Science.gov

Sample records for air line pilots

  1. A systematic approach to advanced cockpit warning systems for air transport operations: Line pilot preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.; Simpson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Line pilots (fifty captains, first officers, and flight engineers) from 8 different airlines were administered a structured questionnaire relating to future warning system design and solutions to current warning system problems. This was followed by a semantic differential to obtain a factor analysis of 18 different cockpit warning signals on scales such as informative/distracting, annoying/soothing. Half the pilots received a demonstration of the experimental text and voice synthesizer warning systems before answering the questionnaire and the semantic differential. A control group answered the questionnaire and the semantic differential first, thus providing a check for the stability of pilot preferences with and without actual exposure to experimental systems. Generally, the preference data obtained revealed much consistency and strong agreement among line pilots concerning advance cockpit warning system design.

  2. Preliminary analysis of pilot ratings of 'part line' information importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. John

    1993-01-01

    With the introduction of digital datalink communications into the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system, there is concern over the potential loss of situational awareness by flight crews due to the reduction in the 'Party Line Information' (PLI). This information is available to the pilot by overhearing communications between ATC and other aircraft. A survey was distributed to determine current PLI use by several pilot operational groups, experience levels and geographic regions. The survey identified numerous important elements. PLI was rated the highest for operations near or on approach to the airport. Several significant variations were found between pilots from different operational groups and experience levels. Traffic and weather information were the most frequently cited as information required to obtain global situation awareness.

  3. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  4. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  5. STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF TWO INDOOR AIR PILOT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to compare the results between two previous indoor air PAH monitoring studies conducted by EPA in 1984 and 1987. Both of the previous studies were pilot studies involving ambient and indoor air monitoring at a small number of residences in Columbus...

  6. Variations in "Party Line" Information Importance Between Pilots of Difference Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of digital datalink communications into the air traffic control (ATC) system may cause a reduction of the situation awareness of flight crews due to the reduction of 'Party Line' Information (PLI) that can be overheard on the shared voice frequencies. A survey was distributed to determine current PLI use by pilots from different geographic regions, operational groups, experience levels, and aircraft equipage. Pilots indicated highest perceived importance for PLI during the phases of flight nearest the airport and lowest importance during cruise. Several specific traffic and weather information elements were identified as particularly important; traffic and weather information was also cited by pilots as information required for global situation awareness. Some variations in responses were found between pilots from different operational types.

  7. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 135.299 - Pilot in command: Line checks: Routes and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Crewmember Testing Requirements § 135.299 Pilot in command: Line checks: Routes and airports. (a) No certificate holder may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in command of a flight unless, since... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot in command: Line checks: Routes...

  9. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  10. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  11. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Pilot Ratings of "Party Line" Information Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. John

    1993-01-01

    With the introduction of digital data link communications into the ATC system, there is concern over the potential loss of situational awareness by flight crews due to the reduction in the 'Party Line' Information (PLI). This information is available to the pilot by overhearing communications between ATC and other aircraft. A survey was distributed to determine current PLI use by several pilot operational groups, experience levels and geographic regions. The survey identified numerous important elements. PLI was rated the highest for operations near or on approach to the airport. Several significant variations were found between pilots from different operational groups and experience levels. Traffic and weather information were the most frequently cited as information required to obtain global situation awareness.

  13. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  14. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehse, Robert C.; Lapham, E. F.

    1991-08-01

    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. Physical and electrical analysis conclusively demonstrated that the EFET problem was caused by residual AlGaAs remaining in the EFET tubs. For our Self Aligned Refractory Gate Integrated Circuit (SARGIC) process to perform as designed, the FET gates must be placed directly on Gallium Arsenide. Residual AlGaAs increases the FET thresholds and thereby substantially changes device characteristics. We solved the problem by developing a new etch process using a PP etchant (H3PO4 and H2O2). AlGaAs is now completely removed from EFET tubs and EFET threshold control has been restored. With wafer starts suspended and other program work minimized to conserve resources, there was little primary circuit testing. A new result is that the 32-Bit Multiplier is functional at 60 MHz.

  15. Korean Air Lines Flight 007: Lessons from the Past and Insights for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the problems pilot encounter when using automated systems center around two factors: (1) the pilot has an incomplete and inadequate model of how the autopilot works; and (2) the displays and flight manuals, provided to the pilot, are inadequate for the task. The tragic accident of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 that deviated from its intended flight path, provides a compelling case-study of problems related to pilots' use of automated systems. This paper describes what had happened and exposes two types of human-automation interaction problems: (1) The pilots of KAL were not provided with adequate information about the actual behavior of the autopilot and its mode transition logic; and (2) The autopilot onboard KAL 007 did not provide adequate information to the flight crew about its active and armed modes. Both factors, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization (1993) report on the accident, contributed to the aircraft's lethal navigation error.

  16. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. The first thirty months of this contract are now complete, and this report covers the period from March 27 through September 24, 1989. Similar to the PT-2M SRAM function for memories, the six logic circuits of PT-2L and PT-2M have served their functions as stepping stones toward the custom, standard cell, and cell array logic circuits. All but one of these circuits was right first time; the remaining circuit had a layout error due to a bug in the design rule checker that has since been fixed. The working devices all function over the full temperature range from -55 to 125 C. They all comfortably meet the 200 MHz requirement. They do not solidly conform to the required input and output voltage levels, particularly Vih. It is known that these circuits were designed with the older design models and that they came from an era where the DFET thresholds were often not on target.

  17. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  18. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  19. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  20. HOPE: An On-Line Piloted Handling Qualities Experiment Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. B.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel on-line database for capturing most of the information obtained during piloted handling qualities experiments (either flight or simulated) is described. The Hyperlinked Overview of Piloted Evaluations (HOPE) web application is based on an open-source object-oriented Web-based front end (Ruby-on-Rails) that can be used with a variety of back-end relational database engines. The hyperlinked, on-line data book approach allows an easily-traversed way of looking at a variety of collected data, including pilot ratings, pilot information, vehicle and configuration characteristics, test maneuvers, and individual flight test cards and repeat runs. It allows for on-line retrieval of pilot comments, both audio and transcribed, as well as time history data retrieval and video playback. Pilot questionnaires are recorded as are pilot biographies. Simple statistics are calculated for each selected group of pilot ratings, allowing multiple ways to aggregate the data set (by pilot, by task, or by vehicle configuration, for example). Any number of per-run or per-task metrics can be captured in the database. The entire run metrics dataset can be downloaded in comma-separated text for further analysis off-line. It is expected that this tool will be made available upon request

  1. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles. PMID:23550927

  2. 300mm pilot line DSA contact hole process stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoud, M.; Servin, I.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Jullian, K.; Sanche, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Barnola, S.; Tiron, R.; Navarro, C.; Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Asai, M.; Pieczulewski, C.

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is today a credible alternative lithographic technology for semiconductor industry [1]. In the coming years, DSA integration could be a standard complementary step with other lithographic techniques (193nm immersion, e-beam, extreme ultraviolet). Its main advantages are a high pattern resolution (down to 10nm), a capability to decrease an initial pattern edge roughness [2], an absorption of pattern guide size variation, no requirement of a high-resolution mask and can use standard fab-equipment (tracks and etch tools). The potential of DSA must next be confirmed viable for high volume manufacturing. Developments are necessary to transfer this technology on 300mm wafers in order to demonstrate semiconductor fab-compatibility [3-7]. The challenges concern especially the stability, both uniformity and defectivity, of the entire process, including tools and Blok Co-Polymer (BCP) materials. To investigate the DSA process stability, a 300mm pilot line with DSA dedicated track (SOKUDO DUO) is used at CEALeti. BCP morphologies with PMMA cylinders in a PS matrix are investigated (about 35nm natural period). BCP selfassembly in unpatterned surface and patterned surface (graphoepitaxy) configurations are considered in this study. Unpatterned configuration will initially be used for process optimization and fix a process of record. Secondly, this process of record will be monitored with a follow-up in order to validate its stability. Steps optimization will be applied to patterned surface configurations (graphoepitaxy) for contact hole patterning application. A process window of contact hole shrink process will be defined. Process stability (CD uniformity and defectivity related to BCP lithography) will be investigated.

  3. 77 FR 59391 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways...(a) and 343.2(c); Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways...

  4. 78 FR 42323 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... rulemaking (ANPRM) entitled ``New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (75 FR 6164... Requirements for Air Carrier Operations NPRM (77 FR 12374), which published in the Federal Register on February... for Air Carrier Operations NPRM (77 FR 12374), the FAA proposed to amend the existing requirements...

  5. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  6. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  7. 78 FR 44873 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42324... entitled, ``Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (78 FR 42324... requirements for an airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate in Sec. 61.159(a) by adding paragraph...

  8. 77 FR 12373 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http... rulemaking (ANPRM) entitled ``New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations.'' (75 FR 6164... commercial pilots were adequate (75 FR 6164). In the ANPRM, the Agency asked whether all part 121...

  9. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  10. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  12. A Pilot - An On-Line Library Acquisition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spigai, Frances; And Others

    This report presents documentation of files, of file organization, and of 42 of the modular program subroutines used in a pilot project devised by the Oregon State University (OSU) Computer Center to simulate procedures in the Acquisitions Department of the OSU Library. A total of 224 bibliographically verified requests for monographs, 30 vender…

  13. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.76 DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat....

  14. Anti-dazzling protection for Air Force pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donval, Ariela; Fisher, Tali; Lipman, Ofir; Oron, Moshe

    2012-06-01

    Under certain conditions, laser directed at aircraft can be a hazard. The most likely scenario is when a bright visible laser causes distraction or temporary flash blindness to a pilot, during a critical phase of flight such as landing or takeoff. It is also possible, that a visible or invisible beam could cause permanent harm to a pilot's eyes. We present a non-linear, solid-state dynamic filter solutions protecting from dazzling and damage in a passive way. Our filters limit the transmission, only if the power exceeds a certain threshold as opposed to spectral filters that block a certain wavelength permanently.

  15. CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION SOURCES: FIELD EVALUATIONS OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot scale air pollution control devices supplied by Hydro-Sonic Systems, ETS, Inc., and Vulcan Engineering Company were installed at the ENSCO, Inc. Incinerator in El Dorado, Arkansas, in the spring of 1984. Each of these units treated an uncontrolled slipstream of the incinera...

  16. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A concept for aiding air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting scheduled arrival times at a metering fix was developed and tested in a real time simulation. The automation aid, referred to as the ground based 4-D descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent-point and speed-profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is used by the air traffic controller to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. A joint simulation was conducted using a piloted simulator and an advanced concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the DA automation aid from both the pilot's and the air traffic controller's perspectives. The results of the piloted simulation are examined. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller issued descent advisories along standard curved path arrival routes, and were able to achieve an arrival time precision of + or - 20 sec at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in further enhancements of the algorithm to improve the predictive accuracy. Evaluations by pilots indicate general support for the concept and provide specific recommendations for improvement.

  17. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  18. The relationship between manual handling performance and recent flying experience in air transport pilots.

    PubMed

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2010-02-01

    Modern jet transport aircraft are typically flown using the on-board automation by the pilot programming commands into the auto-flight systems. Anecdotal evidence exists suggesting that pilots of highly automated aircraft experience manual flying skills decay as a result of a lack of opportunity to practise hand-flying during line operations. The ability of a pilot to revert to basic manual control is essential, for example, in cases where the aircraft's automatic capability is diminished or when reconfiguring the automatics is an ineffective use of crew capacity. However, there is a paucity of objective data to substantiate this perceived threat to flight safety. Furthermore, traditional performance measurement techniques may lack the ability to identify subtle but significant differences in pilots' manual handling ability in large transport aircraft. This study examines the relationship between pilot manual handling performance and their recent flying experience using both traditional flight path tracking measures and frequency-based control strategy measures. Significant relationships are identified between pilots' very recent flying experience and their manual control strategy. Statement of Relevance: The study demonstrates a novel application of frequency analysis, which produces a broader and more sensitive analysis of pilot performance than has been offered in previous research. Additionally, the relationships that are found to exist between recent flying experience and manual flying performance will help to guide future pilot assessment and training. PMID:20099179

  19. Hearing Deficit in a Birth Cohort of U.S. Male Commuter Air Carrier and Air Taxi Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Long-term exposure to multiple risk factors in aviation may place pilots at excess risk of developing hearing deficits. We examined the incidence and risk factors for hearing deficit in a birth cohort of male commuter and air taxi pilots. Methods The subjects (N = 3019), who were 45–54 yr of age and held Class I medical certificates in 1987, were followed up from 1987 to 1997 through the medical certification system of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In this study, hearing deficit refers to the FAA pathology code 220 (defective hearing, deafness, not elsewhere classified). Poisson regression modeling based on generalized estimation equations was used to assess the associations between pilot characteristics and the risk of developing hearing deficit. Results The 10-yr follow-up accumulated a total of 20,671 person-years and 574 incident cases of hearing deficit, yielding an incidence rate of 27.8 per 1000 person-years. Compared with age 45–49 yr, the risk of developing hearing deficit at age 50–54 yr, 55–59 yr, and 60–64 yr increased by 12% [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.30], 34% (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.59), and 79% (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.20–2.67), respectively. Conclusions Hearing deficit is prevalent among commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots and the risk of hearing deficit increases progressively with pilot age. Effective programs for preventing excess hearing loss in the pilot population are warranted. PMID:18998487

  20. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... December 5, 2003, CBP published a final rule in the Federal Register (68 FR 68140) to effectuate the... the air cargo is loaded and early enough so that CBP has sufficient time to identify, target, and... information other eligible filers may transmit to CBP. For non- consolidated shipments, the air carrier...

  1. Line Pilots' Attitudes about and Experience with Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    A survey of line pilots' attitudes about flight deck automation was conducted by the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine (RAF IAM, Farnborough, UK) under the sponsorship of the United Kingdom s Civil Aviation Authority and in cooperation with IATA (the International Air Transport Association). Survey freehand comments given by pilots operating 13 types of commercial transports across five manufacturers (Airbus, Boeing, British Aerospace, Lockheed, and McDonnell-Douglas) and 57 air carriers/organizations were analyzed by NASA. These data provide a "lessons learned" knowledge base which may be used for the definition of guidelines for flight deck automation and its associated crew interface within the High Speed Research Program. The aircraft chosen for analysis represented a progression of levels of automation sophistication and complexity, from "Basic" types (e.g., B727, DC9), through "Transition" types (e.g., A300, Concorde), to two levels of glass cockpits (e.g., Glass 1: e.g., A310; Glass 2: e.g., B747-400). This paper reports the results of analyses of comments from pilots flying commercial transport types having the highest level of automation sophistication (B757/B767, B747-400, and A320). Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction. The goal of these analyses is to contribute to the definition of guidelines which may be used during design of future aircraft flight decks.

  2. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  3. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  4. THE NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PILOT PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT OF AN EVALUATION PROTOCOL AND PERFORMANCE BENCHMARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration recently sponsored the New England Forecasting Pilot Program to serve as a "test bed" for chemical forecasting by providing all of the elements of a National Air Quality Forecasting System, including the development and implemen...

  5. ELECTROSTATIC AUGMENTATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION: REVERSE-AIR PILOT UNIT EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of a pilot unit (consisting of two baghouses in a parallel-flow arrangement on a slipstream from an industrial pulverized-coal boiler house) to test electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) in a reverse-air cleaning mode. ESFF is character...

  6. PILOT STUDY FOR REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER AT THE FALLON, NEVADA NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of pilot plant testing of two treatment methods capable of removing arsenic from drinking water; activated alumina and ion exchange. Using the Naval Air Station (NAS) drinking water (raw water arsenic concentration = 0.080 - 0.116 mg/l) for evaluat...

  7. Piloted methane/air jet flames : transport effects and aspects of scalar structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Karpetis, Adionos N.; Chen, J. Y.; Barlow, Robert S.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2005-02-01

    Previously unpublished results from multiscalar point measurements in the series of piloted CH{sub 4}/air jet flames [R.S. Barlow, J.H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27 (1998) 1087-1095] are presented and analyzed. The emphasis is on features of the data that reveal the relative importance of molecular diffusion and turbulent transport in these flames. The complete series A-F is considered. This includes laminar, transitional, and turbulent flames spanning a range in Reynolds number from 1100 to 44,800. Results on conditional means of species mass fractions, the differential diffusion parameter, and the state of the water-gas shift reaction all show that there is an evolution in these flames from a scalar structure dominated by molecular diffusion to one dominated by turbulent transport. Long records of 6000 single-point samples at each of several selected locations in flame D are used to quantify the cross-stream (radial) dependence of conditional statistics of measured scalars. The cross-stream dependence of the conditional scalar dissipation is determined from 6000-shot, line-imaging measurements at selected locations. The cross-stream dependence of reactive scalars, which is most significant in the near field of the jet flame, is attributed to radial differences in both convective and local time scales of the flow. Results illustrate some potential limitations of common modeling assumptions when applied to laboratory-scale flames and, thus, provide a more complete context for interpretation of comparisons between experiments and model calculations.

  8. Piloted methane/air jet flames: Transport effects and aspects of scalar structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.; Frank, J.H.; Karpetis, A.N.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2005-12-01

    Previously unpublished results from multiscalar point measurements in the series of piloted CH{sub 4}/air jet flames [R.S. Barlow, J.H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27 (1998) 1087-1095] are presented and analyzed. The emphasis is on features of the data that reveal the relative importance of molecular diffusion and turbulent transport in these flames. The complete series A-F is considered. This includes laminar, transitional, and turbulent flames spanning a range in Reynolds number from 1100 to 44,800. Results on conditional means of species mass fractions, the differential diffusion parameter, and the state of the water-gas shift reaction all show that there is an evolution in these flames from a scalar structure dominated by molecular diffusion to one dominated by turbulent transport. Long records of 6000 single-point samples at each of several selected locations in flame D are used to quantify the cross-stream (radial) dependence of conditional statistics of measured scalars. The cross-stream dependence of the conditional scalar dissipation is determined from 6000-shot, line-imaging measurements at selected locations. The cross-stream dependence of reactive scalars, which is most significant in the near field of the jet flame, is attributed to radial differences in both convective and local time scales of the flow. Results illustrate some potential limitations of common modeling assumptions when applied to laboratory-scale flames and, thus, provide a more complete context for interpretation of comparisons between experiments and model calculations.

  9. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  10. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  11. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint simulation was carried out using a piloted simulator and an advanced-concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the ground-based four-dimensional descent advisor (DA), an automation aid based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller-issued descent advisories along standard curved-path arrival routes and were able to achieve an arrival-time precision of plus or minus 20 s at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in a further enhancement of the DA algorithm.

  12. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  13. Lithium-doped solar cell pilot line fabrication and test programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.; Yasui, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technology readiness of lithium-doped silicon solar cells with respect to use in space programs. A pilot line fabrication program was established, in which the pilot line cells were evaluated after being exposed to environments ordinarily imposed on nonlithium-doped silicon solar cells. Results indicate that further process improvements are required, particularly with respect to the P/N junction diffusion and the electrical contacting technique (including solder coating). It is concluded that lithium-doped cells can be fabricated to exhibit (1) high efficiencies, (2) uniform cell-to-cell recovery characteristics after exposure to 1-MeV electrons; and (3) good stability in most environments investigated (the only exception being the thermal shock environment).

  14. Pilot line report: Development of a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storti, G.; Culik, J.; Wrigley, C.

    1980-01-01

    Alternate processing technologies were developed and introduced into the pilot line with a resulting increase in the efficiency of the thin cells. The introduction of an aluminum paste alloy technique for the formation of a back surface field represents a significant advance over previous techniques. The fabrication and results for quantities in excess of 2000 2 cm x 2 cm thin cells and 1000 5 cm x 5 cm thin cells are described. Substantial improvement in performance and yield of the thin cells were obtained. The overall yield of the 2 cm x 2 cm pilot line was better than 38%, while the best lot yield was greater than 51%. The average power density of the 2 cm x 2 cm cells was approximately 16.8 mW/sq cm with an average AMO (at 25 C) efficiency of 12.4%. The lot yield of the 5 cm x 5 cm pilot line improved from only 7% at the beginning of the operation to better than 17% as experience was gained. The average 5 cm x 5 cm thin cell had an AMO efficiency (at 25 C) of 11.5%.

  15. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  16. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  17. Performance of 300-mm lithography tools in a pilot production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltabes, John G.; Charles, Alain B.; Hornig, Steffen R.; Schedel, Thorsten; Ganz, Dietmar; Schmidt, Sebastian

    1999-07-01

    Semiconductor 300 is the first pilot manufacturing facility for 300mm wafers in the world. This company is a joint venture between Siemens and Motorola, formed for the purpose of developing a 300mm manufacturing tool set. The pilot line contains a full compliment of tools for DRAM manufacturing. This paper discusses the performance of the initial 300mm lithography tool set installed in our pilot line in Dresden, Germany. The product used for evaluating and debugging the tool set is a 0.25-micron ground rule 64 Meg DRAM. This was chosen for the ability to easily benchmark against 200mm DRAM manufacturing data. We have produced several lots of wafers with measurable yield. These lots have produced data on overlay, CD and run to run performance of the lithography tools on actual product. We have data on resist coating, and develop uniformity. With several lithography tools installed we have generated a large amount of mix and match data. In addition several challenges for successful lithography have surfaced related entirely to the increase in wafer size. Film, etch, polish and thermal non-uniformity have impacted the throughput and performance of the lithography tools. The installation of the first integrated 300mm pilot line has also produced data on the impact larger wafer size has on tool logistics, for example fab layout, installation schedules and wafer and lot transport. While technical data is always important, the main reason for converting to 300mm is economic. We now have preliminary data on the comparison of 200 tools to 300mm tools in terms of footprint, throughput, and productivity gains for equivalent square centimeters of silicon. With this data we can start to make preliminary recommendations for 300mm manufacturing tools.

  18. A novel type N coaxial air-line verification standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaib, N.; Kuhlmann, K.; Judaschke, R.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the design and analysis of a novel coaxial type N verification standard based on an air-line is presented. The measurement uncertainty budget is computed by taking into account the mechanical and dielectric tolerances, thus allowing the determination of the transmission loss uncertainties of the verification standard. The calculated results are obtained by using commercially available electromagnetic software. The data analysis is carried out for complex-valued quantities. The measurement uncertainty due to different error sources is computed according to the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty. Simulated and experimental results are compared to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  19. Pilot Error in Air Carrier Mishaps: Longitudinal Trends Among 558 Reports, 1983–2002

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan P.; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions have been implemented in recent decades to reduce pilot error in flight operations. This study aims to identify longitudinal trends in the prevalence and patterns of pilot error and other factors in U.S. air carrier mishaps. Method National Transportation Safety Board investigation reports were examined for 558 air carrier mishaps during 1983–2002. Pilot errors and circumstances of mishaps were described and categorized. Rates were calculated per 10 million flights. Results The overall mishap rate remained fairly stable, but the proportion of mishaps involving pilot error decreased from 42% in 1983–87 to 25% in 1998–2002, a 40% reduction. The rate of mishaps related to poor decisions declined from 6.2 to 1.8 per 10 million flights, a 71% reduction; much of this decrease was due to a 76% reduction in poor decisions related to weather. Mishandling wind or runway conditions declined by 78%. The rate of mishaps involving poor crew interaction declined by 68%. Mishaps during takeoff declined by 70%, from 5.3 to 1.6 per 10 million flights. The latter reduction was offset by an increase in mishaps while the aircraft was standing, from 2.5 to 6.0 per 10 million flights, and during pushback, which increased from 0 to 3.1 per 10 million flights. Conclusions Reductions in pilot errors involving decision making and crew coordination are important trends that may reflect improvements in training and technological advances that facilitate good decisions. Mishaps while aircraft are standing and during push-back have increased and deserve special attention. PMID:18225771

  20. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  1. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  2. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  3. Prediction of pilot reserve attention capacity during air-to-air target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, E. D.; Faulkner, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Reserve attention capacity of a pilot was calculated using a pilot model that allocates exclusive model attention according to the ranking of task urgency functions whose variables are tracking error and error rate. The modeled task consisted of tracking a maneuvering target aircraft both vertically and horizontally, and when possible, performing a diverting side task which was simulated by the precise positioning of an electrical stylus and modeled as a task of constant urgency in the attention allocation algorithm. The urgency of the single loop vertical task is simply the magnitude of the vertical tracking error, while the multiloop horizontal task requires a nonlinear urgency measure of error and error rate terms. Comparison of model results with flight simulation data verified the computed model statistics of tracking error of both axes, lateral and longitudinal stick amplitude and rate, and side task episodes. Full data for the simulation tracking statistics as well as the explicit equations and structure of the urgency function multiaxis pilot model are presented.

  4. Preliminary performance estimates of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle for air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Bailey, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized aircraft synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the highly maneuverable, air-to-air combat role. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. The results are presented in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and the combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. This report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and results from sensitivity studies. An optimization process has been used to establish the nominal RPV configuration of the oblique, all-wing concept for the specified mission. In comparison to a previously studied conventional wing-body canard design for the same mission, this oblique, all-wing nominal vehicle is lighter in weight and has higher performance.

  5. Piloted jet flames of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/air: Experiments on localized extinction in the near field at high Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.; Ozarovsky, H.C.; Lindstedt, R.P.; Karpetis, A.N.

    2009-11-15

    Measurements of temperature and major species concentrations, based on the simultaneous line-imaged Raman/Rayleigh/CO-LIF technique, are reported for piloted jet flames of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} fuel with varying amounts of partial premixing with air (jet equivalence ratios of {phi}{sub j} = 3.2, 2.5, 2.1 corresponding to stoichiometric mixture fraction values of {xi}{sub st} = 0.35, 0.43, 0.50, respectively) and varying degrees of localized extinction. Each jet flame is operated at a fixed and relatively high exit Reynolds number (60,000 or 67,000), and the probability of localized extinction is increased in several steps by progressively decreasing the flow rate of the pilot flame. Dimensions of the piloted burner, originally developed at Sydney University, are the same as for previous studies. The present measurements complement previous results from piloted CH{sub 4}/air jet flames as targets for combustion model calculations by extending to higher Reynolds number, including more steps in the progression of each flame from a fully burning state to a flame with high probability of local extinction, and adding the degree of partial premixing as an experimental parameter. Local extinction in these flames occurs close to the nozzle near a downstream location of four times the jet exit diameter. Consequently, these data provide the additional modeling challenge of accurately representing the initial development of the reacting jet and the near-field mixing processes. (author)

  6. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  7. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  8. The influence of air traffic control message length and timing on pilot communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel; Rodvold, Michelle

    1993-01-01

    The present paper outlines an approach to air traffic control (ATC) communication that is based on theories of dialogue organization and describes several steps or phases in routine controller-pilot communication. The introduction also describes several kinds of communication problems that often disrupt these steps, as well as how these problems may be caused by factors related to ATC messages, the communication medium (radio vs. data link) and task workload. Next, a part-task simulation study is described. This study focused on how problems in radio communication are related to message factors. More specifically, we examined if pilots are more likely to misunderstanding longer ATC messages. A more general goal of the study is to show that communication analysis can help trace where problem occur and why.

  9. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

  10. 78 FR 22911 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on February 8, 2013 (78 FR 8591). Based on... Employment and Training Administration Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Sioux City,...

  11. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Mercer, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  12. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  13. EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES ON A REFUSE AND COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project report describes the operation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices to gather data on air pollution efficiency versus several different operating parameters on various waste-as-fuel combustio processes. It also includes a test of a full scale fabric filter use...

  14. Development of Motivation Assessment Techniques for Air Force Officer Training and Education Programs: Motivation for Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Calvin W.; And Others

    The study was an investigation into the relevance of motivational factors operating in various Air Force training programs, especially Air Training Command's Undergraduate Pilot Training Program. The research project, as a whole, was directed toward understanding motivational factors as they distinguish those who drop out of training from those…

  15. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  16. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  17. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  18. Identification and characterization of populations living near high-voltage transmission lines: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, D; Greenberg, M; Lathrop, R

    1993-01-01

    Populations living close to high-voltage transmission lines often have residential magnetic field exposures in excess of 1 microT, and sometimes over 2 microT. Yet, populations studied in most epidemiologic investigations of the association between residential magnetic field exposure and cancer typically have exposures below 1 microT and frequently below 0.5 microT. To improve statistical power and precision, it would be useful to compare high exposure populations with low exposure populations rather than only studying small differences within low exposure populations. Toward this end, we have developed an automated method for identifying populations living near high-voltage transmission lines. These populations likely have more highly exposed individuals than the population at large. The method uses a geographic information system (GIS) to superimpose digitized transmission line locations on U.S. Census block location data and then extract relevant demographic data. Analysis of data from a pilot study of the populations residing within 100 m of a 29-km segment of one 230-kV line in New Jersey shows that when compared to populations in the surrounding census blocks farther than 100 m from this line, those populations close to the line have similar demographics but differ in terms of perceived housing value variables. We believe that the approach we have developed will enable investigators to rapidly identify and characterize populations living near high-voltage transmission lines on a statewide basis for considering the impact of exposures and for public policy and that these populations also can be used for epidemiologic study. Images p626-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8143596

  19. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  20. Piloted Ignition of Polypropylene/Glass Composites in a Forced Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Rich, D.; Lautenberger, C.; Stefanovich, A.; Metha, S.; Torero, J.; Yuan, Z.; Ross, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) is being used to study the flammability characteristics of combustible materials in forced convective flows. The FIST methodology is based on the ASTM E-1321, Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) which is used to determine the ignition and flame spread characteristics of materials, and to produce 'Flammability Diagrams' of materials. The LIFT apparatus, however, relies on natural convection to bring air to the combustion zone and the fuel vapor to the pilot flame, and thus cannot describe conditions where the oxidizer flow velocity may change. The FIST on the other hand, by relying on a forced flow as the dominant transport mechanism, can be used to examine variable oxidizer flow characteristics, such as velocity, oxygen concentration, and turbulence intensity, and consequently has a wider applicability. Particularly important is its ability to determine the flammability characteristics of materials used in spacecraft since in the absence of gravity the only flow present is that forced by the HVAC of the space facility. In this paper, we report work on the use of the FIST approach on the piloted ignition of a blended polypropylene fiberglass (PP/GL) composite material exposed to an external radiant flux in a forced convective flow of air. The effect of glass concentration under varying external radiant fluxes is examined and compared qualitatively with theoretical predictions of the ignition process. The results are used to infer the effect of glass content on the fire safety characteristics of composites.

