusions within the quartz, which precludes the use of quartz for cryogenically trapping CO2. Stainless steel or gold proved to be suitable materials after proper pre-treatment. To ensure a high trapping efficiency of CO2 from a flow of gas, a cold trap design was chosen comprising a thin wall 1/4" outer tube and a 1/8" inner tube, made respectively from electropolished stainless steel and gold. Due to a considerable 18O specific isotope effect during the release of CO2 from the cold surface, the thawing time had to

  12. Limiting factors for carbon-mineral complexation: Responses to land use types and the implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The cycles of carbon (C) and minerals are largely considered independently. However, there is a growing consensus that C complexation onto mineral surface is critical in protecting C from decomposition and thus lengthening C turnover time. To create C-mineral complexes, physical contact must occur between organic matter and minerals, yet production of C is spatially separated from mineral surface production. We hypothesized that (1) C-mineral complexation is typically limited by either availability of C or mineral surface, (2) land use type and depth strongly affect which one of the two limits the complexation, and (3) accelerated erosion and fluvial sedimentation, by mixing C with minerals, results in creating additional C-mineral complexes within watersheds. We targeted a mixed-land use watershed in the Piedmont region of southeast Pennsylvania. In the uplands, plowed agricultural soils, compared to the neighboring forest soils, had low C contents. Accelerated soil erosion from uplands and subsequent sedimentation behind mill dams during the colonial time has been suggested as responsible for the fluvial deposits within the watershed. In the uplands, soil samples were collected to the depth of soil-saprolite boundary in a second-growth forest (~100 years old) and an adjacent agricultural field. A soil at the floodplain was also sampled to the depth of a first buried A horizon. In the forest A-horizon soil, as C contents increased, mineral-complexed C pool was saturated and C-mineral complexation was limited by the availability of mineral surface. In contrast, in the agricultural A horizon, C availability limited the complexation. In the A horizon of floodplain soil, as in the forest soil, further C-mineral complexation requires greater availability of mineral surface. Therefore, while minerals eroded from the forest may not complex further C, agricultural erosion may contribute to creating C-mineral complexes during the sediment transit through fluvial networks

  13. Psychological Type: An Assessment and Applications for Senior Air Force Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    quantified on four preference scales: Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I), Sensing (S) or Intuition (N), Thinking MT or Feeling (F, and Perception ~ (P...toward the inner world of ideas and feelings . Sensing types sniff out detail, while intuitive souls prefer to focus on the big picture. Thinkers want...functionst sensing is 67, intuition is 51, thinking is 65, and feeling is 43 for women and 37 for men. (28:16) The significance of these scores on the MBTI

  14. Design for H type co-planar precision stage based on closed air bearing guideway with vacuum attraction force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Shi, Zhaoyao; Lin, Jiachun; Zhang, Hua

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of traditional two-dimensional precision stage is limited not only by the accuracy of each guideway but also by the configuration of the stage. It is not easy to calculate and compensate the total accuracy of the stage due to the complicated influence caused by the different position of the slides. An air bearing guideways with vacuum attraction forces has been designed with closed slide structure to enhance the stiffness and avoid the deformation caused by the weight of slide and workpieces. An H style two-dimension ultra-precision stage with co-planar structure has been developed based on the air bearing guideways to avoid the multi-influence by the axes. Driven by linear motors, the position of the workpiece is encoded by length scales with resolution of 50nm and thermal expansion of 0.6 μm/m/°C (0 °C to 30 °C). The travel span of the stage is 320x320mm, during which each axis has a positioning accuracy of +/-1μm, a repeatability of +/-0.3μm and a straightness of +/-0.5μm. The stage can be applied in precision manufacturing and measurement.

  15. Feasibility intervention trial of two types of improved cookstoves in three resource-limited settings: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to biomass fuel smoke is one of the leading risk factors for disease burden worldwide. International campaigns are currently promoting the widespread adoption of improved cookstoves in resource-limited settings, yet little is known about the cultural and social barriers to successful improved cookstove adoption and how these barriers affect environmental exposures and health outcomes. Design We plan to conduct a one-year crossover, feasibility intervention trial in three resource-limited settings (Kenya, Nepal and Peru). We will enroll 40 to 46 female primary cooks aged 20 to 49 years in each site (total 120 to 138). Methods At baseline, we will collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and cooking practices, and measure respiratory health and blood pressure for all participating women. An initial observational period of four months while households use their traditional, open-fire design cookstoves will take place prior to randomization. All participants will then be randomized to receive one of two types of improved, ventilated cookstoves with a chimney: a commercially-constructed cookstove (Envirofit G3300/G3355) or a locally-constructed cookstove. After four months of observation, participants will crossover and receive the other improved cookstove design and be followed for another four months. During each of the three four-month study periods, we will collect monthly information on self-reported respiratory symptoms, cooking practices, compliance with cookstove use (intervention periods only), and measure peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, exhaled carbon monoxide and blood pressure. We will also measure pulmonary function testing in the women participants and 24-hour kitchen particulate matter and carbon monoxide levels at least once per period. Discussion Findings from this study will help us better understand the behavioral, biological, and environmental changes that occur with a cookstove

  16. A catheter-type flow sensor for measurement of aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in the bronchial region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, M.; Naito, J.; Yokota, T.; Kawabe, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Sato, K.

    2009-10-01

    We developed a novel catheter-type flow sensor for measuring the aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics trans-bronchially. An on-wall in-tube thermal flow sensor is mounted inside the tube, and it is used as a measurement tool in a bronchoscope. The external diameter of the tube is less than a few mm, and therefore, it can evaluate the flow characteristics in the small bronchial region. We newly developed a fabrication process to miniaturize it to less than 2.0 mm in the external diameter by using a heat shrinkable tube. A film sensor fabricated by photolithography was inserted into the tube by hand. By applying a heat shrinking process, the film was automatically mounted on the inner wall surface, and the outer size of the tube was miniaturized to almost half its original size. The final inner and outer diameters of the tube were 1.0 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively. The relationship between the input power of the sensor and the flow rate obeyed King's equation in both forward and reverse flow conditions. The sensor output dependence on ambient temperature was also studied, and the curve obtained at 39.2 °C was used as the calibration curve in animal experiments. The sensor characteristics under reciprocating flow were studied by using a ventilator, and we confirmed that the sensor was able to measure the reciprocating flow at 2.0 Hz. Finally, we successfully measured the aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in the air passage of a rat.

  17. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  18. SCC Propagation Rate of Type 304, 304L Steels Under Oceanic Air Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akio Kosaki

    2006-07-01

    Corrosion integrity of canister in the concrete cask for spent fuel storage is very important because the canister serves to maintain the sealability over the storage period of 40 to 60 years. Natural exposure and accelerated corrosion tests of conventional stainless steels for canister, that are Type 304, 304L, and 316(LN), for concrete cask's canister have been conducted by using many three Point Bending (3PB) test specimens and compared. The SCC propagation rates in Type 304 and 304L at the natural condition were about 1.2 E-12 to 1.8 E-11 m/s at the K (Stress Intensity Factor) range of 0.6 to 9.0 MPa/m, and that of the accelerate test (60 degrees C, 95%RHS., filled with NaCl mist.) were about 1.0 E-10 to 3.5 E-9 m/s at the K range of 0.3 to 32 MPa/m. The SCC propagation rates under both natural and accelerated conditions were independent with K. Both da/dt values of the direct exposure test and of the under glass exposure test were in the same scattering band. (author)

  19. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-02-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T-front and substrate backside T-back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  20. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-03-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T- front and substrate backside T- back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  1. Burning Velocity Measurements in Aluminum-Air Suspensions using Bunsen Type Dust Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John; Goroshin, Samuel; Kolbe, Massimiliano

    2001-01-01

    Laminar burning velocity (sometimes also referred in literature as fundamental or normal flame propagation speed) is probably the most important combustion characteristic of the premixed combustible mixture. The majority of experimental data on burning velocities in gaseous mixtures was obtained with the help of the Bunsen conical flame. The Bunsen cone method was found to be sufficiently accurate for gaseous mixtures with burning velocities higher than 10-15 cm/s at normal pressure. Hans Cassel was the first to demonstrate that suspensions of micron-size solid fuel particles in a gaseous oxidizer can also form self-sustained Bunsen flames. He was able to stabilize Bunsen flames in a number of suspensions of different nonvolatile solid fuels (aluminum, carbon, and boron). Using the Bunsen cone method he estimated burning velocities in the premixed aluminum-air mixtures (particle size less than 10 microns) to be in the range of 30-40 cm/s. Cassel also found, that the burning velocity in dust clouds is a function of the burner diameter. In our recent work, we have used the Bunsen cone method to investigate dependence of burning velocity on dust concentration in fuel-rich aluminum dust clouds. Burning velocities in stoichiometric and fuel-rich aluminum dust suspensions with average particle sizes of about 5 microns were found to be in the range of 20-25 cm/s and largely independent on dust concentration. These results raise the question to what degree burning velocities derived from Bunsen flame specifically and other dust flame configurations in general, are indeed fundamental characteristics of the mixture and to what degree are they apparatus dependent. Dust flames in comparison to gas combustion, are thicker, may be influenced by radiation heat transfer in the flame front, respond differently to heat losses, and are fundamentally influenced by the particular flow configuration due to the particles inertia. Since characteristic spatial scales of dust flames are

  2. A RGB-Type Quantum Dot-based Sensor Array for Sensitive Visual Detection of Trace Formaldehyde in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Hu, Jing; Tang, Jie; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    A simple colorimetric sensor array based on red-emitting CdTe QDs and green-colored fluorescein that exhibited RGB-type color change was proposed for visual detection of trace formaldehyde. In the presence of formaldehyde, the red fluorescence from CdTe QDs was quenched while the green fluorescein was inert thus as a reference. Through harvesting the varied quenching efficiency of different ligand-capped CdTe QDs by formaldehyde, a simple sensor array can be constructed for both selective detection of formaldehyde with high sensitivity (LOD of 0.08 ppm) and identification of the existence of potential interference from acetaldehyde. The quenching mechanisms of formaldehyde toward different ligand capped CdTe QDs were studied with fluorescence lifetime, zeta potential, and also theoretical calculations. The results from theoretical calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed sensor array was successfully explored for visual analysis of formaldehyde in indoor air samples.

  3. External stress-corrosion cracking of a 1.22-m-diameter type 316 stainless steel air valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Telesman, Jack; Moore, Allan S.; Johnson, Dereck F.; Kuivinen, David E.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure of a massive AISI Type 316 stainless steel valve which controlled combustion air to a jet engine test facility. Several through-the-wall cracks were present near welded joints in the valve skirt. The valve had been in outdoor service for 18 years. Samples were taken in the cracked regions for metallographic and chemical analyses. Insulating material and sources of water mist in the vicinity of the failed valve were analyzed for chlorides. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine whether foreign elements were present in a crack. On the basis of the information generated, the failure was characterized as external stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking resulted from a combination of residual tensile stress from welding and the presence of aqueous chlorides. Recommended countermeasures are included.

  4. Capillary pressure-saturation relations in quartz and carbonate sands: Limitations for correlating capillary and wettability influences on air, oil, and supercritical CO2 trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Dong, Wenming; Kim, Yongman

    2016-08-01

    Capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are essential for predicting equilibrium and flow of immiscible fluid pairs in soils and deeper geologic formations. In systems that are difficult to measure, behavior is often estimated based on capillary scaling of easily measured Pc-Sw relations (e.g., air-water, and oil-water), yet the reliability of such approximations needs to be examined. In this study, 17 sets of brine drainage and imbibition curves were measured with air-brine, decane-brine, and supercritical (sc) CO2-brine in homogeneous quartz and carbonate sands, using porous plate systems under ambient (0.1 MPa, 23°C) and reservoir (12.0 MPa, 45°C) conditions. Comparisons between these measurements showed significant differences in residual nonwetting phase saturation, Snw_r. Through applying capillary scaling, changes in interfacial properties were indicated, particularly wettability. With respect to the residual trapping of the nonwetting phases, Snw_r, CO2 > Snw_r, decane > Snw_r, air. Decane-brine and scCO2-brine Pc-Sw curves deviated significantly from predictions assuming hydrophilic interactions. Moreover, neither the scaled capillary behavior nor Snw,r for scCO2-brine were well represented by decane-brine, apparently because of differences in wettability and viscosities, indicating limitations for using decane (and other organic liquids) as a surrogate fluid in studies intended to apply to geological carbon sequestration. Thus, challenges remain in applying scaling for predicting capillary trapping and multiphase displacement processes across such diverse fields as vadose zone hydrology, enhanced oil recovery, and geologic carbon sequestration.

  5. Effect of silane type and air-drying temperature on bonding fiber post to composite core and resin cement.

    PubMed

    de Rosatto, Camila Maria Peres; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of silane type and temperature of silane application on push-out bond strength between fiberglass posts with composite resin core and resin cement. One hundred and sixty fiberglass posts (Exacto, Angelus) had the surface treated with hydrogen peroxide 24%. Posts were divided in 8 groups according to two study factors: air-drying temperature after silane application (room temperature and 60 ºC) and silane type: three pre-hydrolyzed--Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE) and one two-component silane--Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply). The posts (n=10) for testing the bond strength between post and composite core were centered on a cylindrical plastic matrix and composite resin (Filtek Z250 XT, 3M ESPE) that was incrementally inserted and photoactivated. Eighty bovine incisor roots (n=10) were prepared for testing the bond strength between post and resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE) and received the fiberglass posts. Push-out test was used to measure the bond strength. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). ANOVA revealed that temperature and silane had no influence on bond strength between composite core and post. However, for bond strength between post and resin cement, the temperature increase resulted in a better performance for Silane Coupling Agent, Silano and RelyX Ceramic Primer. At room temperature Silane Coupling Agent showed the lowest bond strength. Effect of the warm air-drying is dependent on the silane composition. In conclusion, the use of silane is influenced by wettability of resinous materials and pre-hydrolyzed silanes are more stable compared with the two-bottle silane.

