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Sample records for air masses reaching

  1. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  2. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  3. Reaching agreements on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    The phrases sick building syndrome and indoor air quality (IAQ) are in common use today because of a heightened public awareness of various environmental issues. IAQ complaints must be diplomatically resolved because employers and building owners and managers now face a potential impact on their bottom-lines. The office's IAQ was first questioned when 12 of the 47 employees reported complaints particular to the time they spent in the office building. Three employees were so severely affected, they developed respective cases of rhinitis, conjunctivitis and sinus infection. When the tenant presented this information to the building owner, he was told that there was not an IAQ problem within the building. This article summarizes an unfortunate, yet typical, aspect of IAQ problems. It also offers a more efficient method for evaluating and resolving all IAQ problems.

  4. Air-mass origin in the tropical lower stratosphere: The influence of Asian boundary layer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn W.; Newman, Paul A.

    2015-05-01

    A climatology of air-mass origin in the tropical lower stratosphere is presented for the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model. During late boreal summer and fall, air-mass fractions reveal that as much as 20% of the air in the tropical lower stratosphere last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over Asia; by comparison, the air-mass fractions corresponding to last PBL contact over North America and over Europe are negligible. Asian air reaches the extratropical tropopause within a few days of leaving the boundary layer and is quasi-horizontally transported into the tropical lower stratosphere, where it persists until January. The rapid injection of Asian air into the lower stratosphere—and its persistence in the deep tropics through late (boreal) winter—is important as industrial emissions over East Asia continue to increase. Hence, the Asian monsoon may play an increasingly important role in shaping stratospheric composition.

  5. Air Pressure Controlled Mass Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruilin; Wang, Jian; Cai, Changqing; Yao, Hong; Ding, Jin'an; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaolei

    Mass measurement is influenced by air pressure, temperature, humidity and other facts. In order to reduce the influence, mass laboratory of National Institute of Metrology, China has developed an air pressure controlled mass measurement system. In this system, an automatic mass comparator is installed in an airtight chamber. The Chamber is equipped with a pressure controller and associate valves, thus the air pressure can be changed and stabilized to the pre-set value, the preferred pressure range is from 200 hPa to 1100 hPa. In order to keep the environment inside the chamber stable, the display and control part of the mass comparator are moved outside the chamber, and connected to the mass comparator by feed-throughs. Also a lifting device is designed for this system which can easily lift up the upper part of the chamber, thus weights can be easily put inside the mass comparator. The whole system is put on a marble platform, and the temperature and humidity of the laboratory is very stable. The temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide content inside the chamber are measured in real time and can be used to get air density. Mass measurement cycle from 1100 hPa to 200 hPa and back to 1100 hPa shows the effective of the system.

  6. Discovery mass reach for topgluons decaying to t{bar t} at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.M.

    1996-09-01

    In topcolor assisted technicolor, topgluons are massive gluons which couple mainly to top and bottom quarks. We estimate the mass reach for topgluons decaying to {ital t{anti t}} at the Tevatron as a function of integrated luminosity. The mass reach for topgluons decreases with increasing topgluon width, and is 1.0 - 1.1 TeV for Run H (2 fb{sup - 1}) and 1.3 - 1.4 TeV for TeV33 (30 fb{sup -1}).

  7. Mass media campaigns within reach: effective efforts with limited resources in Russia's capital city.

    PubMed

    Perl, Rebecca; Stebenkova, Ludmila; Morozova, Irina; Murukutla, Nandita; Kochetova, Veronika; Kotov, Alexey; Voylokova, Tatiana; Baskakova, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Mass media campaigns, while often expensive, are proven, cost-effective interventions and should not be considered out-of-reach, especially where governments have some sway over media markets, where large media discounts are possible or where other novel strategies can be employed. PMID:21685490

  8. The Effective Mass of a Ball in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, J.; Pantaleone, J.

    2010-01-01

    The air surrounding a projectile affects the projectile's motion in three very different ways: the drag force, the buoyant force, and the added mass. The added mass is an increase in the projectile's inertia from the motion of the air around it. Here we experimentally measure the added mass of a spherical projectile in air. The results agree well…

  9. Let's talk sex on the air: ReachOut launches radio campaign.

    PubMed

    This article reports on the launching of the National Radio and Public Relations Campaign to Promote Modern Methods of Contraception by the ReachOut AIDS Foundation Incorporated in the Philippines. ReachOut has tapped radio veteran Tiya Dely Magpayo as the official campaign spokesperson, thus, putting a mother's touch to a serious promotional drive to reach the far-flung areas of the country. It is noted that the project promotes the wider use of modern methods of contraception as its contribution to the Philippines Population Program goals of controlling the population rate. Since radio is the most patronized media in the country, ReachOut hopes that the radio soap opera format will attract the listeners to use contraceptives. The campaign encourages men and women of reproductive age to seek information and services regarding modern methods of contraception from health service providers in their respective areas. The Department of Health will provide the technical support to ensure that the campaign is keeping with the government's programs. PMID:12322659

  10. Settlement Reached in Air Gun Use in Ocean-based Seismic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. National Science Foundation and the Center for Biological Diversity have settled a lawsuit brought against NSF that had threatened to scuttle the use of air gun arrays for use in NSF-sponsored seismic and geological studies at sea. The parties agreed to a 14 April dismissal of the suit. The CBD, an environmental organization based in Idyllwild, California, brought the suit in the U.S. District Court in San Francisco out of concern that the use of the air gun arrays may harm some marine mammals. CBD also claimed that NSF was not in compliance with several U.S. federal environmental regulations.

  11. Ions in oceanic and continental air masses

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D.J.; Eisele, F.L. )

    1991-01-20

    Measurements of tropospheric ions and several trace atmospheric neutral species have been performed at Cheeka Peak Research Station and at Mauna Loa Observatory. Two new positive ion species at masses 114 and 102 have been identified as protonated caprolactam and a saturated 6-carbon primary amine, respectively. In the negative ion spectrum, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) has been identified as the parent species responsible for an ion commonly observed at mass 95 during these two studies. The diurnal variations of gas phase H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and MSA were also measured at Cheeka Peak and have typically been found to be present in the sub-ppt range. Ion assisted measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory of pyridine and ammonia indicate concentrations of 2.5 and 70 ppt, respectively, with at least a factor of 2 uncertainty. Interesting variations and potential sources of several of the observed ions are also discussed.

  12. Fundamental mass transfer models for indoor air pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Guo, Z.; Sparks, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a simple, fundamental mass transfer model, based on Fick's Law of Diffusion, for indoor air pollution wet sorbent-based sources. (Note: Models are needed to predict emissions from indoor sources. While empirical approaches based on dynamic chamber data are useful, a more fundamental approach is needed to fully elucidate the relevant mass transfer processes). In the model, the mass transfer rate is assumed to be gas-phase limited and controlled by the boundary layer mass transfer coefficient, the saturation vapor pressure of the material being emitted, and the mass of volatile material remaining. Results of static and dynamic chamber tests, as well as test house studies, are presented.