  1. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 1: Methodology, summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are described in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent when conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume II contains the appendices referenced in Volume I, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  2. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are discribed in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent which conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume 2 contains the appendices referenced in Volume 1, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  3. THE CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE OF RECTANGULAR TRANSMISSION LINES WITH THIN CENTER CONDUCTOR AND AIR DIELECTRIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The characteristic impedance of large-scale rectangular strip transmission line facilities used for such purposes as EMI susceptibility testing, biological exposures, etc., is discussed. These lines are characterized by a thin center conductor and an air dielectric. Impedance dat...

  4. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale air-lift internal-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Using sodium fluoride as tracer, residence time distribution technique was employed to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale Internal-Loop Airlift Bio-particle (ILAB) bioreactor that was a novel system for ammonia removal from wastewater. The results showed that the flow pattern of ILAB reactor was close to completely mixed reactor under all the tested air flow rates and liquid flow rates (with average N of 1.88). The total dead zone (TDZ) was 32.43% with biological dead zone (BDZ) of 20.66% and hydraulic dead zone (HDZ) of 8.95%. At higher air flow rates, the flow pattern of reactor approached that of completely mixed reactor (N from 2.72 to 1.54), and the increase of air flow rate gave rise to the decrease of TDZ in the reactor (from 36.24% to 23.00%). Whereas at higher liquid flow rates, the flow pattern of ILAB reactor got away from that of completely mixed reactor (N from 1.51 to 1.72), and the increase of liquid flow rate yielded a rise of TDZ in the reactor (from 28.48% to 36.84%). The study highlighted that the effect of air flow rate on flow pattern and TDZ of the reactor was greater than that of liquid flow rate. PMID:25594127

  5. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  6. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented. PMID:24182161

  7. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ˜30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  8. Simulation of the effects of different pilot helmets on neck loading during air combat.

    PubMed

    Mathys, R; Ferguson, S J

    2012-09-21

    New generation pilot helmets with mounted devices enhance the capabilities of pilots substantially. However, the additional equipment increases the helmet weight and shifts its center of mass forward. Two helmets with different mass properties were modeled to simulate their effects on the pilot's neck. A musculoskeletal computer model was used, with the methods of inverse dynamics and static optimization, to compute the muscle activations and joint reaction forces for a given range of quasi-static postures at various accelerations experienced during air combat. Head postures which induce much higher loads on the cervical spine than encountered in a neutral position could be identified. The increased weight and the forward shift of the center of mass of a new generation helmet lead to higher muscle activations and higher joint reaction loads over a wide range of head and neck movements. The muscle activations required to balance the head and neck in extreme postures increased the compressive force at the T1-C7 level substantially, while in a neutral posture the muscle activations remained low. The lateral neck muscles can reach activations of 100% and cause compressive joint forces up to 1100N during extensive rotations and extensions at high 'vertical' accelerations (Gz). The calculated values have to be interpreted with care as the model has not been validated. Nevertheless, this systematic analysis could separate the effects of head posture, acceleration and helmet mass on neck loading. More reliable data about mass properties and muscle morphometry with a more detailed motion analysis would help to refine the existing model. PMID:22840756

  9. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring. PMID:26633440

  10. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM(2.5) during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM(2.5) levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM(2.5) feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring. PMID:26633440

  11. Electrostatic augmentation of fabric filtration: Reverse-air pilot unit experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanosdell, D. W.; Furlong, D. A.

    1984-08-01

    The use of a pilot unit (consisting of two baghouses in a parallel-flow arrangement on a slipstream from an industrial pulverized-coal boiler house) to test electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) in a reverse-air cleaning model is described. The method is characterized by electrodes arranged about 2 cm apart around the circumference of the bag and running the length of the bag. An electric field of 2-4 kV/cm is maintained between the electrodes and perpendicular to the gas flow. Results showed that ESFF can reduce fabric filter pressure drops and may allow reverse-air filtration at a 2 cm/s face velocity, rather than the conventional 1 cm/s. A filter bag with stainless steel electrodes woven into the fabric was developed for the reverse-air tests as part of this research. The woven-in electrode and the potential for doubling the face velocity appear to make ESFF economically attractive for commercial baghouse users.

  12. Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

    2001-03-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

  13. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  14. Design and analysis of a pilot scale biofiltration system for odorous air

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, J.J.; Young, J.S.; Bottcher, R.W.; Westerman, P.W.

    2000-02-01

    Three pilot-scale biofilters and necessary peripheral equipment were built to clean odorous air from the pit of a swine gestation building at North Carolina State University. A computer measured temperatures, flow rates, and pressure drops. It also controlled and measured the moisture content of a biofilter medium comprised of a 3:1 mixture of yard waste compost to wood chips mixture (by volume). The system was evaluated to ensure that the biofilters would be useful for performing scientific experiments concerning the reduction of swine odor on future research projects. The capability of the biofilters to remove odor was measured using a cotton swatch absorption method and an odor panel. The average odor reductions measured by odor intensity, irritation intensity, and unpleasantness for five tests were 61%, 58%, and 84%, respectively. No significant differences in odor reduction performance were found between the biofilters.

  15. SDSS-IV eBOSS emission-line galaxy pilot survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Jouvel, S.; Raichoor, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Le Cras, C.; Maraston, C.; Wilkinson, D. M.; Zhu, G.; Jullo, E.; Prada, F.; Schlegel, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, H.; Bautista, J.; Bizyaev, D.; Bolton, A.; Brownstein, J. R.; Dawson, K. S.; Escoffier, S.; Gaulme, P.; Kinemuchi, K.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Mariappan, V.; Newman, J. A.; Oravetz, D.; Pan, K.; Percival, W. J.; Prakash, A.; Schneider, D. P.; Simmons, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) will observe 195 000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to measure the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) standard ruler at redshift 0.9. To test different ELG selection algorithms, 9000 spectra were observed with the SDSS spectrograph as a pilot survey based on data from several imaging surveys. First, using visual inspection and redshift quality flags, we show that the automated spectroscopic redshifts assigned by the pipeline meet the quality requirements for a reliable BAO measurement. We also show the correlations between sky emission, signal-to-noise ratio in the emission lines, and redshift error. Then we provide a detailed description of each target selection algorithm we tested and compare them with the requirements of the eBOSS experiment. As a result, we provide reliable redshift distributions for the different target selection schemes we tested. Finally, we determine an target selection algorithms that is best suited to be applied on DECam photometry because they fulfill the eBOSS survey efficiency requirements. The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A121

  16. Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

  17. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-10-15

    The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models. PMID:23912073

  18. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  19. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  20. The HETDEX Pilot Survey. I. Survey Design, Performance, and Catalog of Emission-line Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Hill, Gary J.; Gebhardt, Karl; Drory, Niv; Hao, Lei; Bender, Ralf; Byun, Joyce; Ciardullo, Robin; Cornell, Mark E.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fry, Alex; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Hopp, Ulrich; Jeong, Donghui; Kelz, Andreas; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Komatsu, Eiichiro; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Murphy, Jeremy; Odoms, P. Samuel; Roth, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Tufts, Joseph R.; Wilkinson, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 squ' with a 3500-5800 Å bandpass under 5 Å full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20× 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 depending on the wavelength, and Lyα luminosities between 3 × 1042 and 6 × 1042 erg s-1 are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Lyα emission at 1.9 < z < 3.8, and the majority of the remainder objects are low-redshift [O II]3727 emitters at z < 0.56. The classification between low- and high-redshift objects depends on rest-frame equivalent width (EW), as well as other indicators, where available. Based on matches to X-ray catalogs, the active galactic nuclei fraction among the Lyα emitters is 6%. We also analyze the survey's completeness and contamination properties through simulations. We find five high-z, highly significant, resolved objects with FWHM sizes >44 squ' which appear to be extended Lyα nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Lyα EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW0>240 Å. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  1. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND CATALOG OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Kelz, Andreas

    2011-01-15

    We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 {open_square}' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} depending on the wavelength, and Ly{alpha} luminosities between 3 x 10{sup 42} and 6 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Ly{alpha} emission at 1.9 < z < 3.8, and the majority of the remainder objects are low-redshift [O II]3727 emitters at z < 0.56. The classification between low- and high-redshift objects depends on rest-frame equivalent width (EW), as well as other indicators, where available. Based on matches to X-ray catalogs, the active galactic nuclei fraction among the Ly{alpha} emitters is 6%. We also analyze the survey's completeness and contamination properties through simulations. We find five high-z, highly significant, resolved objects with FWHM sizes >44 {open_square}' which appear to be extended Ly{alpha} nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Ly{alpha} EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW{sub 0}>240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

  2. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Garg, ML.; Kumar, Manoj Sharma; Khan, Asif Ali; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town ‘Mandi Gobindgarh’ and a non-industrial town ‘Morinda’ were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with ≤ 10μm aerodynamic diameter) levels in Morinda were 99.54 μg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 μg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean). Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant. PMID:18180537

  3. Cohort study of Air Canada pilots: mortality, cancer incidence, and leukemia risk.

    PubMed

    Band, P R; Le, N D; Fang, R; Deschamps, M; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Moody, J

    1996-01-15

    Despite the special working environment and exposures of airline pilots, data on risk of death and cancer incidence in this occupational group are limited. The authors investigated a cohort of 2,740 Air Canada pilots who contributed 62,449 person-years of observation. All male pilots employed for at least 1 year on and since January 1, 1950, were studied. The cutoff date for outcome information was December 31, 1992. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) were used to compare mortality rates and cancer incidence rates of the cohort with the respective Canadian population rates. Ninety percent confidence intervals of the SMR and SIR were calculated. Statistically significant decreased mortality was observed for all causes (SMR = 0.63, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.70), for all cancers (SMR = 0.61, 90% CI 0.48-0.76), and for all noncancer diseases (SMR = 0.53, 90% CI 0.45-0.62). Mortality from aircraft accidents was significantly raised (SMR = 26.57, 90% CI 19.3-35.9). Significantly decreased cancer incidence was observed for all cancers (SIR = 0.71, 90% CI 0.61-0.82), rectal cancer (SIR = 0.42, 90% CI 0.14-0.96), lung cancer (SIR = 0.28, 90% CI 0.16-0.46), and bladder cancer (SIR = 0.36, 90% CI 0.12-0.82). Prostate cancer (SIR = 1.87, 90% CI 1.38-2.49) and acute myeloid leukemia (SIR = 4.72, 90% CI 2.05-9.31) were significantly increased. The preferred relative risk model for radiation-induced nonchronic lymphoid leukemia (Beir V report) was applied to the cohort by using published estimates of in-flight radiation exposures. The estimated relative risk ranged from 1.001 to 1.06 and did not differ significantly from the observed SIR (SIR = 1.88, 90% CI 0.80-3.53). However, the incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia was significantly increased. Monitoring of in-flight radiation exposure and long-term follow-up of civil aviation crew members is needed to further assess cancer incidence and leukemia risk in this special

  4. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  5. Engineering Task Plan Supporting Rupture of Compressed Air Lines in Contaminated Areas USQ

    SciTech Connect

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2001-11-30

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) defines the Tasks and organizational responsibilities for obtaining Tank Farm data relative to pit structures and soil contamination levels for purposes of resolving the rupture of compressed air/gas lines unreviewed safety question.

  6. Paso del Norte pilot border study of ozone precursors and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; Sheetz, L.; Harshfield, G.

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive monitoring program for ozone precursors and air toxics in the Paso del Norte border area is planned by the U.S. EPA for the Summer of 1996. A pilot study was carried out in October 1995 in the Paso del Norte area (El Paso, Texas, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and Sunland Park, New Mexico) to test the appropriateness of proposed sampling and analysis methods and to provide preliminary data to be used for planning the Summer 1996 study. Two monitoring sites were selected, one in Ciudad Juarez, and one in the El Paso area. Samples were collected every second day from October 21 to October 31, from 0300 to 0900 hr using stainless steel canisters (for VOC in the C{sub 2}-C{sub 12} range), Tenax-TA solid adsorbent cartridges (for C{sub 8}-C{sub 20} hydrocarbons). DNPH impregnated C{sub 18} Sep-Pack cartridges (for carbonyl compounds) and Teflon impregnated glass fiber filters followed by PUF/YAD/PUF {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes} cartridges (for SVOC). This paper discusses the data set obtained from the analyses of these samples. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  7. A piloted simulation investigation of the normal load factor and longitudinal thrust required for air-to-air acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was performed by the U.S. Army Aeroflighydynamics Directorate to develop insight into the maneuverability requirements for aggressive helicopter maneuvering tasks such as air-to-air combat. Both a conventional helicopter and a helicopter with auxiliary thrust were examined. The aircraft parameters of interest were the normal and longitudinal load factor envelopes. Of particular interest were the mission performance and handling qualities tradeoffs with the parameters of interest. Two air-to-air acquisition and tracking tasks and a return-to-cover task were performed to assess mission performance. Results indicate that without auxiliary thrust, the ownship normal load factor capability needs to match that of the adversary in order to provide satisfactory handling qualities. Auxiliary thrust provides significant handling qualities advantages and can be substituted to some extent for normal load factor capability. Auxiliary thrust levels as low as 0.2 thrust/weight can provide significant handling qualities advantages.

  8. “A Reduced-form Model to Estimate Near-road Air Quality for Communities: the Community Line Source modeling system (C-LINE)”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system that estimates toxic air pollutant (air toxics) concentration gradients within 500 meters of busy roadways for community-sized areas on the order of 100 km2. C-LINE accesses publicly available datasets with nat...

  9. Computational techniques for determining printability of real defects in EUV mask pilot line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Li, Ying; Peng, Daniel; Chen, Dongxue; Hu, Peter; Corcoran, Noel; Son, Donghwan; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram

    2014-04-01

    extracted or recovered, and then forward-simulated in DPS to generate EUV aerial images subsequently analyzed for wafer printability. Each of the data sources have their strengths and limitations vis-à-vis use in a production pilot line. We exploit a mix and- match approach to effectively filter down to the defects that really matter. The 193nm inspection image data are readily available and although the pixel-sizes are somewhat coarse compared with the mask pattern widths, computationally predicting EUV printability off these images provides a quick filter of the obvious false and nuisance defects. SEM images on the other hand provide a much better two-dimensional top-down resolution of the patterns and hence work well for full-height excess or missing absorber defects but not so well for three-dimensional defects such as pits and bumps in the EUV multilayer or foreign material defects such as contamination. AFM height profile measurements generally provide the best available resolution on three-dimensional defects and thereby are well-suited for further simulations to EUV, however, AFM tip and image stability, and data acquisition time need to be comprehended. Computationally exploiting these supplemental defect inspection and metrology data in this mix-and-match approach effectively filters defects down to those that really matter on printed wafer. We see this approach as being vital to getting comprehensive defect learnings during the EUV pilot phase implementation and delivering well-characterized EUV masks to the wafer fab at substantially lower cost-of-ownership.

  10. Pilot Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, William E.

    The purpose of the Pilot Training Study is to produce tools with which to analyze the pilot training process of the Air Force in terms of the resources required to train pilots and the cost of pilot training. These tools allow examination of the training courses themselves, and also of the policy factors which drive the need for pilots. The tools…

  11. 75 FR 6164 - New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...This advance notice of proposed rulemaking requests public comment on possible changes to regulations relating to the certification of pilots conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations. The purpose of this notice is to gather information on whether current eligibility, training, and qualification requirements for commercial pilot certification are adequate for engaging in such......

  12. Report to the Legislature: Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. Line Item 7061-0012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Final Report on the Audio-Digital MCAS Pilot Program. The Department and Recording For the Blind & Dyslexic (RFB&D) have collaborated to provide audio-digital read-aloud editions of the Grade 10 English Language Arts and Mathematics MCAS tests for a small number of students with disabilities such as dyslexia and/or vision…

  13. A Glimpse beyond State Lines: Student Outcomes from WICHE's Multistate Longitudinal Data Exchange Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bransberger, Peace

    2014-01-01

    This report presents findings from Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's (WICHE) "Multistate Longitudinal Data Exchange Pilot" ("MLDE" or "Exchange"), which includes an array of analyses of the combined dataset covering 192,689 students from the four states (Hawai'i, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) that…

  14. Pilot/Controller Coordinated Decision Making in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Chris; Miller, Ronald c.; Orasanu, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: NextGen technologies promise to provide considerable benefits in terms of enhancing operations and improving safety. However, there needs to be a thorough human factors evaluation of the way these systems will change the way in which pilot and controllers share information. The likely impact of these new technologies on pilot/controller coordinated decision making is considered in this paper using the "operational, informational and evaluative disconnect" framework. Method: Five participant focus groups were held. Participants were four experts in human factors, between x and x research students and a technical expert. The participant focus group evaluated five key NextGen technologies to identify issues that made different disconnects more or less likely. Results: Issues that were identified were: Decision Making will not necessarily improve because pilots and controllers possess the same information; Having a common information source does not mean pilots and controllers are looking at the same information; High levels of automation may lead to disconnects between the technology and pilots/controllers; Common information sources may become the definitive source for information; Overconfidence in the automation may lead to situations where appropriate breakdowns are not initiated. Discussion: The issues that were identified lead to recommendations that need to be considered in the development of NextGen technologies. The current state of development of these technologies provides a good opportunity to utilize recommendations at an early stage so that NextGen technologies do not lead to difficulties in resolving breakdowns in coordinated decision making.

  15. Classification, Social Contracts, Obligations, Civil Rights, and the Supreme Court: Sutton v. United Air Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Stowe, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the 1999 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, Sutton v. United Air Lines, as it pertains to people with disabilities, especially students covered by federal education and civil rights legislation. It sets out implications of the decision for special and general educators as they engage in Individualized Education Program…

  16. Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuschlag, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the results from a study into the apparent factors and causes of violations of restricted airspace, particularly temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs). By illuminating the reasons for these violations, this study aims to take the first step towards reducing them. The study assesses the basic characteristics of restricted airspace violations as well as the probable causes and factors contributing to violations. Results from the study imply most violations occur where the restriction has been in place for a significant amount of time prior to the violation. Additionally, the study results imply most violations are not due to the pilot simply being unaware of the airspace at the time of violation. In most violations, pilots are aware of the presence of the restricted airspace but have incorrect information about it, namely, its exact boundaries or procedures for authorized penetration. These results imply that the best means to reduce violations of restricted airspace is to improve the effectiveness of providing pilots the details required to avoid the airspace.

  17. The mutagenicity of indoor air particles in a residential pilot field study: Application and evaluation of new methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewtas, Joellen; Goto, Sumio; Williams, Katherine; Chuang, Jane C.; Petersen, Bruce A.; Wilson, Nancy K.

    The mutagenicity of indoor air paniculate matter has been measured in a pilot field study of homes in Columbus, Ohio during the 1984 winter. The study was conducted in eight all natural-gas homes and two all electric homes. Paniculate matter and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected indoors using a medium volume sampler. A micro-forward mutation bioassay employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TM 677 was used to quantify the mutagenicity in solvent extracts of microgram quantities of indoor air particles. The mutagenicity was quantified in terms of both mutation frequency per mg of organic matter extracted and per cubic meter of air sampled. The combustion source variables explored in this study included woodburning in fireplaces and cigarette smoking. Homes in which cigarette smoking occurred had the highest concentrations of mutagenicity per cubic meter of air. The average indoor air mutagenicity per cubic meter was highly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked. When the separate sampling periods in each room were compared, the mutagenicity in the kitchen samples was the most highly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked.

  18. Verbal workload in distributed air traffic management. [considering pilot controller interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Pardo, B.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of alternative traffic management possibilities on task performance and pilot controller verbal workloads were studied. Two new rule structures - sequencing and advisory - in addition to vectoring were studied in conjunction with CRT pilot displays incorporating traffic situation displays with and without aircraft flight path predictors. The sequencing and advisory systems gave increasing control responsibility to the pilots. It was concluded that distributed management systems could in practice significantly reduce controller verbal workload without reducing system performance. Implications of this conclusion suggest that distributed management would allow controllers to handle a larger volume of traffic safely either as a normal operating procedure or as a failure mode alternative in a highly automated ground centered system.

  19. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  20. Vertical laryngeal position and oral pressure variations during resonance tube phonation in water and in air. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wistbacka, Greta; Sundberg, Johan; Simberg, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Resonance tube phonation in water (RTPW) is commonly used in voice therapy, particularly in Finland and Sweden. The method is believed to induce a lowering of the vertical laryngeal position (VLP) in phonation as well as variations of the oral pressure, possibly inducing a massage effect. This pilot study presents an attempt to measure VLP and oral pressure in two subjects during RTPW and during phonation with the free tube end in air. VLP is recorded by means of a dual-channel electroglottograph. RTPW was found to lower VLP in the subjects, while it increased during phonation with the tube end in air. RTPW caused an oral pressure modulation with a bubble frequency of 14-22 Hz, depending mainly on the depth of the tube end under the water surface. The results indicate that RTPW lowers the VLP instantly and creates oral pressure variations. PMID:26033381

  1. Pressure Relief, Visco-Elastic Foam with Inflated Air? A Pilot Study in a Dutch Nursing Home

    PubMed Central

    Van Leen, Martin; Schols, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is still little evidence regarding the type of mattress that is the best for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs). In a Dutch nursing home, a new type of overlay mattress (air inflated visco-elastic foam) was tested to analyze the opportunity for replacement of the normally used static air overlay mattress in its three-step PU prevention protocol In this small pilot the outcome measures were: healing of a category one pressure ulcer, new development or deterioration of a category one PU and need for repositioning. Methods: We included 20 nursing home residents with a new category one pressure ulcer, existing for no longer than 48 h following a consecutive sampling technic. All residents were staying for more than 30 days in the nursing home and were lying on a visco-elastic foam mattress without repositioning (step one of the 3-step protocol) at the start of the pilot study. They had not suffered from a PU in the month before. The intervention involved use of an air inflated foam overlay instead of a static air overlay (normally step 2 of the 3-step protocol). At the start; the following data were registered: age; gender; main diagnosis and presence of incontinence. Thereafter; all participating residents were checked weekly for PU healing tendency; deterioration of PUs; new PUs and need of repositioning. Only when residents showed still a category one PU after 48 h or deterioration of an existing pressure ulcer or if there was development of a new pressure ulcer, repositioning was put into practice (step 3 of the PU protocol). All residents participated during 8 weeks. Results: Seven residents developed a new pressure ulcer category one and still had a category one pressure ulcer at the end of the study period. One resident developed a pressure ulcer category 2. Fifteen residents needed repositioning from one week after start of the study until the end of the study. Conclusions: Overall 40% of the residents developed a pressure ulcer. Seventy five

  2. PILOT STUDY LINKING AIR AND WATER MODELS FOR MERCURY IN THE EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the Everglades Pilot Study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of linking atmospheric and aquatic system models to calculate an atmospherically-driven total maximum daily load (TMDL) for mercury, given the current state of knowledge of mercury cycling in t...

  3. A PILOT STUDY FOR NEAR REAL-TIME AEROSOL MODELING AND AIR QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster will present the objectives and initial results of a pilot study conducted as a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservat...

  4. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  5. Relationship between occlusal plane and ala-tragus line in dentate individuals: A Clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor; Mahadevan, R

    2015-04-01

    Many methods have been used to establish the occlusal plane in complete denture prosthodontics. However, no single method seems to be fully accepted. Anteriorly, esthetic considerations help define the occlusal plane, and posteriorly the tongue, retromolar pad, and Stenson's duct are considered. Some dentists bisect the space between the residual ridges. The technique of using the ala-tragus line (Camper's line) to establish the occlusal plane is well documented. However, definitions of the ala-tragus line cause confusion, because the exact points of reference do not agree. For example, the glossary of prosthodontic terms states that the ala-tragus line runs from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to the superior border of the tragus of the ear while Spratley' describes it as running from the center of the ala to the center of the tragus. This article concerns us the exact relationship between the occlusal plane and ala-tragus line in dentate individuals. PMID:26015765

  6. Failure Monitoring and Leakage Detection for Underground Storage of Compressed Air Energy in Lined Rock Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dohyun; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Park, Eui-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns (LRCs) provides a promising solution for storing energy on a large scale. One of the essential issues facing underground CAES implementation is the risk of air leakage from the storage caverns. Compressed air may leak through an initial defect in the inner containment liner, such as imperfect welds and construction joints, or through structurally damaged points of the liner during CAES operation for repeated compression and decompression cycles. Detection of the air leakage and identification of the leakage location around the underground storage cavern are required. In this study, we analyzed the displacement (or strain) monitoring method to detect the mechanical failure of liners that provides major pathways of air leakage using a previously developed numerical technique simulating the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of underground CAES in LRCs. We analyzed the use of pressure monitoring to detect air leakage and characterize the leakage location. From the simulation results, we demonstrated that tangential strain monitoring at the inner face of sealing liners could enable one to detect failure. We also demonstrated that the use of the cross-correlation method between pressure history data measured at various sensors could identify the air leak location. These results may help in the overall design of a monitoring and alarm system for the successful implementation and operation of CAES in LRCs.

  7. 76 FR 9402 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI On January 28, 2011, Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway) filed with the Surface... abandonment proceedings normally will be made available within 60 days of the filing of the petition....

  8. 76 FR 43743 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI On July 1, 2011, Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway) filed with the Surface Transportation... EIS). EAs in these abandonment proceedings normally will be made available within 60 days of...

  9. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE UP AGAINST WALL, TO BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ETR EXPERIMENTS. EACH HAD A HEAT OUTPUT OF 8 MILLION BTU PER HOUR, OPERATED AT 1260 DEGREES F. AND A PRESSURE OF 320 PSI. NOTE METAL WALLS AND ROOF. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3709. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  11. Air concentrations of VOCs in portable and traditional classrooms: results of a pilot study in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Winer, Arthur M; Stock, Thomas H; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Maberti, Silvia; Colome, Steven D

    2004-01-01

    Recent state and federal public school class-size reduction initiatives, increased elementary and pre-K enrollment driven by population growth and immigration, and limited resources for capital projects, modernization, and maintenance at aging schools have increased the prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables). At present, approximately one of three California students are taught in portables, whose use is especially prevalent in more populated counties such as Los Angeles, home to the nation's second largest school district. Limited data existed on chemical compound air concentrations, and thus exposures, inside American public schools. Measurements have been limited, usually performed in complaint schools, and varied in sampling protocols and analysis methods. To address a school environment and children's health issue of present concern, an assessment of public school portables was conducted in Los Angeles County. Seven schools in two school districts were recruited, from which 20 classrooms--13 portables, seven in main buildings--were randomly selected. We report indoor air concentrations of 21 target toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measured with passive samplers (DNSH PAKS and 3M OVM 3500) in the cooling and heating seasons between June 2000 and June 2001. None of the measured indoor air formaldehyde concentrations exceeded the existing California Air Resources Board guideline (50 ppb, or 60 microg/m(3)). The main sources of aldehydes in classrooms, especially portables, were likely interior finish materials and furnishings made of particleboard without lamination. Indoor air VOC concentrations were generally low in this pilot study. The four most prevalent VOCs measured were toluene, m-/p-xylene, alpha-pinene, and delta-limonene; likely indoor sources were personal, teaching, and cleaning products. Future schools research should attempt larger samples over larger geographical

  12. Drawing on air: input techniques for controlled 3D line illustration.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Daniel; Zeleznik, Robert; Laidlaw, David

    2007-01-01

    We present Drawing on Air, a haptic-aided input technique for drawing controlled 3D curves through space. Drawing on Air addresses a control problem with current 3D modeling approaches based on sweeping movement of the hands through the air. While artists praise the immediacy and intuitiveness of these systems, a lack of control makes it nearly impossible to create 3D form beyond quick design sketches or gesture drawings. Drawing on Air introduces two new strategies for more controlled 3D drawing: one-handed drag drawing and two-handed tape drawing. Both approaches have advantages for drawing certain types of curves. We describe a tangent preserving method for transitioning between the two techniques while drawing. Haptic-aided redrawing and line weight adjustment while drawing are also supported in both approaches. In a quantitative user study evaluation by illustrators, the one and two-handed techniques performed at roughly the same level, and both significantly outperformed freehand drawing and freehand drawing augmented with a haptic friction effect. We present the design and results of this experiment as well as user feedback from artists and 3D models created in a style of line illustration for challenging artistic and scientific subjects. PMID:17622688

  13. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  14. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  15. An Examination of Some Behavioral Correlates of Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training through the Use of the Porter and Lawler Performance/Satisfaction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, David P.

    The study tested the applicability of portions of the Porter and Lawler model in a cognitive training environment and examined the relationships among some behavioral variables in Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training. The variables analyzed were the Maslow need hierarchy, effort, abilities, role perceptions, performance, satisfaction and the…

  16. A PILOT IMAGING LINE SURVEY OF RW LMi AND IK Tau USING THE EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Claussen, M. J.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; Rupen, M. P.; Olofsson, H.; Schoeier, F. L.; Bergman, P.; Knapp, G. R.