  6. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  7. Plasma kinetics in ethanol/water/air mixture in a 'tornado'-type electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, D.; Shchedrin, A.; Chernyak, V.; Olszewski, S.; Nedybaliuk, O.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a modified 'tornado'-type electrical discharge. Numerical modelling clarifies the nature of non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of non-equilibrium plasma chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to the characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  8. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  9. Beryllium Limits of Detection and Spectral Interferences in 2 Per Cent Nitric Acid, Digested Air Filter Paper, and GHOSTWIPETM Matrices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A.R.

    2004-02-13

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been requested to perform beryllium (Be) analysis on digested Air Filter Paper and GHOSTWIPE (Trade Mark) samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry (ICP-ES). One of the important figures of merit for this analysis is the detection limit (LOD), the smallest concentration of an element that can be detected with a defined certainty. To meet the site Industrial Hygiene (IH) requirements, an instrument LOD of 0.03 mg per Air Filter Paper (1 hr sample) and 0.2 mg per GHOSTWIPE (Trade Mark) must be demonstrated. Another important analytical parameter is the effect on the Be quantization from potential spectral interfering matrix elements. Any existing spectral overlaps could give false positives or increase the measured Be concentrations in these matrices. The purpose of this study was to document the Analytical Development Sections' s contained ICP-ES performance in these two areas. In addition, other Quality Control recommendations will be discussed.

  10. Summary of Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments in the Nova Air-Path and Projected Nova and Nova II System Performance Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M; Swift, C D; Murray, J R

    2007-07-17

    The authors present the results of high intensity beam propagation experiments conducted with the Nova laser system to investigate the occurrence of stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) from atmospheric nitrogen in the beam path. Enclosed is a preprint entitled ''Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen in Long Air Paths'' that they have published in the November issue of Optics Letters. The physics issues associated with SRRS are discussed at length in the preprint. The small signal steady-state SRRS gain coefficient that they determined from threshold measurements is in excellent agreement with recent direct SRRS gain measurements by Bischel, et al., at SRI, and is in good agreement with early gain estimates from Averbakh, et al., in the Soviet Union. Consequently, they have a high degree of confidence in the gain coefficient. In addition, threshold SRRS experiments on the long air-path Nova II system are in substantial agreement with the earlier Nova experiments. Nova and Nova II system performance limitations were not critically addressed in the publication so they shall discuss these issues in this paper.

  11. [Redo surgery for residual distal dissection after the limited proximal aortic replacement for Stanford type A acute aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Redo surgery for residual distal dissection after the limited proximal aortic repair for Stanford type A acute aortic dissection remains challenging with some difficulties. In essence, redo aortic repair predominantly depends on the significantly dilated parts of the residual dissection. According to that, the strategy including median or lateral approach and 1 or 2 staged repair would be determined with careful consideration for patients' age and function of the vital organs such as brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. Generally, for relatively young and low-risk patients, an aggressive 1 stage repair of the entire arch to descending aorta through a left thoracotomy is feasible. Meanwhile, 2 stage repair is beneficial for elderly high-risk patients, which consists of the 1st total arch replacement with elephant trunk through a median sternotomy followed secondly by the open descending aortic repair through a lateral thoracotomy or recently-advanced less-invasive endovascular aortic repair. In the initial repair, more aggressive total arch replacement with elephant trunk or frozen elephant trunk might be another useful option to potentially prevent such troublesome behaviors of the residual dissecting aorta requiring redo surgery in the late stage.

  12. A Limited Group of Class I Histone Deacetylases Acts To Repress Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Expression▿

    PubMed Central

    Keedy, Kara S.; Archin, Nancie M.; Gates, Adam T.; Espeseth, Amy; Hazuda, Daria J.; Margolis, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Silencing of the integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome in resting CD4+ T cells is a significant contributor to the persistence of infection, allowing the virus to evade both immune detection and pharmaceutical attack. Nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are capable of inducing expression of quiescent HIV-1 in latently infected cells. However, potent global HDAC inhibition can induce host toxicity. To determine the specific HDACs that regulate HIV-1 transcription, we evaluated HDAC1 to HDAC11 RNA expression and protein expression and compartmentalization in the resting CD4+ T cells of HIV-1-positive, aviremic patients. HDAC1, -3, and -7 had the highest mRNA expression levels in these cells. Although all HDACs were detected in resting CD4+ T cells by Western blot analysis, HDAC5, -8, and -11 were primarily sequestered in the cytoplasm. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we detected HDAC1, -2, and -3 at the HIV-1 promoter in Jurkat J89GFP cells. Targeted inhibition of HDACs by small interfering RNA demonstrated that HDAC2 and HDAC3 contribute to repression of HIV-1 long terminal repeat expression in the HeLa P4/R5 cell line model of latency. Together, these results suggest that HDAC inhibitors specific for a limited number of class I HDACs may offer a targeted approach to the disruption of persistent HIV-1 infection. PMID:19279091

  13. Experimental study of the types of cavitation by air seeding using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fanyi; Cheng, Yanxia; Zhang, Li; Gao, Rongfu; Shao, Xuemeng

    2015-12-01

    Recently, three types of cavitation: (i) expanding gradually; (ii) expanding-exploding, becoming a long-shaped bubble-lengthening by degrees; (iii) suddenly exploding and fully filling the conduit instantly, were proposed. Directed by this theory, experiments were performed using light microscopy to study the natural drying processes of xylem sections of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. Three different phenomena of gas filling process in conduits were captured by replaying recorded videos. The first phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands and elongates gradually to fill the conduit. The second phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands gradually, and then suddenly becomes long-shaped, and extends continuously. The third phenomenon is that a bubble instantly fully fills a conduit. This paper suggests in these experiments that after losing the bulk water of a section, as the water stress of that section became more severe, the water pressures of different conduits of the section were not necessarily the same, and as time went on, the water pressures decreased constantly. Considering some practical factors, the three phenomena captured in our experiment are explained by our theory.

  14. Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of Cupressaceae pollen type in Ponferrada (Leon, Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; González-Parrado, Zulima; Vega-Maray, Ana María; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa María; Fernández-González, Delia

    2007-01-01

    In order to survive periods of adverse cold climatic conditions, plant requirements are satisfied by means of physiological adaptations to prevent cells from freezing. Thus, the growth of woody plants in temperate regions slows down and they enter into a physiological state called dormancy. In order to identify the chilling and heat requirements to overcome the dormancy period of Cupressaceae pollen type in the south of Europe, we have carried out our study with aerobiological data from a 10-year (1996-2005) period in Ponferrada, León (Spain). For the chilling requirements the best result was with a threshold temperature of 7.1 degrees C and an average of 927 CH. Calculation of heat requirements was carried out with maximum temperature, with 490 growth degree days (GDD) needed, with a threshold temperature of 0 degrees C. We have used the 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 periods in order to determine the real validity of the model. We have not used these years in developing the models. The dates predicted differ in only a few days from those observed: in 2002-2003 there was a difference of 11 days, in 2003-2004 predicted and observed dates were the same, but in 2004-2005 the difference obtained was of 43 days.

  15. Microbes on-air: gut and tissue microbiota as targets in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serino, Matteo; Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Burcelin, Remy

    2012-10-01

    Each individual can be distinguished by the heterogeneity of the trillions of microbes inhabiting his gastrointestinal tract. This concept, together with the role that gut microbiota is considered to play in the induction of metabolic diseases, paves the way for the development of personalized medicine. By exploiting our unique animal model of metabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet, we have recently shown that differential gut microbiota lead to different metabolic phenotypes--metabotypes. Moreover, we have also reported that a given metabotype can be distinguished by different profiles of gut microbes, symptomatic of the complexity of the regulation of host physiology by gut microbiota. Furthermore, in an effort to find bacterial predictors of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we discovered that in a healthy population, subjects who subsequently developed T2D had increased blood levels of bacterial 16S rDNA well before. In addition, tissue (blood) microbiota, mainly characterized by Proteobacteria (up to 90%), has been discovered both in healthy individuals and in diabetic patients. Altogether, our results confirm the presence of gut microbes and propose tissue microbiota as new targets for the innovative treatment of T2D.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of a quantum noise limited Čerenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Pang, G.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (∼1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an

  17. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment, Add To and Alter Type III Hydrant Fueling System, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    materials or wastes , or contaminated sites during operation of the Proposed Action. Water Resources (EA §3.5.4) The Proposed Action would be constructed...to cumulative impacts on air quality, cultural resources, geologic resources and soils, hazardous materials and wastes , or water resources (surface...analysis are: air quality; cultural resources; geologic resources and soils, hazardous wastes and materials; and water resources (floodplains and wetlands

  18. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  19. Sustained enhancement of photosynthesis in coffee trees grown under free-air CO2 enrichment conditions: disentangling the contributions of stomatal, mesophyll, and biochemical limitations

    PubMed Central

    DaMatta, Fábio M.; Godoy, Alice G.; Menezes-Silva, Paulo E.; Martins, Samuel C.V.; Sanglard, Lílian M.V.P.; Morais, Leandro E.; Torre-Neto, André; Ghini, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea spp.), a globally traded commodity, is a slow-growing tropical tree species that displays an improved photosynthetic performance when grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). To investigate the mechanisms underlying this response, two commercial coffee cultivars (Catuaí and Obatã) were grown using the first free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Latin America. Measurements were conducted in two contrasting growth seasons, which were characterized by the high (February) and low (August) sink demand. Elevated [CO2] led to increases in net photosynthetic rates (A) in parallel with decreased photorespiration rates, with no photochemical limitations to A. The stimulation of A by elevated CO2 supply was more prominent in August (56% on average) than in February (40% on average). Overall, the stomatal and mesophyll conductances, as well as the leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, were unresponsive to the treatments. Photosynthesis was strongly limited by diffusional constraints, particularly at the stomata level, and this pattern was little, if at all, affected by elevated [CO2]. Relative to February, starch pools (but not soluble sugars) increased remarkably (>500%) in August, with no detectable alteration in the maximum carboxylation capacity estimated on a chloroplast [CO2] basis. Upregulation of A by elevated [CO2] took place with no signs of photosynthetic downregulation, even during the period of low sink demand, when acclimation would be expected to be greatest. PMID:26503540

  20. Multi-scale model of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters based on 2G HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnard, Charles-Henri; Sirois, Frédéric; Lacroix, Christian; Didier, Gaëtan

    2017-01-01

    In order to plan the integration of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in power systems, accurate models of SFCLs must be made available in commercial power system transient simulators. In this context, we developed such a model for the EMTP-RV software package, a power system transient simulator widely used by power utilities. The model can be used with any resistive-type SFCL (rSFCL) made of high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, which are discretized in ‘electro-thermal elements’. Those elements consist solely of electric circuit components, and are used to represent portions of tape of various sizes and dimensions (a ‘multi-scale’ approach). Both the electrical and thermal behaviors of the tape are modeled, including interfacial effects, nonlinear properties of materials and heat transfer to the surrounding environment. Such a multi-scale model can simulate accurately both the local quench dynamics of HTS tapes (microscopic scale) and the global impact of the rSFCL on the power system (macroscopic/system scale). In this paper, the model is used to compute phenomena such as propagation velocity of a hot spot and heat diffusion through the thickness of the tape. Results were verified by comparing EMTP-RV results with finite element simulations. In addition to the development of the multi-scale model itself, which is the major contribution of this paper, the use of the model allowed us to determine the conditions of validity of the commonly used ‘homogenization’ of the thermal properties across the tape thickness. Indeed, when the current flowing into the rSFCL is slightly above its critical current I c (and up to 2{I}{{c}}), very important errors in the power waveforms arise, leading to potentially wrong decisions of protection systems. Homogenized thermal models should thus be used with great care in practice.

  1. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses of human parainfluenza type 3 virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 2009 and 2013: The emergence of new genetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Goya, Stephanie; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana; Viegas, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Despite that human parainfluenza type 3 viruses (HPIV3) are one of the leading causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under five, there is no licensed vaccine and there is limited current information on the molecular characteristics of regional and global circulating strains. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular characterization of HPIV3 circulating in Buenos Aires. We performed a genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the HN glycoprotein gene. Between 2009 and 2013, 124 HPIV3-positive samples taken from hospitalized pediatric patients were analyzed. Four new genetic lineages were described. Among them, C1c and C3d lineages showed local circulation patterns, whereas C3e and C3f comprised sequences from very distant countries. Despite the diversity of the described genotypes, C3a and C3d predominated over the others, the latter was present during the first years of the study and it was progressively replaced by C3a. Molecular analyses showed 28 non-synonymous substitutions; of these, 13 were located in potentially predicted B-cell epitopes. Taken together, the emergence of genetic lineages and the information of the molecular characteristics of HN protein may contribute to the general knowledge of HPIV3 molecular epidemiology for future vaccine development and antiviral therapies.

  2. Design Optimization and the Limits of Steady-State Heating Efficiency for Conventional Single-Speed Air-Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-06

    The ORNL Heat Pump Model and an optimizing program were used to explore the limits of steady-state heating efficiency for conventional air-source heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of ten selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. Designs were optimized for a fixed heating capacity, but the results may be scaled to other capacities. Substantial performance improvement is predicted compared to today's state of the art heat pump. With increased component efficiencies that are expected in the near future and with modest increases in heat exchanger area, a 28% increase in heating efficiency is predicted; for long-term improvements with considerably larger heat exchangers, a 56% increase is possible. The improved efficiencies are accompanied by substantial reductions in the requirements for compressor and motor size. The predicted performance improvements are attributed not only to improved components and larger heat exchangers but also to the use of an optimizing design procedure. Deviations from the optimized design may be necessary to make use of available component sizes and to maintain good cooling-mode performance while improving the heating efficiency. Sensitivity plots (i.e., COP as a function of one or more design parameters) were developed to explore design flexibilities and to evaluate their consequences. The performance of the optimized designs was compared to that of modified ideal cycles to assess the factors that limit further improvement. It is hoped that the design methods developed will be useful to designers in the heat pump industry.