  13. Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses: 1. Aged pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1991-12-01

    A 4-year Alaska chemical data set of aerosols or "dust" in the air clearly reveals a mixture of distinct aerosol components with different and interesting chemical composition, one or two being ascribed to pollution imported to Alaska by winds all the way from other continents. Of particular note is a strong chemical contrast between what we imagine to be highly scavenged, orographically lifted, northern Pacific air (Pacific marine air mass) and stagnant Arctic air (polar air mass), the latter containing seasonal average concentrations of between 2-4 times the concentration of the former, at least for pollution markers noncrustal vanadium, noncrustal manganese, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and antimony. The findings concur our old discovery that Arctic air is persistently polluted (Arctic haze), but Pacific air is relatively clean, in spite of the fact that Alaska is downwind of major pollution sources in the Orient. This is remarkable. In this the first of a two-part paper, we concentrate on the pollution component found primarily during incursion of Arctic polar air. Two major occurrences of visual haze with optical depths of approximately 0.2 and elevated aerosol concentration lasting about a month (spring 1985 and 1986) were affiliated with strong incoming transport of polar air, temperatures ranging from 10° to 20°C below normal (polar air) and air trajectory hindcasts leading back to industrial pollution sources in Eurasia. These long-range transport pollution events brought metal-rich aerosol of removal-resistant submicron particles. The size, chemistry, and meteorology all strongly suggest the presence of a well-aged (10-100 day) polluted air mass. An important implication is that in spring a large fraction of the Arctic polar air mass becomes charged with by-products of industrial pollution. In this multiyear chemical data set one finds a notable summer-winter contrast, changing by factors of 2 to 4 for pollution markers As, Se, Sb, and noncrustal

  14. The Ongoing Revolution of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Microbiology Reaches Tropical Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Bécaye; Lo, Cheikh Ibrahima; Samb-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou Wague; Sow, Kowry; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Diemé, Yaya; Chatellier, Sonia; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) represents a revolution in routine pathogen identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. A MALDI-TOF MS was introduced to tropical Africa in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal) and used for routine pathogen identification. Using MS, 2,429 bacteria and fungi isolated from patients were directly assayed, leading to the identification of 2,082 bacteria (85.7%) and 206 fungi (8.5%) at the species level, 109 bacteria (4.5%) at the genus level, and 16 bacteria (0.75%) at the family level. Sixteen isolates remained unidentified (0.75%). Escherichia coli was the most prevalent species (25.8%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%). MALDI-TOF MS has also enabled the detection of rare bacteria and fungi. MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful tool for the identification of bacterial and fungal species involved in infectious diseases in tropical Africa. PMID:25601995

  15. Comment on "Improved ray tracing air mass numbers model"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2008-01-01

    Air mass numbers have traditionally been obtained by techniques that use height as the integration variable. This introduces an inherent singularity at the horizon, and ad hoc solutions have been invented to cope with it. A survey of the possible options including integration by height, zenith angle, and horizontal distance or path length is presented. Ray tracing by path length is shown to avoid singularities both at the horizon and in the zenith. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme is presented, which treats refraction and air mass as path integrals. The latter may optionally be split out into separate contributions of the atmosphere's constituents.

  16. Warm-air advection, air mass transformation and fog causes rapid ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernström, Michael; Shupe, Matthew D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Prytherch, John; Salisbury, Dominic J.; Sedlar, Joseph; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara J.; Johnston, Paul E.; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Wolfe, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Direct observations during intense warm-air advection over the East Siberian Sea reveal a period of rapid sea-ice melt. A semistationary, high-pressure system north of the Bering Strait forced northward advection of warm, moist air from the continent. Air-mass transformation over melting sea ice formed a strong, surface-based temperature inversion in which dense fog formed. This induced a positive net longwave radiation at the surface while reducing net solar radiation only marginally; the inversion also resulted in downward turbulent heat flux. The sum of these processes enhanced the surface energy flux by an average of ~15 W m-2 for a week. Satellite images before and after the episode show sea-ice concentrations decreasing from > 90% to ~50% over a large area affected by the air-mass transformation. We argue that this rapid melt was triggered by the increased heat flux from the atmosphere due to the warm-air advection.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL MASS TRANSFER MODELS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a simple, fundamental mass transfer model, based on Fick's Law of Diffusion, for indoor air pollution wet sorbent-based sources. (Note: Models are needed to predict emissions from indoor sources. hile empirical approaches based on dynamic chamber data are usef...

  18. Analysis of air mass trajectories in the northern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Isidro A.; Sánchez, M. Luisa; García, M. Ángeles; Pardo, Nuria

    2015-11-01

    Air masses reaching the Iberian Peninsula, which is located between two continents and two seas, have been classified. 24-h backward air trajectories were calculated each hour for three years using the METEX model at a site in the centre of the northern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula where the air flow has scarcely been investigated to date. Rather than the usual Euclidean geometry, spherical trigonometry, together with the kernel regression method, was considered to calculate trajectory distances to the site. Numerical indicators allow for an accurate description of the results. Ranges surrounding the site from E to S evidenced a restriction in the movement of the arriving flow. However, the range to the N showed only a slight effect. A noticeable seasonal contrast was observed between winter, whose distances were the greatest, and summer, which displayed the shortest distances. Trajectory clusters, initially not considered in the METEX model, were obtained with different metrics to determine the air mass pathways reaching the site. Five clusters of trajectories were selected so as to easily explain the directions and distances covered. Regional and long range transport were observed in clusters from the NE, NW and SW. The NE cluster presented an orographic deviation and local processes were limited to the SE cluster. Finally, seasonal analysis revealed singular behaviour during autumn, when local processes centred on the N-S direction.

  19. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  20. Analytical model for contaminant mass removal by air sparging

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Blayden, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    An analytical model was developed to predict the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ground water by air sparging (AS). The model treats the air sparging zone as a completely mixed reactor subject to the removal of dissolved contaminants by volatilization, advection, and first-order decay. Nonequilibrium desorption is approximated as a first-order mass transfer process. The model reproduces the tailing and rebound behavior often observed at AS sites, and would normally require the estimation of three site-specific parameters. Dimensional analysis demonstrates that predicting tailing can be interpreted in terms of kinetic desorption or diffusion of aqueous phase contaminants into discrete air channels. Related work is ongoing to test the model against field data.