    2011-09-20

    We report on a pilot imaging line survey (36.0-37.0 GHz, with {approx}1 km s{sup -1} spectral channels) with the Expanded Very Large Array for two asymptotic giant branch stars, RW LMi (= CIT6, which has a carbon-rich circumstellar envelope, CSE) and IK Tau (=NML Tau, with an oxygen-rich CSE). Radio continuum emission consistent with photospheric emission was detected from both stars. From RW LMi we imaged the HC{sub 3}N (J = 4{yields}3) emission. The images show several partial rings of emission; these multiple shells trace the evolution of the CSE from 400 to 1200 years. SiS (J = 2{yields}1) emission was detected from both RW LMi and IK Tau. For both stars the SiS emission is centrally condensed with the peak line emission coincident with the stellar radio continuum emission. In addition, we have detected weak HC{sub 7}N (J = 32{yields}31) emission from RW LMi.

  17. Tolerability of Nasal Delivery of Humidified and Warmed Air at Different Temperatures: A Randomised Double-Blind Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Susan; Reddy, Sumeet; Cripps, Terrianne; McKinstry, Steve; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard; Pilcher, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Delivery of warmed, humidified air via nasal high flow therapy could potentially reduce replication of temperature-sensitive viruses in the upper respiratory tract. This study investigates whether nasal high flow therapy is well tolerated by healthy adults at 37°C and 41°C. Methods. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled crossover pilot trial, nasal high flow therapy was used to deliver humidified air at 35 L/min, at either 37°C or 41°C, for three one-hour sessions of use over one day. The alternative was delivered at least 14 days later. Ten healthy, nonsmoking adults were asked, via questionnaire after each day's use, whether they would use nasal high flow therapy while being unwell with a cold or flu if it was demonstrated to improve symptoms. Results. All participants completed both interventions. Eighty percent responded “yes” to future use of nasal high flow therapy, for both 37°C and 41°C. There was no significant change from baseline in saccharin times following either intervention or in the following morning. Conclusions. Delivering humidified air via nasal high flow therapy at both 37°C and 41°C is well tolerated by healthy adults. This supports investigation into the potential use of nasal high flow therapy as treatment in viral upper respiratory tract infections. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ACTRN12614000183684 (tolerability study of nasal delivery of humidified & warmed air). PMID:27127650

  18. Novel device (AirWave) to assess endotracheal tube migration: A pilot study☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Nacheli, Gustavo Cumbo; Sharma, Manish; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gupta, Amit; Guzman, Jorge A.; Tonelli, Adriano R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about endotracheal tube (ETT) migration during routine care among critically ill patients. AirWave is a novel device that uses sonar waves to measure ETT migration and obstructions in real time. The aim of the present study is to assess the accuracy of the AirWave to evaluate ETT migration. In addition, we determined the degree of variation in ETT position and tested whether more pronounced migration occurs in specific clinical scenarios. Methods After institutional review board approval, we included mechanically ventilated patients from February 2012 to May 2012. A chest radiography (CXR) was obtained at baseline and 24 hours when clinically indicated. The ETT distance at the lips was recorded at baseline and every 4 hours. The AirWave system continuously recorded ETT position changes from baseline, and luminal obstructions. Results A total of 42 patients (age: 61 [SD ± 13] years, men: 52%) were recruited. A total of 19 patients had measurements of ETT migration at 24 hours by the 3 methodologies used in this study. The mean (SD) of the ETT migration at 24 hours was +0.04 (1.2), −0.42 (0.7) and +0.34 (1.81) cm when measured by portable CXR, ETT distance at the teeth and AirWave device, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis of tube migration at 24 hours comparing the AirWave with CXR readings showed a bias of 0.1 cm with 95% limit of agreement of −3.8 and +4.3 cm. Comparison of tube migration at 24 hours determined by AirWave with ETT distance at the lips revealed a bias of −0.4 with 95% limit of agreement −3.7 to +3 cm, similar to the values observed between CXR and ETT distance at the lips (bias of −0.3 cm, 95% limit of agreement of −3.4 to +2.8 cm). Factors associated with ETT migration at 24 hours were ETT size and initial measurement from ETT tip to carina by portable CXR. AirWave detected in eight patients some degree of ETT obstruction (30% ± 9.6%) that resolved with prompt ETT catheter suction. Conclusions The Air

  19. Effect of Air-Polishing on Titanium Surfaces, Biofilm Removal, and Biocompatibility: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bennani, Vincent; Hwang, Linda; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Dias, George J.; Cannon, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aims of this in vitro study were to evaluate morphological changes induced by glycine powder air-polishing on titanium surfaces, biofilm removal, and biocompatibility. Material and Methods. Titanium grade IV discs were allocated into two groups: (1) discs without biofilm and (2) discs for Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Discs in each group were further subdivided into (a) no treatment and (b) air-polishing treatment with glycine powder. Discs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and confocal microscopy. Bacterial biofilms were quantified using a crystal violet dye-binding assay. Biocompatibility was evaluated by measuring the coverage and viability of L929 fibroblast cells cultured on the discs. Results. Air-polishing increased the roughness of treated discs (P < 0.05). EDS analysis did not show significant differences in the chemical composition of treated and nontreated discs. The amount of residual biofilm on treated discs was 8.6-fold lower than untreated controls (P < 0.05). Coverage of treated discs by fibroblasts was half that of untreated discs (P < 0.05) although both groups had the same cell viability. Conclusions. Air-polishing removed a significant amount of biofilm from titanium surfaces. The “polishing” was accompanied by increased surface roughness, but there were no changes in chemical and elemental compositions, nor the biocompatibility. PMID:26881198

  20. A PILOT STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY (AE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple methodology was developed to collect measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and air conditioning (HAC) system was operating, inside residences. The primary purpose of the measurements was to assess whether the HAC duty cycle was related to reductio...

  1. Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

  2. A pilot study of indoor air quality in screen golf courses.

    PubMed

    Goung, Sun-Ju Nam; Yang, Jinho; Kim, Yoon Shin; Lee, Cheol Min

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to provide basic data for determining policies on air quality for multi-user facilities, including the legal enrollment of the indoor air quality regulation as designated by the Ministry of Environment, and to establish control plans. To this end, concentrations of ten pollutants (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), radon (Rn), oxone (O3), total bacteria counts (TBC), and asbestos) in addition to nicotine, a smoking index material used to determine the impact of smoking on the air quality, were investigated in indoor game rooms and lobbies of 64 screen golf courses. The average concentration of none of the ten pollutants in the game rooms and lobbies of screen golf courses was found to exceed the limit set by the law. There were, however, pollutant concentrations exceeding limits in some screen golf courses, in order to establish a control plan for the indoor air quality of screen golf courses, a study on the emission sources of each pollutant was conducted. The major emission sources were found to be facility users' activities such as smoking and the use of combustion appliances, building materials, and finishing materials. PMID:25510613

  3. A PILOT STUDY FOR NEAR REAL-TIME AEROSOL MODELING AND AIR QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objectives of this study are to implement, operate, and evaluate an automated, numerical, model-based air quality forecast system to provide daily predictions of O3 and PM2.5 and to assess the integrated use of modeled and observed concentrations to better ...

  4. A PILOT STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple methodology was developed to collect measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and air conditioning (HAC) system was operating inside residences. The primary purpose of the measurements was to assess whether the HAC duty cycle was related to reducti...

  5. PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF THE AIR CURTAIN SYSTEM FOR FUGITIVE PARTICLE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the demonstration of the technical and economic feasibility of using an air curtain transport system to control buoyant fugitive particle emissions. (Fugitive emissions are the major source of uncontrolled emissions for many industrial plants. There ar...

  6. - and Air-Broadened Line Shape Parameters of 12CH_4 : 4500-4620 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda; Crawford, Timothy J.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan; Predoi-Cross, Adriana

    2014-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of spectral line shape parameters is important for infrared transmission and radiance calculations in the terrestrial atmosphere. We report the self- and air-broadened Lorentz widths, shifts and line mixing coefficients along with their temperature dependences for methane absorption lines in the 2.2 μm spectral region. For this, we obtained a series of high-resolution, high S/N spectra of 99.99% 12C-enriched samples of pure methane and its dilute mixtures in dry air at cold temperatures down to 150 K using the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at JPL. The coolable absorption cell had an optical path of 20.38 cm and was specially built to reside inside the sample compartment of the Bruker FTS. The 13 spectra used in the analysis consisted of seven pure 12CH_4 spectra at pressures from 4.5 to 169 Torr and six air-broadened spectra with total sample pressures of 113-300 Torr and methane volume mixing ratios between 4 and 9.7%. These 13 spectra were fit simultaneously using the multispectrum least-squares fitting technique. The results will be compared to existing values reported in the literature. K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, L. R. Brown, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 162 (2010) 124-134. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. Atkins, JQSRT, 53 (1995) 705-721. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. PMID:20210131

  8. [Characteristic of toxic risks of air pollution by chemical admixtures aboard the piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedieva, L N; Bogomolov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the chemical composition of air revealed by the sanitary-chemical and toxicological investigations in multifactorial ground-based tests and long-term space flights aboard the Salyut- 6, 7, Mir and the International space station have been used to deduce the chemical characteristic and to substantiate methods to and criteria for evaluation of toxic risks to space crews from air chemical pollution. Of particular concern were the toxic risks and crew protection during the first ingress to modules on the stage of station assembly in orbit, in the course of long-term missions, and in the event of acute exposure in off-nominal and emergency conditions. PMID:19711857

  9. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  10. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  11. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  12. Dual Laser Beam Attenuation Processing: A Method for Line-averaging of Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharnaderi, H. R.; Pishvaei, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    In local scale there is a demand to measure horizontal air temperature averaged over farming and horticulture plots for frost point monitoring and evapotranspiration calculations. Using several dry bulb thermometers is problematic. This work then attends to laser instrumentation of air thermometry. The attenuation of laser beams from Rayleigh scattering has been applied for this purpose. The ratio of attenuation quantity for two isosceles parallel laser beams (850nm and 1064nm with 5W output) led to independent line-averaging of air temperature from transmission path-lengths. Typical measurements have been executed over 400x200 m2 garden. Digital resolution is 0.1°C but spatial resolution is quite fine. One of the advantages of dual signal processing is the filtration of ambiguities caused by beam scintillations. Usage of this instrument is recommended over plane area or in green-houses and limited by topography. Applicability may be extended to other studies such as micrometeorology and propagation experiments.

  13. A dedicated on-line detecting system for auto air dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao-yu; Luo, Zai

    2013-10-01

    According to the correlative automobile industry standard and the requirements of manufacturer, this dedicated on-line detecting system is designed against the shortage of low degree automatic efficiency and detection precision of auto air dryer in the domestic. Fast automatic detection is achieved by combining the technology of computer control, mechatronics and pneumatics. This system can detect the speciality performance of pressure regulating valve and sealability of auto air dryer, in which online analytical processing of test data is available, at the same time, saving and inquiring data is achieved. Through some experimental analysis, it is indicated that efficient and accurate detection of the performance of auto air dryer is realized, and the test errors are less than 3%. Moreover, we carry out the type A evaluation of uncertainty in test data based on Bayesian theory, and the results show that the test uncertainties of all performance parameters are less than 0.5kPa, which can meet the requirements of operating industrial site absolutely.

  14. Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: a pilot study with children and dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C; Engle, Randall W

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n: 55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Seven healthy young dogs with similar exposure to Mexico City air pollution had brain MRI, measurement of mRNA abundance of two inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin 1 beta in target brain areas, and histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. Children with no known risk factors for neurological or cognitive disorders residing in a polluted urban environment exhibited significant deficits in a combination of fluid and crystallized cognition tasks. Fifty-six percent of Mexico City children tested showed prefrontal white matter hyperintense lesions and similar lesions were observed in dogs (57%). Exposed dogs had frontal lesions with vascular subcortical pathology associated with neuroinflammation, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces, gliosis, and ultrafine particulate matter deposition. Based on the MRI findings, the prefrontal cortex was a target anatomical region in Mexico City children and its damage could have contributed to their cognitive dysfunction. The present work presents a groundbreaking, interdisciplinary methodology for addressing relationships between environmental pollution, structural brain alterations by MRI, and cognitive deficits/delays in healthy children. PMID:18550243

  15. Nitrogen, oxygen and air broadened widths and relative intensities of N2O lines near 2450/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of the v sub 1 + 2v sub 2 and the weak underlying v sub 1 + 3v sub 2 - v sub 2 band of N2O near 2450/cm were analyzed by the nonlinear, least squares, whole band technique. The oxygen, nitrogen, and air broadened line widths and the relative line intensities were determined. The air broadened widths, for/m/3, are in agreement with those in the 1980 AFGL line listing and the relative band intensities also agree, within about 20% with the values in this listing.

  16. Water-vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of H2O vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region were conducted to investigate the broadening and shifting of H2O lines by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. For each of the buffer gases under study, a linear relationship was found between the widths and the shifts, with the broader lines having the smaller pressure shifts. The pressure shifts measured compared favorably with theoretical values reported by Bykov et al. (1988). The temperature-dependence exponents for air-broadening were found to be J-dependent, with the lower-J lines having the higher exponents.

  17. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear). PMID:12437287

  18. Air-lift bioreactors for algal growth on flue gas: Mathematical modeling and pilot-plant studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Kim, Y.; Wu, X.X.; Berzin, I.; Merchuk, J.C.

    2005-08-03

    Air-lift reactors (ALRs) have great potential for industrial bioprocesses, because of the low level and homogeneous distribution of hydrodynamic shear. One growing field of application is the flue-gas treatment using algae for the absorption of CO{sub 2}, In this paper, we discuss the requirements for photosynthetic biomass growth in an ALR. The effects of the operating variables are analyzed using a mathematical model that accounts for the effects of ALR geometry, fluid flow, and illumination on the biomass growth. On the basis of the ALR principles and the specific requirements of photosynthetic processes, we developed a 'triangular' ALR configuration that is particularly suitable for algal growth. We describe the design and operation of this novel bioreactor and present the first series of experimental data obtained for two different algal species in a pilot-scale unit supplied with flue gases from a small power plant. The measured removal efficiency of CO{sub 2} was significant (82.3 12.5% on sunny days and 50.1 6.5% on cloudy days) and consistent with the increase in the algal biomass.

  19. [Removal of Cr from tannery sludge by bioleaching in air-lift reactor: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Li-xiang; Li, Chao

    2007-09-01

    A bioleaching process performed in 280 L air-lift reactor was developed for extracting Cr from tannery sludge. Cr removal efficiency under different aeration amount with a range from 1.0 m3/h to 3.0 m3/h was investigated. The results showed that the sludge could be homogeneous quickly for different aeration treatment even if aeration amount was as low as 1.0 m3/h. But the obvious effect of aeration amount on pH decrease and subsequent Cr dissolution in tannery sludge during bioleaching was observed. If the aeration amount was below 1.5 m3/h, it at least took 90 h to reach 80% Cr removal efficiency. In the light of Cr removal efficiency and energy consume, the aeration amount of 2.0 m3/h was considered as an optimum one for bioleaching in this trial. Cr removal efficiency could reach above 92.5% at 72 h. In the sludge bioleaching system dissolved oxygen increased obviously with the decrease of pH. Eventually, dissolved oxygen rised to 5 mg/L or more when aeration amount was maintained at 2.0 m3/h or more. Therefore, it was suggested that the aeration amount in ALR could be adjusted to a lower level in the late stage of tannery sludge bioleaching in order to save operation cost. PMID:17990555

  20. Transmitted drug resistance in women with intrapartum HIV-1 diagnosis: a pilot epidemiological survey in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Diego; Zapiola, Ines; Fernandez Giuliano, Silvina; Martinez, Marina; Rodriguez, Claudia; Belen Bouzas, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs is particularly important in pregnant population, in which infection by drug-resistant HIV has not only implications for maternal treatment, but could also jeopardize the efficacy of neonatal prophylaxis. We aim to describe the prevalence of resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in pregnant women with intrapartum HIV diagnosis in a public hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Materials and Methods Prospective pilot study (period from 2008 to October 2013). Plasma samples were tested for viral load by Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA) and sequenced using HIV-1 TRUGENE™Genotyping Kit (Siemens). The prevalence of RAMs was analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Of 231 HIV-infected pregnant women assisted, 6% (n=14) had intrapartum diagnosis of HIV infection. 12 patients (85.7%) had previous pregnancies, 10 (71.4%) had inadequate prenatal care and 3 (23.1%) seroconverted during pregnancy. Maternal characteristics (expressed medians and ranges) were: age 25.5 (16–35) years; gestational age at birth: 39 (30–42) weeks; CD4 count: 500 (132–925) cells/µL; viral load: 9418 (1800–55299) copies/mL. No one had hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection; four (33.3%) had syphilis. Eight patients (57.1%) had vaginal delivery and six emergency C-section (42.9%). In six cases (46.2%), membrane rupture was spontaneous; four patients (28.6%) failed to receive intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) infusion. In 12 patients a genotypic resistance test was performed: two (16.7%) had WHO RAMs corresponding to K103N mutation in both cases, conferring high-level resistance to nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz. Two newborns (14.3%) were preterm. All received neonatal prophylaxis: ZDV in 1 case and combined prophylaxis (ZDV/3TC/NVP) in the remaining 13 (92.9%). All newborns were formula-fed. Two (14.3%) had congenital syphilis, one of whom died. One newborn was HIV

  1. Traffic-related air pollution. A pilot exposure assessment in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Borgie, Mireille; Garat, Anne; Cazier, Fabrice; Delbende, Agnes; Allorge, Delphine; Ledoux, Frederic; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Dagher, Zeina

    2014-02-01

    Traffic-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution has frequently been demonstrated to be a serious problem in the developing countries. Benzene and 1,3-butadiene (BD) have been classified as a human carcinogen based on evidence for an increased genotoxic and epigenotoxic effects in both occupational exposure assessment and in vivo/in vitro studies. We have undertaken a biomonitoring of 25 traffic policemen and 23 office policemen in Beirut, through personal air monitoring, assessed by diffusive samplers, as well as through the use of biomarkers of exposure to benzene and BD. Personal benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) exposure were quantified by GC-MS/MS, urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) by HPLC/UV, S-phenyl mercapturic acid (S-PMA), monohydroxy-butenyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA) and dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI(-)-MS/MS) in MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) mode. We found that individual exposure to benzene in the traffic policemen was higher than that measured in traffic policemen in Prague, in Bologna, in Ioannina and in Bangkok. t,t-MA levels could distinguish between office and traffic policemen. However, median MHBMA levels in traffic policemen were slightly elevated, though not significantly higher than in office policemen. Alternatively, DHBMA concentrations could significantly distinguish between office and traffic policemen and showed a better correlation with personal total BTEX exposure. DHMBA, measured in the post-shift urine samples, correlated with both pre-shift MHMBA and pre-shift DHMBA. Moreover, there was not a marked effect of smoking habits on DHBMA. Taken together, these findings suggested that DHBMA is more suitable than MHBMA as biomarker of exposure to BD in humans. Traffic policemen, who are exposed to benzene and BD at the roadside in central Beirut, are potentially at a higher risk for development of

  2. Development of On-line Wildfire Emissions for the Operational Canadian Air Quality Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.; Anselmo, D.; Paul-Andre, B.; Gravel, S.; Moran, M. D.; Davignon, D.

    2013-12-01

    An emissions processing system has been developed to incorporate near-real-time emissions from wildfires and large prescribed burns into Environment Canada's real-time GEM-MACH air quality (AQ) forecast system. Since the GEM-MACH forecast domain covers Canada and most of the USA, including Alaska, fire location information is needed for both of these large countries. Near-real-time satellite data are obtained and processed separately for the two countries for organizational reasons. Fire location and fuel consumption data for Canada are provided by the Canadian Forest Service's Canadian Wild Fire Information System (CWFIS) while fire location and emissions data for the U.S. are provided by the SMARTFIRE (Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation) system via the on-line BlueSky Gateway. During AQ model runs, emissions from individual fire sources are injected into elevated model layers based on plume-rise calculations and then transport and chemistry calculations are performed. This 'on the fly' approach to the insertion of emissions provides greater flexibility since on-line meteorology is used and reduces computational overhead in emission pre-processing. An experimental wildfire version of GEM-MACH was run in real-time mode for the summers of 2012 and 2013. 48-hour forecasts were generated every 12 hours (at 00 and 12 UTC). Noticeable improvements in the AQ forecasts for PM2.5 were seen in numerous regions where fire activity was high. Case studies evaluating model performance for specific regions, computed objective scores, and subjective evaluations by AQ forecasters will be included in this presentation. Using the lessons learned from the last two summers, Environment Canada will continue to work towards the goal of incorporating near-real-time intermittent wildfire emissions within the operational air quality forecast system.

  3. Acoustical transmission-line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cells

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustical transmission line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cell system (MACS) was constructed for the adult human middle ear with normal function. The air-filled cavities comprised the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and MACS. A binary symmetrical airway branching model of the MACS was constructed using an optimization procedure to match the average total volume and surface area of human temporal bones. The acoustical input impedance of the MACS was calculated using a recursive procedure, and used to predict the input impedance of the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The model also calculated the ratio of the acoustical pressure in the antrum to the pressure in the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The predicted responses were sensitive to the magnitude of the viscothermal losses within the MACS. These predicted input impedance and pressure ratio functions explained the presence of multiple resonances reported in published data, which were not explained by existing MACS models. PMID:25920840

  4. 77 FR 76064 - Reopening of Application Period for Participation in the Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... published a general notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 65006, corrected in 77 FR 65395 \\1\\) announcing... October 26, 2012. The ACAS pilot is a voluntary test in which participants agree to submit a subset of the... Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS....

  5. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204

  6. Characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiome in indoor dust and outdoor air samples: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Blake; Zhou, Yanjiao; Bautista, Eddy J; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Silverman, Frances; Muilenberg, Michael; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Gold, Diane R; Sordillo, Joanne E

    2016-06-15

    Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS). Samples for this pilot study included indoor settled dust (from both a Boston area birth cohort study on Home Allergens and Asthma (HAA) (n = 12) and a study of school exposures and asthma symptoms (SICAS) (n = 1)), as well as fine and coarse concentrated outdoor ambient particulate (CAP) samples (n = 9). Sequencing of amplified 16S, 18S, and ITS regions was performed on the Roche-454 Life Sciences Titanium pyrosequencing platform. Indoor dust samples were dominated by Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria); the most abundant bacterial genera were those related to human flora (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Lactobacillus). Outdoor CAPs were dominated by Gram-negative Proteobacteria from water and soil sources, in particular the genera Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas (which were present at very low levels or entirely absent in indoor dust). Phylum-level fungal distributions identified by 18S or ITS regions showed very similar findings: a predominance of Ascomycota in indoor dust and Basidiomycota in outdoor CAPs. ITS sequencing of fungal genera in indoor dust showed significant proportions of Aureobasidium and Leptosphaerulina along with some contribution from Cryptococcus, Epicoccum, Aspergillus and the human commensal Malassezia. ITS sequencing detected more than 70 fungal genera

  7. Line parameters including temperature dependences of air- and self-broadened line shapes of 12C16O2: 2.06-μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Gamache, Robert R.

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results from analyzing a number of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra in the 2.06-μm spectral region for pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 in dry air. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique has been used to retrieve the various spectral line parameters. The dataset includes 27 spectra: ten pure CO2, two 99% 13C-enriched CO2 and fifteen spectra of mixtures of 12C-enriched CO2 in dry air. The spectra were recorded at various gas sample temperatures between 170 and 297 K. The absorption path lengths range from 0.347 to 49 m. The sample pressures for the pure CO2 spectra varied from 1.1 to 594 Torr; for the two 13CO2 spectra the pressures were ∼10 and 146 Torr. For the air-broadened spectra, the pressures of the gas mixtures varied between 200 and 711 Torr with CO2 volume mixing ratios ranging from 0.014% to 0.203%. The multispectrum fitting technique was applied to fit simultaneously all these spectra to retrieve consistent set of line positions, intensities, and line shape parameters including their temperature dependences; for this, the Voigt line shape was modified to include line mixing (via the relaxation matrix formalism) and quadratic speed dependence. The new results are compared to select published values, including recent ab initio calculations. These results are required to retrieve the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) from space-based observations, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite mission that NASA launched in July 2014.

  8. Ground-based time-guidance algorithm for control of airplanes in a time-metered air traffic control environment: A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Imbert, N.

    1986-01-01

    The rapidly increasing costs of flight operations and the requirement for increased fuel conservation have made it necessary to develop more efficient ways to operate airplanes and to control air traffic for arrivals and departures to the terminal area. One concept of controlling arrival traffic through time metering has been jointly studied and evaluated by NASA and ONERA/CERT in piloted simulation tests. From time errors attained at checkpoints, airspeed and heading commands issued by air traffic control were computed by a time-guidance algorithm for the pilot to follow that would cause the airplane to cross a metering fix at a preassigned time. These tests resulted in the simulated airplane crossing a metering fix with a mean time error of 1.0 sec and a standard deviation of 16.7 sec when the time-metering algorithm was used. With mismodeled winds representing the unknown in wind-aloft forecasts and modeling form, the mean time error attained when crossing the metering fix was increased and the standard deviation remained approximately the same. The subject pilots reported that the airspeed and heading commands computed in the guidance concept were easy to follow and did not increase their work load above normal levels.

  9. On-line monitoring for control of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor using a submersible UV/VIS spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Langergraber, G; Gupta, J K; Pressl, A; Hofstaedter, F; Lettl, W; Weingartner, A; Fleischmann, N

    2004-01-01

    A submersible UV/VIS spectrometer was used to monitor a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The instrument utilises the whole UV/VIS range between 200 and 750 nm. With just one single instrument nitrate, organic matter and suspended solids can be measured simultaneously. The spectrometer is installed directly in the reactor, measures in real-time, and is equipped with an auto-cleaning system using pressured air. The paper shows the calibration results for measurements in the SBR tank, time series for typical SBR cycles, and proposes possible ways for optimisation of the operation by using these measurements. PMID:15656298

  10. On-line air-tightness and insertion loss simultaneous detection method of high air-tightness fiber optic penetration connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchuan; Yang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    The high air-tightness multicore fiber optic penetration connector is a core component for the optical fiber sensing and communication technologies applied in the space environment simulator under the vacuum thermal environment. High air-tightness and insertion loss are the two key indexes of the fiber optic penetration connector. The air-tightness and insertion loss on-line synchronous detection method was proposed. First, established hardware-in-the-loop testing platform by using the vacuum pumping system, the vacuum vessel, the helium mass spectrometer leak detector and optical time-domain reflectmeter, then, described the air tightness and insertion loss on-line detection principle, finally, designed a detection test scheme and air-tightness and insertion loss were tested. Experimental results indicate that the leakage rate is lower than 1.0×10-7Pa•L/S, the minimum of which is1.0×10-10Pa•L/S and the insertion loss at wave length window 1550 nm is +/-0.07db, which is less than +/-0.1db. It can lay the data basis for the design of opto-mechanical combination and later period fine processing.

  11. INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORING OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION: THE BALTIMORE ELDERLY EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was...

  12. 75 FR 44305 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI... 1105.7 (environmental report), 49 CFR 1105.8 (historic report), 49 CFR 1105.11 (transmittal letter),...

  13. Next Generation Air Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation air measurements (NGAM) is an EPA term for the advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and geospatial modeling strategies. Ranging from personal sensors to satellite remote sensing, NGAM systems may provide revolutionary n...

  14. 'Party Line' Information Use Studies and Implications for ATV Datalink Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. John; Midkiff, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The perceived importance and utilization of 'party line' information by air carrier flight crews was investigated through pilot surveys and a flight simulation study. The Importance, Availability, and Accuracy of party line information elements were explored through surveys of pilots of several operational types. The survey identified numerous traffic and weather party line information elements which were considered important. These elements were scripted into a full-mission flight simulation which examined the utilization of party line information by studying subject responses to specific information element stimuli. The awareness of the different Party Line elements varied, and awareness was also affected by pilot workload. In addition, pilots were aware of some traffic information elements, but were reluctant to act on Party Line Information alone. Finally, the importance of party line information appears to be greatest for operations near or on the airport. This indicates that caution should be exercised when implementing datalink communications in tower and close-in terminal control sectors.

  15. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    PubMed

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line. PMID:27134304

  16. Evaluation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices on a municipal waterfall incinerator. Project report, June 1978-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.D.; Bruck, J.M.; Albrinck, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts and outlines the plant operating conditions at the time of testing of the two pilot control devices. The Braintree Municipal Incinerator is a mass-burn, water-wall type consisting of two furnaces, each designed to burn 4.7 Mg (5 tons) per hour of unprocessed refuse.

  17. CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 3. PILOT SCALE TEST RESULTS FOR MAGNESIUM OXIDE SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was conducted to determine the feasibility of applying the magnesium oxide (MgO) scrubbing system to smelter off-gas streams containing approximately one percent SO2. Pilot scale (4000 cu Nm/hr) tests of the MgO system using a packed tower absorber with no rege...

  18. Measurements of air-broadened and nitrogen-broadened half-widths and shifts of ozone lines near 9 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, C. P.; Devi, Malathy V.; Benner, D. Chris; Thakur, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    Air- and nitrogen-broadened half-widths and line shifts at room temperature for more than 60 individual vibration-rotation transitions in the nu1 fundamental band of (O-16)3 and several transitions in the nu3 band were determined from infrared absorption spectra. These spectra were recorded at 0.005/cm resolution with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. A tunable-diode-laser spectrometer operating in the 1090-1150/cm region was also used to record data on oxygen-, nitrogen-, and air-broadened half-widths for selected individual transitions. The nitrogen- and air-broadened half-widths determined by these two different measurement techniques are consistent to within 4 percent. The results are in good agreement with other published measurements and calculations.