  3. An intermittent control model of flexible human gait using a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable limit cycle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunjiang; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2014-12-06

    Stability of human gait is the ability to maintain upright posture during walking against external perturbations. It is a complex process determined by a number of cross-related factors, including gait trajectory, joint impedance and neural control strategies. Here, we consider a control strategy that can achieve stable steady-state periodic gait while maintaining joint flexibility with the lowest possible joint impedance. To this end, we carried out a simulation study of a heel-toe footed biped model with hip, knee and ankle joints and a heavy head-arms-trunk element, working in the sagittal plane. For simplicity, the model assumes a periodic desired joint angle trajectory and joint torques generated by a set of feed-forward and proportional-derivative feedback controllers, whereby the joint impedance is parametrized by the feedback gains. We could show that a desired steady-state gait accompanied by the desired joint angle trajectory can be established as a stable limit cycle (LC) for the feedback controller with an appropriate set of large feedback gains. Moreover, as the feedback gains are decreased for lowering the joint stiffness, stability of the LC is lost only in a few dimensions, while leaving the remaining large number of dimensions quite stable: this means that the LC becomes saddle-type, with a low-dimensional unstable manifold and a high-dimensional stable manifold. Remarkably, the unstable manifold remains of low dimensionality even when the feedback gains are decreased far below the instability point. We then developed an intermittent neural feedback controller that is activated only for short periods of time at an optimal phase of each gait stride. We characterized the robustness of this design by showing that it can better stabilize the unstable LC with small feedback gains, leading to a flexible gait, and in particular we demonstrated that such an intermittent controller performs better if it drives the state point to the stable manifold, rather

  4. An intermittent control model of flexible human gait using a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable limit cycle dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chunjiang; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2014-01-01

    Stability of human gait is the ability to maintain upright posture during walking against external perturbations. It is a complex process determined by a number of cross-related factors, including gait trajectory, joint impedance and neural control strategies. Here, we consider a control strategy that can achieve stable steady-state periodic gait while maintaining joint flexibility with the lowest possible joint impedance. To this end, we carried out a simulation study of a heel-toe footed biped model with hip, knee and ankle joints and a heavy head-arms-trunk element, working in the sagittal plane. For simplicity, the model assumes a periodic desired joint angle trajectory and joint torques generated by a set of feed-forward and proportional-derivative feedback controllers, whereby the joint impedance is parametrized by the feedback gains. We could show that a desired steady-state gait accompanied by the desired joint angle trajectory can be established as a stable limit cycle (LC) for the feedback controller with an appropriate set of large feedback gains. Moreover, as the feedback gains are decreased for lowering the joint stiffness, stability of the LC is lost only in a few dimensions, while leaving the remaining large number of dimensions quite stable: this means that the LC becomes saddle-type, with a low-dimensional unstable manifold and a high-dimensional stable manifold. Remarkably, the unstable manifold remains of low dimensionality even when the feedback gains are decreased far below the instability point. We then developed an intermittent neural feedback controller that is activated only for short periods of time at an optimal phase of each gait stride. We characterized the robustness of this design by showing that it can better stabilize the unstable LC with small feedback gains, leading to a flexible gait, and in particular we demonstrated that such an intermittent controller performs better if it drives the state point to the stable manifold, rather

  5. AIRSLUG: A fortran program for the computation of type curves to estimate transmissivity and storativity from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, E.A.; Shapiro, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Fortran code AIRSLUG can be used to generate the type curves needed to analyze the recovery data from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests. These type curves, when used with a graphical software package, enable the engineer or scientist to analyze field tests to estimate transmissivity and storativity. Prematurely terminating the slug test can significantly reduce the overall time needed to conduct the test, especially at low-permeability sites, thus saving time and money.The Fortran code AIRSLUG can be used to generate the type curves needed to analyze the recovery data from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests. These type curves, when used with a graphical software package, enable the engineer or scientist to analyze field tests to estimate transmissivity and storativity. Prematurely terminating the slug test can significantly reduce the overall time needed to conduct the test, especially at low-permeability sites, thus saving time and money.

  6. Use of Oriented Spray Nozzles to Set the Vapor-Air Flow in Rotary Motion in the Superspray Space of the Evaporative Chimney-Type Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrego, K. V.; Davydenko, V. F.; Koznacheev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers the problem of upgrading the thermal efficiency of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers due to the rotary motion of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space. To set the vapor-air flow in rotary motion, we propose to use the momentum of the sprayed water. It has been shown that the existing parameters of spray nozzles permit setting up to 30% of the water flow momentum in translatory motion, which is enough for changing considerably the aerodynamics of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space and improving the operation of the cooling tower. The optimal angle of axial inclination of the spray cone has been estimated. Recommendations are given and problems have been posed for engineering realization of the proposed technologies in a chimney-type cooling tower.

  7. Effect of surfactants on surface activity and rheological properties of type I collagen at air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Góral, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    We describe the effect of three synthetic surfactants (anionic - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic - Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on surface properties of the type I calf skin collagen at the air/water interface in acidic solutions (pH 1.8). The protein concentration was fixed at 5×10(-6)molL(-1) and the surfactant concentration was varied in the range 5×10(-6)molL(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1), producing the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers. Two spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorimetry allowed us to determine the effect of the surfactants on the protein structure. The thermodynamic characteristic of the mixtures was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Modification of the collagen structure by SDS at low surfactant/protein ratios has a positive effect on the mixture's surface activity with only minor deterioration of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layers. The collagen/CTAB mixtures do not show that pronounced improvement in surface activity, while rheological properties are significantly deteriorated. The mixtures with non-ionic TX-100 do not show any synergistic effects in surface activity.

  8. A RGB-Type Quantum Dot-based Sensor Array for Sensitive Visual Detection of Trace Formaldehyde in Air

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Hu, Jing; Tang, Jie; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    A simple colorimetric sensor array based on red-emitting CdTe QDs and green-colored fluorescein that exhibited RGB-type color change was proposed for visual detection of trace formaldehyde. In the presence of formaldehyde, the red fluorescence from CdTe QDs was quenched while the green fluorescein was inert thus as a reference. Through harvesting the varied quenching efficiency of different ligand-capped CdTe QDs by formaldehyde, a simple sensor array can be constructed for both selective detection of formaldehyde with high sensitivity (LOD of 0.08 ppm) and identification of the existence of potential interference from acetaldehyde. The quenching mechanisms of formaldehyde toward different ligand capped CdTe QDs were studied with fluorescence lifetime, zeta potential, and also theoretical calculations. The results from theoretical calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed sensor array was successfully explored for visual analysis of formaldehyde in indoor air samples. PMID:27830733

  9. RING Type E3 Ligase CaAIR1 in Pepper Acts in the Regulation of ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been associated with the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in higher plants. Here, we report that the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) ABA-Insensitive RING protein 1 gene (CaAIR1) is essential for a hypersensitive response to drought stress. CaAIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger motif, which plays a role for attachment of ubiquitins to the target protein, and a putative transmembrane domain. The expression levels of CaAIR1 are up-regulated in pepper leaves by ABA treatments, drought and NaCl, suggesting its role in the response to abiotic stress. Our analysis showed that CaAIR1 displays self-ubiquitination and is localized in the nucleus. We generated CaAIR1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and CaAIR1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to ABA and drought. VIGS of CaAIR1 in pepper plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to drought stress, which was accompanied by low levels of transpirational water loss in the drought-treated leaves. CaAIR1-OX plants displayed an impaired sensitivity to ABA during seed germination, seedling and adult stages. Moreover, these plants showed enhanced sensitivity to drought stress because of reduced stomatal closure and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes. Thus, our data indicate that CaAIR1 is a negative regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance mechanism.

  10. Two reduced form air quality modeling techniques for rapidly calculating pollutant mitigation potential across many sources, locations and precursor emission types

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the computational cost of running regional-scale numerical air quality models, reduced form models (RFM) have been proposed as computationally efficient simulation tools for characterizing the pollutant response to many different types of emission reductions. The U.S. Envi...

  11. Current Limiting and Recovery Characteristics Under Load of Transformer Type SFCL with Rewound Structure Using BSCCO Wire in Model Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Sho; Oda, Sayaka; Mori, Masato; Hattori, Keisuke; Baba, Jumpei; Shirai, Yasuyuki

    We have proposed new design of a transformer type SFCL with primary and secondary superconducting coils which has rewound structure. For not so large fault current, the proposed SFCL limits the current by the inductive component by the normal transition of the flux shielding coil (secondary), and for larger fault current, it can give the resistive component additively by the normal transition of the primary coil. The recovery characteristics under load condition and repetitive limiting operation were experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale power system. The SFCL limited twice repetitive faults current and recovered quickly under load condition.

  12. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  13. Effect of monoclonal antibodies on limited proteolysis of native glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Pereira, L.; Hampar, B.; Zweig, M.; Cohen, G.H.

    1982-02-01

    We examined the properties of 17 monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) (gD-1) and HSV-2 (gD-2). The antibodies recognized eight separate determinants of gD, based on differences in radioimmuno-precipitation and neutralization assays. The determinants were distributed as follows: three were gD-1 specific, one was gD-2 specific, and four were type common. Several type-specific and type-common determinants appeared to be involved in neutralization. We developed a procedure for examining the effect that binding of monoclonal antibody has on proteolysis of native gD-1 by Staphylococcus aureus protease V8. We showed that several different patterns of protease V8 cleavage were obtained, depending on the monoclonal antibody used. The proteolysis patterns were generally consistent with the immunological groupings. With four groups of antibodies, we found that fragments of gD-1 remained bound to antibody after V8 treatment. A 38,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies in three different groups of monoclonal antibodies. This fragment appeared to contain one type-common and two type-specific determinants. A 12,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies belonging to one type-common group of monoclonal antibodies. Tryptic peptide analysis revealed that the 12,000-dalton fragment represented a portion of the 38,000-dalton fragment and was enriched in a type-common arginine tryptic peptide.

  14. Dynamique de la désintégration pour trois types de processus nucléaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfoughal, T.; Mirea, M.

    1995-07-01

    In order to study the dynamic behaviours of three disintegration modes (cold fission, alpha-decay and cluster radioactivities), we use a numerical method based on the Euler-Lagrange's equation of motion to obtain a constrained minimum of the WKB-integral in a tridimensional configuration space. The inertia is determined using the Werner-Wheeler approximation and the energy is computed in agreement with the Yukawa-plus-exponential model extended for binary systems with different charge densities. The degrees of freedom of the system are: elongation, necking-in and mass-asymmetry. Least-action trajectories are found for three decay-modes of ^{238}Pu. Afin d'étudier le comportement dynamique de trois modes de désintégration nucléaire (fission froide, désintégration alpha et radioactivité par émission d'ions lourd), nous utilisons une méthode numérique basée sur les équations d'Euler-Lagrange pour obtenir la trajectoire dynamique optimale dans un espace de configuration à trois dimensions. Les degrés de liberté du système retenus sont l'élongation, la taille du col et l'assymétrie de masse. Pour le calcul de l'intégrale d'action par la méthode WKB, l'inertie du système est déterminée dans l'approximation Werner-Wheeler, et l'énergie de déformation est calculée dans le cadre du modèle de la goutte liquide pour une interaction nucléaire de type Yukawa-plus-exponentielle, étendu aux systèmes binaires avec des densités de charge différentes. Cette méthode est appliquée à l'étude de trois modes de désintégration du Pu-238: désintégration alpha, radioactivité par émission du Si-32 et fission froide avec, pour fragment léger, le Mo-104.

  15. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  16. Effects of torbafylline, pentoxifylline and buflomedil on vascularisation and fibre type of rat skeletal muscles subjected to limited blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Hudlická, O.; Price, S.

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood flow (measured by radio-labelled microspheres), fibre composition and capillary/fibre ratio were estimated in rat fast twitch skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) five weeks after unilateral ligation of the common iliac artery in animals treated with either saline, torbafylline, pentoxifylline or buflomedil. 2. The resting blood flow was lower in muscles with limited blood supply than in their contralateral controls; this difference became statistically insignificant after treatment. Capillary/fibre ratio was similar in all muscles with either intact or limited blood supply and did not change after administration of any of the drugs. 3. The percentage of glycolytic fibres was not changed by ligation, but it decreased significantly in animals treated with torbafylline. This may improve performance in muscles with limited blood supply. PMID:2361174

  17. Antigenic modulation limits the effector cell mechanisms employed by type I anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Thomas R W; Roghanian, Ali; Oldham, Robert J; Carter, Matthew J; Cox, Kerry L; Mockridge, C Ian; French, Ruth R; Dahal, Lekh N; Duriez, Patrick J; Hargreaves, Philip G; Cragg, Mark S; Beers, Stephen A

    2015-03-19

    Following the success of rituximab, 2 other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), ofatumumab and obinutuzumab, have entered clinical use. Ofatumumab has enhanced capacity for complement-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas obinutuzumab, a type II mAb, lacks the ability to redistribute into lipid rafts and is glycoengineered for augmented antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We previously showed that type I mAbs such as rituximab have a propensity to undergo enhanced antigenic modulation compared with type II. Here we assessed the key effector mechanisms affected, comparing type I and II antibodies of various isotypes in ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular-phagocytosis (ADCP) assays. Rituximab and ofatumumab depleted both normal and leukemic human CD20-expressing B cells in the mouse less effectively than glycoengineered and wild-type forms of obinutuzumab, particularly when human immunoglobulin G1 (hIgG1) mAbs were compared. In contrast to mouse IgG2a, hIgG1 mAbs were ineffective in ADCC assays with murine natural killer cells as effectors, whereas ADCP was equivalent for mouse IgG2a and hIgG1. However, rituximab's ability to elicit both ADCC and ADCP was reduced by antigenic modulation, whereas type II antibodies remained unaffected. These data demonstrate that ADCP and ADCC are impaired by antigenic modulation and that ADCP is the main effector function employed in vivo.