  1. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  2. Aqueous reactive species induced by a surface air discharge: Heterogeneous mass transfer and liquid chemistry pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. X.; Liu, Z. C.; Chen, C.; Yang, A. J.; Li, D.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2016-04-01

    Plasma-liquid interaction is a critical area of plasma science and a knowledge bottleneck for many promising applications. In this paper, the interaction between a surface air discharge and its downstream sample of deionized water is studied with a system-level computational model, which has previously reached good agreement with experimental results. Our computational results reveal that the plasma-induced aqueous species are mainly H+, nitrate, nitrite, H2O2 and O3. In addition, various short-lived aqueous species are also induced, regardless whether they are generated in the gas phase first. The production/loss pathways for aqueous species are quantified for an air gap width ranging from 0.1 to 2 cm, of which heterogeneous mass transfer and liquid chemistry are found to play a dominant role. The short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are strongly coupled in liquid-phase reactions: NO3 is an important precursor for short-lived ROS, and in turn OH, O2‑ and HO2 play a crucial role for the production of short-lived RNS. Also, heterogeneous mass transfer depends strongly on the air gap width, resulting in two distinct scenarios separated by a critical air gap of 0.5 cm. The liquid chemistry is significantly different in these two scenarios.

  3. Aqueous reactive species induced by a surface air discharge: Heterogeneous mass transfer and liquid chemistry pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, D X; Liu, Z C; Chen, C; Yang, A J; Li, D; Rong, M Z; Chen, H L; Kong, M G

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-liquid interaction is a critical area of plasma science and a knowledge bottleneck for many promising applications. In this paper, the interaction between a surface air discharge and its downstream sample of deionized water is studied with a system-level computational model, which has previously reached good agreement with experimental results. Our computational results reveal that the plasma-induced aqueous species are mainly H(+), nitrate, nitrite, H2O2 and O3. In addition, various short-lived aqueous species are also induced, regardless whether they are generated in the gas phase first. The production/loss pathways for aqueous species are quantified for an air gap width ranging from 0.1 to 2 cm, of which heterogeneous mass transfer and liquid chemistry are found to play a dominant role. The short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are strongly coupled in liquid-phase reactions: NO3 is an important precursor for short-lived ROS, and in turn OH, O2(-) and HO2 play a crucial role for the production of short-lived RNS. Also, heterogeneous mass transfer depends strongly on the air gap width, resulting in two distinct scenarios separated by a critical air gap of 0.5 cm. The liquid chemistry is significantly different in these two scenarios. PMID:27033381

  4. Aqueous reactive species induced by a surface air discharge: Heterogeneous mass transfer and liquid chemistry pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D. X.; Liu, Z. C.; Chen, C.; Yang, A. J.; Li, D.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-liquid interaction is a critical area of plasma science and a knowledge bottleneck for many promising applications. In this paper, the interaction between a surface air discharge and its downstream sample of deionized water is studied with a system-level computational model, which has previously reached good agreement with experimental results. Our computational results reveal that the plasma-induced aqueous species are mainly H+, nitrate, nitrite, H2O2 and O3. In addition, various short-lived aqueous species are also induced, regardless whether they are generated in the gas phase first. The production/loss pathways for aqueous species are quantified for an air gap width ranging from 0.1 to 2 cm, of which heterogeneous mass transfer and liquid chemistry are found to play a dominant role. The short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are strongly coupled in liquid-phase reactions: NO3 is an important precursor for short-lived ROS, and in turn OH, O2− and HO2 play a crucial role for the production of short-lived RNS. Also, heterogeneous mass transfer depends strongly on the air gap width, resulting in two distinct scenarios separated by a critical air gap of 0.5 cm. The liquid chemistry is significantly different in these two scenarios. PMID:27033381

  5. Modelling heat and mass transfer in a membrane-based air-to-air enthalpy exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugaria, S.; Moro, L.; Del, D., Col

    2015-11-01

    The diffusion of total energy recovery systems could lead to a significant reduction in the energy demand for building air-conditioning. With these devices, sensible heat and humidity can be recovered in winter from the exhaust airstream, while, in summer, the incoming air stream can be cooled and dehumidified by transferring the excess heat and moisture to the exhaust air stream. Membrane based enthalpy exchangers are composed by different channels separated by semi-permeable membranes. The membrane allows moisture transfer under vapour pressure difference, or water concentration difference, between the two sides and, at the same time, it is ideally impermeable to air and other contaminants present in exhaust air. Heat transfer between the airstreams occurs through the membrane due to the temperature gradient. The aim of this work is to develop a detailed model of the coupled heat and mass transfer mechanisms through the membrane between the two airstreams. After a review of the most relevant models published in the scientific literature, the governing equations are presented and some simplifying assumptions are analysed and discussed. As a result, a steady-state, two-dimensional finite difference numerical model is setup. The developed model is able to predict temperature and humidity evolution inside the channels. Sensible and latent heat transfer rate, as well as moisture transfer rate, are determined. A sensitive analysis is conducted in order to determine the more influential parameters on the thermal and vapour transfer.

  6. Influence of air mass origin on aerosol properties at a remote Michigan forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; Wallace, H. W.; Pressley, S. N.; Erickson, M. H.; Jobson, B. T.; Lamb, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    The northern Great Lakes region of North America is a large, relatively pristine area. To date, there has only been limited study of the atmospheric aerosol in this region. During summer 2009, a detailed characterization of the atmospheric aerosol was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX). Measurements included particle size distribution, water-soluble composition, and CCN activity. Aerosol properties were strongly dependent on the origin of the air masses reaching the site. For ∼60% of the study period, air was transported from sparsely populated regions to the northwest. During these times aerosol loadings were low, with mean number and volume concentrations of 1630 cm-3 and 1.91 μm3 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol during clean periods was dominated by organics, and exhibited low hygroscopicities (mean κ = 0.18 at s = 0.3%). When air was from more populated regions to the east and south (∼29% of the time), aerosol properties reflected a stronger anthropogenic influence, with 85% greater particle number concentrations, 2.5 times greater aerosol volume, six times more sulfate mass, and increased hygroscopicity (mean k = 0.24 at s = 0.3%). These trends are have the potential to influence forest-atmosphere interactions and should be targeted for future study.

  7. Evaluation of biological air filters for livestock ventilation air by membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P S; Lindholst, Sabine; Lyngbye, Merete; Schäfer, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Biological air filters have been proposed as a cost-effective technology for reducing odor emissions from intensive swine production facilities. In this work we present results from the application of membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) for continuously monitoring the removal of odorous compounds in biological air filters. The sensitivity and selectivity were tested on synthetic samples of selected odorous compounds, and linearity and detection limits in the lower ppb range were demonstrated for all compounds tested (methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol, aldehydes, indole, and skatole) except trimethylamine. The method was applied in situ at two full-scale filters installed at swine houses. The results have been compared with analyses by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), and odor was measured by olfactometry. By comparison with TD-GC/MS, observed MIMS signals were assigned to 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, skatole, the sum of volatile reduced organic sulfur compounds (ROS), and three subgroups of carboxylic acids. The removal rates were observed to be related to air-water partitioning with removal efficiencies in the range of 0 to 50% for low-soluble organic sulfur compounds and high removal efficiencies (typically 80-100%) for more soluble phenols and carboxylic acids. Based on the results and published odor threshold values, it is estimated that the low removal efficiency of ROS is the main limitation for achieving a higher odor reduction. PMID:20400604

  8. High-Altitude Air Mass Zero Calibration of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.; Snyder, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Air mass zero calibration of solar cells has been carried out for several years by NASA Glenn Research Center using a Lear-25 aircraft and Langley plots. The calibration flights are carried out during early fall and late winter when the tropopause is at the lowest altitude. Measurements are made starting at about 50,000 feet and continue down to the tropopause. A joint NASA/Wayne State University program called Suntracker is underway to explore the use of weather balloon and communication technologies to characterize solar cells at elevations up to about 100 kft. The balloon flights are low-cost and can be carried out any time of the year. AMO solar cell characterization employing the mountaintop, aircraft and balloon methods are reviewed. Results of cell characterization with the Suntracker are reported and compared with the NASA Glenn Research Center aircraft method.