  19. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  20. Self- and Air-Broadened Line Shape Parameters of (12)CH(4) : 4500-4620 cm(-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Crawford, T. J.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Predoi-Cross, A.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of spectral line shape parameters is important for infrared transmission and radiance calculations in the terrestrial atmosphere. We report the self and air-broadened Lorentz widths, shifts and line mixing coefficients along with their temperature dependencies for methane absorption lines in the 2.2 µm spectral region. For this, we obtained a series of high-resolution, high S/N spectra of 99.99% 12C-enriched samples of pure methane and its dilute mixtures in dry air at cold temperatures down to 150 K using the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at JPL. The coolable absorption cell had an optical path of 20.38 cm and was specially built to reside inside the sample compartment of the Bruker FTS1. The 13 spectra used in the analysis consisted of seven pure 12CH4 spectra at pressures from 4.5 to 169 Torr and six air-broadened spectra with total sample pressures of 113-300 Torr and methane volume mixing ratios between 4 and 9.7%. These 13 spectra were fit simultaneously using the multispectrum least-squares fitting technique2. The results will be compared to existing values reported in the literature3. as part of the GNU EPrints system , and is freely redistributable under the GPL .

  1. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  2. NASA Turbulence Technologies In-Service Evaluation: Delta Air Lines Report-Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, Christian; Dickson, Steve; Watts, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Concluding an in-service evaluation of two new turbulence detection technologies developed in the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Weather Accident Prevention Project (WxAP), this report documents Delta's experience working with the technologies, feedback gained from pilots and dispatchers concerning current turbulence techniques and procedures, and Delta's recommendations regarding directions for further efforts by the research community. Technologies evaluated included an automatic airborne turbulence encounter reporting technology called the Turbulence Auto PIREP System (TAPS), and a significant enhancement to the ability of modern airborne weather radars to predict and display turbulence of operational significance, called E-Turb radar.

  3. A summary of the 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope; Douglas Dockery

    2006-06-15

    In spite of continued gaps in knowledge, several important lines of research explored in the 2006 Critical Review in the Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, June 2006, pp 709-742 have substantially helped elucidate our understanding about human health effects of particulate air pollution. A comprehensive evaluation of the literature provides a compelling evidence that continued reductions in exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution as indicated by PM 2.5 will result in improvements in cardiopulmonary health. Although research on the health effects of PM has been motivated largely by environmental health policy, in this review the progress of the science has been of more interest than debates over legally mandated standards. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of the health effects of PM at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. The emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and the growing knowledge regarding inter connected general pahtophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are fascinating results. These results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are much broader than debates over air quality Standard. Unsolved scientific issues dealing with the health effects of PM air pollution need not serve as sources of division, but as opportunities for cooperation and increased collaboration between epidemiology, toxicology, exposure assessment, and related disciplines. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  4. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Status Report describes the design, development and implementation of the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS) project by Federal Information Exchange, Inc. for the period of April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992. Summary information detailing developments prior to this reporting period will also be included to establish a comprehensive perspective of the project. The goal of the MOLIS project, was to develop, design, pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities and federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since April 29, 1991, the inauguration of its on-line service, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, pre-college and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from 8 participating federal agencies.

  5. Self- and air-broadened line shapes in the 2ν3 P and R branches of 12CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Yu, Shanshan; Brown, Linda R.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Boudon, Vincent; Ismail, Syed

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we report line shape parameters of 12CH4 for several hundred 2ν3 transitions in the spectral regions 5891-5996 cm-1 (P branch) and 6015-6115 cm-1 (R branch). Air- and self-broadening coefficients were measured as a function of temperature; line mixing via off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients was also obtained for 47 transition pairs. In total, nearly 1517 positions and intensities were retrieved, but many transitions were too weak for the line shape study. For this analysis, we used 25 high-resolution (0.0056 and 0.0067 cm-1) and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of high-purity 12CH4 and the same high-purity 12CH4 broadened by dry air recorded at different sample temperatures between 130 K and 295 K with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at JPL. Three different absorption cells were used (1) a White cell set to a path length of 13.09 m for room temperature data, (2) a single-pass 0.2038 m long coolable cell (for self-broadening) and (3) a multipass cell with 20.941 m total path coolable Herriott cell (for air-broadening). In total there were 13 spectra with pure 12CH4 (0.27-599 Torr) and 12 air-broadened spectra with total sample pressures of 80-805 Torr and volume mixing ratios (VMR) of methane between 0.18 and 1.0. An interactive multispectrum nonlinear least-squares technique was employed to fit the individual P10-P1 and R0-R10 manifolds in all the spectra simultaneously. Results obtained from the present analysis are compared to other recent measurements.

  6. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  7. 77 FR 34784 - Removal of Six Month Line Check Requirement for Pilots Over Age 60; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Over Age 60; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ] ACTION: Final rule... 60 years of age that applied to air carriers engaged in part 121 operations. This technical amendment... INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical questions concerning this rule contact Nancy Lauck Claussen,...

  8. The influence of floc size and hydraulic detention time on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pilot unit in the light of a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Moruzzi, R B; Reali, M A P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of floc size and hydraulic detention time on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pilot unit was investigated in the light of a known mathematical model. The following design and operational parameters were considered: the hydraulic detention time (tdcz) and hydraulic loading rate in the contact zone, the down-flow loading rate in the clarification zone, the particle size distribution (d F), and the recirculation rate (p). As a reference for DAF performance analysis, the proposed β.td parameter from the above mentioned mathematical model was employed. The results indicated that tdcz is an important factor in DAF performance and that d F and floc size are also determinants of DAF efficiency. Further, β.td was sensitive to both design and operational parameters, which were varied in the DAF pilot plant. The performance of the DAF unit decreases with increasing β.td values because a higher td (considering a fixed β) or a higher β (e.g., higher hydrophobicity of the flocs for a fixed td) would be necessary in the reaction zone to reach desired flotation efficiency. PMID:24871277

  9. UNVEILING EXTRAGALACTIC STAR FORMATION USING RADIO RECOMBINATION LINES: AN EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY PILOT STUDY WITH NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Chomiuk, Laura; Balser, Dana S.; Goss, W. M.; Pisano, D. J. E-mail: kej7a@virginia.edu E-mail: dbalser@nrao.edu E-mail: DJPisano@mail.wvu.edu

    2011-09-20

    Radio recombination lines (RRLs) are powerful, extinction-free diagnostics of the ionized gas in young, star-forming regions. Unfortunately, these lines are difficult to detect in external galaxies. We present the results of Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) observations of the RRL and radio continuum emission at 33 GHz from NGC 253, a nearby nuclear starburst galaxy. We detect the previously unobserved H58{alpha} and H59{alpha} RRLs and make simultaneous sensitive measurements of the continuum. We measure integrated line fluxes of 44.3 {+-} 0.7 W m{sup -2} and 39.9 {+-} 0.8 W m{sup -2} for the H58{alpha} and H59{alpha} lines, respectively. The thermal gas in NGC 253 is kinematically complex with multiple velocity components. We constrain the density of the thermal gas to (1.4-4) x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and estimate an ionizing photon flux of 1 x 10{sup 53} s{sup -1}. We use the RRL kinematics and the derived ionizing photon flux to show that the nuclear region of NGC 253 is not gravitationally bound, which is consistent with the outflow of gas inferred from the X-ray and H{alpha} measurements. The line profiles, fluxes, and kinematics of the H58{alpha} and H59{alpha} lines agree with those of RRLs at different frequencies confirming the accuracy of the previous, more difficult, high-frequency observations. We find that the EVLA is an order of magnitude more efficient for extragalactic RRL observations than the Very Large Array. These observations demonstrate both the power of the EVLA and the future potential of extragalactic RRL studies with the EVLA.

  10. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  11. Integrating causal reasoning at different levels of abstraction. [in problem-solving system functioning as pilot assistant in commercial air transport emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a problem-solving system which uses a multilevel causal model of its domain is described. The system functions in the role of a pilot's assistant in the domain of commercial air transport emergencies. The model represents causal relationships among the aircraft subsystems, the effectors (engines, control surfaces), the forces that act on an aircraft in flight (thrust, lift), and the aircraft's flight profile (speed, altitude, etc.). The causal relationships are represented at three levels of abstraction: Boolean, qualitative, and quantitative, and reasoning about causes and effects can take place at each of these levels. Since processing at each level has different characteristics with respect to speed, the type of data required, and the specificity of the results, the problem-solving system can adapt to a wide variety of situations. The system is currently being implemented in the KEE(TM) development environment on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  12. Air pollution and rural biomass fuels in developing countries: A pilot village study in India and implications for research and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kirk R.; Aggarwal, A. L.; Dave , R. M.

    The results of a pilot study in four Indian villages of personal exposure to total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) of women cooking on simple stoves using traditional biomass fuels are presented together with socioeconomic and fuel-use determinations. TSP exposures averaged nearly 7 mg m -3 and BaP about 4000 ng m -3 during the cooking period which occupied 10% of the year. The factors affecting indoor air pollution exposures in rural areas of developing countries are categorized and discussed by reference to the few published field measurements. Comparisons are made with other common exposures in urban and occupational settings. The sparse information indicates that rural exposures are relatively high. Subjects for future research are outlined and general policy implications mentioned.

  13. Real-time simulation of helicopter air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Fred; George, Dino; Bivens, Court

    1991-01-01

    The AUTOMAN computer program develops automated maneuvering decisions for helicopters during air-to-air combat over hilly terrain. Recently, the capabilities of this program have been extended and enhanced significantly. The revised program was installed at the NASA Ames manned flight-simulation facility to drive a computer-generated image of an enemy helicopter, thereby providing an adversary for the human pilot. Maneuvers are selected by employing game theory. Enhancements include a guidance law for target acquisition when a firing opportunity arises; fire-control sequence logic; improved low-flying capabilities; line-of-sight computations for the cockpit field-of-view, terrain obstructions, and visual range limits; use of terrain for masking; air-to-air collision-avoidance maneuvers; decision on dispensing flares and chaff; and adjustable levels of pilot experience. The program was found to be extremely useful for both rotorcraft handling-quality evaluations and air-to-air combat training.

  14. Measuring the Effects of an On-Line Training Module for School Psychologists Working with Traumatized Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to address the current lack of trauma training provided to school psychologists. Specifically, this study employed a randomized, controlled design to test the efficacy of an on-line training targeting school psychology graduate student trainees' awareness of the signs and symptoms of child abuse as well as their…

  15. Phases, line tension and pattern formation in molecularly thin films at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pritam

    A Langmuir film, which is a molecularly thin insoluble film on a liquid substrate, is one practical realization of a quasi-two dimensional matter. The major advantages of this system for the study of phase separation and phase co-existence are (a) it allows accurate control of the components and molecular area of the film and (b) it can be studied by various methods that require very flat films. Phase separation in molecularly thin films plays an important role in a range of systems from biomembranes to biosensors. For example, phase-separated lipid nano-domains in biomembranes are thought to play crucial roles in membrane function. I use Brewster Angel Microscopy (BAM) coupled with Fluorescence Microscopy (FM) and static Light Scattering Microscopy (LSM) to image phases and patterns within Langmuir films. The three microscopic techniques --- BAM, FM and LSM --- are complimentary to each other, providing distinct sets of information. They allow direct comparison with literature results in lipid systems. I have quantitatively validated the use of detailed hydrodynamic simulations to determine line tension in monolayers. Line tension decreases as temperature rises. This decrease gives us information on the entropy associated with the line, and thus about line structure. I carefully consider the thermodynamics of line energy and entropy to make this connection. In the longer run, LSM will be exploited to give us further information about line structure. I have also extended the technique by testing it on domains within the curved surface of a bilayer vesicle. I also note that in the same way that the presence of surface-active agents, known as surfactants, affects surface energy, the addiction of line active agents alters the inter-phase line energy. Thus my results set to stage to systematically study the influence of line active agents ---'linactants' --- on the inter-phase line energy. Hierarchal self-assembled chiral patterns were observed as a function of

  16. Monitoring of the dielectric strength of the air/SF6-mixtures for application in gas insulated transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukengué Imano, A.

    2004-11-01

    This paper investigates the dielectric properties of various air/SF{6} gas mixtures based upon a cylindrical spacer model with adhering particle on the surface under homogeneous field conditions. The investigation involves a comparison with pure SF{6}. The flashover field strength for clean and particle contaminated spacer surface under lightning impulse (LI) and alternating voltage (AC) stress is determined. The results of the investigations show the sensitivity of air/SF{6} gas mixtures to conducting particles on spacer surfaces for gas pressure up to 1000 kPa. Moreover, the correspondence between pure SF{6} and air/SF{6} gas mixtures for AC and LI flashover field strength range from 50 to 178 kV/cm is determined. Conclusions are drawn about the ability of air/SF{6} gas mixtures to serve as technically efficient media for long Gas Insulated Transmission Lines (GITL). The results shed light on the issue of the SF{6} reduction and the particle detectability in GITL.

  17. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... aviation economic, consumer protection, and civil rights requirements. Among other things, the office is... in compliance with federal aviation consumer protection and civil rights laws and what, if any... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES:...

  18. The Condensation Line of Air and the Heats of Vaporization of Oxygen and Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, George T; Mccoskey, Robert E

    1953-01-01

    The condensation pressure of air was determined over the range of temperature from 60 to 85 K. The experimental results were slightly higher than the calculated values based on the ideal solution law. Heat of vaporization of oxygen was determined at four temperatures ranging from about 68 to 91 K and of nitrogen similarly at four temperatures ranging from 62 to 78 K.

  19. Characterizing perfluorooctanoate in ambient air near the fence line of a manufacturing facility: comparing modeled and monitored values.

    PubMed

    Barton, Catherine A; Butler, Larry E; Zarzecki, Charles J; Flaherty, John; Kaiser, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the nature, measurement and prediction of salts of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in air, two studies were performed along the fence line of a fluoropolymer manufacturing facility. First, a six-event, 24-hr monitoring series was performed around the fence line using the OSHA versatile sampler (OVS) system. Perfluorooctanoate concentrations were determined as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Those data indicated that the majority of the PFOA was present as a particulate. No vapor-phase PFOA was detected above a detection limit of approximately 0.07 microg/m3. A follow-up study using a high-volume cascade impactor verified the range of concentrations observed in the OVS data. Both studies aligned with the major transport direction and range of concentrations predicted by an air dispersion model, demonstrating that model predictions agreed with monitoring results. Results from both monitoring methods and predictions from air dispersion modeling showed the primary direction of transport for PFOA was in the prevailing wind direction. The PFOA concentration measured at the site fence over the 10-week sampling period ranged from 0.12 to 0.9 microg/m3. Modeled predictions for the same time period ranged from 0.12 to 3.84 microg/m3. Less than 6% of the particles were larger than 4 microm in size, while almost 60% of the particles were below 0.3 microm. These studies are believed to be the first published ambient air data for PFOA in the environment surrounding a manufacturing facility. PMID:16499146

  20. Experimental Air-Broadened Line Parameters in the nu2 Band of CH3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Adriana Predoi; Brawley-Tremblay, Shannon; Povey, Chad; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we report the first experimental measurements of air-broadening and air-induced pressure-shift coefficients for approximately 378 transitions in the nu2 fundamental band of CH3D. These results were obtained from analysis of 17 room temperature laboratory absorption spectra recorded at 0.0056 cm(exp -1) resolution using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Three absorption cells with path lengths of 10.2, 25 and 150 cm were used to record the spectra. The total sample pressures ranged from 0.129x10(exp -2) to 52.855x10(exp -2) atm with CH3D volume mixing ratios of approximately 0.0109 in air. The spectra were analyzed using a multispectrum non-linear least-squares fitting technique. We report measurements for air pressure-broadening coefficients for transitions with quantum numbers as high as J" = 20 and K = 15, where K" = K' equivalent to K (for a parallel band). The measured air broadening coefficients range from 0.0205 to 0.0835 cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K. All the measured pressure-shift coefficients are negative and are found to vary from about -0.0005 to -0.0080 cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at the temperature of the spectra. We have examined the dependence of the measured broadening and shift parameters on the J" and K quantum numbers and also developed empirical expressions to describe the broadening coefficients in terms of m (m = -J", J" and J" + 1 in the (sup Q)P- (sup Q)Q-, and (sup Q)R-branch, respectively) and K. On average, the empirical expressions reproduce the measured broadening coefficients to within 4.4%.

  1. Tunable diode laser mesurements of widths of air- and nitrogen-broadened lines in the nu(4) band of C-13H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. M.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tunable diode laser measurements of air-broadened and N2-broadened halfwidths are reported for 23 lines in the nu(4) band of C-13H4, between 1260 and 1360/cm. For all lines, at least three scans of each of four or more pressures were recorded. The experimental halfwidths presently obtained for C-13H4 are both larger and smaller than the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory values.

  2. Characterization of temperature non-uniformity over a premixed CH4-air flame based on line-of-sight TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangle; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Zhenyu; He, Yabai; Kan, Ruifeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel technique for characterizing temperature non-uniformity has been investigated based on measurements of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. It utilized two fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode lasers at wavelengths around 1339 and 1392 nm as light sources to probe the field at multiple absorptions lines of water vapor and applied a temperature binning strategy combined with Gauss-Seidel iteration method to explore the temperature non-uniformity of the field in one dimension. The technique has been applied to a McKenna burner, which produced a flat premixed laminar CH4-air flame. The flame and its adjacent area formed an atmospheric field with significant non-uniformity of temperature and water vapor concentration. The effect of the number of temperature bins on column-density and temperature results has also been explored.

  3. Computed tomography or rhinoscopy as the first-line procedure for suspected nasal tumor: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Finck, Marlène; Ponce, Frédérique; Guilbaud, Laurent; Chervier, Cindy; Floch, Franck; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Chuzel, Thomas; Hugonnard, Marine

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines as to whether computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy should be selected as the first-line procedure when a nasal tumor is suspected in a dog or a cat and only one examination can be performed. Computed tomography and rhinoscopic features of 17 dogs and 5 cats with a histopathologically or cytologically confirmed nasal tumor were retrospectively reviewed. The level of suspicion for nasal neoplasia after CT and/or rhinoscopy was compared to the definitive diagnosis. Twelve animals underwent CT, 14 underwent rhinoscopy, and 4 both examinations. Of the 12 CT examinations performed, 11 (92%) resulted in the conclusion that a nasal tumor was the most likely diagnosis compared with 9/14 (64%) for rhinoscopies. Computed tomography appeared to be more reliable than rhinoscopy for detecting nasal tumors and should therefore be considered as the first-line procedure. PMID:25694669

  4. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Koproń, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

  5. Rifabutin-based 10-day and 14-day triple therapy as a third-line and fourth-line regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hideki; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Seiichiro; Miyoshi, Sawako; Hirata, Kenro; Seino, Takashi; Matsushita, Misako; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim This prospective randomized study was designed to assess the efficacy of 10-day and 14-day rifabutin-based triple therapy as a third- or fourth-line rescue therapy. Methods Patients who failed first- and second-line eradication therapy were enrolled. H. pylori was isolated from gastric biopsy specimens and the rpoB mutation status, a factor of resistance to rifamycins, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifabutin and amoxicillin were determined. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive 10-day or 14-day eradication therapy with esomeprazole (20 mg, 4 times a day (q.i.d.)), amoxicillin (500 mg, q.i.d.), and rifabutin (300 mg, once a day (q.d.s.)). Poor compliance was defined as intake of <80% of study drugs. Successful H. pylori eradication was confirmed using a [13C] urea breath test or a stool antigen test, 12 weeks after the end of therapy. Results Twelve patients were assigned to the 10-day group, and 17, to the 14-day group. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses of eradication rates were 83.3% and 81.8% for the 10-day group and 94.1% and 91.7% for the 14-day group, respectively. All patients with rpoB mutation-positive strains (n = 3) showed successful eradication, irrespective of the regimen received. Therapy was stopped due to adverse events in 8.3% and 29.3% of patients in the 10-day and 14-day groups, respectively. Conclusion Both the 10-day and 14-day therapies were effective as rescue regimens. In particular, the 14-day therapy resulted in successful eradication in over 90% of patients, but the 10-day treatment may be enough to obtain a successful eradication rate, considering the tolerability of therapy. PMID:27403304

  6. Line parameters including temperature dependences of self- and air-broadened line shapes of 12C16O2: 1.6-μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Crawford, Timothy J.; Miller, Charles E.; Drouin, Brian J.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Yu, Shanshan; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Gamache, Robert R.

    2016-07-01

    Pressure-broadened line shapes in the 30013←00001 (ν1+4 ν20 +ν3) band of 12C16O2 at 6228 cm-1 are reanalyzed using new spectra recorded with sample temperatures down to 170 K. High resolution, high signal-to-noise (S/N) laboratory measurements of line shapes (Lorentz air- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, pressure-shift coefficients and off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients) as a function of gas sample temperatures for various pressures and volume mixing ratios are presented. The spectra were recorded using two different Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS): (1) the McMath-Pierce FTS located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona (and reported in Devi et al., J Mol Spectrosc 2007;245:52-80) and, (2) the Bruker IFS-125HR FTS at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The 19 spectra taken at Kitt Peak were all recorded near room temperature while the 27 Bruker spectra were acquired both at room temperature and colder temperatures (170-296 K). Various spectral resolutions (0.004-0.011 cm-1), absorption path lengths (2.46-121 m) and CO2 samples (natural and 12C-enriched) were included in the dataset. To maximize the accuracies of the various retrieved line parameters, a multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting software program was used to adjust the ro-vibrational constants (G,B,D etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis terms) instead of directly measuring the individual line positions and intensities. To minimize systematic residuals, line mixing (via off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements) and quadratic speed dependence parameters were included in the analysis. Contributions from other weakly absorbing bands: the 30013←00001 and 30012←00001 bands of 13C16O2, the 30013←00001 band of 12C16O18O, hot bands 31113←01101 and 32212←02201 of 12C16O2, as well as the 40013←10001 and the 40014←10002 bands of 12C16O2, present within the fitted interval were also measured

  7. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  8. Results of experimental studies of the gas-dynamic behavior of airflow in the circulation line of the air condenser of steam-turbine plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. A.; Mil'man, O. O.; Gribin, V. G.; Anan'ev, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The results of experimental studies and a physical model of the three-dimensional flow of cooling air in the circulation line (CL) of a dummy air condenser (AC) incorporating a fan, heat-exchange modules, a shell, and other auxiliary components are analyzed. The local air velocity fields determined experimentally at the AC CL inlet and at the fan diffuser outlet are presented. The guidelines for determining the head-capacity characteristics of the airflow through the AC CL are proposed.

  9. Pilot testing of dissolved air flotation (DAF) in a highly effective coagulation-flocculation integrated (FRD) system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Guo, Jinlong; Tang, Hongxiao

    2002-01-01

    Factors of pretreatment coagulation/flocculation units were studied using raw water of low temperature and low turbidity. Aluminum sulfate (AS) and selected polyaluminium chlorides (PACls) were all effective in the DAF process when used under favorable conditions of coagulant addition, coagulation, flocculation and flotation units. Compared with the AS coagulant, PACls, at lower dosage, could give the same effective performance even with shorter coagulation/flocculation time or lower recycle ratio during the treatment of cold water. This is attributed to the higher-charged polymeric Al species, and the lower hydrophilic and more compact flocculated flocs of PACl coagulant. Based on results of pilot experiments, the goal of FRD system can be achieved by combining a DAF heterocoagulation reactor with PACl coagulant (F), an efficient flocculation reactor (R), as well as an economical auto-dosing system (D). PMID:11846273

  10. Pilot preference and procedures at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of a pilot questionnaire utilized at the 1974 Reading, Pennsylvania Air Show to obtain data on pilot procedures and preference in the terminal airspace of uncontrolled airports.

  11. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  12. In-die ultrasonic and off-line air-coupled monitoring and characterization techniques for drug tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J. D.; Kowalczyk, B. R.; Hancock, B. C.; Kaul, G.; Akseli, I.; Cetinkaya, C.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical integrity and properties of drug tablets may adversely affect their therapeutic and structural functions. An embedded ultrasound monitoring system for tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction and a non-contact/non-destructive off-line air-coupled technique for determining the mechanical properties of coated drug tablets are presented. In the compaction monitoring system, the change of ToF and the reflection coefficient for the upper-punch surface interface as a function of compaction pressure has been studied. In the air-coupled measurement approach, air-coupled excitation and laser interferometric detection are utilized and their effectiveness in characterizing the mechanical properties of a drug tablet by examining its vibrational resonance frequencies is demonstrated. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method and Newton's method is developed to extract the mechanical properties of the coated tablet from a subset of its measured resonance frequencies. The mechanical properties characterized by this technique are compared to those obtained by a contact ultrasonic method.

  13. Collisional Shift and Broadening of Iodine Spectral Lines in Air Near 543 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; McDaniel, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The collisional processes that influence the absorption of monochromatic light by iodine in air have been investigated. Measurements were made in both a static cell and an underexpanded jet flow over the range of properties encountered in typical compressible-flow aerodynamic applications. Experimentally measured values of the collisional shift and broadening coefficients were 0.058 +/- 0.004 and 0.53 +/- 0.010 GHz K(exp 0.7)/torr, respectively. The measured shift value showed reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations based on Lindholm-Foley collisional theory for a simple dispersive potential. The measured collisional broadening showed less favorable agreement with the calculated value.

  14. Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)

  15. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches. PMID:26184273

  16. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kirenga, Bruce J; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches. PMID:26184273

  17. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  18. Contribution of Saharan dust in an integrated air quality system and its on-line assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Pérez, Carlos; Jorba, Oriol; Baldasano, José M.

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays none of the operational daily forecasts in Europe includes the influence of Saharan dust on a non-climatic basis. In order to account for this, the BSC-CNS currently operates daily photochemical forecasts in the Iberian Peninsula with MM5-EMEP-CMAQ modelling system and Saharan dust forecasts over Southern Europe with Eta/DREAM. The necessity of coupling both modelling systems is addressed by the study of a long summer episode combining regional re-circulations and Saharan dust covering from June 19 to July 12, 2006. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from Eta/DREAM is added on-line to the anthropogenic output of CMAQ. The performance of the model has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a fully operational on-line comparison of the first-layer simulations results of CMAQ and CMAQ+DREAM and the values measured in two different stations located in the Mediterranean part of the domain. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and probability of detection) of PM10 exceedances set in regulations when using CMAQ+DREAM compared to CMAQ- or DREAM-alone simulations.

  19. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on First-Line Sequential Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyuk; Lee, Dong Ho; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jaihwan; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hayng; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the adjuvant effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on first-line sequential therapy (SQT) for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Patients with H. pylori infections were randomly assigned to receive sequential therapy with (SQT+NAC group, n=49) or without (SQT-only group, n=50) NAC. Sequential therapy consisted of rabeprazole 20 mg and amoxicillin 1 g for the first 5 days, followed by rabeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg for the remaining 5 days; all drugs were administered twice daily. For the SQT+NAC group, NAC 400 mg bid was added for the first 5 days of sequential therapy. H. pylori eradication was evaluated 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. Results The eradication rates by intention-to-treat analysis were 58.0% in the SQT-only group and 67.3% in the SQT+NAC group (p=0.336). The eradication rates by per-protocol analysis were 70.0% in the SQT-only group and 80.5% in the SQT+NAC group (p=0.274). Compliance was very good in both groups (SQT only/SQT+NAC groups: 95.2%/100%, p=0.494). There was no significant difference in the adverse event rates between groups (SQT-only/SQT+NAC groups: 26.2%/26.8%, p=0.947). Conclusions The H. pylori eradication rate was numerically higher in the SQT+NAC group than in the SQT-only group. As our data did not reach statistical significance, larger trials are warranted. PMID:26347514

  20. Temperature-Dependence of Air-Broadened Line Widths and Shifts in the nu3 Band of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mary A. H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Cox, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The 9.6-micron bands of O3 are used by many remote-sensing experiments for retrievals of terrestrial atmospheric ozone concentration profiles. Line parameter errors can contribute significantly to the total errors in these retrievals, particularly for nadir-viewing. The McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak was used to record numerous high-resolution infrared absorption spectra of O3 broadened by various gases at temperatures between 160 and 300 K. Over 30 spectra were analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique to determine Lorentz air-broadening and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with their temperature dependences for selected transitions in the 3 fundamental band of (16)O3. We compare the present results with other measurements reported in the literature and with the ozone parameters on the 2000 and 2004 editions of the HITRAN database.

  1. THOR: The H i, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way. The pilot study: H i observations of the giant molecular cloud W43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihr, S.; Beuther, H.; Ott, J.; Johnston, K. G.; Brunthaler, A.; Anderson, L. D.; Bigiel, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Churchwell, E.; Glover, S. C. O.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Heitsch, F.; Henning, T.; Heyer, M. H.; Hill, T.; Hughes, A.; Klessen, R. S.; Linz, H.; Longmore, S. N.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Menten, K. M.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Plume, R.; Ragan, S. E.; Roy, N.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, N.; Smith, R. J.; Stil, J. M.; Urquhart, J. S.; Walsh, A. J.; Walter, F.