  18. Limited trafficking of a neurotropic virus through inefficient retrograde axonal transport and the type I interferon response.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Karen Z; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2010-03-05

    Poliovirus is an enteric virus that rarely invades the human central nervous system (CNS). To identify barriers limiting poliovirus spread from the periphery to CNS, we monitored trafficking of 10 marked viruses. After oral inoculation of susceptible mice, poliovirus was present in peripheral neurons, including vagus and sciatic nerves. To model viral trafficking in peripheral neurons, we intramuscularly injected mice with poliovirus, which follows a muscle-sciatic nerve-spinal cord-brain route. Only 20% of the poliovirus population successfully moved from muscle to brain, and three barriers limiting viral trafficking were identified. First, using light-sensitive viruses, we found limited viral replication in peripheral neurons. Second, retrograde axonal transport of poliovirus in peripheral neurons was inefficient; however, the efficiency was increased upon muscle damage, which also increased the transport efficiency of a non-viral neural tracer, wheat germ agglutinin. Third, using susceptible interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor knockout mice, we demonstrated that the IFN response limited viral movement from the periphery to the brain. Surprisingly, the retrograde axonal transport barrier was equivalent in strength to the IFN barrier. Illustrating the importance of barriers created by the IFN response and inefficient axonal transport, IFN alpha/beta receptor knockout mice with muscle damage permitted 80% of the viral population to access the brain, and succumbed to disease three times faster than mice with intact barriers. These results suggest that multiple separate barriers limit poliovirus trafficking from peripheral neurons to the CNS, possibly explaining the rare incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis. This study identifies inefficient axonal transport as a substantial barrier to poliovirus trafficking in peripheral neurons, which may limit CNS access for other viruses.

  19. A low upper mass limit for the central black hole in the late-type galaxy NGC 4414

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thater, S.; Krajnović, D.; Bourne, M. A.; Cappellari, M.; de Zeeuw, T.; Emsellem, E.; Magorrian, J.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-01-01

    We present our mass estimate of the central black hole in the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 4414. Using natural guide star adaptive optics assisted observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) and the natural seeing Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs-North (GMOS), we derived two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps of NGC 4414 covering the central 1.5 arcsec and 10 arcsec, respectively, at a NIFS spatial resolution of 0.13 arcsec. The kinematic maps reveal a regular rotation pattern and a central velocity dispersion dip down to around 105 km s-1. We constructed dynamical models using two different methods: Jeans anisotropic dynamical modeling and axisymmetric Schwarzschild modeling. Both modeling methods give consistent results, but we cannot constrain the lower mass limit and only measure an upper limit for the black hole mass of MBH = 1.56 × 106M⊙ (at 3σ level) which is at least 1σ below the recent MBH-σe relations. Further tests with dark matter, mass-to-light ratio variation and different light models confirm that our results are not dominated by uncertainties. The derived upper limit mass is not only below the MBH-σe relation, but is also five times lower than the lower limit black hole mass anticipated from the resolution limit of the sphere of influence. This proves that via high quality integral field data we are now able to push black hole measurements down to at least five times less than the resolution limit. The reduced data cubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A18

  20. Associations between size-fractionated particulate air pollution and blood pressure in a panel of type II diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Zhuohui; Yang, Changyuan; Lu, Jianxiong; Chen, Xuan; Kan, Haidong

    2015-07-01

    Little is known regarding how the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) air pollution influences its effect on blood pressure (BP), especially among patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the short-term associations between size-fractionated PM and BP among diabetes patients. We scheduled 6 repeated BP examinations every 2 weeks from 13 April 2013 to 30 June 2013 in a panel of 35 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients recruited from an urban community in Shanghai, China. We measured real-time PM concentrations in the size range of 0.25 to 10 μm. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the short-term association of size-fractionated PM and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, mean temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, years with diabetes and use of antihypertensive medication. The association with systolic BP and pulse pressure strengthened with decreasing diameter. The size fractions with the strongest associations were 0.25 to 0.40 μm for number concentrations and ≤ 2.5 μm for mass concentrations. Furthermore, these effects occurred immediately even after 0-2h and lasted for up to 48 h following exposure. An interquartile range increase in 24-h average number concentrations of PM0.25-0.40 was associated with increases of 3.61 mmHg in systolic BP and 2.96 mmHg in pulse pressure. Females, patients younger than 65 years of age and patients without antihypertensive treatment were more susceptible to these effects. Our results revealed important size and temporal patterns of PM in elevating BP among diabetes patients in China.

  1. Aerosolized ZnO nanoparticles induce toxicity in alveolar type II epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yumei; Williams, Nolann G.; Tolic, Ana; Chrisler, William B.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Maddux, Bettye L.; Pounds, Joel G.; Laskin, Alexander; Orr, Galya

    2012-01-20

    The majority of in vitro studies characterizing the impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cells that line the respiratory tract were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in suspension. This approach introduces processes that are unlikely to occur during inhaled NP exposures in vivo, such as the shedding of toxic doses of dissolved ions. ZnO NPs are used extensively and pose significant sources for human exposure. Exposures to airborne ZnO NPs can induce adverse effects, but the relevance of the dissolved Zn2+ to the observed effects in vivo is still unclear. Our goal was to mimic in vivo exposures to airborne NPs and decipher the contribution of the intact NP from the contribution of the dissolved ions to airborne ZnO NP toxicity. We established the exposure of alveolar type II epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI), and compared the impact of aerosolized ZnO NPs and NPs in suspension at the same cellular doses, measured as the number of particles per cell. By evaluating membrane integrity and cell viability 6 and 24 hours post exposure we found that aerosolized NPs induced toxicity at the ALI at doses that were in the same order of magnitude as doses required to induce toxicity in submersed cultures. In addition, distinct patterns of oxidative stress were observed in the two exposure systems. These observations unravel the ability of airborne ZnO NPs to induce toxicity without the contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and suggest distinct mechanisms at the ALI and in submersed cultures.

  2. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  3. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  4. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  5. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  6. Modified differential evolution algorithm for simple assembly line balancing with a limit on the number of machine types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitakaso, Rapeepan; Sethanan, Kanchana

    2016-02-01

    This article proposes the differential evolution algorithm (DE) and the modified differential evolution algorithm (DE-C) to solve a simple assembly line balancing problem type 1 (SALBP-1) and SALBP-1 when the maximum number of machine types in a workstation is considered (SALBP-1M). The proposed algorithms are tested and compared with existing effective heuristics using various sets of test instances found in the literature. The computational results show that the proposed heuristics is one of the best methods, compared with the other approaches.

  7. Gravitational wave radiation by LIGO-type detectors and its reciprocity relation with the detector's fundamental quantum limited sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Belinda; Ma, Yiqiu; Miao, Haixing; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-01-01

    We relate the radiation of gravitational waves (GW) by a light interferometer with cavity arms (such as LIGO) to its quantum limited sensitivity as a detector of GW's, thereby demonstrating a reciprocity relation between the interferometer's function as a detector and emitter. We derive the pairwise interactions among the cavity optical field, the cavity end mirror, and the gravitational perturbation from the action principle. We quantize these degrees of freedom to calculate the GW's generated by a quantum object. We find that the rate of gravitational wave generation is related to the so-called quantum Cramer Rao bound of the detector, which is a general result from linear measurement theory that gives the fundamental limit to a detector's sensitivity. We show that increasing the maximal sensitivity for the interferometer also increases its GW radiation. This finding may point towards a new paradigm for improving detector sensitivity by maximizing GW radiator.

  8. Pyromellitic dithioimides: thionation improves air-stability and electron mobility of N-type organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Te-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Han; Chiu, Yi-Pang; Chen, Bo-Hsiang; Shih, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yu-Chang; Yao, Jie-Yi; Lee, Yao-Jen; Kuo, Ming-Yu

    2015-09-18

    Thionation and fluorination of pyromellitic diimides (PyDIs) increased the electron mobility and on/off ratio of the original diimides by two orders of magnitude and improved the threshold voltage and air-stability of diimide compounds.

  9. Secretory delivery of recombinant proteins in attenuated Salmonella strains: potential and limitations of Type I protein transporters.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Heinz P; von Specht, Bernd Ulrich

    2003-07-15

    Live attenuated Salmonella strains have been extensively explored as oral delivery systems for recombinant vaccine antigens and effector proteins with immunoadjuvant and immunomodulatory potential. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in human vaccination trials for various antigens. However, immunization efficiencies with live vaccines are generally significantly lower compared to those monitored in parenteral immunizations with the same vaccine antigen. This is, at least partly, due to the lack of secretory expression systems, enabling large-scale extracellular delivery of vaccine and effector proteins by these strains. Because of their low complexity and the terminal location of the secretion signal in the secreted protein, Type I (ATP-binding cassette) secretion systems appear to be particularly suited for development of such recombinant extracellular expression systems. So far, the Escherichia coli hemolysin system is the only Type I secretion system, which has been adapted to recombinant protein secretion in Salmonella. However, this system has a number of disadvantages, including low secretion capacity, complex genetic regulation, and structural restriction to the secreted protein, which eventually hinder high-level in vivo delivery of recombinant vaccines and effector proteins. Thus, the development of more efficient recombinant protein secretion systems, based on Type I exporters can help to improve efficacies of live recombinant Salmonella vaccines. Type I secretion systems, mediating secretion of bacterial surface layer proteins, such as RsaA in Caulobacter crescentus, are discussed as promising candidates for improved secretory delivery systems.

  10. An essential role for TH2-type response in limiting acute tissue damage during experimental helminth infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminths induce potent Th2-type immune responses that can lead to worm expulsion, but it remains undetermined whether components of this response can enhance the wound healing responses elicited as these large multi-cellular parasites traffic thru vital tissues. We used a model of helminth infecti...

  11. Limited segregation of different types of sound localization information among classes of units in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Chase, Steven M; Young, Eric D

    2005-08-17

    The auditory system uses three cues to decode sound location: interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral notches (SNs). Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ramachandran et al. (1999) argued that ICC neurons of types V, I, and O, respectively, receive their predominant inputs from ITD-, ILD-, and SN-sensitive brainstem nuclei, suggesting that these ICC response types should be differentially sensitive to localization cues. Here, single-unit responses to simultaneous manipulation of pairs of localization cues were recorded, and the mutual information between discharge rate and individual cues was quantified. Although rate responses to cue variation were generally consistent with those expected from the hypothesized anatomical connections, the differences in information were not as large as expected. Type I units provide the most information, especially about SNs in the physiologically useful range. Type I and O units provide information about ILDs, even at low frequencies at which actual ILDs are very small. ITD information is provided by a subset of all low-frequency neurons. Type V neurons provide information mainly about ITDs and the average binaural intensity. These results are the first to quantify the relative representation of cues in terms of information and suggest a variety of degrees of cue integration in the ICC.

  12. Comparison of the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL with single and three-phase transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byung Ik; Cho, Yong Sun; Park, Hyoung Min; Chung, Dong Chul; Choi, Hyo Sang

    2013-01-01

    The South Korean power grid has a network structure for the flexible operation of the system. The continuously increasing power demand necessitated the increase of power facilities, which decreased the impedance in the power system. As a result, the size of the fault current in the event of a system fault increased. As this increased fault current size is threatening the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker, the main protective device, a solution to this problem is needed. The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been designed to address this problem. SFCL supports the stable operation of the circuit breaker through its excellent fault-current-limiting operation [1-5]. In this paper, the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling-type SFCL with one three-phase transformer were compared with those of the same SFCL type but with three single-phase transformers. In the case of the three-phase transformers, both the superconducting elements of the fault and sound phases were quenched, whereas in the case of the single-phase transformer, only that of the fault phase was quenched. For the fault current limiting rate, both cases showed similar rates for the single line-to-ground fault, but for the three-wire earth fault, the fault current limiting rate of the single-phase transformer was over 90% whereas that of the three-phase transformer was about 60%. It appears that when the three-phase transformer was used, the limiting rate decreased because the fluxes by the fault current of each phase were linked in one core. When the power loads of the superconducting elements were compared by fault type, the initial (half-cycle) load was great when the single-phase transformer was applied, whereas for the three-phase transformer, its power load was slightly lower at the initial stage but became greater after the half fault cycle.

  13. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  14. Characterization of C-type lectins reveals an unexpectedly limited interaction between Cryptococcus neoformans spores and Dectin-1

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Naomi M.; Wuthrich, Marcel; Wang, Huafeng; Klein, Bruce; Hull, Christina M.