  9. Monitoring Trace Contaminants in Air Via Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Karr, Dane; Pearson, Richard; Valero, Gustavo; Wong, Carla

    1995-01-01

    Recent passage of the Clean Air Act with its stricter regulation of toxic gas emissions, and the ever-growing number of applications which require faster turnaround times between sampling and analysis are two major factors which are helping to drive the development of new instrument technologies for in-situ, on-line, real-time monitoring. The ion trap, with its small size, excellent sensitivity, and tandem mass spectrometry capability is a rapidly evolving technology which is well-suited for these applications. In this paper, we describe the use of a commercial ion trap instrument for monitoring trace levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. A number of sample introduction devices including a direct transfer line interface, short column GC, and a cryotrapping interface are employed to achieve increasing levels of sensitivity. MS, MS/MS, and MS/MS/MS methods are compared to illustrate trade-offs between sensitivity and selectivity. Filtered Noise Field (FNF) technology is found to be an excellent means for achieving lower detection limits through selective storage of the ion(s) of interest during ionization. Figures of merit including typical sample sizes, detection limits, and response times are provided. The results indicate the potential of these techniques for atmospheric assessments, the High Speed Research Program, and advanced life support monitoring applications for NASA.

  10. Identification and Tracking of Polluted Air Masses in the South-Central Coast Air Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. E.; Douglas, S. G.; Kessler, R. C.; Killus, J. P.

    1991-05-01

    Canister samples of air taken during the South-Central Coast Cooperative Air Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) 1985 field study program were analyzed for concentrations of over 50 hydrocarbons as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. Additional evidence of location and timing of airmass origin was obtained by utilizing long-lived halocarbons such as F-12 as `tracers of opportunity' in conjunction with known source profiles. Wind trajectories were developed from hourly gridded wind fields produced by a diagnostic wind model utilizing observed wind data. These wind trajectories were used to determine how pollutants from major source areas might be transported to sampling sites. Particulate lidar height-distance traverses were made from aircraft that provided a view of pollutant layering. Mixing height and vertical pollutant concentration distributions were obtained in order to determine if observed pollutant concentrations were consistent with the degree of stagnation present and hypothesized transport pathway.Analyses to track specific polluted air masses were conducted for the 13 September, 21 September, 23-24 September, and 2-3 October 1985 intensive study periods. The analyses find that elevated ozone concentrations during these periods are primarily attributed to transport and storage of ozone-enriched air from Los Angeles. During one type of episode (2-3 October) ozone and ozone precursors are stored near the surface over the Santa Barbara Channel overnight and transported into coastal areas on the following day. In another type of episode (23-24 September) ozone is transported into the study domain from the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles via flow around the Santa Monica Hills. Transport of pollutant-enriched air takes place in a layer 200-500 m aloft, in many places overlaying cleaner marine-layer air. This advected ozone is mixed down to contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations over terrain where the marine layer

  11. Influence of Baseline Air Masses and Wildland Fires on Air Quality in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigder, Nicole L.

    This dissertation focuses on several key uncertainties related to particulate matter (PM) and O3 concentrations in the western U.S. Each analysis conducted for this dissertation centers on data collected at the Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l., 43.98° N, 121.69° W), a mountaintop research site in central Oregon, U.S. The first component of this dissertation is an analysis of the contribution of baseline O3 to observed O3 concentrations in two western U.S. urban areas, Enumclaw, Washington (WA) and Boise, Idaho, during 2004 -- 2010. I compared O3 data from two baseline sites (MBO and Cheeka Peak, WA) to O3 concentrations in the two urban areas on days when backward air mass trajectories showed transport between the baseline and urban sites. I found that the urban areas studied had relatively low O3 on the days with a strong influence from baseline air masses (28.3 -- 48.3 ppbv). These data suggested that there was low production of O3 from urban emissions on these days, which allowed me to quantify the impact of baseline O3 on urban O3 concentrations. A regression of the Boise and MBO O3 observations showed that free tropospheric air masses were diluted by 50% as they were entrained into the boundary layer at Boise. These air masses can contain high O3 concentrations (>70 ppbv) from Asian pollution sources or stratospheric intrusions, indicating that these sources can greatly contribute to urban surface O 3 concentrations. In addition, I found that the elevation and surface temperature of the urban areas studied impacted baseline O3 concentrations in these areas, with higher elevation and greater surface temperatures leading to greater O3 concentrations. The second and third components of this dissertation are analyses of the impact of wildland fires on PM and O3 concentrations in the western U.S. For both of these analyses, I calculated pollutant enhancement ratios for PM, O3, and other species in wildland fire plumes observed at MBO during 2004

  12. Mass transfer of VOCs in laboratory-scale air sparging tank.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Ong, Say Kee; Huang, Mei-Chuan

    2008-04-15

    Volatilization of VOCs was investigated using a 55-gal laboratory-scale model in which air sparging experiments were conducted with a vertical air injection well. In addition, X-ray imaging of an air sparging sand box showed air flows were in the form of air bubbles or channels depending on the size of the porous media. Air-water mass transfer was quantified using the air-water mass transfer coefficient which was determined by fitting the experimental data to a two-zone model. The two-zone model is a one-dimensional lumped model that accounts for the effects of air flow type and diffusion of VOCs in the aqueous phase. The experimental air-water mass transfer coefficients, KGa, obtained from this study ranged from 10(-2) to 10(-3)1/min. From a correlation analysis, the air-water mass transfer coefficient was found to be directly proportional to the air flow rate and the mean particle size of soil but inversely proportional to Henry's constant. The correlation results implied that the air-water mass transfer coefficient was strongly affected by the size of porous media and the air flow rates. PMID:17804158

  13. From the air to digital landscapes: generating reach-scale topographic models from aerial photography in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-05-01