    2015-08-01

    To study the atomic, molecular, and ionized emission of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Milky Way, we initiated a large program with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA): "THOR: The H i, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way". We map the 21 cm H i line, 4 OH lines, up to 19 Hα recombination lines and thecontinuum from 1 to 2 GHz of a significant fraction of the Milky Way (l = 15°-67°, | b | ≤ 1°) at an angular resolution of ~ 20″. Starting in 2012, as a pilot study we mapped 4 square degrees of the GMC associated with the W43 star formation complex. The rest of the THOR survey area was observed during 2013 and 2014. In this paper, we focus on the H i emission from the W43 GMC complex. Classically, the H i 21 cm line is treated as optically thin with properties such as the column density calculated under this assumption. This approach might yield reasonable results for regions of low-mass star formation, however, it is not sufficient to describe GMCs. We analyzed strong continuum sources to measure the optical depth along the line of sight, and thus correct the H i 21 cm emission for optical depth effects and weak diffuse continuum emission. Hence, we are able to measure the H i mass of this region more accurately and our analysis reveals a lower limit for the H i mass of M = 6.6-1.8 × 106 M⊙ (vLSR = 60-120 km s-1), which is a factor of 2.4 larger than the mass estimated with the assumption of optically thin emission. The H i column densities are as high as NH i ~ 150 M⊙ pc-2 ≈ 1.9 × 1022 cm-2, which is an order of magnitude higher than for low-mass star formation regions. This result challenges theoretical models that predict a threshold for the H i column density of ~10 M⊙ pc-2, at which the formation of molecular hydrogen should set in. By assuming an elliptical layered structure for W43, we estimate the particle density profile. For the atomic gas particle density, we find a linear decrease toward the center of W43 with

  2. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND THERMAL COMFORT—RESULTS OF A PILOT STUDY IN ELDERLY CARE CENTERS IN PORTUGAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana; Pereira, Cristiana; Mendes, Diana; Aguiar, Lívia; Neves, Paula; Silva, Susana; Batterman, Stuart; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The age of the European population is rising and percentage of adults aged 65 years and older is projected to increase from 16% in 2000 to 20% in 2020. It has been estimated that older subjects spend approximately 19 to 20 h/d indoors. Older individuals may be particularly at risk for detrimental effects from pollutants, even at low concentrations, due to reduced immunological defenses and multiple underlying chronic diseases. Six Porto, Portugal, urban area elderly care centers (ECC), housing a total of 425 older persons, were studied to assess indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort (TC) in two seasons. This study presents the IAQ and TC results in 36 rooms and constitutes part of a wider and ongoing study. The study areas were all naturally ventilated, and indoor concentrations in winter were within Portuguese reference values. However, 42% of the participants were dissatisfied with indoor thermal conditions, rating it “slightly cool.” In summer, the index rate of dissatisfied individuals was lower (8%). Significant differences were found between seasons in predicted percent of dissatisfied people (PPD) and predicted mean vote (PMV) indices. Fungal concentrations frequently exceeded reference levels (>500 colony-forming units [CFU]/m3). In addition, other pollutants occasionally exceeded reference levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Portugal to assess effects of indoor air contaminants on the health status and quality of life in older subjects living in ECC. Although IAQ and TC parameters were mostly within reference values, the results suggest a need to improve the balance between IAQ and TC in ECC, a critical environment housing a susceptible population. PMID:23514075

  3. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  4. Motivational Engineering for Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Frederick I.; And Others

    The study was an investigation of student pilot motivation for, and toward, the Air Training Command's undergraduate pilot training (UPT) program. The motivation hygiene approach was used to identify the motivational factors operating in the UPT program systematically. This approach has been used extensively in industry and with success in a…

  5. Continuation Versus Recurrent Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James F.

    the document addresses the question of the degree to which United States Air Force (USAF) pilot skills deteriorate as a function of reduced or deleted aircraft flying time. An examination of the results of several studies concerning the effects of periods of inactivity on pilot skill retention and subsequent retraining requirements indicate that a…

  6. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: a pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, R; Higueras, P; Esbrí, J M; Pizarro, J

    2007-11-15

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl(2) at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 microg g(-1), whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 microg g(-1). The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m(-3) (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m(-3) (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m(-3)). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m(-3). The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m(-3). While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl(2) treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria. PMID:17590416

  7. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants. PMID:24498966

  8. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.

    1954-01-01

    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  9. A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Thomson, Alexander R; Schneider, Kenneth; Cameron, Petra J; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2014-12-15

    The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent. In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring. When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with respect to the anode total surface area. The response time was as fast as 2.8 min. At saturating acetate concentrations (COD>164 ppm), the miniature SCMFC could rapidly detect the presence of cadmium in water with high sensitivity (0.2 μg l(-1) cm(-2)) and a lower detection limit of only 1 μg l(-1). The biosensor dynamic range was 1-25 μg l(-1). Within this range of concentrations, cadmium affected only temporarily the electroactive biofilm at the anode. When the SCMFCs were again fed with fresh wastewater and no pollutant, the initial steady-state current was recovered within 12 min. PMID:25005554

  10. Radiological engineering evaluation of the delay time line air scrubber located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Huneycutt, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of an air scrubber to an already existing delay line and whether it would scrub {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. There were three main objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine the scrubbing efficiency of the scrubber. The scrubbing efficiency was then used to predict the dose rates in the scrubber area and compare those values with measurements from radiological surveys. The third objective was to determine if the shield blocks were effective in reducing the dose rates in the scrubber area. The activities were measured before and during scrubber operation and this information was used to calculate the scrubbing efficiency and the efficiency of {sup 11}CO{sub 2} removal was determined to be around 50%. Microshield was then used to predict dose rates and compared those values with measurements from radiological surveys. This was also used to determine the that the shield blocks around the scrubber were effective in reducing the dose rates from the radiation field produced by the radionuclides in the scrubber.

  11. The air-broadened, near-infrared CO2 line shape in the spectrally isolated regime: evidence of simultaneous Dicke narrowing and speed dependence.

    PubMed

    Long, David A; Bielska, Katarzyna; Lisak, Daniel; Havey, Daniel K; Okumura, Mitchio; Miller, Charles E; Hodges, Joseph T

    2011-08-14

    Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) was employed to measure air-broadened CO(2) line shape parameters for transitions near 1.6 μm over a pressure range of 6.7-33 kPa. The high sensitivity of FS-CRDS allowed for the first measurements in this wavelength range of air-broadened line shape parameters on samples with CO(2) mixing ratios near those of the atmosphere. The measured air-broadening parameters show several percent deviations (0.9%-2.7%) from values found in the HITRAN 2008 database. Spectra were fit with a variety of models including the Voigt, Galatry, Nelkin-Ghatak, and speed-dependent Nelkin-Ghatak line profiles. Clear evidence of line narrowing was observed, which if unaccounted for can lead to several percent biases. Furthermore, it was observed that only the speed-dependent Nelkin-Ghatak line profile was able to model the spectra to within the instrumental noise level because of the concurrent effects of collisional narrowing and speed dependence of collisional broadening and shifting. PMID:21842934

  12. Hydrogen Balmer α line behavior in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy depth scans of Au, Cu, Mn, Pb targets in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, G. S.; Benedetti, P. A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.

    2010-07-01

    The behavior of hydrogen spectral emission of the plasmas obtained by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurement of four metal targets (Au, Cu, Mn, Pb) in air was investigated. The plasma was produced by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser emitting in the fundamental wavelength. A systematic study of the spatial-integrated plasma emission obtained by an in-depth scanning of the target was performed for each metal, both in single pulse and collinear double-pulse configurations. Further, a spatial-resolved analysis of the emission of plasma produced on the Al target by a single laser pulse was performed, in order to describe the spatial distribution of emitters deriving from the target and air elements. The line intensities of the main plasma components (target metal, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen) were measured in both experimental conditions. Results show that the hydrogen line intensity varies greatly as a function of the metal considered, and exhibits a marked decrease after the first laser shots. However, differently from emission lines due to surface impurities, the hydrogen line intensity reaches a constant level deep inside the target. The spatial-resolved measurements indicate that hydrogen atoms in the plasma mainly derive from the target surface and, only at a minor extent, from the dissociation of molecular hydrogen present in the surrounding air. These findings show that the calculation of plasma electron number density through the measurement of the Stark broadening of hydrogen Balmer α line is possible also in depth scanning measurements.

  13. Spectral Line Parameters Including Temperature Dependences of Self- and Air-Broadening in the 2 (left arrow) 0 Band of CO at 2.3 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Predoi-Cross, A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependences of pressure-broadened half-width and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with accurate positions and intensities have been determined for transitions in the 2<--0 band of C-12 O-16 from analyzing high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers. A total of 28 spectra, 16 self-broadened and 12 air-broadened, recorded using high- purity (greater than or equal to 99.5% C-12-enriched) CO samples and CO diluted with dry air(research grade) at different temperatures and pressures, were analyzed simultaneously to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. The sample temperatures ranged from 150 to 298K and the total pressures varied between 5 and 700 Torr. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting technique was used to adjust the rovibrational constants (G, B, D, etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis coefficients), rather than determining individual line positions and intensities. Self-and air-broadened Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents, self- and air-pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences, self- and air-line mixing coefficients, their temperature dependences and speed dependence have been retrieved from the analysis. Speed-dependent line shapes with line mixing employing off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism were needed to minimize the fit residuals. This study presents a precise and complete set of spectral line parameters that consistently reproduce the spectrum of carbon monoxide over terrestrial atmospheric conditions.

  14. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  15. Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole; Polyzos, Aris; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Somers, Christopher M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Pogribny, Igor P.; Koturbash, Igor; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is widespread, yet we have little understanding of the long-term health implications associated with exposure. We investigated DNA damage, mutation, and methylation in gametes of male mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an industrial/urban environment. C57BL/CBA mice were exposed in situ to ambient air near two integrated steel mills and a major highway, alongside control mice breathing high-efficiency air particulate (HEPA) filtered ambient air. PCR analysis of an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus revealed a 1.6-fold increase in sperm mutation frequency in mice exposed to ambient air for 10 wks, followed by a 6-wk break, compared with HEPA-filtered air, indicating that mutations were induced in spermatogonial stem cells. DNA collected after 3 or 10 wks of exposure did not exhibit increased mutation frequency. Bulky DNA adducts were below the detection threshold in testes samples, suggesting that DNA reactive chemicals do not reach the germ line and cause ESTR mutation. In contrast, DNA strand breaks were elevated at 3 and 10 wks, possibly resulting from oxidative stress arising from exposure to particles and associated airborne pollutants. Sperm DNA was hypermethylated in mice breathing ambient relative to HEPA-filtered air and this change persisted following removal from the environmental exposure. Increased germ-line DNA mutation frequencies may cause population-level changes in genetic composition and disease. Changes in methylation can have widespread repercussions for chromatin structure, gene expression and genome stability. Potential health effects warrant extensive further investigation. PMID:18195365

  16. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  17. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, September 28, 1992--September 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The goal of the MOLIS project was to develop, design, and pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities as well as federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since going on-line on April 29, 1991, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, precollege and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from participating federal agencies. Six federal agencies are currently participating in MOLIS, including: Agency for International Development; Department of Commerce; Department of Energy; Department of Housing and Urban Development; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation.

  18. Flight test pilot evaluation of a delayed flap approach procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1977-01-01

    Using NASA's CV-990 aircraft, a delayed flap approach procedure was demonstrated to nine guest pilots from the air transport industry. Four demonstration flights and 37 approaches were conducted under VFR weather conditions. A limited pilot evaluation of the delayed flap procedure was obtained from pilot comments and from questionaires they completed. Pilot acceptability, pilot workload, and ATC compatibility were quantitatively rated. The delayed flap procedure was shown to be feasible, and suggestions for further development work were obtained.

  19. Self- and air-broadened line shape parameters in the ν2+ν3 band of 12CH4: 4500-4630 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Predoi-Cross, Adriana

    2015-02-01

    Accurate knowledge of spectral line shape parameters is important for infrared transmission and radiance calculations in the terrestrial atmosphere. In this paper, we report the self- and air-broadened Lorentz half-widths, pressure-induced shifts and line mixing coefficients (via off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements) along with their temperature dependences for methane ν2+ν3 absorption lines in the 4500-4630 cm-1 region of the Octad. For this, we recorded 14 high-resolution, high signal to noise ratio (S/N) spectra of high-purity (99.95% 12C-enriched) samples of pure methane and its dilute mixtures in dry air between 298 K and 148 K. A Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, was used to obtain the experimental data. The absorption cell used for this study was a specially built 20.38 cm long coolable cell installed in its sample compartment. The sample pressures for the pure 12CH4 spectra were 4.5-385 Torr; for the air-broadened spectra the total pressures ranged between 95 and 300 Torr with the methane volume mixing ratios between 0.04 and 0.097. All 14 spectra were fitted simultaneously using an interactive multispectrum nonlinear least-squares curve fitting technique. The results are compared to values reported in the literature.

  20. Pilot production and testing of high efficiency wraparound contact solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillanders, M.

    1981-01-01

    Modifications were made to the process sequence until a device capable of high performance and satisfactory processing yields could be fabricated on a production line. Pilot production resulted in a 2 x 4 cm screen printed dielectric wraparound contact solar cell with average 28 C, Air Mass Zero (AMO) conversion efficiencies of 14.2% and reasonable process yields. This high performance was obtained with two different back contact configurations, making the device acceptable for many applications.

  1. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2009-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  2. Air- and Self-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, and Line Mixing in the Nu(sub 2) Band of (12)CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Benner, D. Chris; Pedroi-Cross, A.; Devi, V. Malathy

    2013-01-01

    Lorentz self- and air-broadened half width and pressure-induced shift coefficients and their dependences on temperature have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra for nearly 130 transitions in the nu(sub 2) band of (12)CH4. In addition line mixing coefficients (using the relaxation matrix element formalism) for both self- and airbroadening were experimentally determined for the first time for a small number of transitions in this band. Accurate line positions and absolute line intensities were also determined. These parameters were obtained by analyzing high-resolution (approx. 0.003 to 0.01 per cm) laboratory spectra of high-purity natural CH4 and air-broadened CH4 recorded at temperatures between 226 and 297 K using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique was used to fit short (5-15 per cm) spectral intervals in 24-29 spectra simultaneously. Parameters were determined for nu(sub 2) transitions up to J" = 16. The variations of the measured broadening and shift parameters with the rotational quantum number index and tetrahedral symmetry species are examined. The present results are also compared with previous measurements available in the literature.

  3. Membrane Dehumidifier: High-Efficiency, On-Line Membrane Air Dehumidifier Enabling Sensible Cooling for Warm and Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: ADMA Products is developing a foil-like membrane for air conditioners that efficiently removes moisture from humid air. ADMA Products’s metal foil-like membrane consists of a paper thin, porous metal sheet coated with a layer of water-loving molecules. This new membrane allows water vapor to permeate across the membrane at high fluxes and at the same time, blocks air penetration efficiently resulting in high selectivity. The high selectivity of the membrane translates to less energy use, while the high permeation fluxes result in a more compact device. The new materials and the flat foil-like nature of the membrane facilitate the mass production of a low-coast compact dehumidification device

  4. Pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    For many years, the emphasis has been placed on the performance of the aircraft, rather than on those who fly the aircraft. This is largely due to the relative safety of flying. Just in the last few years there have been several major accidents that have shown that flying is not quite as safe as it was thought to be. Sixty-five percent of these accidents are a result of pilot performance decrements, and so it is obvious that there is a need to reduce that figure. A study has been mandated to evaluate the performance of pilots. This includes workload, circadium rhythms, jet lag, and any other factors which might affect a pilot's performance in the cockpit. The purpose of this study is to find out when and why the decrement in a pilot's performance occur and how to remedy the situation.

  5. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  6. AMBIENT AIR TOXICS IN HOUSTON-GALVESTON AREA WITH HIGH AND LOW TRI EMISSIONS - A PILOT STUDY OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL CONCENTRATIONS USING PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES (PSDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (the Act) requires that states monitor and regulate the emissions of certain organic hazardous air pollutants. Hence, the purpose of this study is to show through the use of 3M organic passive vapor monitors (OVM), that federal, regional, stat...

  7. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  8. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Annual Status Report describes the design, development and implementation of the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS) project by Federal Information Exchange, Inc. for the period of April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992. Summary information detailing developments prior to this reporting period will also be included to establish a comprehensive perspective of the project. The goal of the MOLIS project, was to develop, design, pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities and federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since April 29, 1991, the inauguration of its on-line service, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, pre-college and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from 8 participating federal agencies.

  9. "Party Line" Information Use Studies and Implications for ATC Datalink Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Pritchett, Amy; Midkiff, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The perceived importance and utilization of 'party line' information by air carrier flight crews was investigated through pilot surveys and a flight simulation study. The importance, availability, and accuracy of party line information elements were explored through surveys of pilots of several operational types. The survey identified numerous traffic and weather party line information elements which were considered important. These elements were scripted into a full-mission flight simulation which examined the utilization of party line information by studying subject responses to specific information element stimuli. The awareness of the different Party Line elements varied, and awareness was also affected by pilot workload. In addition, pilots were aware of some traffic information elements, but were reluctant to act on Party Line Information alone. Finally, the results of both the survey and the simulation indicated that the importance of party line information appeared to be greatest for operations near or on the airport. This indicates that caution should be exercised when implementing datalink communications in tower and close-in terminal control sectors.

  10. On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

    2010-01-01

    This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

  11. 14 CFR 61.133 - Commercial pilot privileges and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with a commercial pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air category rating may— (i) For an airship—(A) Give flight and ground training in an airship for the issuance of a certificate or rating; (B) Give an endorsement for a pilot certificate with an airship rating; (C) Endorse a student pilot certificate or...

  12. An Air Plasma Off-Gas Emission Monitor (APO-GEM) For On-line Toxic Metal Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. P.; Zhu, Z.; Baldwin, D. P.

    1998-10-01

    Increasing regulatory demands requiring significant reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants have led to the need for techniques capable of providing real-time monitoring of toxic metals in combustion gas streams. These waste streams range from coal-fired boilers, municipal waste combustors to plasma vitrification systems used for the remediation of low level radioactive waste. Our solution to this problem is the development of APO-GEM. This instrument incorporates an atmospheric-pressure inductively-coupled air plasma powered by a 3.5 kW solid-state 27.12 MHz rf generator coupled with an isokinetic sampling system. The detection system includes both a 1-m monochromator and a novel solid-state AOTF high-resolution spectrometer. The air plasma readily tolerates the introduction of combustion gases as well as the significant particle loading that can be present in exhaust streams. Plasma properties and performance characteristics, including results obtained recently at the DOE/EPA-sponsored Demonstration of Toxic Metal Continuous Emission Monitors, will be discussed.

  13. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  14. Temperature dependence of Lorentz air-broadening and pressure-shift coefficients of (12)CH4 lines in the 2.3-micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution (0.01/cm) absorption spectra of lean mixtures of CH4 in dry air were recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak at various temperatures between 24 and -61 C. The spectra have been analyzed to determine the values at room temperature of pressure-broadened widths and pressure-induced shifts of more than 740 transitions. The temperature dependence of air-broadened widths and pressure-induced shifts was deduced for approx. 370 transitions in the nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 4), nu(sub 3) + nu(sub 4), and nu(sub 2) + nu(sub 3) bands of (12)CH4 located between 4118 and 4615/cm. These results were obtained by analyzing a total of 29 spectra simultaneously using a multi-spectral non-linear least-squares fitting technique. This new technique allowed the determination of correlated spectral line parameters (e.g. intensity and broadening coefficient) better than the procedure of averaging values obtained by fitting the spectra individually. This method also provided a direct determination of the uncertainties in the retrieved parameters due to random errors. For each band analysed in this study the dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and the rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is also presented.

  15. F-18 HARV research pilot Dana Purifoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dana D. Purifoy is an aerospace research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He joined NASA in August 1994. Purifoy is a former Air Force test pilot who served as a project pilot in the joint NASA/Air Force X-29 Forward Swept Wing research program conducted at Dryden from 1984 to 1991. His most recent assignment in the Air Force was flying U-2 aircraft as a test pilot at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, CA. In addition to flying the X-29 at Dryden as an Air Force pilot, Purifoy also served as project pilot and joint test force director with the AFTI F-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16) program, also located at Dryden. Before his assignments as project pilot on the X-29 and AFTI/F-16 aircraft, Purifoy was chief of the Academics Systems Branch at the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards. Prior to becoming a test pilot, he flew F-111 and F-16 aircraft in Great Britain and Germany. He has accumulated 3800 hours of flying time in his career. The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden on May 29, 1996. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  16. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Kati; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Komulainen, Hannu; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 and human 28SC macrophage cell lines and in the human A549 lung epithelial cell line in 24-hr exposure to 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) microbes/mL. We studied time dependency by terminating the exposure to 10(6) microbes/mL after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr. We analyzed production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukins 6 and 1ss (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1ss, respectively) and measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method, expression of inducible NO-synthase with Western Blot analysis, and cytotoxicity with the MTT-test. All bacteria strongly induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, the formation of IL-1ss in mouse macrophages. Only the spores of Str. californicus induced the production of NO and IL-6 in both human and mouse cells. In contrast, exposure to fungal strains did not markedly increase the production of NO or any cytokine in the studied cell lines except for Sta. chartarum, which increased IL-6 production somewhat in human lung epithelial cells. These microbes were less cytotoxic to human cells than to mouse cells. On the basis of equivalent numbers of bacteria and spores of fungi added to cell cultures, the overall potency to stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators decreased in the order Ps. fluorescens > Str. californicus > B. cereus > Sta. chartarum > A. versicolor > P. spinulosum. These data suggest that bacteria in water-damaged buildings should also be considered as causative agents of adverse inflammatory effects. PMID:12515684

  17. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... opportunity to comment on the new information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...@uspto.gov . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment@ in the subject line of...

  18. Influence of velocity effects on the shape of N2 (and air) broadened H2O lines revisited with classical molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Tran, H.; Gamache, R. R.; Bermejo, D.; Domenech, J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    The modeling of the shape of H2O lines perturbed by N2 (and air) using the Keilson-Storer (KS) kernel for collision-induced velocity changes is revisited with classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). The latter have been performed for a large number of molecules starting from intermolecular-potential surfaces. Contrary to the assumption made in a previous study [H. Tran, D. Bermejo, J.-L. Domenech, P. Joubert, R. R. Gamache, and J.-M. Hartmann, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 108, 126 (2007)], 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.03.009, the results of these CMDS show that the velocity-orientation and -modulus changes statistically occur at the same time scale. This validates the use of a single memory parameter in the Keilson-Storer kernel to describe both the velocity-orientation and -modulus changes. The CMDS results also show that velocity- and rotational state-changing collisions are statistically partially correlated. A partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer model has thus been used to describe the line-shape. For this, the velocity changes KS kernel parameters have been directly determined from CMDS, while the speed-dependent broadening and shifting coefficients have been calculated with a semi-classical approach. Comparisons between calculated spectra and measurements of several lines of H2O broadened by N2 (and air) in the ν3 and 2ν1 + ν2 + ν3 bands for a wide range of pressure show very satisfactory agreement. The evolution of non-Voigt effects from Doppler to collisional regimes is also presented and discussed.

  19. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  20. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business...

  1. Rand Symposium on Pilot Training and the Pilot Career; Recollections of the Chairman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, W. A.

    Topics discussed in this 1970 symposium included the economics of flight training, careers in flying, college versus high school graduates, defining the trained pilot, motivation and selection, innovation in pilot training, training goals, transfer of training, and the role of simulators. Conferees agreed that the present Air Force undergraduate…

  2. Air-Broadened Line Parameters for the 2←0 Bands of 13C16O and 12C18O at 2.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.

    2012-06-01

    Air-broadened line shape parameters were determined for the first time in the 2←0 bands of 13C16O near 4166.8 cm-1 and 12C18O near 4159.0 cm-1. Spectra were recorded at 0.005 cm-1 resolution using a coolable absorption cell in the sample compartment of the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Gas temperatures and pressures ranged from 150 to 298 K and 20 to 700 Torr, respectively. Line parameters were determined by broad-band multispectrum least-squares fitting of the 4000-4360 cm-1 region in 16 spectra simultaneously; each set included 4 isotope-enriched pure sample scans and 12 air+CO samples (13CO or C18O, as appropriate). The air-broadened parameters measured were Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents; pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences; and off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements. Speed dependence parameters were included to minimize the fit residuals. For both isotopologues the individual line positions and intensities were constrained to their theoretical relationships in order to obtain the rovibrational (G, B, D, and H) and band intensity parameters, including Herman-Wallis coefficients. The results for 13C16O and 12C18O are compared with those for the 12C16O 2←0 band and discussed. K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, M. A. H. Smith, et al., JMS 262 (2010) 122-134. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. A. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller and R. A. Toth, JMS 242 (2007) 90-117. V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, M. A. H. Smith, et al., JQSRT (2012) in press. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  4. Indoor air quality risk factors for severe lower respiratory tract infections in Inuit infants in Baffin Region, Nunavut: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kovesi, T; Creery, D; Gilbert, N L; Dales, R; Fugler, D; Thompson, B; Randhawa, N; Miller, J D

    2006-08-01

    Inuit infants have extremely high rates of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), but the causes for this are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess, in young Inuit children in Baffin Region, Nunavut, the feasibility of an epidemiologic study of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and respiratory health; to obtain data on IAQ in their housing; and to identify and classify risk factors for LRTI. Twenty houses in Cape Dorset, Nunavut with children below 2 years of age, were evaluated using a structured housing inspection and measurement of IAQ parameters, and a respiratory health questionnaire was administered. Twenty-five percent of the children had, at some time, been hospitalized for chest illness. Houses were very small, and had a median of six occupants per house. Forty-one percent of the houses had a calculated natural air change rate <0.35 air changes per hour. NO(2) concentrations were within the acceptable range. Smokers were present in at least 90% of the households, and nicotine concentrations exceeded 1.5 microg/m(3) in 25% of the dwellings. Particulates were found to be correlated closely with nicotine but not with NO(2) concentrations, suggesting that their main source was cigarette smoking rather than leakage from furnaces. Mattress fungal levels were markedly increased, although building fungal concentrations were low. Dust-mites were virtually non-existent. Potential risk factors related to IAQ for viral LRTI in Inuit infants were observed in this study, including reduced air exchange and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Severe lower respiratory tract infection is common in Inuit infants. We found reduced air change rates and high occupancy levels in houses in Cape Dorset, which may increase the risk of respiratory infections. This suggests the measures to promote better ventilation or more housing may be beneficial. Further health benefits may be obtained by reducing bed sharing by infants and greater turnover of

  5. Test pilot Michael R. Swann

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Michael R. Swann joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center on June 5, 1978, transferring from the NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, as a research pilot. Swann attended North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, from September 1968 to February 1977, where he earned his Masters in Physics. He was a member of three national honorary scholastic fraternities. Prior to joining NASA Swann served concurrently as an Aerospace Defense Command Interceptor pilot in the Air National Guard for five years and as a college physics instructor at North Dakota State University for two years. While at Johnson Space Center Mike was a pilot on high altitude earth resources and air sampling missions. He was also an instructor and check pilot for the Astronaut Space Flight Readiness Training program. As a Dryden research pilot Mike was involved with the F-111 #778 Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) program, F-15 # 281 Shuttle Tile tests, programs on the F-8C #802 and the PA-30 #808 Remotely Piloted Research Vehicle. He flew the Bell 47G #822 helicopter in support of research with the three-eighths-scale F-15 Spin Research Vehicle. On March 28, 1979, Mike made a pilot familiarization flight in the YF-12A #935. He also flew support flights in the F-104, C-47, T-37, T-38, and the Jetstar aircraft. Michael R. Swann was born June 5, 1949, in Fargo, North Dakota; he was fatally injured in a recreational glider accident on July 28, 1981, near California City, California.

  6. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  7. [Development of spatial orientation during pilot training].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Vorob'ev, O A; Snipkov, Iu Iu

    1988-01-01

    The problem of spatial orientation of pilots flying high-altitude aircraft is in the focus of present-day aviation medicine because of a growing number of accidents in the air. One of the productive lines of research is to study spatial orientation in terms of active formation and maintenance of its imagery in a complex environment. However investigators usually emphasize the role of visual (instrumental) information in the image construction, almost ignoring the sensorimotor component of spatial orientation. The theoretical analysis of the process of spatial orientation has facilitated the development of the concept assuming that the pattern of space perception changes with growing professional experience. The concept is based on an active approach to the essence, emergence, formation and variation in the pattern of sensory perception of space in man's consciousness. This concept asserts that as pilot's professional expertise increases, the pattern of spatial orientation becomes geocentric because a new system of spatial perception evolves which is a result of the development of a new (instrumental) type of motor activity in space. This finds expression in the fact that perception of spatial position inflight occurs when man has to resolve a new motor task--movement along a complex trajectory in the three-dimensional space onboard a flying vehicle. The meaningful structure of this problem which is to be implemented through controlling movements of the pilot acts as a factor that forms this new system of perception. All this underlies the arrangement of meaningful collection of instrumental data and detection of noninstrumental signals in the comprehensive perception of changes in the spatial position of a flying vehicle. PMID:3226091

  8. Viscous airflow through a rigid tube with a compliant lining: a simple model for the air-mucus interaction in pulmonary airways.