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is an important process for protection against multiple pathologies and is particularly important for resistance to infection. However, phagocytosis has also been implicated in the progression of some diseases, including the dissemination of the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Previously, we identified Dectin-1 as a likely phagocytic receptor for C. neoformans spores through the use of soluble components in receptor-ligand blocking experiments. In this study, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays with intact cells to evaluate the in vivo role of Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins in interactions with C. neoformans spores and discovered stark differences in outcome when compared with previous assays. First, we found that non-phagocytic cells expressing Dectin-1 were unable to bind spores and that highly sensitive reporter cells expressing Dectin-1 were not stimulated by spores. Second, we determined that some phagocytes from Dectin-1-/- mice interacted with spores differently than wild type (WT) cells, but the effects varied among assays and were modest overall. Third, while we detected small but statistically significant reductions in phagocytosis by primary alveolar macrophages from Dectin-1-/- mice compared to WT, we found no differences in survival between WT and Dectin-1-/- mice challenged with spores. Further analyses to assess the roles of other C-type lectins and their adapters revealed very weak stimulation of Dectin-2 reporter cells by spores and modest differences in binding and phagocytosis by Dectin-2-/- bone marrow-derived phagocytes. There were no discernable defects in binding or phagocytosis by phagocytes lacking Mannose Receptor, Mincle, Card-9, or FcRγ. Taken together, these results lead to the conclusion that Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins do not individually play a major roles in phagocytosis and innate defense by phagocytes against C. neoformans spores and highlight

  15. Characterization of C-type lectins reveals an unexpectedly limited interaction between Cryptococcus neoformans spores and Dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Naomi M; Wuthrich, Marcel; Wang, Huafeng; Klein, Bruce; Hull, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is an important process for protection against multiple pathologies and is particularly important for resistance to infection. However, phagocytosis has also been implicated in the progression of some diseases, including the dissemination of the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Previously, we identified Dectin-1 as a likely phagocytic receptor for C. neoformans spores through the use of soluble components in receptor-ligand blocking experiments. In this study, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays with intact cells to evaluate the in vivo role of Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins in interactions with C. neoformans spores and discovered stark differences in outcome when compared with previous assays. First, we found that non-phagocytic cells expressing Dectin-1 were unable to bind spores and that highly sensitive reporter cells expressing Dectin-1 were not stimulated by spores. Second, we determined that some phagocytes from Dectin-1-/- mice interacted with spores differently than wild type (WT) cells, but the effects varied among assays and were modest overall. Third, while we detected small but statistically significant reductions in phagocytosis by primary alveolar macrophages from Dectin-1-/- mice compared to WT, we found no differences in survival between WT and Dectin-1-/- mice challenged with spores. Further analyses to assess the roles of other C-type lectins and their adapters revealed very weak stimulation of Dectin-2 reporter cells by spores and modest differences in binding and phagocytosis by Dectin-2-/- bone marrow-derived phagocytes. There were no discernable defects in binding or phagocytosis by phagocytes lacking Mannose Receptor, Mincle, Card-9, or FcRγ. Taken together, these results lead to the conclusion that Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins do not individually play a major roles in phagocytosis and innate defense by phagocytes against C. neoformans spores and highlight

  16. Solubility-limited extrinsic n-type doping of a high electron mobility polymer for thermoelectric applications.

    PubMed

    Schlitz, Ruth A; Brunetti, Fulvio G; Glaudell, Anne M; Miller, P Levi; Brady, Michael A; Takacs, Christopher J; Hawker, Craig J; Chabinyc, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    The thermoelectric properties of a highperformance electron-conducting polymer, (P(NDIOD-T2), extrinsically doped with dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl (NDBI) derivatives, are reported. The highest thermoelectric power factor that has been reported for a solution-processed n-type polymer is achieved; and it is concluded that engineering polymerdopant miscibility is essential for the development of organic thermoelectrics.

  17. Arene Trifluoromethylation: An Effective Strategy to Obtain Air-Stable n-Type Organic Semiconductors with Tunable Optoelectronic and Electron Transfer Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haoran; Putta, Anjaneyulu; Billion, Michael

    2012-08-02

    Modulation of organic semiconductor band gap, electron affinities (EA), ionization potentials (IP), and reorganization energies (λ) associated with charge transfer is critical for its applications. We report here that trifluoromethylation not only increases both IP and EA significantly as expected but also narrows the HOMO–LUMO band gaps and increases considerably the air-stability of arene-based n-type organic semiconductors. The increased air-stability results from relatively high EA energies and a change in oxidation mechanism. Calculated EAs and IPs show that trifluoromethylated arenes are excellent candidates for n-type semiconductor materials; though a moderate increase of inner-sphere reorganization energy (λi) associated with charge transfer is the penalty for the improved performance of the trifluoromethylated compounds. However, since λi decreases as the π conjugation increases, a rational design to produce air-stable n-type semiconductor materials with reasonably small λi is simply to prepare trifluoromethylated arenes with extended π conjugation. Finally, we found that structural isomerization can fine-tune the optoelectronic and electronic transfer properties of the corresponding aromatics.

  18. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or any other geographical subdivision created by, or.... 7504, by the State to carry out the air planning responsibilities under part D. (2) The term...

  19. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or any other geographical subdivision created by, or.... 7504, by the State to carry out the air planning responsibilities under part D. (2) The term...

  20. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or any other geographical subdivision created by, or.... 7504, by the State to carry out the air planning responsibilities under part D. (2) The term...

  1. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or any other geographical subdivision created by, or.... 7504, by the State to carry out the air planning responsibilities under part D. (2) The term...

  2. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or any other geographical subdivision created by, or.... 7504, by the State to carry out the air planning responsibilities under part D. (2) The term...

  3. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Balicki, Adrian; Michalski, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of `zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  5. Lift Increase by Blowing Out Air, Tests on Airfoil of 12 Percent Thickness, Using Various Types of Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwier, W.

    1947-01-01

    The NACA 23012-4 airfoil was investigated for the purpose of increasing lift by means of blowing out air from the wing, in conjunction with the effect of plain flap of variable contour and slotted flap of 25 percent chord length. The wing also was provided with a hinged nose, to be deflected at will. Air was blown out frcm the wing immediately in front of the flap; also at the opening between wing and hinged nose,tangentially to the surface of the wing. Another device employed to increase maximum lift was a movable slat, to be opened to form a clot. Lift was measured in relation to the volume of blown-out air and considerable increases were observed with increasing volume.

  6. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  7. Formation Mechanism of SiO2-Type Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel Wires Containing Limited Aluminum Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2015-10-01

    The origin, formation mechanism, and evolution of SiO2-type inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steel wires were studied by pilot trials with systematical samplings at the refining ladle, casting tundish, as-cast bloom, reheated bloom, and hot-rolled rods. It was found that the inclusions in tundish were well controlled in the low melting point region. By contrast, MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions in the as-cast bloom were with compositions located in the primary region of SiO2, and most CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions lied in primary phase region of anorthite. Therefore, precipitation of SiO2 particles in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions can be easier than in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions to form dual-phase inclusions in the as-cast bloom. Thermodynamic calculation by the software FactSage 6.4 (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada) showed that mass transfer between liquid steel and inclusions resulted in the rise of SiO2 content in inclusions from tundish to as-cast bloom and accelerated the precipitation of pure SiO2 phase in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions. As a result, the inclusions characterized by dual-phase structure of pure SiO2 in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix were observed in both as-cast and reheated blooms. Moreover, the ratio of such dual-phase SiO2-type inclusions witnessed an obvious increase from 0 to 25.4 pct before and after casting, whereas it changed little during the reheating and rolling. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that they were mainly formed during casting. Comparing the evolution of the inclusions composition and morphology in as-cast bloom and rolled products, a formation mechanism of the SiO2-type inclusions in wire rods was proposed, which included (1) precipitation of SiO2 in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusion during casting and (2) solid-phase separation of the undeformed SiO2 precipitation from its softer MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix during multipass rolling.

  8. Multipoint Lods Provide Reliable Linkage Evidence Despite Unknown Limiting Distribution: Type I Error Probabilities Decrease with Sample Size for Multipoint Lods and Mods

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Susan E.; Rodriguez-Murillo, Laura; Strug, Lisa J.; Greenberg, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of type I error rates in model-based multipoint (MP) linkage analysis, as a function of sample size (N). We consider both MP lods (i.e., MP linkage analysis that uses the correct genetic model) and MP mods (maximizing MP lods over 18 dominant and recessive models). Following Xing & Elston [2006], we first consider MP linkage analysis limited to a single position; then we enlarge the scope and maximize the lods and mods over a span of positions. In all situations we examined, type I error rates decrease with increasing sample size, apparently approaching zero. We show: (a) For MP lods analyzed only at a single position, well-known statistical theory predicts that type I error rates approach zero. (b) For MP lods and mods maximized over position, this result has a different explanation, related to the fact that one maximizes the scores over only a finite portion of the parameter range. The implications of these findings may be far-reaching: Although it is widely accepted that fixed nominal critical values for MP lods and mods are not known, this study shows that whatever the nominal error rates are, the actual error rates appear to decrease with increasing sample size. Moreover, the actual (observed) type I error rate may be quite small for any given study. We conclude that multipoint lod and mod scores provide reliable linkage evidence for complex diseases, despite the unknown limiting distributions of these multipoint scores. PMID:18613118

  9. Host-cell positive transcription elongation factor b kinase activity is essential and limiting for HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Flores, O; Lee, G; Kessler, J; Miller, M; Schlief, W; Tomassini, J; Hazuda, D

    1999-06-22

    HIV-1 gene expression and viral replication require the viral transactivator protein Tat. The RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb (cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T) is a cellular protein kinase that has recently been shown to be a key component of the Tat-transactivation process. For this report, we studied the requirement for P-TEFb in HIV-1 infection, and we now show that P-TEFb is both essential and limiting for HIV-1 replication. Attenuation of P-TEFb kinase activity either by expression of a dominant-negative cyclin-dependent kinase 9 transgene or through the use of small-molecule inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 gene expression and HIV-1 replication. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication is affected in a manner consistent with a direct and specific effect on P-TEFb and the known functional role of P-TEFb in Tat-activated transcription. Tat-activated expression of HIV-1 genes seems uniquely dependent on P-TEFb, as inhibition of P-TEFb activity and HIV-1 replication can be achieved without compromising cell viability or RNA polymerase II-dependent cellular gene transcription. Selective inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase may therefore provide a novel approach for developing chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1.

  10. Dependence of detection limits on angular alignment, substrate type and surface concentration in active mode standoff IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Zuñiga, Carlos A.; Galán-Freyle, Nataly Y.; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Aparicio-Bolaño, Joaquín.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    A standoff multivariate calibration for detection of highly energetic materials (HEM) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is presented in this report. The procedure consists in standoff sensing at 1 m distance and the variation of three parameters of detection. The first variable considered was the angular dependence: 0° to 45‡ from source-target with respect to alignment of target-detector. The second variable consisted on the use of several surfaces on which the material was deposited. The substrates used were polished aluminum and anodized aluminum. The third variable studied was the dependence on some specific analyte loading surface concentration: from 10 μg/cm2 to200 μg/cm2. The HEM used in this work was PETN, synthesized in our lab. Calibration curves were based on the use of chemometrics routines such as partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. This algorithm was used to evaluate the impact of the angular dependence about the limits of detection of different HME loadings on aluminum substrates.

  11. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  12. Air-stable conversion of separated carbon nanotube thin-film transistors from p-type to n-type using atomic layer deposition of high-κ oxide and its application in CMOS logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialu; Wang, Chuan; Fu, Yue; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-04-26

    Due to extraordinary electrical properties, preseparated, high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes hold great potential for thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuit applications. One of the main challenges it still faces is the fabrication of air-stable n-type nanotube TFTs with industry-compatible techniques. Here in this paper, we report a novel and highly reliable method of converting the as-made p-type TFTs using preseparated semiconducting nanotubes into air-stable n-type transistors by adding a high-κ oxide passivation layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The n-type devices exhibit symmetric electrical performance compared with the p-type devices in terms of on-current, on/off ratio, and device mobility. Various factors affecting the conversion process, including ALD temperature, metal contact material, and channel length, have also been systematically studied by a series of designed experiments. A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter with rail-to-rail output, symmetric input/output behavior, and large noise margin has been further demonstrated. The excellent performance gives us the feasibility of cascading multiple stages of logic blocks and larger scale integration. Our approach can serve as the critical foundation for future nanotube-based thin-film macroelectronics.