    Digital Terrain Models are fundamental to characterise landscapes, to support numerical modelling and to monitor topographic changes. Recent advances in topography, remote sensing and geomatics are providing new opportunities to obtain high density/quality and rapid topographic data. In this paper we present an integrated methodology to rapidly obtain reach scale topographic models of fluvial systems. This methodology has been tested and is being applied to develop event-scale terrain models of a 11-km river reach in the highly dynamic Upper Cinca (NE Iberian Peninsula). This research is conducted in the background of the project MorphSed. The methodology integrates (a) the acquisition of dense point clouds of the exposed floodplain (aerial photography and digital photogrammetry); (b) the registration of all observations to the same coordinate system (using RTK-GPS surveyed GCPs); (c) the acquisition of bathymetric data (using aDcp measurements integrated with RTK-GPS); (d) the intelligent decimation of survey observations (using the open source TopCat toolkit) and, finally, (e) data fusion (elaborating Digital Elevation Models). In this paper special emphasis is given to the acquisition and registration of point clouds. 3D point clouds are obtained from aerial photography and by means of automated digital photogrammetry. Aerial photographs are taken at 275 meters above the ground by means of a SLR digital camera manually operated from an autogyro. Four flight paths are defined in order to cover the 11 km long and 500 meters wide river reach. A total of 45 minutes are required to fly along these paths. Camera has been previously calibrated with the objective to ensure image resolution at around 5 cm. A total of 220 GCPs are deployed and RTK-GPS surveyed before the flight is conducted. Two people and one full workday are necessary to deploy and survey the full set of GCPs. Field data acquisition may be finalised in less than 2 days. Structure-from-Motion is

  14. Artificial neural networks forecasting of PM2.5 pollution using air mass trajectory based geographic model and wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao; Li, Qi; Zhu, Yajie; Hou, Junxiong; Jin, Lingyan; Wang, Jingjie

    2015-04-01

    In the paper a novel hybrid model combining air mass trajectory analysis and wavelet transformation to improve the artificial neural network (ANN) forecast accuracy of daily average concentrations of PM2.5 two days in advance is presented. The model was developed from 13 different air pollution monitoring stations in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province (Jing-Jin-Ji area). The air mass trajectory was used to recognize distinct corridors for transport of "dirty" air and "clean" air to selected stations. With each corridor, a triangular station net was constructed based on air mass trajectories and the distances between neighboring sites. Wind speed and direction were also considered as parameters in calculating this trajectory based air pollution indicator value. Moreover, the original time series of PM2.5 concentration was decomposed by wavelet transformation into a few sub-series with lower variability. The prediction strategy applied to each of them and then summed up the individual prediction results. Daily meteorological forecast variables as well as the respective pollutant predictors were used as input to a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) type of back-propagation neural network. The experimental verification of the proposed model was conducted over a period of more than one year (between September 2013 and October 2014). It is found that the trajectory based geographic model and wavelet transformation can be effective tools to improve the PM2.5 forecasting accuracy. The root mean squared error (RMSE) of the hybrid model can be reduced, on the average, by up to 40 percent. Particularly, the high PM2.5 days are almost anticipated by using wavelet decomposition and the detection rate (DR) for a given alert threshold of hybrid model can reach 90% on average. This approach shows the potential to be applied in other countries' air quality forecasting systems.

  15. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  16. Mathematical modeling of heat exchange between mine air and rock mass during fire

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Krasnoshtein; B.P. Kazakov; A.V. Shalimov

    2006-05-15

    Solution of problems on heat exchange between ventilating air and rock mass and on gas admixture propagation in mine workings serve as a base for considering changes in heat-gas-air state at a mine after inflammation. The presented mathematical relations allow calculation of a varied velocity and movement direction of air flows, their temperatures and smoking conditions during fire.

  17. Vertical air mass exchange driven by the local circulation on the northern slope of Mount Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Libo; Zou, Han; Ma, Shupo; Li, Peng; Zhu, Jinhuan; Huo, Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    To better understand vertical air mass exchange driven by local circulation in the Himalayas, the volume flux of air mass is estimated in the Rongbuk Valley on the northern slope of Mount Everest, based on a volume closure method and wind-profiler measurements during the HEST2006 campaign in June 2006. Vertical air mass exchange was found to be dominated by a strong downward mass transfer from the late morning to late night. The average vertical air volume flux was 0.09 m s-1, which could be equivalent to a daily ventilation of 30 times the enclosed valley volume. This vertical air mass exchange process was greatly affected by the evolution of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM), with a strong downward transfer during the SASM break stage, and a weak transfer during the SASM active stage.

  18. Reaching Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Randall C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses technology and equipment requirements for developing an effective distance-learning classroom. Areas covered include cabling, the control booth, microphones, acoustics, lighting, heating and air conditioning, cameras, video monitors, staffing, and power requirements. (GR)

  19. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. Multiple channel products typically provide additional information than a single channel can provide alone. The RGB Air Mass imagery simplifies the interpretation of temperature and moisture characteristics of air masses surrounding synoptic and mesoscale features. Despite the ease of interpretation of multiple channel products, the combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting product does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel satellite imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone can provide insight about the air mass represented on the RGB Air Mass product and provide confidence in the product and representation of air masses despite the lack of a quantity to reference for interpretation. This study focuses on RGB Air Mass analysis of Hurricane Sandy as it moved north along the U.S. East Coast, while transitioning to a hybrid extratropical storm. Soundings and total column ozone retrievals were analyzed using data from the Cross-track Infrared and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) on the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite along with dropsondes that were collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Air Force research aircraft. By comparing these datasets to the RGB Air Mass, it is possible to capture quantitative information that could help in analyzing the synoptic environment enough to diagnose the onset of extratropical transition. This was done by identifying any stratospheric air intrusions (SAIs) that existed in the vicinity of Sandy as the wind

  20. Air Mass Origin in the Arctic and its Response to Future Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbe, Clara; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Holzer, Mark; Oman, Luke; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We present the first climatology of air mass origin in the Arctic in terms of rigorously defined air mass fractions that partition air according to where it last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Results from a present-day climate integration of the GEOSCCM general circulation model reveal that the Arctic lower troposphere below 700 mb is dominated year round by air whose last PBL contact occurred poleward of 60degN, (Arctic air, or air of Arctic origin). By comparison, approx. 63% of the Arctic troposphere above 700 mb originates in the NH midlatitude PBL, (midlatitude air). Although seasonal changes in the total fraction of midlatitude air are small, there are dramatic changes in where that air last contacted the PBL, especially above 700 mb. Specifically, during winter air in the Arctic originates preferentially over the oceans, approx. 26% in the East Pacific, and approx. 20% in the Atlantic PBL. By comparison, during summer air in the Arctic last contacted the midlatitude PBL primarily over land, overwhelmingly so in Asia (approx. 40 %) and, to a lesser extent, in North America (approx. 24%). Seasonal changes in air-mass origin are interpreted in terms of seasonal variations in the large-scale ventilation of the midlatitude boundary layer and lower troposphere, namely changes in the midlatitude tropospheric jet and associated transient eddies during winter and large scale convective motions over midlatitudes during summer.