    PubMed

    Evrensel, C A; Khan, R U; Elli, S; Krumpe, P E

    1993-08-01

    The respiratory tract of mammals is lined with a layer of mucus, described as viscoelastic semi-solid, above a layer of watery serous fluid. The interaction of these compliant layers with pulmonary airflow plays a major role in lung clearance by two-phase gas-liquid flow and in increased flow resistance in patients with obstructive airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis and asthma. Experiments have shown that such coupled systems of flow-compliant-layers are quite susceptible to sudden shear instabilities, leading to formation of relatively large amplitude waves at the interface. Although these waves enhance the lung clearance by mobilizing the secretions, they increase the flow resistance in airways. The objective of this paper is to understand the basic interaction mechanism between the two media better by studying airflow through a rigid pipe that is lined by a compliant layer. The mathematical model that has been developed for this purpose is capable of explaining some of the published experimental observations. Wave instability theory is applied to the coupled air-mucus system to explore the stability of the interface. The results show that the onset flow speed for the initiation of unstable surface waves, and the resulting wavelength, are both very sensitive to mucus thickness. The model predicts that the instabilities initiate in the form of propagating waves for the elastic mucus where the wave speed is about 40 percent of the flow speed. The wavelength and phase speed to air velocity ratio are shown to increase with increasing mucus thickness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8231141

  9. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  10. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  11. Pilot climate data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A usable data base, the Pilot climate Data System (PCDS) is described. The PCDS is designed to be an interactive, easy-to-use, on-line generalized scientific information system. It efficiently provides uniform data catalogs; inventories, and access method, as well as manipulation and display tools for a large assortment of Earth, ocean and atmospheric data for the climate-related research community. Researchers can employ the PCDS to scan, manipulate, compare, display, and study climate parameters from diverse data sets. Software features, and applications of the PCDS are highlighted.

  12. Survey of severe spatial disorientation episodes in Japan Air Self-Defense Force fighter pilots showing increased severity in night flight.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yuko; Hisada, Tetsuya; Kuwada, Naruo; Sakai, Masao; Akamatsu, Tomomitsu

    2009-06-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) is one of the most severe causative factors in aviation accidents. We analyzed the reported SD episodes to evaluate the characteristics of severe SD in fighter pilots. Three hundred seventeen cases (95.5%) of 332 total valid cases experienced SD, and the ratio of night and day SD experiences (52.7% vs. 47.3%) (p < 0.05) shows a clear prevalence of night SD events. The severity of SD episodes at night (2.23 +/- 1.09) was higher than at day (1.89 +/- 1.04) (p < 0.01). In addition, the severity of visual illusions was significantly higher at night. A significant difference was found for meteorological conditions, such as visual meteorological conditions (VMC), instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and VMC-IMC (VI) transition, among times of days. In conclusion, the severity of the SD episodes was higher at night. This may be due to an increase in visual severe SD episodes at night. PMID:19585777

  13. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in the building. The

  14. Variations in Party Line Information Requirements for Flight Crew Situation Awareness in the Datalink Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Current Air Traffic Control communications use shared very high frequency (VHF) voice frequencies from which pilots can obtain 'Party Line' Information (PLI) by overhearing communications addressed to other aircraft. A prior study has shown pilots perceive this PLI to be important. There is concern that some critical PLI may be lost in the proposed datalink environment where communications will be discretely addressed. Different types of flight operations will be, equipped with datalink equipment at different times, generating a 'mixed environment' where some pilots may rely on PLI while others will receive their information by datalink. To research the importance, availability and accuracy of PLI and to query pilots on the information they feel is necessary, a survey was distributed to pilots. The pilots were selected from four flight operation groups to study the variations in PLI requirements in the mixed datalink environment. Pilots perceived PLI to be important overall. Specific information elements pertaining to traffic and weather information were identified as Critical. Most PLI elements followed a pattern of higher perceived importance during terminal area operations, final approach and landing. Pilots from the different flight operation groups identified some elements as particularly important. Pilots perceived PLI to be only moderately available and accurate overall. Several PLI elements received very low availability and accuracy ratings but are perceived as important. In a free response question designed to find the information requirements for global situation awareness, pilots frequently indicated a need for traffic and weather information. These elements were also frequently cited by them as information that could be presented by a datalink system. The results of this survey identify specific concerns to be addressed when implementing datalink communications.

  15. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m−3 h−1 with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis–Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and Ks and Vm values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m−3 h−1, respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems. PMID:25313280

  16. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis-Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and K s and V m values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m(-3) h(-1), respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems. PMID:25313280

  17. On-line monitoring of benzene air concentrations while driving in traffic by means of isotopic dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Moggi, M; Ferrari, S; Fanelli, R

    1996-01-01

    There is no shortage of information about the average benzene concentrations in urban air, but there is very little about microenvironmental exposure, such as in-vehicle concentrations while driving in various traffic conditions, while refuelling, or while in a parking garage. The main reason for this lack of data is that no analytical instrumentation has been available to measure on-line trace amounts of benzene in such situations. We have recently proposed a highly accurate, high-speed cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for monitoring benzene concentrations in air. Accuracy of the analytical data is achieved by enrichment of the air sample before trapping, with a stable isotope permeation tube system. The same principles have been applied to a new instrument, specifically designed for operation on an electric vehicle (Ducato Elettra, Fiat). The zero emission vehicle and the fully transportable, battery-operated GC/MS system provide a unique possibility of monitoring benzene exposure in real everyday situations such as while driving, refuelling, or repairing a car. All power consumptions have been reduced so as to achieve a battery-operated GC/MS system. Liquid nitrogen cryofocusing has been replaced by a packed, inductively heated, graphitized charcoal microtrap. The instrument has been mounted on shock absorbers and installed in the van. The whole system has been tested in both fixed and mobile conditions. The maximum monitoring period without external power supply is 6 h. The full analytical cycle is 4 min, allowing close to real-time monitoring, and the minimum detectable level is 1 microgram/m3 for benzene. In-vehicle monitoring showed that, when recirculation was off and ventilation on, i.e., air from outside the vehicle was blown inside, concentrations varied widely in different driving conditions: moving from a parking lot into normal traffic on an urban traffic condition roadway yielded an increase in benzene concentration

  18. Pilot environmental specimen bank program

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, S.A.; Zeisler, R.

    1984-10-01

    The concept of an environmental specimen bank for archiving of biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis has been recognized recently as an important component of systematic environmental monitoring. A pilot program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of a national program by providing actual working experience in all aspects of specimen banking, that is, in specimen collection, processing, storage, and analysis. Four types of environmental specimens, which represent environmental accumulators, were selected for inclusion in the National Bureau of Standards pilot program: human soft tissue (liver), a marine accumulator (marine mussels, Mytilus edulis), a food accumulator and the air pollutant accumulator have not been selected. Attention is focused on the experience gained in the pilot program with the human liver specimens. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Absolute intensities and self-, N2-, and air-broadened Lorentz halfwidths for selected lines in the nu3 band of (C-12)H3D from measurements with a tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Thakur, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities and self-, air- and N2-broadened half-widths have been determined for the first time for individual lines in the nu3(A1) band of (C-12)H3D near 7.6 microns from measurements of individual vibration-rotation lines using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The intensity measurements are believed to be accurate to within three percent. Within experimental uncertainties, equal broadening efficiencies are found for both air and nitrogen. Self-broadened half-widths determined for three transitions yield an average half-width value of 0.803 + or -0.0010/cm/atm at 296 K.

  20. A flight test method for pilot/aircraft analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, R.; Buchacker, E.

    1986-01-01

    In high precision flight maneuvres a pilot is a part of a closed loop pilot/aircraft system. The assessment of the flying qualities is highly dependent on the closed loop characteristics related to precision maneuvres like approach, landing, air-to-air tracking, air-to-ground tracking, close formation flying and air-to air refueling of the receiver. The object of a research program at DFVLR is the final flight phase of an air to ground mission. In this flight phase the pilot has to align the aircraft with the target, correct small deviations from the target direction and keep the target in his sights for a specific time period. To investigate the dynamic behavior of the pilot-aircraft system a special ground attack flight test technique with a prolonged tracking maneuvres was developed. By changing the targets during the attack the pilot is forced to react continously on aiming errors in his sights. Thus the closed loop pilot/aircraft system is excited over a wide frequency range of interest, the pilot gets more information about mission oriented aircraft dynamics and suitable flight test data for a pilot/aircraft analysis can be generated.

  1. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the civilian ATC and military ATC perspectives, of particular interest are how mixed operations (manned / UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS Integration in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  2. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center UAS Integration in the NAS project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the ATC and military ATC perspective, of particular interest is how mixed-operations (manned/UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  3. Operational problems experienced by single pilots in instrument meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of a search strategy to extract pertinent reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System-2 (ASRS-2) database are described. For any particular occurence to be pertinent to the study, it must have satisfied the following conditions: the aircraft must be of the type usually flown by a single pilot; operation on an IFR flight plan in instrument meteorological conditions; pilot experienced an operational problem. The occurances consist of reports by the pilot about his own performance, by the pilot about the system performance, or by an air traffic controller about a pilot's performance.

  4. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low

  5. Effects of solubility of urban air fine and coarse particles on cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Jalava, Pasi I. Salonen, Raimo O.; Pennanen, Arto S.; Happo, Mikko S.; Penttinen, Piia; Haelinen, Arja I.; Sillanpaeae, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of the water-soluble and -insoluble as well as organic-solvent-soluble and -insoluble fractions of urban air fine (PM{sub 2.5-0.2}) and coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) particulate samples. The samples were collected with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) in 7-week sampling campaigns of selected seasons in six European cities. Mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) were exposed to the samples for 24 h. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF{alpha}, IL-6), and cytotoxicity (MTT-test, apoptosis, cell cycle) were measured. The inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in both size ranges were mostly associated with the insoluble particulate fractions. However, both the water- and organic-solvent-soluble particulate fractions induced TNF{alpha} production and apoptosis and had some other cytotoxic effects. Soil-derived water-soluble and -insoluble components of the chemical PM{sub 2.5-0.2} mass closure had consistent positive correlations with the responses, while the correlations were negative with the secondary inorganic anions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, non-sea-salt SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and particulate organic matter (POM). With the PM{sub 10-2.5} samples, sea salt and soluble soil components correlated positively with the induced toxic responses. In this size range, a possible underestimation of the insoluble, soil-related compounds containing Si and Ca, and biological components of POM, increased uncertainties in the evaluation of associations of the mass closure components with the responses. It is concluded that insoluble components of the complex urban air particulate mixture exert the highest inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in the macrophage cell line but, at the same time, they may operate as carriers for active water- and lipid-soluble components.

  6. Piloted simulator assessments of agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has utilized piloted simulators for nearly two decades to study high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, agility, and air-to-air combat. These studies have included assessments of an F-16XL aircraft equipped with thrust vectoring, an assessment of the F-18 HARV maneuvering requirements to assist in thrust vectoring control system design, and an agility assessment of the F-18. The F-18 agility assessment was compared with in-flight testing. Open-loop maneuvers such as 180-deg rolls to measure roll rate showed favorable simulator/in-flight comparison. Closed-loop maneuvers such as rolls to 90 deg with precision stops or certain maximum longitudinal pitching maneuvers showed poorer performance due to reduced aggressiveness of pilot inputs in flight to remain within flight envelope limits.

  7. Pilot Fatigue and Circadian Desynchronosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pilot fatigue and circadian desynchronosis, its significance to air transport safety, and research approaches, were examined. There is a need for better data on sleep, activity, and other pertinent factors from pilots flying a variety of demanding schedules. Simulation studies of flight crew performance should be utilized to determine the degree of fatigue induced by demanding schedules and to delineate more precisely the factors responsible for performance decrements in flight and to test solutions proposed to resolve problems induced by fatigue and desynchronosis. It was concluded that there is a safety problem of uncertain magnitude due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue associated with various factors found in air transport operations.

  8. Test pilots 1952 - Walker, Butchart, and Jones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1952-01-01

    This photo shows test pilots, (Left-Right) Joseph A. Walker, Stanley P. Butchart and Walter P. Jones, standing in front of the Douglas D-558-II Skystreak, in 1952. These three test pilots at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' High-Speed Flight Research Station probably were discussing their flights in the aircraft. Joe flew research flights on the D-558-I #3 (14 flights, first on June 29, 1951) investigating buffeting, tail loads, and longitudinal stability. He flew the D-558-II #2 (3 flights, first on April 29, 1955) and recorded data on lateral stability and control. He also made pilot check-out flights in the D-558-II #3 (2 flights, first on May 7, 1954). For fifteen years Walker served as a pilot at the Edwards flight research facility (today known as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center) on research flights as well as chase missions for other pilots on NASA and Air Force research programs. On June 8, 1966, he was flying chase in NASA's F-104N for the Air Force's experimental bomber, North American XB-70A, when he was fatally injured in a mid-air collision between the planes. Stan flew the D-558-I #3 (12 flights, first on October 19, 1951) to determine the dynamic longitudinal stability characteristics and investigations of the lateral stability and control. He made one flight in the D-558-II #3 on June 26, 1953, as a pilot check-out flight. Butchart retired from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, on February 27, 1976, after a 25-year career in research aviation. Stan served as a research pilot, chief pilot, and director of flight operations. Walter P. Jones was a research pilot for NACA from the fall of 1950 to July 1952. He had been in the U.S. Air Force as a pilot before joining the Station. Jones flew the D-558-I #3 (5 flights, first on February 13, 1951) to study buffeting, tail loads and longitudinal stability. Jones made research flights on the D-558-II #3 ( 7 flights

  9. A pilot study on lignocelluloses to ethanol and fish feed using NMMO pretreatment and cultivation with zygomycetes in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2011-03-01

    A complete process for the production of bioethanol and fungal biomass from spruce and birch was investigated. The process included milling, pretreatment with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), washing of the pretreated wood, enzymatic hydrolysis, and cultivation of the zygomycetes fungi Mucor indicus. Investigated factors included wood chip size (0.5-16 mm), pretreatment time (1-5h), and scale of the process from bench-scale to 2m high air-lift reactor. Best hydrolysis yields were achieved from wood chips below 2mm after 5h of pretreatment. Ethanol yields (mg/g wood) of 195 and 128 for spruce, and 175 and 136 for birch were achieved from bench-scale and airlift, respectively. Fungal biomass yields (mg/g wood) of 103 and 70 for spruce, and 86 and 66 for birch from bench scale and airlift respectively were simultaneously achieved. NMMO pretreatment and cultivation with M. indicus appear to be a good alternative for ethanol production from birch and spruce. PMID:21247759

  10. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  11. OH-Radical Specific Addition to Glutathione S-Atom at the Air-Water Interface: Relevance to the Redox Balance of the Lung Epithelial Lining Fluid.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Hoffmann, Michael R; Colussi, Agustín J

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in epithelial lining fluids (ELF) prevent inhaled air pollutants from reaching lung tissue. This process, however, may upset ELF's redox balance, which is deemed to be expressed by the ratio of the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) to its putative oxidation product GSSG. Previously, we found that at physiological pH O3(g) rapidly oxidizes GS(2-)(aq) (but not GSH(-)) to GSO3(-) rather than GSSG. Here, we report that in moderately acidic pH ≤ 5 media ·OH(g) oxidizes GSH(-)(aq) to sulfenic GSOH(-), sulfinic GSO2(-), and sulfonic GSO3(-) acids via ·OH specific additions to reduced S-atoms. The remarkable specificity of ·OH on water versus its lack of selectivity in bulk water implicates an unprecedented steering process during [OH···GSH] interfacial encounters. Thus, both O3 and ·OH oxidize GSH to GSOH(-) under most conditions, and since GSOH(-) is reduced back to GSH in vivo by NADPH, redox balance may be in fact signaled by GSH/GSOH ratios. PMID:26722895

  12. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  13. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  14. Preventing central line air embolism.

    PubMed

    Feil, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    The Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System is a confidential, statewide Internet reporting system to which all Pennsylvania hospitals, outpatient-surgery facilities, birthing centers, and abortion facilities must file information on incidents and serious events.Safety Monitor is a column from Pennsylvania's Patient Safety Authority, the authority that informs nurses on issues that can affect patient safety and presents strategies they can easily integrate into practice. For more information on the authority, visit www.patientsafetyauthority.org. For the original article discussed in this column or for other articles on patient safety, click on "Patient Safety Advisories" and then "Advisory Library" in the left-hand navigation menu. PMID:26018011

  15. Interactive computerized air combat opponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1976-01-01

    A computer program developed to fly interactive one-on-one simulated air combat maneuvers against human pilots is described. The program which is called Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML), is being used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Differential Maneuvering Simulator. The basic control logic evaluates the relative states of the two aircraft and reacts by choosing the best of several elemental maneuvers. Pilot comments and results obtained when the computer was flown against combat-qualified fighter pilots indicate that the program performs realistic maneuvers and offers a very competitive standard pilot.

  16. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  17. Pilot model hypothesis testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft control time history predicted by the optimal control pilot model and actual pilot tracking data obtained from NASA Langley's differential maneuvering simulator (DMS) are analyzed. The analysis is performed using a hypothesis testing scheme modified to allow for changes in the true hypothesis. A finite number of pilot models, each with different hypothesized internal model representations of the aircraft dynamics, are constructed. The hypothesis testing scheme determines the relative probability that each pilot model best matches the DMS data. By observing the changes in probabilities, it is possible to determine when the pilot changes control strategy and which hypothesized pilot model best represent's the pilot's control behavior.

  18. HL-10 pilots assist with pilot entry into lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Not every moment of a test pilot's day is serious business. In a moment of levity, NASA pilots Bill Dana (left) and John A. Manke try to drag Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag away from the HL-10 lifting body while Air Force Major Jerauld R. Gentry helps from the cockpit. These four men were the principal pilots for the HL-10 program. This was not the only prank involving the HL-10 and its pilots. Once 'Captain Midnight' (Gentry) and the 'Midnight skulkers' sneaked into the NASA hangar and put 'U.S. Air Force' on the aircraft using stick-on letters. Later, while Gentry was making a lifting-body flight, his 1954 Ford was 'borrowed' from the parking lot, painted with yellow-green zinc-chromate primer, and decorated with large stick-on flowers about one foot in diameter. After Gentry returned from the flight, he was surprised to see what had happened to his car. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting

  19. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  20. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  1. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. C-130 Phase I Pilot Training Program (CCTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jack B.; And Others

    This is a detailed study of the C-130 Phase I (CCTS) pilot training program conducted by the 4442nd Combat Crew Training Wing at Stewart Air Force Base, Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to determine the most effective training program that will continue to produce highly qualified pilots at the least cost. The program was evaluated and…

  3. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  4. Efficient transfer of weather information to the pilot in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient methods for providing weather information to the pilot in flight are summarized. Use of discrete communications channels in the aeronautical, VHF band or subcarriers in the VOR navigation band are considered the best possibilities. Data rates can be provided such that inputs to the ground based transmitters from 2400 band telephone lines are easily accommodated together with additional data. The crucial weather data considered for uplinking are identified as radar reflectivity patterns relating to precipitation, spherics data, hourly sequences, nowcasts, forecasts, cloud top heights with freezing and icing conditions, the critical weather map and satellite maps. NEXRAD, the ground based, Doppler weather radar which will produce an improved weather product also encourages use of an uplink to fully utilize its capability to improve air safety.

  5. Pilot mental workload: how well do pilots really perform?

    PubMed

    Morris, Charles H; Leung, Ying K

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing mental demands on various aspects of aircrew performance. In particular, the robustness of the prioritization and allocation hierarchy of aviate-navigate-communicate was examined, a hierarchy commonly used within the aviation industry. A total of 42 trainee pilots were divided into three workload groups (low, medium, high) to complete a desktop, computer-based exercise that simulated combinations of generic flight deck activities: flight control manipulation, rule-based actions and higher level cognitive processing, in addition to Air Traffic Control instructions that varied in length from one chunk of auditory information to seven chunks. It was found that as mental workload and auditory input increased, participants experienced considerable difficulty in carrying out the primary manipulation task. A similar decline in prioritization was also observed. Moreover, when pilots were under a high mental workload their ability to comprehend more than two chunks of auditory data deteriorated rapidly. PMID:17090505

  6. Stress and Simulation in Pilot Training. Final Report, May 1977 Through December 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahenbuhl, Gary S.; And Others

    Research was conducted on pilot stress during simulated emergency flight conditions. Catecholamine (adrenaline and non-adrenaline) secretion for twenty United States Air Force student pilots and thirteen instructor pilots was determined during daily activities, during simulated flights performed in high realism simulators, and during actual…

  7. Private and Commercial Pilot: Free Balloon: Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide has been prepared to assist the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the private pilot or commercial pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air category and free balloon class rating. It contains information and guidance concerning the pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight test: layout and…

  8. 40 CFR 88.206-94 - State opt-in for the California Pilot Test Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.206-94 State opt-in for the California Pilot Test Program. (a) A state may opt into the Pilot program if it contains... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State opt-in for the California...

  9. 40 CFR 88.204-94 - Sales requirements for the California Pilot Test Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pilot Test Program. 88.204-94 Section 88.204-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.204-94 Sales requirements for the California Pilot Test Program. (a) The total annual required minimum...

  10. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller and Controller/Controller Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Davison, Hayley J.

    2000-01-01

    The increased ability to exchange information between Pilots, Controllers, Dispatchers, and other agents is a key component of advanced Air Traffic Management. The importance of shared information as well as current and evolving practices in information sharing are presented for a variety of interactions including: Controller/Pilot interactions, Pilot/Airline interactions, Controller/Controller interactions, and Airline/ATM interactions.

  11. NASA study of an automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A Pilot Advisory System (PAS) concept for high-density uncontrolled airports is discussed where the general aviation pilots will be provided with automatic audio voice airport and air traffic advisories within two minute intervals and with mid-air collision warnings whenever such situations arise. Free of manual inputs, the PAS includes the options of fixed-base operator runway select, automatic restart and self-test, and remote inquiry of system status and messages.

  12. Autoreturn Function for a Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMinn, J. D.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm to maneuver an air vehicle to intercept and follow a pre-planned path while remaining within an arbitrary, closed boundary is outlined. The immediate application is for an autonomous lost-link return-to-runway function for a remotely piloted vehicle being developed by NASA, but other applications are hypothesized. Results of implementation in a flight simulator are given.

  13. Rotational level-dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi (1,0) band of OH in hydrogen-air combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the collisional broadening and line shift of the (1,0) band of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi system of OH are reported in atmospheric pressure hydrogen-air combustion gases. The measurements were made using a single-mode, narrow linewidth, frequency-doubled ring dye laser operating near 283 nm. The OH was generated in the combustion gases of a flat flame H2-air burner. Collisional broadening parameters for equilibrium mixtures of H2, O2, H2O, and N2 were obtained spanning a range of fuel/air equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.6 and temperatures from 1500 to 2050 K. Measurements were obtained spanning rotational quantum numbers from 4.5 to 16.5. The collision induced frequency shift was determined to be 0.1 that of the collisional broadening.

  14. Air-broadened line parameters with temperature dependence for 12C16O, 13C16O, and 12C18O at 2.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. H.; Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.

    2012-12-01

    To improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of tropospheric CO, we have recorded more than 50 high resolution (0.005 cm-1) spectra of CO and two of its isotopologues (13CO and C18O) at temperatures between 150 and 298 K using a coolable absorption cell in the sample compartment of the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Air-broadened spectra at total pressures up to 700 Torr were recorded for all three isotopologues, and self-broadened CO spectra were also recorded. Line parameters were determined by broad-band constrained multispectrum least-squares fitting of 16 or more spectra simultaneously. Parameters determined in the fits included Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents; pressure-induced line shift coefficients, their temperature dependences; and the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements that characterize line mixing. Speed dependence parameters were also included to minimize the fit residuals. The individual line positions and intensities were constrained to their theoretical relationships in order to obtain the rovibrational (G, B, D, and H) and band intensity parameters, including Herman-Wallis coefficients, as has been done for CO2 previously. The air-broadening results for the 13C16O and 12C18O 2-0 bands are compared with each other and with those for the corresponding 12C16O band.

  15. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  16. Pilots of the future - Human or computer?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Nagel, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the occurrence of aircraft accidents and the evolution of the air-travel system, questions arise regarding the computer's potential for making fundamental contributions to improving the safety and reliability of air travel. An important result of an analysis of the causes of aircraft accidents is the conclusion that humans - 'pilots and other personnel' - are implicated in well over half of the accidents which occur. Over 70 percent of the incident reports contain evidence of human error. In addition, almost 75 percent show evidence of an 'information-transfer' problem. Thus, the question arises whether improvements in air safety could be achieved by removing humans from control situations. In an attempt to answer this question, it is important to take into account also certain advantages which humans have in comparison to computers. Attention is given to human error and the effects of technology, the motivation to automate, aircraft automation at the crossroads, the evolution of cockpit automation, and pilot factors.

  17. Air Force's First C-17 Flies into Retirement

    NASA Video Gallery

    The U.S. Air Force has retired its first C-17 transport after 21 years as a flight test aircraft and use in joint NASA-USAF propulsion research. NASA research pilot Frank Batteas, who was an Air Fo...

  18. Line-oriented flight training: Northwest Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunn, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    An exemption from certain FAA regulations which stereotype simulator flight training was obtained and pilots with current line experience were used to prepare and develop scenarios for a program in which each crew member would be trained to recognize and properly use all available resouces. The development of the scenarios for training to proficiency and pilot reaction to the training sessions are discussed.

  19. Collaboration in Controller-Pilot Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Like other forms of dialogue, air traffic control (ATC) communication is an act of collaboration between two or more people. Collaboration progresses more or less smoothly depending on speaker and listener strategies. For example, we have found that the way controllers organize and deliver messages influences how easily pilots understand these messages, which in turn determines how much time and effort is needed to successfully complete the transaction. In this talk, I will introduce a collaborative framework for investigating controller-pilot communication and then describe a set of studies that investigate ATC communication from two complementary directions. First, we focused on the impact of ATC message factors (e.g., length, speech rate) on the cognitive processes involved in ATC: communication. Second, we examined pilot factors that influence the amount of cognitive resources available for these communication processes. These studies also illustrate how the collaborate framework can help analyze the impact of proposed visual data link systems on ATC communication. Examining the joint effects of communication medium, message factors, and pilot/controller factors on performance should help improve air safety and communication efficiency. Increased efficiency is important for meeting the growing demands on the National Air System.

  20. An on-line optimisation of a SBR cycle for carbon and nitrogen removal based on on-line pH and Our: the role of dissolved oxygen control.

    PubMed

    Puig, S; Corominas, Ll; Traore, A; Colomer, J; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was applied in a wastewater treatment plant treating urban wastewater focused on carbon and nitrogen removal. From an initial predefined step-feed cycle definition, the evolution of the on-line monitored pH and calculated oxygen uptake rate (OUR) were analysed in terms of knowledge extraction. First, the aerobic phases of the SBR cycle were operated using an On/Off dissolved oxygen (DO) control strategy that concluded with a sinusoidal pH profile that made detecting the "ammonia valley" difficult. After changing to fuzzy logic control of the dissolved oxygen and by adding an air flow meter to the pilot plant, the pH evolution and on-line calculated OUR showed a clearer trend during the aerobic phases. Finally, a proposed algorithm for adjusting the aerobic phases of the SBR for carbon and ammonia removal is presented and discussed. PMID:16722067

  1. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  2. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Blijderveen, Maarten van; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  3. Transition to Glass: Pilot Training for High-Technology Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Moses, John H.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the activities of a major commercial air carrier between 1993 and late 1996 as it acquired an advanced fleet of high-technology aircraft (Boeing 757). Previously, the airline's fleet consisted of traditional (non-glass) aircraft, and this report examines the transition from a traditional fleet to a glass one. A total of 150 pilots who were entering the B-757 transition training volunteered for the study, which consisted of three query phases: (1) first day of transition training, (2) 3 to 4 months after transition training, and (3) 12 to 14 months after initial operating experience. Of these initial 150 pilots, 99 completed all three phases of the study, with each phase consisting of probes on attitudes and experiences associated with their training and eventual transition to flying the line. In addition to the three questionnaires, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted. Although the primary focus of this study was on the flight training program, additional factors such as technical support, documentation, and training aids were investigated as well. The findings generally indicate that the pilot volunteers were highly motivated and very enthusiastic about their training program. In addition, the group had low levels of apprehension toward automation and expressed a high degree of satisfaction toward their training. However, there were some concerns expressed regarding the deficiencies in some of the training aids and lack of a free-play flight management system training device.

  4. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  5. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  6. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Situation Awareness and Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John; Endsley, Mica R.; Amonlirdviman, Keith; Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence

    1998-01-01

    The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot/controller negotiation and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. A part-task simulator experiment is described which probes pilot/controller interaction in areas where common information has the potential to lead to contention, as identified in the comparative analysis. Preliminary results are presented which suggest that shared information can effect more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers.

  7. Relaxation of contact-line singularities solely by the Kelvin effect and apparent contact angles for isothermal volatile liquids in contact with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The contact (triple) line of a volatile liquid on a flat solid is studied theoretically. Like with a pure-vapor atmosphere [Phys. Rev. E 87, 010401, 2013], but here for isothermal diffusion-limited evaporation/condensation in the presence of an inert gas, we rigorously show that the notorious contact-line singularities (related to motion or phase change itself) can be regularized solely on account of the Kelvin effect (curvature dependence of the saturation conditions). No disjoining pressure, precursor films or Navier slip are in fact needed to this purpose, and nor are they taken into consideration here (``minimalist'' approach). The model applies to both perfect (zero Young's angle) and partial wetting, and is in particular used to study the related issue of evaporation-induced contact angles. Their modification by the contact-line motion (either advancing or receding) is assessed. The formulation is posed for a distinguished immediate vicinity of the contact line (the ``microregion''), the corresponding problem decoupling to leading order, here up to one unknown coefficient, from what actually happens at the macroscale. The lubrication approximation (implying sufficiently small contact angles) is used in the liquid, coupled with the diffusion equation in the gaz phase. Supported by ESA and BELSPO PRODEX and F.R.S.-FNRS.