  13. The Development of Screening Methods to Identify Drugs to Limit ER Stress Using Wild-type and Mutant Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Katarao, Kazusa; Murakawa, Seiya; Asano, Masaya; Usuki, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Sakai, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The function of the serotonin transporter (SERT) is regulated by its membrane trafficking. Previously, we showed that the C-terminus-deleted mutant of SERT (SERTΔCT) exhibited an aberrant membrane trafficking and subsequent retention at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, we found that proteasome inhibitor-induced ER stress resulted in the impairment of SERT membrane trafficking and retention of SERT at the ER, an impairment very similar to that of SERTΔCT. Based on the result that the chemical chaperone 4-phnylbutulic acid (4-PBA), which relieves ER stress, accelerated the membrane trafficking and upregulated SERT activity, we hypothesized that drugs that facilitate the membrane trafficking of SERT would have potential therapeutic effects on an ER stress-related disease. In this study, we aimed to develop simple screening methods for such drugs using SERT. We first validated the serotonin uptake assay using fluorescent substrates. This simple and reliable assay method was useful for screening for drugs that affected the wild-type SERT but not SERTΔCT. In addition, we verified an assay focusing on the formation of SERTΔCT aggregates. The drugs 4-PBA and SKF-10047 facilitated the trafficking of SERT to the membrane and reduced SERTΔCT aggregates, indicating that the drugs with such characters could be potential candidates for ER stress relief. For both assays, we clarified the usefulness of a high-content screening microscope. These results could pave the way for high-throughput screening for such drugs. PMID:28127108

  14. Two-band and pauli-limiting effects on the upper critical field of 112-type iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiangzhuo; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Zengwei; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhou, Nan; Qian, Bin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Shi, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    The temperature dependence of upper critical field μ0Hc2 of Ca0.83La0.17FeAs2 and Ca0.8La0.2Fe0.98Co0.02As2 single crystals are investigated by measuring the resistivity for the inter-plane (H//c) and in-plane (H//ab) directions in magnetic fields up to 60 T. It is found that μ0Hc2(T) of both crystals for H//c presents a sublinear temperature dependence with decreasing temperature, whereas the curve of μ0Hc2(T) for H//ab has a convex curvature and gradually tends to saturate at low temperatures. μ0Hc2(T) in both crystals deviates from the conventional Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) theoretical model without considering spin paramagnetic effect for H//c and H//ab directions. Detailed analyses show that the behavior of μ0Hc2(T) in 112-type Iron-based superconductors (IBSs) is similar to that of most IBSs. Two-band model is required to fully reproduce the behavior of μ0Hc2(T) for H//c, while the effect of spin paramagnetic effect is responsible for the behavior of μ0Hc2(T) for H//ab. PMID:28383529

  15. Air kerma standard for calibration of well-type chambers in Brazil using {sup 192}Ir HDR sources and its traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Di Prinzio, Renato; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de

    2009-03-15

    In Brazil there are over 100 high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy facilities using well-type chambers for the determination of the air kerma rate of {sup 192}Ir sources. This paper presents the methodology developed and extensively tested by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas (LCR) and presently in use to calibrate those types of chambers. The system was initially used to calibrate six well-type chambers of brachytherapy services, and the maximum deviation of only 1.0% was observed between the calibration coefficients obtained and the ones in the calibration certificate provided by the UWADCL. In addition to its traceability to the Brazilian National Standards, the whole system was taken to University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UWADCL) for a direct comparison and the same formalism to calculate the air kerma was used. The comparison results between the two laboratories show an agreement of 0.9% for the calibration coefficients. Three Brazilian well-type chambers were calibrated at the UWADCL, and by LCR, in Brazil, using the developed system and a clinical HDR machine. The results of the calibration of three well chambers have shown an agreement better than 1.0%. Uncertainty analyses involving the measurements made both at the UWADCL and LCR laboratories are discussed.

  16. Formation of Langmuir Monolayers of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles at Air/Aqueous Interfaces by the Addition of Ions to the Subphase: Effect of Ion Concentration and Type.

    PubMed

    Iwafuji, Yuya; McNamee, Cathy E

    2015-09-17

    A Langmuir monolayer of bare, hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles (diameter = 75 nm) was formed at an air/pH 5.8 aqueous interface by adding salt to the subphase. The effect of the concentration and type of salt in the subphase on the surface pressure-area per particle isotherms was determined. Increasing the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 3.8 M increased the maximum surface pressure (Πmax) and shifted the isotherms to a larger area per particle. The ion type also affected the area at which the close packing commenced and the value of Πmax. The presence of salt in the subphase also stabilized SiO2 nanoparticles, suggesting that the ions in the subphase interacted with the dioxide groups on the particles. The combination of structure making or borderline ions with structure breaking ions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaCl, and CaCl2) appeared to stabilize the particulate monolayers more than the combination of structure breaking ions (KBr and KCl). These results suggested that the particles were stabilized by a hydrogen bond network between the particles or the formation of a salt bridge between the particles. Attractions between particles at the air/aqueous interface caused the particles to aggregate, resulting in the particles becoming more stable at the air/aqueous interface.

  17. N-type Cu2O doped activated carbon as catalyst for improving power generation of air cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Li, Kexun; Yan, Pengyu; Liu, Ziqi; Pu, Liangtao

    2015-01-01

    A novel n-type Cu2O doped activated carbon (AC) air cathode (Cu/AC) was developed as an alternative to Pt electrode for oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum power density of MFCs using this novel air cathode was as high as 1390±76mWm(-2), almost 59% higher than the bare AC air cathode. Specifically, the resistance including total resistance and charge transfer resistance significantly decreased comparing to the control. Tafel curve also showed the faster electro-transfer kinetics of Cu/AC with exchange current density of 1.03×10(-3)Acm(-2), which was 69% higher than the control. Ribbon-like Cu2O was deposited on the surface of AC with the mesopore surface area increasing. Cubic Cu2O crystals exclusively expose (111) planes with the interplanar crystal spacing of 2.48Å, which was the dominate active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). N-type Cu2O with oxygen vacancies played crucial roles in electrochemical catalytic activity.

  18. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  19. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: limited evidence from India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S S; Phalkey, R; Malik, A A

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in South Asia. Chronic exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although the majority of studies to date have been conducted in developed countries. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are growing problems in developing countries in South Asia yet the impact on rising rates of CVD in these regions has largely been ignored. We aimed to assess the evidence available regarding air pollution effects on CVD and CVD risk factors in lower income countries in South Asia. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, original, empirical articles published in English between the years 1990 and 2012, conducted in the World Bank South Asia region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). This resulted in 30 articles. Nine articles met our inclusion criteria and were assessed for this systematic review. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and examined measured particulate matter effects on CVD outcomes and indicators. We observed a bias as nearly all of the studies were from India. Hypertension and CVD deaths were positively associated with higher particulate matter levels. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as increased levels of P-selection expressing platelets, depleted superoxide dismutase and reactive oxygen species generation as well as elevated levels of inflammatory-related C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were also positively associated with biomass use or elevated particulate matter levels. An important outcome of this investigation was the evidence suggesting important air pollution effects regarding CVD risk in South Asia. However, too few studies have been conducted. There is as an urgent need for longer term investigations using robust measures of air pollution with different population groups that include a wider

  20. Applicability and limitations of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of soil organic phosphorus across a range of soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus; Doolette, Ashlea; Smernik, Ronald; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2014-05-01

    Solution 31P NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterisation and quantification of organic P classes in soil. Potential limitations are due to costs, equipment accessibility and the requirement of relatively large amounts of sample. A recent alternative approach for the quantification of specific organic P classes is the use of substrate-specific phosphohydrolase enzymes which cleave the inorganic orthophosphate from the organic moiety. The released orthophosphate is detectable by colorimetry. Conclusions about the hydrolysed class of organic P can be made based on the comparison of inorganic P concentrations in enzymatically treated and untreated samples. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of organic P classes on a) NaOH-EDTA extracts, b) soil:water filtrates (0.2 μm) and c) soil:water suspensions. The organic P classes in NaOH-EDTA extracts were also determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy, enabling a comparison between methods. Ten topsoil samples from four continents (five cambisols, two ferralsols, two luvisols and one lixisol) with varying total P content (83 - 1,1560 mg kg-1), pHH2O (4.2 - 8.0) and land management (grassland or cropped land) were analysed. Four different classes of organic P were determined by the enzyme addition assay: 1) monoester like-P (by an acid phosphatase known to hydrolyse simple monoesters, pyrophosphate and ATP), 2) DNA-like P (by a nuclease in combination with an acid phosphatase), 3) inositol phosphate-like P (by a phytase known to hydrolyse all monoester like-P plus myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and scyllo-inositol hexakisphosphate) and 4) enzyme stable-P (enzymatically not hydrolysed organic P forms). In the ten topsoil samples, NaOH-EDTA-extractable organic P ranged from 6 - 1,115 mg P kg-1 soil. Of this, 33 - 92 % was enzyme labile, with inositol phosphate-like P being the largest organic P class in most soils (15 - 51%), followed by monoester

  1. Subcritical crack growth behavior of 10NiMo8.5 steel and type A 508 Cl.3a steel in air and high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Matocha, K.; Wozniak, J.; Jahns, J.; Siegl, J.; Nedbal, I.

    1995-12-31

    Comparison of fatigue crack growth behaviors of the two low alloy pressure vessel steels (10NiMo8,5 and A 508 Cl 3a) in different environments (air, high temperature water) has been made. No differences were found in fatigue crack growth behavior in air and high temperature water between the two steels investigated. A reasonable agreement between anodic dissolution/film rupture model and experimental data obtained at 295 C was noted. It has been confirmed also by microfractographic observations of the striation spacings. To be able to predict environmentally enhanced fatigue crack growth in a quantitative manner over the whole temperature range understanding of the operative mechanisms must be achieved. Some ideas concerning the above mentioned mechanisms are presented to explain the fractographic evidence and the crack growth behavior of low alloy pressure vessel steel of type 10NiMo8.5 tested as well in water at temperatures of 100 C and 200 C.

  2. Personality Type Analysis of Air Force Institute of Technology School of Systems and Logistics Graduate Degree 85S Class Using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    presentation of the resulting sixteen types is: 13 A ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ In-depth...0.14), discounting the 0 value for the non-represented INFJ category, was for the INFP type. For six of the selection ratios (ISFJ, INTJ, ISFP, ESFP...ratios significant at the .001 level were ISTJ, INFP , ESTP, ENFP and ESTJ. 49 +.. i.++ +i- . i .- -? -’i .+. - -+’ i .+.+.-’. • .i

  3. Study of the Tropospheric Aerosol Structure Under Changing of the Air Mass Type from Lidar Observations in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, S. V.; Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Penner, I. É.

    2016-04-01

    The aerosol optical characteristics in the main tropospheric layers are investigated based on joint interpretation of data of multi-frequency lidar sensing (110 sessions) and results of modeling of back air mass trajectories. Methodical problems for separating layers with different scattering properties and estimating their vertical boundaries are considered. Three optical criteria are simultaneously used to distinguish aerosol layers from cloud formations, including the gradient of the backscattering coefficient, optical depth, and the depolarization ratio. High values of the lidar ratio (66 sr) and of the Angstrom exponent (1.62) in the shortwavelength spectral range are observed in the boundary layer for Arctic transport. At the same time, low values of these optical parameters are characteristic for Asian transport: the lidar ratio is 54 sr and the Angstrom exponent is 1.1, which is explained by different relative contributions of the coarse and fine aerosol fractions to the air mass.

  4. Experimental study on copper cathode erosion rate and rotational velocity of magnetically driven arcs in a well-type cathode non-transferred plasma torch operating in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, S. W.; Hsu, K. L.; Lin, D. L.; Tzeng, C. C.

    2007-04-01

    The cathode erosion rate, arc root velocity and output power of a well-type cathode (WTC), non-transferred plasma torch operating in air are studied experimentally in this paper. An external solenoid to generate a magnetically driven arc and a circular swirler to produce a vortex flow structure are equipped in the studied torch system, which is designed to reduce the erosion rate at the cathode. A least square technique is applied to correlate the system parameters, i.e. current, axial magnetic field and mass flow rate, with the cathode erosion rate, arc root velocity and system power output. In the studied WTC torch system, the cathode erosion has a major thermal erosion component and a minor component due to the ion-bombardment effect. The cathode erosion increases with the increase of current due to the enhancement in both Joule heating and ion bombardment. The axial magnetic field can significantly reduce the cathode erosion by reducing the thermal loading of cathode materials at the arc root and improving the heat transfer to gas near the cathode. But, the rise in the mass flow rate leads to the deterioration of erosion, since the ion-bombardment effect prevails over the convective cooling at the cathode. The most dominant system parameter to influence the arc root velocity is the axial magnetic field, which is mainly contributed to the magnetic force driving the arc. The growth in current has a negative impact on increasing the arc root velocity, because the friction force acting at the spot due to a severe molten condition becomes the dominant component counteracting the magnetic force. The mass flow rate also suppresses the arc root velocity, as a result of which the arc root moves in the direction against that of the swirled working gas. All system parameters such as current, magnetic field and gas flow rate increase with the increase in the torch output power. The experimental evidences suggest that the axial magnetic field is the most important parameter

  5. Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds in polyurethane foam-type passive air samplers upon O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyasopit, Narumol; Liu, Yongchun; Liggio, John; Harner, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks upon O3 exposure was studied in a flow tube. A wide range of PACs was evaluated by spiking PUF disks with PACs and exposing to O3 at concentrations that were equivalent to two months exposure, a typical deployment period for these passive air samplers. Ambient concentrations of O3 (∼50 ppb) at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH) were applied. At 0% RH, 23 of 68 PACs yielded more than 50% loss after exposure. The mean percent loss was 30% with perylene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene the most reactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, respectively. At 50% RH, 77% of the studied PACs was stable upon O3 exposure (PACexposed/PACunexposed > 0.7). The mean percent loss was 17% and only 7 of 68 PACs yielded greater than 50% loss. In general, the reactivity of most of the PACs decreased at higher RH, except for the reactive PAHs (acenaphthylene, 2,3-dimethylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, dibenzothiophene, and 2-methyldibenzothiophene) which demonstrated lower RH dependence. The experimental conditions in this study represent a worst case scenario for the stability of PACs sorbed to PUF. In reality, the sampling of PACs in ambient air represents an 'aged' component of PACs where the most reactive species have already partially been removed. Also, PACs in ambient air will be associated with the particle phase to varying extents that will help to enhance their stability. Therefore, under regular operating conditions, over a 2-month exposure, we expect a minimal error in the measurement of total concentration of PACs in air using the PUF disk passive sampler.

  6. Uniqueness of limit cycles and multiple attractors in a Gause-type predator-prey model with nonmonotonic functional response and Allee effect on prey.

    PubMed

    González-Olivares, Eduardo; González-Yañez, Betsabé; Mena-Lorca, Jaime; Flores, Jose D

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze a Gause type predator-prey model in which two ecological phenomena are considered: the Allee effect affecting the prey growth function and the formation of group defence by prey in order to avoid the predation. We prove the existence of a separatrix curves in the phase plane, determined by the stable manifold of the equilibrium point associated to the Allee effect, implying that the solutions are highly sensitive to the initial conditions. Trajectories starting at one side of this separatrix curve have the equilibrium point (0,0) as their ω-limit, while trajectories starting at the other side will approach to one of the following three attractors: a stable limit cycle, a stable coexistence point or the stable equilibrium point (K,0) in which the predators disappear and prey attains their carrying capacity. We obtain conditions on the parameter values for the existence of one or two positive hyperbolic equilibrium points and the existence of a limit cycle surrounding one of them. Both ecological processes under study, namely the nonmonotonic functional response and the Allee effect on prey, exert a strong influence on the system dynamics, resulting in multiple domains of attraction. Using Liapunov quantities we demonstrate the uniqueness of limit cycle, which constitutes one of the main differences with the model where the Allee effect is not considered. Computer simulations are also given in support of the conclusions.