  1. The influence of polarization on box air mass factors for UV/vis nadir satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric abundances of pollutant trace gases like, e.g., NO2, are often derived by applying the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method to space-borne measurements of back-scattered and reflected solar radiation. The resulting quantity, the slant column density (SCD), subsequently has to be converted to more easily interpretable vertical column densities by means of the so-called box air mass factor (BAMF). The BAMF describes the ratio of SCD and VCD within one atmospheric layer and is calculated by a radiative transfer model. Current operational and scientific data products of satellite-derived trace gas VCDs do not include the effect of polarization in their radiative transfer models. However, the various scattering processes in the atmosphere do lead to a distinctive polarization pattern of the observed Earthshine spectra. This study investigates the influence of these polarization patterns on box air mass factors for satellite nadir DOAS measurements of NO2 in the UV/vis wavelength region. NO2 BAMFs have been simulated for a multitude of viewing geometries, surface albedos, and surface altitudes, using the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. The results show a potentially large influence of polarization on the BAMF, which can reach 10% and more close to the surface. A simple correction for this effect seems not to be feasible, as it strongly depends on the specific measurement scenario and can lead to both high and low biases of the resulting NO2 VCD. We therefore conclude that all data products of NO2 VCDs derived from space-borne DOAS measurements should include polarization effects in their radiative transfer model calculations, or at least include the errors introduced by using linear models in their uncertainty estimates.

  2. Elemental composition of different air masses over Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Man-Sik; Yi, Hi-Il; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Chae, Jung-Sun; Cheong, Chang-Sik

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the characteristics (concentrations and compositional changes) of atmospheric elements in total suspended particulates through source-receptor relationships using cluster analyses to classify air mass back-trajectories arriving at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea, from October 2003 to December 2008. Five trajectory clusters were chosen to explain the transport regimes. Continental outflows of natural and anthropogenic aerosols from Asian dust source regions and eastern China during the colder period could increase element concentrations at Gosan. Elemental levels at Gosan decreased in air masses that passed over marine regions (East China Sea, Pacific Ocean/southern side of Kyushu Island in Japan, and East Sea/southern side of South Korea) during the warmer rainy period due to lower source intensity and dilution by the marine air mass. Anthropogenic pollutants were often major components in air masses passing over marine regions. Air mass characterization by elemental concentration and composition revealed that enrichment by non-sea-salt sulfur in the air mass originated from eastern China, indicative of the main sulfur emitter in northeast Asia. The apportionment of V and Ni by principal component analysis as a marker of heavy oil combustion suggested different residence times and deposition rates from other anthropogenic components in the air. Regionally intermediate concentrations of pollutants were found in the atmosphere over the Korean peninsula.

  3. The Analysis of PPM Levels of Gases in Air by Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, John N.; Warneck, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Discusses analysis of trace gases in air by photoionization mass spectrometer. It is shown that the necessary sensitivity can be obtained by eliminating the UV monochromator and using direct ionization with a hydrogen light source. (JP)

  4. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  5. Charge and discharge of polar cold air mass in northern hemispheric winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Yuki; Abdillah, Muhammad Rais; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2015-09-01

    This study shows the variability of polar cold air mass amount below potential temperature of 280 K, and north of 45°N can be understood with a concept of charge and discharge, where anomalously large daily discharge indicates an intermittent occurrence of cold air outbreak. The polar cold air mass amount north of 45°N gradually charges up due to diabatic cooling but dramatically discharges due to cold air outbreak with a pulse width of about 5 days. Cold air outbreaks tend to bring colder winter in East Asia and the east coast of North America, while warmer winter prevails on the northern side of these regions. The cold air mass amount south of 45°N increases just after a cold air outbreak but returns to the normal level soon because of its life time of about 3 days. Therefore, monthly mean of total cold air mass amount in the Northern Hemisphere is negatively correlated with the monthly mean discharge.

  6. FUNDAMENTAL MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR INDOOR AIR EMISSION FROM SURFACE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper, discusses the work of researchers at the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (Indoor Air Branch) who are evaluating mass transfer models based on fundamental principles to determine their effectiveness in predicting emissions from indoor architect...

  7. DNAPL REMOVAL MECHANISMS AND MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS DURING COSOLVENT-AIR FLOODING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concurrent injection of cosolvent and air, a cosolvent-air (CA) flood was recently suggested for a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) remediation technology. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the DNAPL removal mechanisms of the CA flood and to quantify mass t...

  8. Experimental Determination of the Mass of Air Molecules from the Law of Atmospheres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.; Galvin, Vincent, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A gas pressure gauge has been constructed for use in a student experiment involving the law of atmospheres. From pressure data obtained at selected elevations the average mass of air molecules is determined and compared to that calculated from the molecular weights and percentages of constituents to the air. (Author/BB)

  9. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  10. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  11. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  12. Critical Mass Academic Planning. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Larry R.

    Methods of academic resource planning for research-oriented colleges and universities are explored. Focus is on resource allocation that is not strictly related to overall institutional enrollment level, but with the desirability of maintaining a minimum or "critical mass" levels of program breadth and quality. The purpose of critical mass…

  13. Aerial observations of air masses transported from East Asia to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori

    2014-11-01

    There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the East China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from East Asia and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69 μg m-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200 m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000 m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000 m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700 m) and at 2300 m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500 m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000 m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the East China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000 m.

  14. Thin-Film Air-Mass-Flow Sensor of Improved Design Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Hwang, Danny P.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a new air-mass-flow sensor to solve the problems of existing mass flow sensor designs. NASA's design consists of thin-film resistors in a Wheatstone bridge arrangement. The resistors are fabricated on a thin, constant-thickness airfoil to minimize disturbance to the airflow being measured. The following photograph shows one of NASA s prototype sensors. In comparison to other air-mass-flow sensor designs, NASA s thin-film sensor is much more robust than hot wires, causes less airflow disturbance than pitot tubes, is more accurate than vane anemometers, and is much simpler to operate than thermocouple rakes. NASA s thin-film air-mass-flow sensor works by converting the temperature difference seen at each leg of the thin-film Wheatstone bridge into a mass-flow rate. The following figure shows a schematic of this sensor with air flowing around it. The sensor operates as follows: current is applied to the bridge, which increases its temperature. If there is no flow, all the arms are heated equally, the bridge remains in balance, and there is no signal. If there is flow, the air passing over the upstream legs of the bridge reduces the temperature of the upstream legs and that leads to reduced electrical resistance for those legs. After the air has picked up heat from the upstream legs, it continues and passes over the downstream legs of the bridge. The heated air raises the temperature of these legs, increasing their electrical resistance. The resistance difference between the upstream and downstream legs unbalances the bridge, causing a voltage difference that can be amplified and calibrated to the airflow rate. Separate sensors mounted on the airfoil measure the temperature of the airflow, which is used to complete the calculation for the mass of air passing by the sensor. A current application for air-mass-flow sensors is as part of the intake system for an internal combustion engine. A mass-flow sensor is

  15. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.

  16. Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.