  8. To Educate Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dayton Y.

    1968-01-01

    As the highly trained ex-military pilots of World War II began to retire from commercial flying, there was concern over the pilot shortage, especially among the airlines with their growing needs. Miami-Dade Junior College, in January 1965, was the first to respond to this need. Although initial enrollment was expected to be small, 150 applications…

  9. SuperPILOT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissmann, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    SuperPILOT is Apple Computer's new computer assisted instruction authoring language. Provided is a review of SuperPILOT, indicated to be ideally suited for the development of interactive tutorials for the classroom. Includes comments on the language's strengths/weaknesses as well as comments on system requirements and special program features. (JN)

  10. Test Pilot and Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1920-01-01

    Goggles at the ready, this Langley test pilot and engineer conducted research business high above the ground. In the early years the flight research team was usually made up of a test pilot (Thomas Carroll, front cockpit) and an engineer (John W. Gus Crowley, Jr.).

  11. Medical Handbook for Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides information on an airline pilot's physical and mental status and related medical factors which may affect his/her performance. Contents include information on the physical examination for pilots, the flyer's environment, hypoxia, hyperventilation, gas in the body, the ears, alcohol, drugs and flying, carbon monoxide, vision,…

  12. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  13. Information transfer in pilots' use of a collision avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Scott, Barry C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1987-01-01

    A flight simulator study of pilots' use of the Traffic-alert and Collision Avoidance System is described. Three levels of information on the location of other air traffic were presented to different groups of airline pilots. The amount of informtion on the location of other traffic had little effect on pilots' performance of the maneuvers commanded by the collision avoidance system. Measured crew responses were similar with no presentation of traffic location, with limited information, and with continuous traffic information. No learning effects were observed, and differences in flight experience did not contribute to the performance difference found.

  14. Travel Air commercial airplane -- Type 5000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    The 5000 is a semicantilever monoplane, closed cabin type, with pilot about in line with the leading edge of the wing and room for 4 passengers behind him. It is equipped with a Wright Whirlwind engine.

  15. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-12-01

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (MG) was investigated using the fish Channa striata kidney (CSK) and Channa striata gill (CSG) cell lines. Five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg mL(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Rhodamine 123 and Alamar Blue. The mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of MG-exposed cells were observed by Rhodamine 123 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively. In vitro potential DNA damaging effect of MG was tested using comet assay. Mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments were carried out to study the binding effect of MG to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of cells. DNA shift mobility experiments showed that MG is capable of strongly binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated after exposure to MG. In CSK and CSG cell lines exposed to MG for 48 h, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which might be associated with decreased levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in these cell lines (p < 0.001), was observed. PMID:25023653

  16. Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and Lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2015-01-20

    A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment. PMID:25553788

  17. AMBIENT AIR TOXICS IN HOUSTON-GALVESTON AREA WITH HIGH AND LOW TRI EMISSIONS - PHASE II OF A PILOT STUDY OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL CONCENTRATIONS USING PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES (PSDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (the Act) requires that states monitor and regulate the emissions of certain organic hazardous air pollutants. Hence, the purpose of this study is to show through the use of 3M organic passive vapor monitors (OVM), that federal, regional, stat...

  18. The controller, aviation medicine and air safety.

    PubMed

    Watkin, B L

    1983-03-01

    Aviation medicine has researched many important facts on pilots, but little on direct relationships between controllers, aviation medicine and air safety. The unsuspecting flying public accepts a 'blind faith' in aircraft and pilots, unaware that aircraft are controlled within 'suspect' ATC systems. The deceptive simplicity of controlling air traffic in apparently limitless skies belies the complexity of man-machine ATC systems operated in ever-crowded airspace, sometimes with antiquated equipment and indifferent communications. The indivisible operational controller/pilot team strives to meet similar ICAO medical standards and operate within the limitations of non-standardised recorded air traffic. Despite controllers' intensive stress at air disasters and 'almost' air disasters, air traffic must continually be controlled for air safety; but, countless human lives (and insurance dollars) saved are possibly camouflaged within the smoke screen of ATC. In New Zealand aviation, the Accident Compensation Corporation is statutorily responsible for air-safety, but accident investigators need controllers' expertise. Has a climate of complacency evolved towards air safety such that New Zealand's Erebus and other air disasters could have been avoided? Controllers are that crucial link in aviation with personal medical fitness vital to the air safety of the unsuspecting flying public. Controllers' dedicated aim for complete air safety in ATC shall benefit from greater understanding within aviation medicine and in-depth medical research. PMID:6847565

  19. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  20. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  1. Bee Line BR-1 Racer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Bee Line BR-1 Racer: The Bee Line BR-1 was a racing aircraft used to compete in the 1922 Pulitzer Air Race. The aircraft and its sister ship, the Bee Line BR-2, came to Langley and the NACA in 1926. The BR-1 is shown in the NACA hangar at Langley Field in early 1926.

  2. Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Jalava, P.I.; Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Halinen, A.I.; Happo, M.S.; Hillamo, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Katsouyanni, K.; Sunyer, J.; Hirvonen, M.R.

    2007-03-15

    We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for 24 h. Selected inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), were measured together with cytotoxicity (MTT test), and analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle (propidium iodide staining). The PM10-2.5 samples had a much higher inflammatory activity than the PM2.5-0.2 and PM0.2 samples, but the PM2.5-0.2 samples showed the largest differences in inflammatory activity, and the PM0.2 samples in cytotoxicity, between the sampling campaigns. The PM2.5-0.2 samples from traffic environments in springtime Barcelona and summertime Athens had the highest inflammatory activities, which may be related to the high photochemical activity in the atmosphere during the sampling campaigns. The PM0.2 sample from wintertime Prague with proven impacts from local coal and biomass combustion had very high cytotoxic and apoptotic activities and caused a distinct cell cycle arrest. Thus, particulate size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the toxicity profile of urban air particulate matter. These factors may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in particulate exposure-response relationships of human health effects in epidemiological studies.

  3. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  4. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  5. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  6. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  7. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  8. Broadcast control of air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a system of broadcast control for improved flight safety and air traffic control is discussed. The system provides a balance of equality between improved cockpit guidance and control capability and ground control in order to provide the pilot with a greater degree of participation. The manner in which the system is operated and the equipment required for safe operation are examined.

  9. Cognitive engineering in aerospace application: Pilot interaction with cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine R.; Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of recent incidents involving glass-cockpit aircraft, there is growing concern with cockpit automation and its potential effects on pilot performance. However, little is known about the nature and causes of problems that arise in pilot-automation interaction. The results of two studies that provide converging, complementary data on pilots' difficulties with understanding and operating one of the core systems of cockpit automation, the Flight Management System (FMS) is reported. A survey asking pilots to describe specific incidents with the FMS and observations of pilots undergoing transition training to a glass cockpit aircraft served as vehicles to gather a corpus on the nature and variety of FMS-related problems. The results of both studies indicate that pilots become proficient in standard FMS operations through ground training and subsequent line experience. But even with considerable line experience, they still have difficulties tracking FMS status and behavior in certain flight contexts, and they show gaps in their understanding of the functional structure of the system. The results suggest that design-related factors such as opaque interfaces contribute to these difficulties which can affect pilots' situation awareness. The results of this research are relevant for both the design of cockpit automation and the development of training curricula specifically tailored to the needs of glass cockpits.

  10. Speed-Dependent Broadening and Line-Mixing in CH_4 Perturbed by Air Near 1.64 μm for the French/german Climate Mission MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, Thibault; Tran, Thi Ngoc Ha; Reed, Zachary; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Hodges, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges presently facing mankind, and methane is one of the most powerful anthropogenic greenhouse gases. For a better understanding of future climate trends, a satellite dedicated to the measurements of atmospheric methane is under joint development by the French and German space research centers (CNES and DLR). The so-called MERLIN mission (Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission, 2019) aims at providing global information on atmospheric methane concentration with a relative uncertainty less than 2% and with a spatial resolution of 50 km Such spectroscopic monitoring of gases in the atmosphere of the Earth, requires a precise description of absorption lines shapes that goes beyond the usual Voigt profile (VP). In the case of methane, the differences between the measured profiles and those given by the VP can be very important, making the VP completely incompatible with the reliable detection of sources and sinks from space. In this work, we present the first results on the modeling of methane lines broadened by air in the 1.64 μm region and the associated spectroscopic parameters, taking into account various collisional effects between molecules that are neglected by the VP: collisional interference between the lines (line-mixing), collision-induced velocity changes (Dicke narrowing effect) and speed dependence of the collisional broadening and shifting. These results were obtained by simultaneously fitting the model parameters to high sensitivity and high-resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) spectra recorded at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) over a wide pressure range (5 to 100 kPa). These spectroscopic data and the associated model to calculate the spectrum absorption coefficient will be then used to analyze ground-based atmospheric spectra at the TCCON facility in Park Falls, Wisconsin. C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4 (2011) H. Tran, J.-M. Hartmann, G

  11. Lower neurocognitive function in U-2 pilots

    PubMed Central

    Tate, David F.; Wood, Joe; Sladky, John H.; McDonald, Kent; Sherman, Paul M.; Kawano, Elaine S.; Rowland, Laura M.; Patel, Beenish; Wright, Susan N.; Hong, Elliot; Rasmussen, Jennifer; Willis, Adam M.; Kochunov, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether United States Air Force (USAF) U-2 pilots (U2Ps) with occupational exposure to repeated hypobaria had lower neurocognitive performance compared to pilots without repeated hypobaric exposure and whether U2P neurocognitive performance correlated with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. Methods: We collected Multidimensional Aptitude Battery–II (MAB-II) and MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning (MicroCog) neurocognitive data on USAF U2Ps with a history of repeated occupational exposure to hypobaria and compared these with control data collected from USAF pilots (AFPs) without repeated hypobaric exposure (U2Ps/AFPs MAB-II 87/83; MicroCog 93/80). Additional comparisons were performed between U2Ps with high vs low WMH burden. Results: U2Ps with repeated hypobaric exposure had significantly lower scores than control pilots on reasoning/calculation (U2Ps/AFPs 99.4/106.5), memory (105.5/110.9), information processing accuracy (102.1/105.8), and general cognitive functioning (103.5/108.5). In addition, U2Ps with high whole-brain WMH count showed significantly lower scores on reasoning/calculation (high/low 96.8/104.1), memory (102.9/110.2), general cognitive functioning (101.5/107.2), and general cognitive proficiency (103.6/108.8) than U2Ps with low WMH burden (high/low WMH mean volume 0.213/0.003 cm3 and mean count 14.2/0.4). Conclusion: In these otherwise healthy, highly functioning individuals, pilots with occupational exposure to repeated hypobaria demonstrated lower neurocognitive performance, albeit demonstrable on only some tests, than pilots without repeated exposure. Furthermore, within the U2P population, higher WMH burden was associated with lower neurocognitive test performance. Hypobaric exposure may be a risk factor for subtle changes in neurocognition. PMID:25008397

  12. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  14. Pilot Overmyer on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck port side, Pilot Overmyer, looks down at freefloating object. On his left, attached to port side wall, are a dessert package, a prepackaged meal, control panel ML86B, and water dispenser kit with water gun.

  15. Telescience testbed pilot program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA), under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, is conducting a Telescience Testbed Pilot Program. Fifteen universities, under subcontract to USRA, are conducting a variety of scientific experiments using advanced technology to determine the requirements and evaluate the tradeoffs for the information system of the Space Station era. An interim set of recommendations based on the experiences of the first six months of the pilot program is presented.

  16. Enrichment with air-sandwiched method of on-line collection/concentration using chelating resin and simultaneous determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Osamu; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2009-06-15

    The application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) to the forensic sample was studied. On-line collection/concentration method of the sample with chelating resin column (TE-05) and air-sandwiched method to isolate the analyte zone at the highest concentration of an eluent was coupled with ICP-AES. The limits of detection (LODs) were much improved to 35 fold (Co): from Sc, 0.15 ng ml(-1) to Ni, 1.99 ng ml(-1), and the concentration efficiency was 7-14 times. This method was applied to the concrete with about 10mg of samples. Major elements (Al, Fe, Mg) measured by conventional/ICP-AES and trace elements measured by this method, such as Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb were determined without matrices interference. Four concrete samples can be discriminated by comparing the content profiles of the trace elements and the major elements. PMID:19362181

  17. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  18. Challenges associated with the sampling and analysis of organosulfur compounds in air using real-time PTR-ToF-MS and off-line GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, V.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfur compounds (OSC) are naturally emitted via various processes involving phytoplankton and algae in marine regions, from animal metabolism and from biomass decomposition inland. These compounds are malodorant and reactive. Their oxidation to methanesulfonic and sulfuric acids leads to the formation and growth of atmospheric particles, which are known to have negative effects on visibility, climate and human health. In order to predict particle formation events, accurate measurements of the OSC precursors are essential. Here, two different approaches, proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and canister sampling coupled with GC-FID are compared for both laboratory standards [dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and methanethiol (MTO)] and for a complex sample. Results show that both techniques produce accurate quantification of DMS. While PTR-ToF-MS provides real-time measurements of all four OSCs individually, significant fragmentation of DMDS and DMTS occurs, which can complicate their identification in complex mixtures. Canister sampling coupled with GC-FID provides excellent sensitivity for DMS, DMDS and DMTS. However, MTO was observed to react on metal surfaces to produce DMDS and, in the presence of hydrogen sulfide, even DMTS. Avoiding metal in sampling systems seems to be necessary for measuring all but dimethyl sulfide in air.

  19. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  20. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  1. Identification of Important "Party Line" Information Elements and the Implications for Situational Awareness in the Datalink Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Air/ground digital datalink communications are an integral component of the FAA's Air Traffic Control (ATC) modernization strategy. With the introduction of datalink into the ATC system, there is concern over the potential loss of situational awareness by flight crews due to the reduction in the "party line" information available to the pilot. "Party line" information is gleaned by flight crews overhearing communications between ATC and other aircraft. In the datalink environment, party line information may not be available due to the use of discrete addressing. Information concerning the importance, availability, and accuracy of party line elements was explored through an opinion survey of active air carrier flight crews. The survey identified numerous important party line elements. These elements were scripted into a full-mission flight simulation. The flight simulation experiment examined the utilization of party line information by studying subject responses to the specific information elements. Some party line elements perceived as important were effectively utilized by flight crews in the simulated operational environment. However, other party line elements stimulated little or no increase in situational awareness. The ability to assimilate and use party line information appeared to be dependent on workload, time availability, and the tactical/strategic nature of the situations. In addition, the results of both the survey and the simulation indicated that the importance of party line information appeared to be greatest for operations near or on the airport. This indicates that caution must be exercised when implementing datalink communications in these high workload, tactical sectors. This document is based on the thesis of Alan H. Midkiff submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  2. Review of BODO Fireflood Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarko, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the past, present, and projected future operations of the Bodo Fireflood Pilot Project in the Provost Upper Mannville B Pool of E.-central Alberta. This single pattern project was initiated in 1975 to evaluate the potential of tar sand oil recovery by the in situ combustion process. The pool is comprised of a high porosity McLaren Waseca channel sand deposit that attains a maximum thickness of 30 m and contains heavy oil with a density of 979 kg/cu m and in situ viscosity of 2,300 mpa/sec. Primary oil recovery is expected to reach 5%. The project operated as a dry combustion scheme until early in 1982 when wet combustion was initiated. During the dry combustion phase operation, 38,300,000 cu m of air was injected while 97,500 cu m of oil was produced. This amounts to an air/oil ratio of 395 cu m/cu m and an estimated oil recovery of ca 18% of the pilot drainage area oil in place. This favorable performance led to a decision to expand the pilot operation to 7, 6-ha 7-spots to demonstrate the satisfactory performance of a multi-pattern scheme.

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Simulating Visual Attention Allocation of Pilots in an Advanced Cockpit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frische, F.; Osterloh, J.-P.; Luedtke, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experiments conducted with human line pilots and a cognitive pilot model during interaction with a new 40 Flight Management System (FMS). The aim of these experiments was to gather human pilot behavior data in order to calibrate the behavior of the model. Human behavior is mainly triggered by visual perception. Thus, the main aspect was to setup a profile of human pilots' visual attention allocation in a cockpit environment containing the new FMS. We first performed statistical analyses of eye tracker data and then compared our results to common results of familiar analyses in standard cockpit environments. The comparison has shown a significant influence of the new system on the visual performance of human pilots. Further on, analyses of the pilot models' visual performance have been performed. A comparison to human pilots' visual performance revealed important improvement potentials.

  6. Techniques for Improving Pilot Recovery from System Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2001-01-01

    This project examined the application of intelligent cockpit systems to aid air transport pilots at the tasks of reacting to in-flight system failures and of planning and then following a safe four dimensional trajectory to the runway threshold during emergencies. Two studies were conducted. The first examined pilot performance with a prototype awareness/alerting system in reacting to on-board system failures. In a full-motion, high-fidelity simulator, Army helicopter pilots were asked to fly a mission during which, without warning or briefing, 14 different failures were triggered at random times. Results suggest that the amount of information pilots require from such diagnostic systems is strongly dependent on their training; for failures they are commonly trained to react to with a procedural response, they needed only an indication of which failure to follow, while for 'un-trained' failures, they benefited from more intelligent and informative systems. Pilots were also found to over-rely on the system in conditions were it provided false or mis-leading information. In the second study, a proof-of-concept system was designed suitable for helping pilots replan their flights in emergency situations for quick, safe trajectory generation. This system is described in this report, including: the use of embedded fast-time simulation to predict the trajectory defined by a series of discrete actions; the models of aircraft and pilot dynamics required by the system; and the pilot interface. Then, results of a flight simulator evaluation with airline pilots are detailed. In 6 of 72 simulator runs, pilots were not able to establish a stable flight path on localizer and glideslope, suggesting a need for cockpit aids. However, results also suggest that, to be operationally feasible, such an aid must be capable of suggesting safe trajectories to the pilot; an aid that only verified plans entered by the pilot was found to have significantly detrimental effects on performance and

  7. Pilot reports of disorientation across 14 years of flight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare recent incidents involving disorientation in flight reported by 336 Air Force, Army, and Navy pilots with incidents reported by 137 pilots in 1956. The pilots reported their experiences using a check list and a written description of an experience with disorientation in the aircraft they were flying at the time. The latter included 40 incidents which occurred in support of operations in Vietnam. The reports of disorientation showed a striking similarity across types of aircraft flown over 14 years of flying, as well as with the incidents occurring in Vietnam. However, some variation in reports between aircraft types was noted. These reports of disorientation suggest that disorientation is currently experienced in a wide variety of flight operations and that it will continue to be experienced by aircraft pilots.

  8. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Taiana Pacheco; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. METHODS This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. RESULTS A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight. PMID:25372170

  9. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  10. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  11. Severe neurological decompression sickness in a U-2 pilot.

    PubMed

    Jersey, Sean L; Baril, Robert T; McCarty, Richmond D; Millhouse, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    Severe neurological decompression sickness (DCS) has been a rare entity in the U.S. Air Force, including the U-2 community. In over 50 yr of operation, few U-2 pilots reported severe neurological DCS in flight despite the extreme altitudes at which they operate. This article describes a near-fatal case of neurological DCS that occurred during a combat mission. The injury left the pilot with permanent cognitive deficits that correlated with focal lesions present on magnetic resonance imaging of his brain. To our knowledge, the images presented herein are the first to show radiological evidence of brain injury induced by altitude DCS. Though only a single case, the objective and clinical findings in the case pilot are similar to results documented in divers suffering DCS with central nervous system injury and victims of traumatic brain injury. DCS will remain a potentially serious threat to current and future air and space operations. PMID:20058739

  12. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  13. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the... carrier ensures that the pilot in command is advised immediately to take the emergency action...

  14. A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

  15. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  16. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  17. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  18. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  19. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  20. General aviation approach and landing practices. [by pilots of light aircraft at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.; Goode, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics of air traffic patterns at uncontrolled airports and techniques used by a group of general aviation pilots in landing light airplanes are documented. The results of some 1,600 radar tracks taken at four uncontrolled airports and some 600 landings made by 22 pilots in two, four place, single engine light airplanes show that the uncontrolled traffic pattern is highly variable. The altitudes, distances, and piloting procedures utilized may affect the ability for pilots to see-and-avoid in this environment. Most landing approaches were conducted at an airspeed above recommended, resulting in significant floating during flare and touchdowns that were relatively flat and often nose-low.

  1. 8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer seat with instrument panel. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 14 CFR 125.285 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. 125.285 Section 125.285 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING...

  3. 14 CFR 135.247 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. 135.247 Section 135.247 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON...

  4. Lunar Landing Training vehicle piloted by Neil Armstrong during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A Lunar Landing Training Vehicle, piloted by Astronaut Neil Armstrong, goes through a checkout flight at Ellington Air Force Base on June 16, 1969. The total duration of the lunar simulation flight was five minutes and 59 seconds. Maximum altitude attained was about 300 feet.

  5. 14 CFR 135.89 - Pilot requirements: Use of oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING... operated with the cabin pressure altitude more than 10,000 feet MSL, each pilot shall comply with paragraph... at all times or automatically supplies oxygen whenever the cabin pressure altitude exceeds...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1051 - Pilot safety background check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot safety background check. 91.1051 Section 91.1051 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1051...

  7. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from equipment surfaces to fresh-cut leafy greens during processing in a model pilot-plant production line with sanitizer-free water.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens has become a public health concern as a result of several large outbreaks. The goal of this study was to generate baseline data for E. coli O157:H7 transfer from product-inoculated equipment surfaces to uninoculated lettuce during pilot-scale processing without a sanitizer. Uninoculated cored heads of iceberg and romaine lettuce (22.7 kg) were processed using a commercial shredder, step conveyor, 3.3-m flume tank with sanitizer-free tap water, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer, followed by 22.7 kg of product that had been dip inoculated to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), or 10(2) CFU/g of a four-strain avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 cocktail. After draining the flume tank and refilling the holding tank with tap water, 90.8 kg of uninoculated product was similarly processed and collected in ∼5-kg aliquots. After processing, 42 equipment surface samples and 46 iceberg or 36 romaine lettuce samples (25 g each) from the collection baskets were quantitatively examined for E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating or membrane filtration using tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Initially, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 transfer was seen from inoculated lettuce to the shredder and conveyor belt, with all equipment surface populations decreasing 90 to 99% after processing 90.8 kg of uncontaminated product. After processing lettuce containing 10(6) or 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 CFU/g followed by uninoculated lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 was quantifiable throughout the entire 90.8 kg of product. At an inoculation level of 10(2) CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 was consistently detected in the first 21.2 kg of previously uninoculated lettuce at 2 to 3 log CFU/100 g and transferred to 78 kg of product. These baseline E. coli O157:H7 transfer results will help determine the degree of sanitizer efficacy required to better ensure the safety of fresh-cut leafy

  8. Test pilot and engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Goggles at the ready, this Langley test pilot and engineer conducted research business high above the ground. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 24). This photograph is also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 163). In the early years the flight research team was usually made up of a test pilot (Thomas Carroll, front cockpit) and an engineer (John W. Gus Crowley,Jr.).

  9. Pilot selection and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Personality and situational factors relevant to individual and group performance in highly demanding environments, such as those faced by astronauts or by jet transport crew, are discussed. It is emphasized that although technical competence and proficiency in pilot selection are prerequisites for safety, operating a modern jet transport is a group endeavor that requires the effective coordination of the entire crew. A self-report test battery for measuring positive and negative personality traits of pilot candidates, termed the Personal Characteristics Inventory, is described.

  10. Effects of flight workload on urinary catecholamine responses in experienced military pilots.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yasutami; Onozawa, Akihiko; Kikukawa, Azusa; Miyamoto, Yoshinori

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated the flight responses induced by strenuous aerobatic demonstration flight and an air-to-air combat maneuvering flight in experienced pilots. Subjects were 54 military male pilots on a volunteer basis: 8 T-4 pilots (M= 35.8 yr., SD=4.9), 15 F-4 pilots (M=32.6 yr., SD=5.1), 13 F-15 pilots (M=33.8 yr., SD=1.0), and 18 F-2 pilots (M=33.7 yr., SD=3.9). Samples of urine were collected approximately 30 min. before and 20 min. after the flights. The postflight adrenaline in all pilots was significantly higher than at preflight, while a significant increase in noradrenaline at postflight was not observed. The post-/preflight ratio of adrenaline in all pilots was relatively similar and high. These findings might be regarded as a result of autonomic nervous system response to the flight workload of military pilots. Especially is increment in sympathetic activity considered to play an important part in psychological adaptation to flight. PMID:18065080

  11. Age, flight experience, and risk of crash involvement in a cohort of professional pilots.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Grabowski, Jurek G; Qiang, Yandong; McCarthy, Melissa L; Rebok, George W

    2003-05-15

    Federal aviation regulations prohibit airline pilots from flying beyond the age of 60 years. However, the relation between pilot age and flight safety has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. From 1987 to 1997, the authors followed a cohort of 3,306 commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots who were aged 45-54 years in 1987. During the follow-up period, the pilots accumulated a total of 12.9 million flight hours and 66 aviation crashes, yielding a rate of 5.1 crashes per million pilot flight hours. Crash risk remained fairly stable as the pilots aged from their late forties to their late fifties. Flight experience, as measured by total flight time at baseline, showed a significant protective effect against the risk of crash involvement. With adjustment for age, pilots who had 5,000-9,999 hours of total flight time at baseline had a 57% lower risk of a crash than their less experienced counterparts (relative risk = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.87). The protective effect of flight experience leveled off after total flight time reached 10,000 hours. The lack of an association between pilot age and crash risk may reflect a strong "healthy worker effect" stemming from the rigorous medical standards and periodic physical examinations required for professional pilots. PMID:12746239

  12. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics.

    PubMed

    van Blijderveen, Maarten; Bramer, Eddy A; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-09-01

    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained. PMID:22595838

  13. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  14. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  15. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  16. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  17. Control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-03-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

  18. Seat cushion to provide realistic acceleration cues to aircraft simulator pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Seat cushions, each including an air cell with a non-compressible surface, are disclosed. The apparatus are provided for initially controlling the air pressure in the air cells to allow the two main support areas of the simulator pilot to touch the non-compressible surface and thus begin to compress the flesh near these areas. During a simulated flight the apparatus control the air pressure in the cells to simulate the events that occur in a seat cushion during actual flight.

  19. Pilot study on municipal wastewater treatment by a modified submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chunhai; Huang, Xia; Wen, Xianghua

    2006-01-01

    A pilot-scale modified submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with the capacity of 18.1 m3d(-1) was developed on the basis of the principle of air-lift internal-loop reactor. Economical aeration intensity of the SMBR was determined as 96 m3m(-2)h(-1) according to hydrodynamic investigation. Corresponding economical air-flow rate was selected as the working air-flow rate in the long-term run. Under economical aeration intensity, the critical flux zone of the modified SMBR was as high as 30-35 Lm(-2)h(-1) when MLSS was less than 13 gL(-1). Therefore, a sub-critical flux of 30 Lm(-2)h(-1) was selected as the working membrane flux in the long-term run. Membrane fouling was effectively controlled by sub-critical flux operation and periodic on-line chemical cleaning in the long-term run. When the average influent CODCr, NH3-N and turbidity were 310 and 44.3 mgL(-1) and 161 NTU, respectively, the average permeate were 38.5 and 19.5 mgL(-1) and 0.96 NTU under hydraulic retention time (HRT) was only 2.8 h. Corresponding removal was 86, 58.2 and 99.4%. DO deficiency caused by high MLSS was demonstrated as the main reason for low NH3-N removal. PMID:16841733

  20. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  1. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  2. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  3. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  4. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  5. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Maheen M; Taylor, Joy L; Heraldez, Daniel; Khorasani, Allen; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66) were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land) or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land). Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8) or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12). High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01). Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80) compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16) (p<.05). These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions involved

  6. Telescience Testbed Pilot Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Maria L. (Editor); Leiner, Barry M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Telescience Testbed Pilot Program is developing initial recommendations for requirements and design approaches for the information systems of the Space Station era. During this quarter, drafting of the final reports of the various participants was initiated. Several drafts are included in this report as the University technical reports.

  7. ISOE Pilot Project Update

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Hagemeyer D. E. Lewis

    2012-05-05

    This slide show introduces the Pilot Project to increase the value of Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) data by increasing participation and amount of data reported from the U.S., reduce the hurdles and effort in participating, streamline the process of reporting and reduce time delay, and eliminate data entry and redundant effort.

  8. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  9. Off line ion source terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamanna, K.

    2014-01-01

    The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal provides beams from stable isotopes to ISAC (see Fig. 1) experiments as well as for accelerator commissioning and for pilot beams for radioactive beam experiments. The OLIS terminal (see Fig. 2) is equipped with a microwave driven cusp source for single and double charge ions, a surface ion source for low energy spread alkali beams, and a multi-charge ion source.

  10. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  11. ATC/pilot voice communications: A survey of the literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzo, O. Veronika; Britton, Thomas W.