  7. Selection of the air heat exchanger operating in a gas turbine air bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Czaja, Daniel; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    A gas turbine air bottoming cycle consists of a gas turbine unit and the air turbine part. The air part includes a compressor, air expander and air heat exchanger. The air heat exchanger couples the gas turbine to the air cycle. Due to the low specific heat of air and of the gas turbine exhaust gases, the air heat exchanger features a considerable size. The bigger the air heat exchanger, the higher its effectiveness, which results in the improvement of the efficiency of the gas turbine air bottoming cycle. On the other hand, a device with large dimensions weighs more, which may limit its use in specific locations, such as oil platforms. The thermodynamic calculations of the air heat exchanger and a preliminary selection of the device are presented. The installation used in the calculation process is a plate heat exchanger, which is characterized by a smaller size and lower values of the pressure drop compared to the shell and tube heat exchanger. Structurally, this type of the heat exchanger is quite similar to the gas turbine regenerator. The method on which the calculation procedure may be based for real installations is also presented, which have to satisfy the economic criteria of financial profitability and cost-effectiveness apart from the thermodynamic criteria.

  8. Behavior of water balance components at sites with shallow groundwater tables: Possibilities and limitations of their simulation using different types of groundwater lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater lysimeters are a special type of lysimeter that can provide valuable insights into processes occurring at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Typically, water balance simulations for such sites using hydrological models are complicated by the permanently changing directions of the water fluxes due to percolation and capillary rise and the complex hydrological conditions. Problems also arise when trying to imitate such conditions correctly in a lysimeter. The biggest challenge is to realistically simulate the lower boundary condition, which has a pronounced impact on most of the hydrological variables, especially when considering time scales shorter than one day. Historically, groundwater levels in soil monoliths of groundwater lysimeters were controlled by so-called Mariotte bottles (type 1). Even nowadays, most groundwater lysimeters use such systems. From a technical standpoint, the solution is reliable and simple to operate and maintain. Nevertheless, the accuracy of Mariotte bottles (type 1) is limited when simulatingnatural shallow groundwater table conditions which are characterized by fluctuations on a short time scale. Today's lysimeters are able to simulate measured groundwater levels with higher accuracy, even for short time steps (type 2). However, conditions in the lysimeter and the place where the reference groundwater level is measured have to be consistent in order to get reliable results. Problems also arise if the behavior of the groundwater level itself is the aim of the investigation as the groundwater level has to be pre-defined, i.e. it is the control value. A new approach regulates the lower boundary condition by controlling the in- and outflows of the lysimeter (type 3). This enlarges the field of possible applications of groundwater lysimeters, especially with respect to simulations of natural site conditions and short time scales. The presentation compares the performance of different types of groundwater lysimeters with

  9. Ubiquitous Low-FeO Relict Grains in Type II Chondrules and Limited Overgrowths on Phenocrysts Following the Final Melting Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Type II porphyritic chondrules commonly contain several large (>40 microns) olivine phenocrysts; furnace-based cooling rates based on the assumption that these phenocrysts grew in a single-stage melting-cooling event yield chondrule cooling-rate estimates of 0.01-1 K/s. Because other evidence indicates much higher cooling rates, we examined type 11 chondrules in the CO3.0 chondrites that have experienced only minimal parent-body alteration. We discovered three kinds of evidence indicating that only minor (4-10 microns) olivine growth occurred after the final melting event: (1) Nearly all (>90%) type II chondrules in CO3.0 chondrites contain low-FeO relict grains; overgrowths on these relicts are narrow, in the range of 2-12 microns. (2) Most type II chondrules contain some FeO-rich olivine grains with decurved surfaces and acute angles between faces indicating that the grains are fragments from an earlier generation of chondrules; the limited overgrowth thicknesses following the last melting event are too thin to disguise the shard-like nature of these grains. (3) Most type II chondrules contain many small (<20 microns) euhedral or subhedral phenocrysts with central compositions that are much more ferroan than the centers of the large phenocrysts; their small sizes document the small amount of growth that occurred after the final melting event. If overgrowth thicknesses were small (4-10 microns) after the final melting event, it follows that large fractions of coarse (>40 microns) high-FeO phenocrysts are relicts from earlier generations of chondrules, and that cooling rates after the last melting event were much more rapid than indicated by models based on a single melting event. These observations are thus inconsistent with the "classic" igneous model of formation of type II porphyritic chondrules by near-total melting of a precursor mix followed by olivine nucleation on a very limited number of nuclei (say, <10) and by growth to produce the large phenocrysts

  10. A catalog of the types of Staphylinidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires (MACN).

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Axel O; Chani-Posse, Mariana; Guala, Mariel E; Newton, Alfred F

    2017-01-22

    The type specimens (all current categories) of Staphylinidae deposited in this Museum are listed; names are recorded, most of them represented by name-bearing types (primary types). The specific and subspecific names are alphabetically ordered in a single list, followed by the generic names (and subgeneric ones, if they were stated) spelled as they were published; later combinations and/ or current binomina are mentioned insofar these are known to the authors. Two lists are added: 2. Specimens labeled as types of names not found in the literature and probably never published, or published as nomina nuda; and 3. Specimens labeled as types, but not originally designated as such. An appendix provides a systematically arranged list of all names discussed, with indication of where they are discussed in the text.

  11. Order-disorder transition in B-type Cu2ZnSnS4 and limitations of ordering through thermal treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudisch, Katharina; Ren, Yi; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Scragg, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    B-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with varying degrees of cation order were produced and examined with resonant Raman spectroscopy. Simulations based on Vineyard's theory of order allowed kinetic analysis of the final degree of order after the applied thermal treatments. Combining the results from the simulations and the resonant Raman spectra, the kinetic parameters within the Vineyard model for the order-disorder transition in B-type CZTS were determined, as well as a method which allows quantification of the degree of order based on resonant Raman spectra. The knowledge gained about the order-disorder transition in B-type CZTS allowed the prediction of a best practice thermal treatment for high ordering. This further leads to awareness about practical limits of thermal treatments regarding the cation ordering in B-type CZTS, and suggests that such treatments are not able to produce the high cation order necessary to sufficiently reduce detrimental potential fluctuations.

  12. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  13. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  14. Backstepping sliding mode tracking control of a vane-type air motor X-Y table motion system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren; Shen, Yu-Ta

    2011-04-01

    Air motors are increasingly being used in pneumatic related industries because of their advantages of low operating cost and low maintenance. The DSP controller and the backstepping sliding mode control method were utilized in this study to control an X-Y pneumatic table for tracking trajectory. Due to the effects of the compressibility of air, friction between the motor and ball screw table and the dead-zone effect caused by the proportional valve, the system will yield different responses even with the same inlet pressure and will chatter at low speed. Hence under certain conditions, this method of backstepping sliding mode control can be applied to achieve better results than with the PID controller, such as for tracking circle error and tracking error of the two axes. According to the results, a steady-state error of 0.5 μm can be achieved. The proposed method of backstepping sliding mode control can accomplish accurate tracking circle trajectory performance, offering an improvement in the tracking error of more than 50% over that of the PID controller.

  15. Interactions between cold and water limitation along a climate gradient produce sharp thresholds in ecosystem type, carbon balance, and water cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M.; Fellows, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    California's Mediterranean climate supports a broad diversity of ecosystem types, including Sequoia forests in the mid-montane Sierra Nevada. Understanding how winter cold and summer drought interact to produce the lush forest in the Sierra is critical to predicting the impacts of projected climate change on California's ecosystems, water supply, and carbon cycling. We investigated how smooth gradients of temperature and water availability produced sharp thresholds in biomass, productivity, growing season, water use, and ultimately ecosystem type and function. We used the climate gradient of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada as a study system. Four eddy covariance towers were situated in the major ecosystem types of the Sierra Nevada at approximately 800-m elevation intervals. Eddy flux data were combined with remote sensing and direct measurements of biomass, productivity, soil available water, and evapotranspiration to understand how weather and available water control ecosystem production and function. We found that production at the high elevation lodgepole site at 2700 m was strongly limited by winter cold. Production at the low elevation oak woodland site at 400 m was strongly limited by summer drought. The yellow pine site at 1200 m was only 4 °C cooler than the oak woodland site, yet had an order of magnitude more biomass and productivity with year-round growth. The mixed conifer site at 2000 m is 3.5 °C warmer than the lodgepole forest, yet also has higher biomass, ten times higher productivity, and year-round growth. We conclude that there is a broad climatological 'sweet spot' within the Sierra Nevada, in which the Mediterranean climate can support large-statured forest with high growth rates. The range of the mid-elevation forest was sharply bounded by water limitation at the lower edge and cold limitation at the upper edge despite small differences in precipitation and temperature across these boundaries. Our results suggest that small changes

  16. [Use of laser flow-type fluorescence aerosol particle counter to evaluate the concentration of microbes in the surface air under high dust content].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Iu T; Vorob'ev, S A; Khramov, E N; Vorob'eva, E A; Kuznetsov, A P; Kiselev, O S

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of a laser flow-type fluorescence aerosol particle counter to evaluate the concentrations of microbes in the surface air under high dust content. Various circuits of flow-type optic aerosol recorders are analyzed. Flow spectral luminescence analysis of some particles flow while exciting the fourth harmonics of a pulse laser on yttrium-aluminium garnet with neodymium by ultraviolet radiation is shown to be the most optimum method for indication of individual aerosol particles. Experiments were conducted on the authors' model of a pilot plant based on this method. The model of a laser flow-type optic analyzer was developed for experimental studies that give a clear display of biological aerosols in complex aerosols. The laser flow-type analyzer-based unit developed may provide a fluorescence signal of aerosol particles in the flow of a sample and that light diffusion signal from them at an exciting light wavelength of 266 nm. Experiments with BVC aerosols and soil dust particles were conducted in different regions of Russia. They showed it possible to detect and to rapidly calculate soil microorganisms by laser flow-type fluorescence assay of individual particles when excited by ultraviolet radiation.

  17. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance.

    PubMed

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Grillová, Linda; Mikalová, Lenka; Casco, Ricardo; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Pando, María A; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT). By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%), either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5%) or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8%) mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8%) is greater than 10%.

  18. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  19. [Characteristics of aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions in three types air-pollution incidents of Nanjing City].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Chen; Zhu, Bin; Su, Ji-Feng; Wang, Hong-Lei

    2012-06-01

    In order to compare aerosol water-soluble inorganic species in different air-pollution periods, samples of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 and the main water-soluble ions (NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NO2(-), F(-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) were measured, which were from 3 air-pollution incidents (continued pollution in October 16-30 of 2009, sandstorm pollution in April 27-30 of 2010, and crop burning pollution in June 14 of 2010. The results show that aerosol pollution of 3 periods is serious. The lowest PM2.1/PM10 is only 0.27, which is from sandstorm pollution period, while the largest is 0. 7 from crop burning pollution period. In continued pollution periods, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) are the dominant ions, and the total anions account for an average of 18.62%, 32.92% and 33.53% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1. Total water-soluble ions only account for 13.36%, 23.72% and 28.54% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1 due to the insoluble species is increased in sandstorm pollution period. The mass concentration of Ca2+ in sandstorm pollution period is higher than the other two pollution periods, and which is mainly in coarse particles with diameter larger than 1 microm. All the ten water-soluble ions are much higher in crop burning pollution especially K+ which is the tracer from crop burning. The peak mass concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4+ are in 0.43-0.65 microm.

  20. Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chencheng; Du, Hongchu; van der Torren, Alexander J. H.; Aarts, Jan; Jia, Chun-Lin; Dittmann, Regina

    2016-12-01

    We elucidated the formation process for Ruddlesden-Popper-type defects during pulsed laser deposition of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films by a combined analysis of in-situ atomic force microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. At the early growth stage of 1.5 unit cells, the excess Sr results in the formation of SrO on the surface, resulting in a local termination change from TiO2 to SrO, thereby forming a Sr rich (2 × 2) surface reconstruction. With progressive SrTiO3 growth, islands with thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structure are formed, coexisting with TiO2 terminated islands. During the overgrowth of these thermodynamically stable islands, both lateral as well as vertical Ruddlesden-Popper-type anti-phase boundaries are formed, accommodating the Sr excess of the SrTiO3 film. We suggest the formation of thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structures as origin for the formation of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries, which are as a result of kinetic limitations confined to certain regions on the surface.