    2010-01-15

    Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)

  17. Apparatus and method for generating large mass flow of high temperature air at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, A. P.; Stewart, R. B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    High temperature, high mass air flow and a high Reynolds number test air flow in the Mach number 8-10 regime of adequate test flow duration is attained by pressurizing a ceramic-lined storage tank with air to a pressure of about 100 to 200 atmospheres. The air is heated to temperatures of 7,000 to 8,000 R prior to introduction into the tank by passing the air over an electric arc heater means. The air cools to 5,500 to 6,000 R while in the tank. A decomposable gas such as nitrous oxide or a combustible gas such as propane is injected into the tank after pressurization and the heated pressurized air in the tank is rapidly released through a Mach number 8-10 nozzle. The injected gas medium upon contact with the heated pressurized air effects an exothermic reaction which maintains the pressure and temperature of the pressurized air during the rapid release.

  18. Variability of local PM10 mass concentrations in connection with blocking air circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefan, Sabina; Roman, Iuliana

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the temporal variability of Particulate Matter mass concentrations in connection with air circulation, for eight rural sites situated in the Central and Eastern parts of Europe. The stations from Poland, Hungary and Romania are rural stations without sources of pollutants. The analysis covers four winters, between December 2004 and February 2008. The pollution episodes were selected to explain air circulation influence. The results show that the causes of pollution were local, due to high mean sea level pressure and the blocking, as air circulation on large scale, was dominant in the cases of enhanced pollution in the selected area.

  19. The Use of Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-Convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    AIRS ozone and model PV analysis confirm the stratospheric air in RGB Air Mass imagery. Trajectories confirm winds south of the low were distinct from CCB driven winds. Cross sections connect the tropopause fold, downward motion, and high nearsurface winds. Comparison to conceptual models show Shapiro-Keyser features and sting jet characteristics were observed in a storm that impacted the U.S. East Coast. RGB Air Mass imagery can be used to identify stratospheric air and regions susceptible to tropopause folding and attendant non-convective winds.

  20. Fundamental mass transfer model for indoor air emissions from surface coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Guo, Z.; Sparks, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the work of researchers at the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (Indoor Air Branch) who are evaluating mass transfer models based on fundamental principles to determine their effectiveness in predicting emissions from indoor architectural coatings. As a first step, a simple model based on Fick's Law of Diffusion has been developed. In the model, the mass transfer rate is assumed to be controlled by the boundary layer mass transfer coefficient, the saturation vapor pressure of the material being emitted, and the mass of volatile material remaining in the source at any point in time. Both static and dynamic chamber tests were conducted to obtain model validation data. Further validation experiments were conducted in a test house. Results of these tests are presented.

  1. Remote mass spectrometric sampling of electrospray- and desorption electrospray-generated ions using an air ejector.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R Brent; Bereman, Michael S; Muddiman, David C; Hawkridge, Adam M

    2007-10-01

    A commercial air ejector was coupled to an electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ) to transport remotely generated ions from both electrospray (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) sources. We demonstrate the remote analysis of a series of analyte ions that range from small molecules and polymers to polypeptides using the AE-LTQ interface. The details of the ESI-AE-LTQ and DESI-AE-LTQ experimental configurations are described and preliminary mass spectrometric data are presented. PMID:17716909

  2. Remote Mass Spectrometric Sampling of Electrospray- and Desorption Electrospray-Generated Ions Using an Air Ejector

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, R. Brent; Bereman, Michael S.; Muddiman, David C.; Hawkridge, Adam M.

    2007-01-01

    A commercial air ejector was coupled to an electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ) to transport remotely generated ions from both electrospray (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) sources. We demonstrate the remote analysis of a series of analyte ions that range from small molecules and polymers to polypeptides using the AE-LTQ interface. The details of the ESI-AE-LTQ and DESI-AE-LTQ experimental configurations are described and preliminary mass spectrometric data is presented. PMID:17716909

  3. Variations of the glacio-marine air mass front in West Greenland through water vapor isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, B. G.; Lauder, A. M.; Posmentier, E. S.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    While the isotopic distribution of precipitation has been widely used for research in hydrology, paleoclimatology, and ecology for decades, intensive isotopic studies of atmospheric water vapor has only recently been made possible by spectral-based technology. New instrumentation based on this technology opens up many opportunities to investigate short-term atmospheric dynamics involving the water cycle and moisture transport. We deployed a Los Gatos Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA) at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland from July 21 to August 15, and measured the water vapor concentration and its isotopic ratios continuously at 10s intervals. A Danish Meteorological Institute site is located about 1 km from the site of the deployment, and meteorological data is collected at 30 min intervals. During the observation period, the vapor concentration of the ambient air ranges from 5608.4 to 11189.4 ppm; dD and d18O range from -254.5 to -177.7 ‰ and -34.2 to -23.2 ‰, respectively. The vapor content (dew point) and the isotopic ratios are both strongly controlled by the wind direction. The easterly winds are associated with dry, isotopically depleted air masses formed over the glacier, while westerly winds are associated with moist and isotopically enriched air masses from the marine/fjord surface. This region typically experiences katabatic winds off of the ice sheet to the east. However, during some afternoons, the wind shifts 180 degrees, blowing off the fjord to the west. This wind switch marks the onset of a sea breeze, and significant isotopic enrichment results. Enrichment in deuterium is up to 60 ‰ with a mean of 15‰, and oxygen-18 is enriched by 3‰ on average and up to 8 ‰. Other afternoons have no change in wind, and only small changes in humidity and vapor isotopic ratios. The humidity and isotopic variations suggest the local atmosphere circulation is dominated by relatively high-pressure systems above the cold glaciers and cool sea surface, and diurnal

  4. Combining airborne gas and aerosol measurements with HYSPLIT: a visualization tool for simultaneous evaluation of air mass history and back trajectory consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, S.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; Campos, T.; Brekhovskikh, V. L.; Zhou, J.

    2014-01-01

    The history of air masses is often investigated using backward trajectories to gain knowledge about processes along the air parcel path as well as possible source regions. Here, we describe a refined approach that incorporates airborne gas, aerosol, and environmental data into back trajectories and show how this technique allows for simultaneous evaluation of air mass history and back trajectory reliability without the need to calculate trajectory errors. We use the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and add a simple semi-automated computing routine to facilitate high-frequency coverage of back trajectories initiated along free tropospheric (FT) flight tracks and profiles every 10 s. We integrate our in situ physiochemical data by color-coding each of these trajectories with its corresponding in situ tracer values measured at the back trajectory start points along the flight path. The unique color for each trajectory aids assessment of trajectory reliability through the visual clustering of air mass pathways of similar coloration. Moreover, marked changes in trajectories associated with marked changes evident in measured physiochemical or thermodynamic properties of an air mass add credence to trajectories. This is particularly true when these air mass properties are linked to trajectory features characteristic of recognized sources or processes. This visual clustering of air mass pathways is of particular value for large-scale 3-D flight tracks common to aircraft experiments where air mass features of interest are often spatially distributed and temporally separated. The cluster-visualization tool used here reveals that most FT back trajectories with pollution signatures measured in the central equatorial Pacific reach back to sources on the South American continent over 10 000 km away and 12 days back in time, e.g., the Amazonian basin. We also demonstrate the distinctions in air mass properties between these and trajectories

  5. Inert gas purgebox for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of air-sensitive solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael A.; Marshall, Alan G.