    1993-11-01

    The first radio-equipped control tower in the United States opened at the Cleveland Municipal Airport in 1930. From that time to the present, voice radio communications have played a primary role in air safety. Verbal communications in air traffic control (ATC) operations have been frequently cited as causal factors in operational errors and pilot deviations in the FAA Operational Error and Deviation System, the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and reports derived from government sponsored research projects. Collectively, the data provided by these programs indicate that communications constitute a significant problem for pilots and controllers. Although the communications problem was well known the research literature was fragmented, making it difficult to appreciate the various types of verbal communications problems that existed and their unique influence on the quality of ATC/pilot communications. This is a survey of the voice radio communications literature. The 43 reports in the review represent survey data, field studies, laboratory studies, narrative reports, and reviews. The survey topics pertain to communications taxonomies, acoustical correlates and cognitive/psycholinguistic perspectives. Communications taxonomies were used to identify the frequency and types of information that constitute routine communications, as well as those communications involved in operational errors, pilot deviations, and other safety-related events. Acoustical correlate methodologies identified some qualities of a speaker's voice, such as loudness, pitch, and speech rate, which might be used potentially to monitor stress, mental workload, and other forms of psychological or physiological factors that affect performance. Cognitive/psycho-linguistic research offered an information processing perspective for understanding how pilots' and controllers' memory and language comprehension processes affect their ability to communicate effectively with one another. This

  12. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  13. Predictive nosepointing and flightpath displays for air-to-air combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-10-01

    As part of the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), two integrated pictorial displays have been developed for piloted simulation evaluations and, ultimately, for flight testing on board the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The first concept is a nosepointing display which illustrates the range of control the pilot has over the aircraft nose. The second concept is a predictive flightpath display that allows the pilot to see how his current control inputs will affect his aircraft's future position and orientation. The development of both display concepts will be discussed, as well as the results from a piloted simulation experiment in which pilots viewed the flightpath display in a wide-field-of-view Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) while engaged in an air-combat situation.

  14. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  15. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. RESULTS Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3–7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). CONCLUSION Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies. PMID:25944689

  16. THE MILLIMETER ASTRONOMY LEGACY TEAM 90 GHz (MALT90) PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Barris, Elizabeth; Finn, Susanna C.; Mascoop, Joshua L.; Sanhueza, Patricio E-mail: jackson@bu.edu E-mail: sfinn@bu.edu E-mail: patricio@bu.edu; and others

    2011-12-01

    We describe a pilot survey conducted with the Mopra 22 m radio telescope in preparation for the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). We identified 182 candidate dense molecular clumps using six different selection criteria and mapped each source simultaneously in 16 different lines near 90 GHz. We present a summary of the data and describe how the results of the pilot survey shaped the design of the larger MALT90 survey. We motivate our selection of target sources for the main survey based on the pilot detection rates and demonstrate the value of mapping in multiple lines simultaneously at high spectral resolution.

  17. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  18. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  19. GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percivall, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is conducting a second phase of the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP-2) to integrate services into the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The first phase of AIP contributed to the initial operating capability of GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) established in early 2008. AIP-2 will augment the GCI with services contributed by GEO Members and Participating Organizations. The activities of AIP-2 are conducted in working groups. Five working groups are developing the transverse technology that supports the multiple user communities. Four Community working groups are applying the transverse technologies to support the following communties of practice: Energy, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Disasters and Air Quality. The Air Quality Working Group is led by the ESIP AQ Cluster. AIP-2 testing and integration will integrate the use cases in to demonstration scenarios. Persistent exemplar services will be nominated to augment the GCI. This presentation will describe the AIP-2 process, progress and planned deliverables.

  20. Computer-automated opponent for manned air-to-air combat simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1979-01-01

    Two versions of a real-time digital-computer program that operates a fighter airplane interactively against a human pilot in simulated air combat were evaluated. They function by replacing one of two pilots in the Langley differential maneuvering simulator. Both versions make maneuvering decisions from identical information and logic; they differ essentially in the aerodynamic models that they control. One is very complete, but the other is much simpler, primarily characterizing the airplane's performance (lift, drag, and thrust). Both models competed extremely well against highly trained U.S. fighter pilots.

  1. F-18 chase craft with NASA test pilots Schneider and Fulton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ed Schneider, (left), is the project pilot for the F-18 High Angle of Attack program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1983. In addition to his assignment with the F-18 High Angle of Attack program, Schneider is a project pilot for the F-15B aeronautical research aircraft, the NASA NB-52B launch aircraft, and the SR-71 'Blackbird' aircraft. He is a Fellow and was the 1994 President of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. In 1996 he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal. Schneider is seen here with Fitzhugh L. Fulton Jr., (right), who was a civilian research pilot at Dryden. from August 1, 1966, until July 3, 1986, following 23 years of service as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force. Fulton was the project pilot on all early tests of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) used to air launch the Space Shuttle prototype Enterprise in the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Dryden in l977. For his work in the ALT program, Fulton received NASA's Exceptional Service Medal. He also received the Exceptional Service Medal again in 1983 for flying the 747 SCA during the European tour of the Space Shuttle Enterprise. During his career at Dryden, Fulton was project pilot on NASA's NB-52B launch aircraft used to air launch a variety of piloted and unpiloted research aircraft, including the X-15s and lifting bodies. He flew the XB-70 prototype supersonic bomber on both NASA-USAF tests and NASA research flights during the late 1960s, attaining speeds exceeding Mach 3. He was also a project pilot on the YF-12A and YF-12C research program from April 14, 1969, until September 25, 1978. The F/A-18 Hornet seen behind them is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. As support aircraft, the F-18's are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As a safety chase aircraft, F-18's, flown by research pilots

  2. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  3. Telescience Testbed Pilot Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Maria L. (Editor); Leiner, Barry M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Telescience Testbed Pilot Program (TTPP) is intended to develop initial recommendations for requirements and design approaches for the information system of the Space Station era. Multiple scientific experiments are being performed, each exploring advanced technologies and technical approaches and each emulating some aspect of Space Station era science. The aggregate results of the program will serve to guide the development of future NASA information systems.

  4. Pilot Preference, Compliance, and Performance With an Airborne Conflict Management Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted at the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers, investigating the En Route Free Maneuvering component of a future air traffic management concept termed Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). NASA Langley test subject pilots used the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) airborne toolset to detect and resolve traffic conflicts, interacting with subject pilots and air traffic controllers at NASA Ames. Experimental results are presented, focusing on conflict resolution maneuver choices, AOP resolution guidance acceptability, and performance metrics. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the AOP interface and functionality.

  5. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  6. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be sent, as a script to be run, or it can be fetched from a remote location. A pilot 2.0 can run on every computing resource, e.g.: on CREAM Computing elements, on DIRAC Computing elements, on Virtual Machines as part of the contextualization script, or IAAC resources, provided that these machines are properly configured, hiding all the details of the Worker Nodes (WNs) infrastructure. Pilots 2.0 can be generated server and client side. Pilots 2.0 are the “pilots to fly in all the skies”, aiming at easy use of computing power, in whatever form it is presented. Another aim is the unification and simplification of the monitoring infrastructure for all kinds of computing resources, by using pilots as a network of distributed sensors coordinated by a central resource monitoring system. Pilots 2.0 have been developed using the command pattern. VOs using DIRAC can tune pilots 2.0 as they need, and extend or replace each and every pilot command in an easy way. In this

  7. Mortality among US commercial pilots and navigators.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J S; Lackland, D T; Dosemeci, M; Mohr, L C; Dunbar, J B; Grosche, B; Hoel, D G

    1998-11-01

    The airline industry may be an occupational setting with specific health risks. Two environmental agents to which flight crews are known to be exposed are cosmic radiation and magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical system. Other factors to be considered are circadian disruption and conditions specific to air travel, such as noise, vibration, mild hypoxia, reduced atmospheric pressure, low humidity, and air quality. This study investigated mortality among US commercial pilots and navigators, using proportional mortality ratios for cancer and noncancer end points. Proportional cancer mortality ratios and mortality odds ratios were also calculated for comparison to the proportional mortality ratios for cancer causes of death. Results indicated that US pilots and navigators have experienced significantly increased mortality due to cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis, motor neuron disease, and external causes. In addition, increased mortality due to prostate cancer, brain cancer, colon cancer, and cancer of the lip, buccal cavity, and pharynx was suggested. Mortality was significantly decreased for 11 causes. To determine if these health outcomes are related to occupational exposures, it will be necessary to quantify each exposure separately, to study the potential synergy of effects, and to couple this information with disease data on an individual basis. PMID:9830605

  8. 14 CFR 25.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 25.771 Section 25.771... Pilot compartment. (a) Each pilot compartment and its equipment must allow the minimum flight crew... pilot, the airplane must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot seat. (d) The...

  9. A randomised controlled pilot study to compare filtration factor of a novel non-fit-tested high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering facemask with a fit-tested N95 mask.

    PubMed

    Au, S S W; Gomersall, C D; Leung, P; Li, P T Y

    2010-09-01

    Use of a fit-tested N95 or FFP2 mask is recommended to protect against transmission of airborne pathogens. This poses considerable logistic problems when preparing for, or dealing with, an epidemic. Some of these problems might be overcome by use of a compact reusable high-efficiency particulate air filtering mask that can be cut to size. We carried out a randomised controlled cross-over study to compare the efficacy of such a mask (Totobobo, Dream Lab One Pte Ltd, Singapore) with fit-tested N95 masks (1860 or 1860s or 1862; 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) in 22 healthy volunteers. The median (interquartile range) reduction in airborne particle counts was significantly higher [193-fold (145-200)] for N95 masks than for Totobobo masks [135-fold (83-184)] (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of subjects achieving a reduction of > or =100-fold between N95 (19/22) and Totobobo (16/22) masks. We conclude that use of the Totobobo mask without fit testing cannot be recommended, but its performance is sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation. PMID:20359769

  10. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  11. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  12. X-15 with test pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana is seen here next to the X-15 #3 rocket-powered aircraft after a flight. William H. Dana is Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Formerly an aerospace research pilot at Dryden, Dana flew the F-15 HiDEC research aircraft and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16 aircraft. Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 310,000 feet (almost 59 miles high). The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation made 3 X-15 aircraft for the program. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  13. Development and evaluation of a profile negotiation process for integrating aircraft and air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim; Williams, David H.

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the profile negotiation process (PNP), an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) that integrates airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible, are described. The PNP was evaluated in a real-time simulation experiment conducted jointly by NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The Ames Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) was used to support the ATC environment, and the Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) piloted cab was used to simulate a 4D Flight Management System (FMS) capable aircraft. Both systems were connected in real time by way of voice and data lines; digital datalink communications capability was developed and evaluated as a means of supporting the air/ground exchange of trajectory data. The controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free vertical profiles with the 4D-equipped aircraft. The actual profiles flown were substantially closer to the aircraft's preference than would have been possible without the PNP. However, there was a strong consensus among the pilots and controllers that the level of automation of the PNP should be increased to make the process more transparent. The experiment demonstrated the importance of an aircraft's ability to accurately execute a negotiated profile as well as the need for digital datalink to support advanced air/ground data communications. The concept of trajectory space is proposed as a comprehensive approach for coupling the processes of trajectory planning and tracking to allow maximum pilot discretion in meeting ATC constraints.

  14. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  15. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  16. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  17. The Economics of Air Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The economic factors involved in air cargo operations and air cargo marketing development are discussed. Specific steps which are followed by various airports to reduce operating costs are described. The economics of cargo handling within an airline are analyzed with respect to: (1) paperwork costs, (2) terminal costs, (3) line haul costs, and (4) claims costs.

  18. Paris Valley Combination Thermal Drive Pilot Demonstration Test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, R.G. Jr.; Meldau, R.F.; White, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    A wet combustion pilot within the Paris Valley Field, Monterey County, California was initiated in January, 1975 in order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this enhanced recovery process within a sandstone reservoir having a very viscous crude. Cyclic steaming was also performed and evaluated. Due to the low oil production rates, which were not capable of offsetting the high operating costs, the pilot was terminated during March, 1979. Eighteen producing wells, five air injectors, and one water disposal well were drilled. Primary oil production averaged less than 3 BOPD per well and initial water production ranged from 30 to 100 BWPD per well. Cumulative oil produced during the pilot was 120,623 STBO. Over 90% of the oil produced was due to response from cyclic steaming.

  19. Loss of Situation Awareness in Pilots: Analysis of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villeda, Eric B.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 75% of all aviation accidents and incidents are attributable to human failures in monitoring, managing, and operating system. Tactical decision errors were found to be a factor in 25 of 37 major US air transport accidents between 1978 and 1990. These two facts demonstrate the inability of some pilots to maintain situation awareness. Situation awareness (SA) is defined as 'the perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future". Thus, when a pilot loses SA, he or she is unable to ether perceive, comprehend, or project the status of the aircraft. In pilots terms, he or she has 'fallen behind the airplane'. Our study this summer involved an analysis of 190 NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports.

  20. Effects of ionospheric turbulence on SPS pilot signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clynch, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The spatial variation of the electron density was studied by monitoring the differential Doppler on radio beacons aboard the Navy navigation satellites. The radio frequency heater was used to deposit energy in the F-region ionosphere with the heating frequency above peak plasma frequency. The effects of the solar power satellite power beam on the pilot signal were simulated. It was found that a small depletion was formed in the beam and that there was turbulence in the elctron density up the magnetic field line from the beam. It is suggested that the depletion will not seriously affect the power or pilot beams of the solar power satellite.

  1. 48 CFR 212.7102 - Pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Pilot Program for Acquisition of Military-Purpose Nondevelopmental Items 212.7102 Pilot program. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pilot program....

  2. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  3. Captain Development Training at US Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fickes, S.

    1984-01-01

    The flight training program practiced at US Air is reviewed. The background and development of the program are discussed. Specific program activities and curricula are considered. The issue of educating pilots to be aware of and admit significant flight stress and stress in their personal lives is addressed.

  4. Piloted Ignition to Flaming in Smoldering Fire-Retarded Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putzeys, O.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Urban, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in the fire-retarded polyurethane foam Pyrell . The samples are small rectangular blocks with a square cross section, vertically placed in the wall of a vertical wind tunnel. Three of the vertical sample sides are insulated and the fourth side is exposed to an upward oxidizer flow of variable oxygen concentration and to a variable radiant heat flux. The gases emitted from the smoldering reaction pass upwards through a pilot, which consists of a coiled resistance heating wire. In order to compensate for the solid-phase and gas-phase effects of the fire retardants on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in Pyrell, it was necessary to assist the process by increasing the power supplied to the smolder igniter and the pilot (compared to that used for non-fire retarded foam). The experiments indicate that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming occurs when the gaseous mixture at the pilot passes the lean flammability limit. It was found that increasing the oxygen concentration or the external heat flux increases the likelihood of a piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, and generally decreases the time delay to transition. The piloted transition to flaming is observed in oxygen concentrations of 23% and above in both low-density and high-density Pyrell. Comparisons with previous experiments show that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming is possible under a wider range of external conditions (i.e. lower oxygen concentration) than the spontaneous transition from smoldering to flaming. The results show that the fire retardants in Pyrell are very effective in preventing the piloted transition to flaming in normal air, but Pyrell is susceptible to smoldering and the piloted transition to flaming in oxygen-enriched environments. Therefore, precautions should be taken in the design of applications of Pyrell in oxygen-enriched environments to reduce

  5. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  7. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  8. The Effects of Shared Information on Pilot-Controller Situation Awareness And Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John; Endsley, Mica R.; Amonlirdviman, Keith

    1999-01-01

    The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot-controller negotiating behavior and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. Results are presented which indicate that shared information enhances situation awareness and can engender more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers. Furthermore, the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather overlay on their plan view displays is demonstrated. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed.

  9. Human in the Loop Simulation Measures of Pilot Response Delay in a Self-Separation Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Sturdy, James; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Wing, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation experiment was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess airline transport pilots performance and reported acceptance of the use of procedures relying on airborne separation assistance and trajectory management tools. This study was part of a larger effort involving two NASA centers that includes multiple HITL experiments planned over the next few years to evaluate the use of automated separation assurance (SA) tools by both air traffic controllers and pilots. This paper presents results of measured pilot response delay that subject pilots incurred when interacting with cockpit tools for SA and discusses possible implications for future concept and procedures design.

  10. AIRS Level 2 Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Standard Retrieval Product consists of retrieved cloud and surface properties; profiles of retrieved temperature, water vapor, and ozone; and a flag indicating the presence of cloud ice or water. They contain quality assessment flags in addition to retrieved quantities and are generated for all locations where atmospheric soundings are taken. An AIRS granule consists of 6 minutes of data. This corresponds to approximately 1/15 of an orbit but exactly 45 scan lines of AMSU-A data or 135 scan lines of AIRS and HSB data.

  11. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  12. Indirect measurement of water content in an aseptic solid substrate cultivation pilot-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peña Y Lillo, M; Pérez-Correa, R; Agosin, E; Latrille, E

    2001-01-01

    A lack of models and sensors for describing and monitoring large-scale solid substrate cultivation (SSC) bioreactors has hampered industrial development and application of this type of process. This study presents an indirect dynamic measurement model for a 200-kg-capacity fixed-bed SSC bioreactor under periodic agitation. Growth of the filamentous fungus Gibberella fujikuroi on wheat bran was used as a case study. Real data were preprocessed using previously reported methodology. The model uses CO2 production rate and inlet air conditions to estimate average bed water content and average bed temperature. The model adequately reproduces the evolution of the average bed water content and can therefore be used as an on-line estimator in pilot-scale SSC bioreactors. To obtain a reasonable fit of the bed temperature, however, inlet air humidity measurements will have to be adjusted with a data reconciliation algorithm. Good estimation of temperature is important for the future design of improved water content estimation using state observers. The model also provides insight into understanding the complex behavior of the dynamic system, which could prove useful when establishing advanced model-based operational and control strategies. PMID:11400105

  13. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  14. Pilot Peter Hoag and HL-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Air Force Major Peter Hoag stands in front of the HL-10 Lifting Body. Maj. Hoag joined the HL-10 program in 1969 and made his first glide flight on June 6, 1969. He made a total of 8 flights in the HL-10. They included the fastest lifting-body flight, which reached Mach 1.861 on Feb. 18, 1970. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new and different lessons were learned through the successful flight testing of the HL-10. These lessons, when combined with information from it's sister ship, the M2

  15. PARALLEL EVALUATION OF AIR- AND OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To provide data on the relative merits of air and oxygen in the activated sludge process, two 1900-cu m/day (0.5-mgd) activated sludge pilot plant, one air and one oxygen system, were operated side-by-side at the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, California. Both of th...

  16. The TIME-Pilot intensity mapping experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, A. T.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Chang, T. C.; Cooray, A. R.; Duband, L.; Gong, Y.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hunacek, J.; Koch, P. M.; Li, C. T.; O'Brient, R. C.; Prouve, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Silva, M. B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Uzgil, B.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-08-01

    TIME-Pilot is designed to make measurements from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), when the first stars and galaxies formed and ionized the intergalactic medium. This will be done via measurements of the redshifted 157.7 um line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]). In particular, TIME-Pilot will produce the first detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations, a signal proportional to the integrated [CII] intensity, summed over all EoR galaxies. TIME-Pilot is thus sensitive to the emission from dwarf galaxies, thought to be responsible for the balance of ionizing UV photons, that will be difficult to detect individually with JWST and ALMA. A detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations would validate current theoretical estimates of the [CII] line as a new cosmological observable, opening the door for a new generation of instruments with advanced technology spectroscopic array focal planes that will map [CII] fluctuations to probe the EoR history of star formation, bubble size, and ionization state. Additionally, TIME-Pilot will produce high signal-to-noise measurements of CO clustering fluctuations, which trace the role of molecular gas in star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2. With its unique atmospheric noise mitigation, TIME-Pilot also significantly improves sensitivity for measuring the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect in galaxy clusters. TIME-Pilot will employ a linear array of spectrometers, each consisting of a parallel-plate diffraction grating. The spectrometer bandwidth covers 185-323 GHz to both probe the entire redshift range of interest and to include channels at the edges of the band for atmospheric noise mitigation. We illuminate the telescope with f/3 horns, which balances the desire to both couple to the sky with the best efficiency per beam, and to pack a large number of horns into the fixed field of view. Feedhorns couple radiation to the waveguide spectrometer gratings. Each spectrometer grating has 190 facets and provides resolving power

  17. Tests on air propellers in yaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1923-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests to determine the thrust (pull) and torque characteristics of air propellers in movement relative to the air in a line oblique to the line of the shaft, and specifically when such angle of obliquity is large, as in the case of helicopter flight with the propeller serving for both sustentation and traction.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  19. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  20. Pilot Performance on New ATM Operations: Maintaining In-Trail Separation and Arrival Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Yankosky, L. J.; Johnson, Walter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) may enable new Air Traffic Management (ATM) operations. However, CDTI is not the only source of traffic information in the cockpit; ATM procedures may provide information, implicitly and explicitly, about other aircraft. An experiment investigated pilot ability to perform two new ATM operations - maintaining in-trail separation from another aircraft and sequencing into an arrival stream. In the experiment, pilots were provided different amounts of information from displays and procedures. The results are described.

  1. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  2. Guidelines for Line-Oriented Flight Training, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Foushee, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) is a developing training technology which synthesizes high-fidelity aircraft simulation and high-fidelity line-operations simulation to provide realistic, dynamic pilot training in a simulated line environment. LOFT is an augmentation of existing pilot training which concentrates upon command, leadership, and resource management skills. This report, based on an NASA/Industry workshop held in January, 1981, is designed to serve as a handbook for LOFT users. In addition to providing background information, guidelines are presented for designing LOFT scenarios, conducting real-time LOFT operations, pilot debriefing, and instructor qualification and training. The final chapter addressed other uses of LOFT and line-operations (or full-mission) simulation.

  3. X-24B with Test Pilot Michael V. Love

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photo shows Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Michael V. Love in front of the X-24B lifting-body research vehicle at Edwards Air Force Base in 1973. Love was assigned as a project pilot on the joint NASA-USAF X-24B Lifting Body flight test program at the NASA Flight Research Center. He made a total of 12 flights in the plane from October 4, 1973 until July 15, 1975. Love flew it to a speed of Mach 1.76 on October 25, 1974, a record for the X-24B. Love attended the USAF Test Pilot School and remained as an instructor there from 1969 through 1971. He was a test pilot at Edwards when assigned to fly to the X-24B. Love was a combat veteran of Vietnam and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with two Oak Leaf clusters. Love perished while attempting an emergency landing in an RF-4C on March 1, 1976. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in the Dryden Flight Research Center's manned lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air

  4. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung

    2016-09-01

    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  5. HL-10 on lakebed with pilot Major Jerauld R. Gentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Pilot Major Jerauld R. Gentry stands in front of the HL-10 Lifting Body. Gentry was the Air Force project pilot for the HL-10 while it was making the early glide and powered flights in 1968 following its modification. He made a total of nine flights in the vehicle. For his work on the HL-10, Gentry was awarded the Harmon International Trophy for his outstanding contribution to the science of flying. He later became the Air Force pilot for the X-24A. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new and

  6. Pilot retrofit test of refrigerant R-134a for GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J.; Brown, B.; Dungao, M.; Spencer, G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has issued an interim policy requiring all of its Centers to eliminate consumption (purchase) of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), by 1995. Also, plans must be outlined for the eventual phase out of their usage. The greatest source of CFC consumption and usage at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is refrigerant R-12, which is used in many of the facility's air-conditioning systems. A pilot retrofit test shows that retrofitting R-12 air-conditioning systems with hydrofluorocarbon R-13a would be a workable means to comply with the R-12 portion of NASA's policy. Results indicate acceptable cost levels and nearly equivalent system performance.

  7. Pilot's Desk Flight Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft flight station designs have generally evolved through the incorporation of improved or modernized controls and displays. In connection with a continuing increase in the amount of information displayed, this process has produced a complex and cluttered conglomeration of knobs, switches, and electromechanical displays. The result was often high crew workload, missed signals, and misinterpreted information. Advances in electronic technology have now, however, led to new concepts in flight station design. An American aerospace company in cooperation with NASA has utilized these concepts to develop a candidate conceptual design for a 1995 flight station. The obtained Pilot's Desk Flight Station is a unique design which resembles more an operator's console than today's cockpit. Attention is given to configuration, primary flight controllers, front panel displays, flight/navigation display, approach charts and weather display, head-up display, and voice command and response systems.

  8. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  9. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  10. 14 CFR 61.51 - Pilot logbooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot logbooks. 61.51 Section 61.51... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.51 Pilot logbooks. (a) Training... training device, or aviation training device, as appropriate. (v) The name of a safety pilot, if...

  11. 33 CFR 385.12 - Pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pilot projects. 385.12 Section... Processes § 385.12 Pilot projects. (a) The Plan includes pilot projects to address uncertainties associated... management, and wastewater reuse. The purpose of the pilot projects is to develop information necessary...

  12. Automatic Pilot For Flight-Test Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Jones, Frank P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1992-01-01

    Autopilot replaces pilot during automatic maneuvers. Pilot, based on ground, flies aircraft to required altitude, then turns control over to autopilot. Increases quality of maneuvers significantly beyond that attainable through remote manual control by pilot on ground. Also increases quality of maneuvers because it performs maneuvers faster than pilot could and because it does not have to repeat poorly executed maneuvers.

  13. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 385.12 - Pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pilot projects. 385.12 Section... Processes § 385.12 Pilot projects. (a) The Plan includes pilot projects to address uncertainties associated... management, and wastewater reuse. The purpose of the pilot projects is to develop information necessary...

  15. 33 CFR 385.12 - Pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pilot projects. 385.12 Section... Processes § 385.12 Pilot projects. (a) The Plan includes pilot projects to address uncertainties associated... management, and wastewater reuse. The purpose of the pilot projects is to develop information necessary...

  16. 33 CFR 385.12 - Pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pilot projects. 385.12 Section... Processes § 385.12 Pilot projects. (a) The Plan includes pilot projects to address uncertainties associated... management, and wastewater reuse. The purpose of the pilot projects is to develop information necessary...

  17. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance...

  18. 14 CFR 23.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 23.771 Section 23.771... Cargo Accommodations § 23.771 Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue;...

  19. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance...

  1. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  2. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  3. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  4. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  5. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  6. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot who meets the requirements of this section may apply, on the basis of his or her military...

  7. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot who meets the requirements of this section may apply, on the basis of his or her military...

  8. Experimental studies on an air-air jet exhaust pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial ventilation employing an air-air jet exhaust pump connected to a compressed-air line was investigated. The motive air supply pressure was maintained between 2 and 3 bar. A unique ejector housing was constructed to receive both the convergent-divergent primary nozzle and the mixing chamber. The entire unit adapts readily to any existing compressed-air system. The mixing chamber was so constructed that the length of its cylindrical section may be changed. Pressure variations along the mixing chamber were recorded, and this offered a valuable appreciation of the effects of the length-to-diameter ratios. Results indicate the influence of the supply air pressure and pressure ratio on the jet entrainment capacity and efficiency. It has also been shown that the present design is capable of achieving the maximum reported jet-pump efficiency of around 25% corresponding to a nozzle-to-mixing chamber area ratio of 0.15.

  9. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    PubMed

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. PMID:25399374

  10. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  11. The use of speech technology in air traffic control simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. A.; Hobbs, G. R.; Howes, J. R.; Cope, N.

    The advantages of applying speech technology to air traffic control (ATC) simulators are discussed with emphasis placed on the simulation of the pilot end of the pilot-controller dialog. Speech I/O in an ATC simulator is described as well as technology capability, and research on an electronic blip driver. It is found that the system is easier to use and performs better for less experienced controllers.

  12. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  13. NATIONAL AIR TOXICS PILOT MONITORING AND DATA ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten cities (Detroit, Providence, San Juan, Keeney Knob WV, Tampa, Grand Junction, Rio Rancho NM, Cedar Rapids, San Jacinto and Seattle) conducted 1/6 and 1/12 monitoring for 18 out of the 33 Urban HAP toxic pollutants through ten, EPA grants. Monitoring was completed in July 200...

  14. Analyzing a Mid-Air Collision Over the Hudson River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sean; Holloway, C. Michael

    2012-01-01

    On August 8, 2009, a private airplane collided with a sightseeing helicopter over the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. All three people aboard the airplane, the pilot and two passengers, and all six people aboard the helicopter, the pilot and five passengers, were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board report on the accident identified inherent limitations of the see-and-avoid concept, inadequate regulations, and errors by the pilots and an air traffic controller as causing or contributing to the accident. This paper presents the results of analyzing the accident using the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) approach to determining accident causation.

  15. Integrated Displays For Helicopter Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Paulk, Clyde H., Jr.; Kilmer, Robert L.; Kilmer, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Report evaluates three similar video displays for guidance of helicopter pilots in low-level flight at night in adverse weather. Computer produces guidance information for pilot by integrating data from terrain-following radar, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery, and data from such autonomous navigation instruments as inertial navigation systems and Doppler radar. FLIR imagery, information on status of helicopter, and command symbols incorporated in one head-down display.

  16. X-24B with Test Pilot Tom McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    In this 1975 photo, research pilot Thomas C. McMurtry stands in front of the X-24B on Rogers Dry lake, adjacent to the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. A former U.S. Navy pilot and graduate of the U.S. Navy Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, McMurtry was a consultant for Lockheed Corporation before joining NASA in 1967. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in Dryden's manned lifting body program. The X-24B is on public display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph-Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  18. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  19. Stress and workload in pilots.

    PubMed

    Roscoe, A H

    1978-04-01

    Several studies have highlighted the increase in physiological activity which occurs in pilots during flight and especially during takeoffs and landings. For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that pilots' heart rates increase during the landing approach to reach a peak at or just before touchdown. These changes have been attributed to workload and to psychological or emotional stress. This paper examines a number of test pilots' heart rate responses recorded during various flight trials involving different types of aircraft. Examples include ramp takeoffs in a VTOL fighter, automatic landings in fog, supersonic flight through monsoon rain, and a sortie in which the pilot developed acute appendicitis. It is concluded that heart rate responses in experienced pilots are influenced almost entirely by workload-related factors and not by emotional stressors, such as risk and anxiety. Because of the emotional overtones of the word "stress," it is suggested that the term workload should be used when referring to the reason for increased cardiovascular activity of pilots. PMID:637823

  20. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.