  1. Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chencheng; Du, Hongchu; van der Torren, Alexander J. H.; Aarts, Jan; Jia, Chun-Lin; Dittmann, Regina

    2016-01-01

    We elucidated the formation process for Ruddlesden-Popper-type defects during pulsed laser deposition of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films by a combined analysis of in-situ atomic force microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. At the early growth stage of 1.5 unit cells, the excess Sr results in the formation of SrO on the surface, resulting in a local termination change from TiO2 to SrO, thereby forming a Sr rich (2 × 2) surface reconstruction. With progressive SrTiO3 growth, islands with thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structure are formed, coexisting with TiO2 terminated islands. During the overgrowth of these thermodynamically stable islands, both lateral as well as vertical Ruddlesden-Popper-type anti-phase boundaries are formed, accommodating the Sr excess of the SrTiO3 film. We suggest the formation of thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structures as origin for the formation of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries, which are as a result of kinetic limitations confined to certain regions on the surface. PMID:27922069

  2. Options for Limiting the Potential to Emit (PTE) of a Stationary Source Under Section 112 and Title V of the Clean Air Act (Act)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Options for Limiting the Potential to Emit (PTE) of a Stationary Source Under Section 112 and Title V of the Clean Air Act (Act)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Psychological Type and Analysis of Preferred Negotiation Strategies and Tactics of United States Air Force Contract Negotiators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    progressively to the discovery of new facts and empirical relationships (18:203-205). Darwin is an example of the normal extraverted thinking type (18:240). 123...Publishing Co., 1981. 12. French, J. R. P. and Bertram H. Raven. "The Bases of Social Power," Studies in Social Power, edited by D. Cartwright . Ann

  5. Constraining the Limits of the Magnetic Confinement-Rotation Diagram: An Analysis of Two B-type Systems Hosting Recently Discovered Extreme Centrifugal Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, James

    Following the detection in the late 70s of a strong magnetic field in the early B-type star sigma Ori E and, more recently with the results of the Magnetism In MassivE Stars (MiMeS) survey, an important and rare subclass of magnetic B-type stars has been emerging. Magnetic stars hosting so called "centrifugal magnetospheres" are characterized by rapid rotation and feature strong and broad emission lines in their spectra produced by a hot plasma co-rotating with the star well beyond the surface (at distances of several times the stellar radius). Since the first discovery of these properties in the magnetic B2Vp star sigma Ori E, the dense, rigidly-rotating circumstellar plasma has been understood as an accumulation of the star's wind in regions of closed magnetic loops above the surface. These objects serve as unique laboratories for studying how the fast winds emitted by all B-type stars interact with magnetic fields in extreme environments. In this study, the properties of two rapidly rotating stars, HD 23478 and HD 35502, hosts to centrifugal magnetospheres and exhibiting strong emission in their spectra, are derived. Our results establish new upper limits on the magnetic confinement-rotation diagram { a diagnostic tool which is used to understand the magnetospheres of O- and B-type stars in a broader context. The derived rapid rotation and strong magnetic fields imply that these two stars occupy the most extreme region of the magnetic confinement-rotation diagram populated by known centrifugal magnetosphere-hosting stars such as sigma Ori E and HR 5907.

  6. Background-limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAs1- xSbx type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Abbas; Dehzangi, Arash; Adhikary, Sourav; Chevallier, Romain; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-01

    We report the demonstration of high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1- xSbx type-II superlattices. A new saw-tooth superlattice design was used to implement the electron barrier of the photodetectors. The device exhibited a cut-off wavelength of ˜10 μ m at 77 K. The photodetector exhibited a peak responsivity of 2.65 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 43%. With an R × A of 664 Ω . cm2 and a dark current density of 8 × 10-5 A/cm2, under -80 mV bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1011 cm.√{Hz }/W and a background-limited operating temperature of 110 K.

  7. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  8. DNA vaccine encoding type IV pilin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induces strong immune response but confers limited protective efficacy against serotype 2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Chun; Li, Min-Chen; Chen, Yi-Min; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Shuen-Fuh; Yang, Wen-Jen

    2011-10-13

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious and often fatal disease that occurs worldwide. Our previous study showed that DNA vaccines encoding Apx exotoxin structural proteins ApxIA and/or ApxIIA, are a promising novel approach for immunization against the lethal challenge of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Vaccination against A. pleuropneumoniae is impeded by the lack of vaccines inducing reliable cross-serotype protection. Type IV fimbrial protein ApfA has been shown to be present and highly conserved in various serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. A novel DNA vaccine encoding ApfA (pcDNA-apfA) was constructed to evaluate the protective efficacy against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. A significant antibody response against pilin was generated following pcDNA-apfA immunization, suggesting that it was expressed in vivo. The IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG2a) analysis indicates that the pcDNA-apfA vaccine induces both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The IgA analysis shows that mucosal immunity could be enhanced by this DNA vaccine. Nevertheless, the strong antibody response induced by pcDNA-apfA vaccine only provided limited 30% protective efficacy against the serotype 2 challenge. These results in this study do not coincide with that the utility of type IV pilin is a good vaccine candidate against other infectious pathogens. It indicates that pilin should play a limited role in the development of a vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  9. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. Methods The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer

  10. External Fixation combined with Limited Internal Fixation versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Treating Ruedi-Allgower Type III Pilon Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Tong, Liangyong; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of type III pilon fractures remains controversial. Hence, we performed this study to investigate whether open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is superior to external fixations combined with limited internal fixations (EFLIF). Material/Methods From January 2012 to October 2013, a total of 78 patients were included. Twenty-six patients underwent EFLIF and 52 patients underwent ORIF. All subjects were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. All outcomes and complications were recorded. Results No statistical differences were observed in Mazur score or ROM between the 2 groups. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in hospital stay (P<0.001), reduction results (P=0.019), screw loosening (P=0.025), and traumatic arthritis (P=0.037). Conclusions Similar functional outcomes were achieved in EFLIF and ORIF groups. Due to several limitations of this study, a well-designed randomized controlled trial involving more patients and long-term follow-up is needed to find an optimal treatment protocol. PMID:26050786

  11. Type-II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Staphylococcus aureus has two distinct binding sites and is rate limited by quinone reduction.

    PubMed

    Sena, Filipa V; Batista, Ana P; Catarino, Teresa; Brito, José A; Archer, Margarida; Viertler, Martin; Madl, Tobias; Cabrita, Eurico J; Pereira, Manuela M

    2015-10-01

    A prerequisite for any rational drug design strategy is understanding the mode of protein-ligand interaction. This motivated us to explore protein-substrate interaction in Type-II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) from Staphylococcus aureus, a worldwide problem in clinical medicine due to its multiple drug resistant forms. NDHs-2 are involved in respiratory chains and recognized as suitable targets for novel antimicrobial therapies, as these are the only enzymes with NADH:quinone oxidoreductase activity expressed in many pathogenic organisms. We obtained crystal and solution structures of NDH-2 from S. aureus, showing that it is a dimer in solution. We report fast kinetic analyses of the protein and detected a charge-transfer complex formed between NAD(+) and the reduced flavin, which is dissociated by the quinone. We observed that the quinone reduction is the rate limiting step and also the only half-reaction affected by the presence of HQNO, an inhibitor. We analyzed protein-substrate interactions by fluorescence and STD-NMR spectroscopies, which indicate that NADH and the quinone bind to different sites. In summary, our combined results show the presence of distinct binding sites for the two substrates, identified quinone reduction as the rate limiting step and indicate the establishment of a NAD(+)-protein complex, which is released by the quinone.

  12. Estimation of identification limit for a small-type OSL dosimeter on the medical images by measurement of X-ray spectra.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-07-01

    Our aim in this study is to derive an identification limit on a dosimeter for not disturbing a medical image when patients wear a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter on their bodies during X-ray diagnostic imaging. For evaluation of the detection limit based on an analysis of X-ray spectra, we propose a new quantitative identification method. We performed experiments for which we used diagnostic X-ray equipment, a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom (1-20 cm), and a CdTe X-ray spectrometer assuming one pixel of the X-ray imaging detector. Then, with the following two experimental settings, corresponding X-ray spectra were measured with 40-120 kVp and 0.5-1000 mAs at a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm: (1) X-rays penetrating a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom with the OSL dosimeter attached directly on the phantom, and (2) X-rays penetrating only the soft-tissue-equivalent phantom. Next, the energy fluence and errors in the fluence were calculated from the spectra. When the energy fluence with errors concerning these two experimental conditions was estimated to be indistinctive, we defined the condition as the OSL dosimeter not being identified on the X-ray image. Based on our analysis, we determined the identification limit of the dosimeter. We then compared our results with those for the general irradiation conditions used in clinics. We found that the OSL dosimeter could not be identified under the irradiation conditions of abdominal and chest radiography, namely, one can apply the OSL dosimeter to measurement of the exposure dose in the irradiation field of X-rays without disturbing medical images.

  13. Successful closure of treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole using inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to present the outcome of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling flap technique for a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole (MH). Methods A 52-year-old man presented with complaints of decreased vision and seeing black spot. He was diagnosed to have a flat edge, full-thickness MH, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). He underwent 23G vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted inverted ILM peeling with an inverted flap over the hole followed by fluid gas exchange. Results Postoperative follow-up until 3 months showed successful closure of the MH, which was confirmed by OCT. The best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 6/60 to 6/12 at the final follow-up. Conclusion Using the inverted ILM flap technique, a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full thickness MH achieved successful anatomical and functional outcomes. PMID:27785110

  14. Studies on polyphenol content, activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase during air-curing in three tobacco types.

    PubMed

    Sheen, S J; Calvert, J

    1969-02-01

    The change in polyphenol content in the primed leaves of burley, flue-cured, and Turkish tobaccos during air-curing was related to the activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The quantity of chlorogenic acid was rapidly reduced during the first week of curing. The decrease in rutin content during curing was less significant, especially when the concentration of chlorogenic acid was high in leaf tissues. This result was further confirmed by in vitro assays with partially purified tobacco polyphenol oxidase.The polyphenol oxidase activity did not differ at any stage of curing in the 3 tobaccos. When the activity was measured by the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine it rose rapidly during the first day of curing and then decreased sharply so that in the fully cured leaf only 15% activity remained. The increase in activity was not observed when chlorogenic acid was used as the substrate. A similar level of peroxidase activity was found in the 3 tobaccos before curing. Peroxidase activities increased rapidly during the first 24 hr of curing, declined thereafter, and remained highest in the flue-cured tobacco, less in the Turkish line, and least in the burley at the end of curing process.By polyacrylamide gel block electrophoresis, 10 peroxidase isozyme bands, 2 cationic and 8 anionic, appeared identical in all 3 tobaccos. When catechol replaced benzidine-2 HCl as the electron donor, 1 cationic and 2 anionic peroxidase isozymes did not form. Of interest is that the same 10 peroxidase isozyme bands also exhibited polyphenol oxidase activities when treated with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine or chlorogenic acid. Results suggest that in the crude tobacco leaf extract the peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase may associate as protein complexes, and peroxidase isozymes may differ in electron-donor requirements. Isozyme patterns for both oxidases at various curing intervals differed only quantitatively.

  15. The distribution of chlorpyrifos following a crack and crevice type application in the US EPA Indoor Air Quality Research House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, D. M.; Mason, M. A.

    A study was conducted in the US EPA Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Research House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, den and master bedroom over 21 days. Airborne concentrations were collected using both polyurethane foam (PUF) and the OSHA versatile sampler composed of XAD and PUF media located in tandem. Measured airborne concentrations were similar for the two samplers and were higher in the three rooms following the application. The highest measured concentrations were reached during the initial 24-h following application; concentrations subsequently declined over the 21-day study period to levels slightly above background. Spatial and temporal distributions onto surfaces were measured using 10-cm 2 rayon deposition coupons located on the floor. Sections were cut from existing carpet to determine the total extractable residues. Chlorpyrifos was measured from all matrixes in the kitchen, den and bedroom and the data shows the transport of airborne residues from the point of application to remote locations in the house. The findings are compared and discussed relative to another study conducted in which total release aerosols containing chlorpyrifos were activated in the IAQ research house and the resulting distributions evaluated. For both studies dose estimates were constructed for the exposure pathways using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Estimation Model for pesticides. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has been mandated to examine children's exposure to environmental pollutants such as pesticides. This research specifically reduces uncertainties associated with estimating children's potential exposures to residentially applied pesticides and provides inputs to further evaluate and validate residential exposure models which might be used to reduce exposures and perform risk

  16. Speed limits of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E

    1923-01-01

    This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.

  17. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  18. Modeling the cell-type dependence of diffusion-limited intracellular ice nucleation and growth during both vitrification and slow freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Geer; Zhang, Aili; Xu, Lisa X.; He, Xiaoming

    2009-06-01

    In this study, a set of models for predicting the diffusion-limited ice nucleation and growth inside biological cells were established. Both the heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation mechanisms were considered in the models. Molecular mobility including viscosity and mutual diffusion coefficient of aqueous cryoprotectant (i.e., glycerol here) solutions was estimated using models derived from the free volume theory for glass transition, which makes it possible to predict the two most important physical properties (i.e., viscosity and mutual diffusion coefficient) over wide ranges of temperature and concentration as encountered in cryopreservation. After being verified using experimental data, the models were used to predict the critical cooling rate (defined as the cooling rate required so that the crystallized volume is less than 0.1% of the cell volume) as a function of the initial glycerol concentration in a number of cell types with different sizes. For slowing freezing, it was found that the required critical cooling rate is cell-type dependent with influences from cell size and the ice nucleation and water transport parameters. In general, the critical cooling rate does not change significantly with the initial glycerol concentration used and tends to be higher for smaller cells. For vitrification, the required critical cooling rate does change significantly with the initial glycerol concentration used and tends to decrease with the decrease in cell size. However, the required critical cooling rate can be similar for cells with very different sizes. It was further found that the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for intracellular ice formation associated with different cells rather than the cell size per se significantly affect the critical cooling rates required for vitrification. For all cell types, it was found that homogeneous nucleation dominates at ultrafast cooling rates and/or high glycerol concentrations, whereas heterogeneous nucleation becomes

  19. Power augmentation in a Savonius-type wind-turbine by using a single air-deflecting vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, S.; Sivasegaram, S.

    1982-07-01

    This paper deals with the increase of power output from a vertical-axis wind-turbine of the Savonius-type by using a single deflector vane of simple geometry. Vanes of plane and circular arc sections were used in the study. The respective influences of vane arc angle, vane size and angle of setting of the vane relative to the rotor on the power output were studied and so was the sensitivity of power output to wind direction. Power augmentation by over 50% is seen possible with a single vane of modest size. Means of further power augmentation and achievement of direction-independent operation are discussed.

  20. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.