    1994-03-01

    A sealed rigid ``purgebox'' makes it possible to load air- and/or moisture-sensitive solids into the solids probe inlet of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer. A pelletized sample is transferred (in a sealed canister) from a commercial drybox to a Lucite(R) purgebox. After the box is purged with inert gas, an attached glove manipulator is used to transfer the sample from the canister to the solids probe of the mass spectrometer. Once sealed inside the inlet, the sample is pre-evacuated and then passed into the high vacuum region of the instrument at ˜10-7 Torr. The purgebox is transparent, portable, and readily assembled/disassembled. Laser desorption FT/ICR mass spectra of the air- and moisture-sensitive solids, NbCl5. NbCl2(C5H5)2, and Zr(CH3)2(C5H5)2 are obtained without significant oxidation. The residual water vapor concentration inside the purgebox was measured as 100±20 ppm after a 90-min purge with dry nitrogen gas. High-resolution laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of air-sensitive solids becomes feasible with the present purgebox interface. With minor modification of the purgebox geometry, the present method could be adapted to any mass spectrometer equipped with a solid sample inlet.

  6. Study of the extensive air shower mass sensitive parameters in prototype of ALBORZ array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, G.; Nemati, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we have used muon production depth distribution as well as the lateral distribution of the secondary particles of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) as two main parameters to infer the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. In order to achieve a realistic estimate of the mass composition, a sample of showers initiated by proton and iron particles as primaries have been simulated by CORSIKA code with zenith angle between 0° and 18° and discrete energies in a range between 1014 and 1016 eV for ALBORZ (1200 m a.s.l, Tehran, Iran) and KASKADE (110 m a.s.l, Karlsruhe, Germany) observation levels. Moreover lateral density distribution functions of energy for charged particles of air showers have been proposed for both proton and Iron primaries. We have indicated that among these two EAS parameters, lateral distribution of secondary particles provides better mass discrimination.

  7. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  8. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  9. Establishing Lagrangian Connections between Observations within Air Masses Crossing the Atlantic during the ICARTT Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Methven, J.; Arnold, S. R.; Stohl, A.; Evans, M. J.; Avery, M.; Law, K.; Lewis, A. C.; Monks, P. S.; Parrish, D.; Reeves, C.; Schlager, H.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Coe, H.; Cohen, R. C.; Crosier, J.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Hopkins, J. R.; Huber, G.; McQuaid, J.; Purvis, R.; Rappengluck, B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sachse, G. W.

    2006-01-01

    The International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT)-Lagrangian experiment was conceived with an aim to quantify the effects of photochemistry and mixing on the transformation of air masses in the free troposphere away from emissions. To this end attempts were made to intercept and sample air masses several times during their journey across the North Atlantic using four aircraft based in New Hampshire (USA), Faial (Azores) and Creil (France). This article begins by describing forecasts using two Lagrangian models that were used to direct the aircraft into target air masses. A novel technique is then used to identify Lagrangian matches between flight segments. Two independent searches are conducted: for Lagrangian model matches and for pairs of whole air samples with matching hydrocarbon fingerprints. The information is filtered further by searching for matching hydrocarbon samples that are linked by matching trajectories. The quality of these coincident matches is assessed using temperature, humidity and tracer observations. The technique pulls out five clear Lagrangian cases covering a variety of situations and these are examined in detail. The matching trajectories and hydrocarbon fingerprints are shown and the downwind minus upwind differences in tracers are discussed.

  10. Characterising terrestrial influences on Antarctic air masses using Radon-222 measurements at King George Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, S. D.; Hong, S.-B.; Williams, A. G.; Crawford, J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Park, S.-J.

    2014-09-01

    We report on one year of high-precision direct hourly radon observations at King Sejong Station (King George Island) beginning in February 2013. Findings are compared with historic and ongoing radon measurements from other Antarctic sites. Monthly median concentrations reduced from 72 mBq m-3 in late-summer to 44 mBq m-3 in late winter and early spring. Monthly 10th percentiles, ranging from 29 to 49 mBq m-3, were typical of oceanic baseline values. Diurnal cycles were rarely evident and local influences were minor, consistent with regional radon flux estimates one tenth of the global average for ice-free land. The predominant fetch region for terrestrially influenced air masses was South America (47-53° S), with minor influences also attributed to aged Australian air masses and local sources. Plume dilution factors of 2.8-4.0 were estimated for the most terrestrially influenced (South American) air masses, and a seasonal cycle in terrestrial influence on tropospheric air descending at the pole was identified and characterised.

  11. Characterising terrestrial influences on Antarctic air masses using radon-222 measurements at King George Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, S. D.; Hong, S.-B.; Williams, A. G.; Crawford, J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Park, S.-J.

    2014-05-01

    We report on one year of high precision direct hourly radon observations at King Sejong Station (King George Island) beginning in February 2013. Findings are compared with historic and ongoing radon measurements from other Antarctic sites. Monthly median concentrations reduced from 72 mBq m-3 in late summer to 44 mBq m-3 in late-winter and early-spring. Monthly 10th percentiles, ranging from 29 to 49 mBq m-3, were typical of oceanic baseline values. Diurnal cycles were rarely evident and local influences were minor, consistent with regional radon flux estimates one tenth of the global average for ice-free land. The predominant fetch region for terrestrially influenced air masses was South America (47-53° S), with minor influences also attributed to aged Australian air masses and local sources. Plume dilution factors of 2.8-4.0 were estimated for the most terrestrially influenced (South American) air masses, and a seasonal cycle in terrestrial influence on tropospheric air descending at the pole was identified and characterised.

  12. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Harris, J.M.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  13. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Irving; Harris, Joyce M.; Smith, George I.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2002-10-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (δD) and oxygen-18 (δ18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  14. DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

  15. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques. PMID:25901845

  16. Study of single and combined mass-sensitive observables of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, G.; Nemati, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, combinations of the global arrival time, (Δτ_{global}), pseudorapidity, and lateral density distribution (ρ_{μ}) of muons, which are three mass-sensitive observables of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers, have been used as new parameters to study the primary mass discrimination around the knee energies (100 TeV-10 PeV). This is a simulation-based study and the simulations have been performed for the KASCADE array at Karlsruhe and the Alborz-I array at Tehran to study the effect of the altitude on the quality of the primary mass discrimination. The merit factors of the single and combined three mass-sensitive observables have been calculated to compare the discrimination power of combined and single observables. We have used the CORSIKA 7.4 code to simulate the extensive air showers (EASs) sample sets. Considering all aspects of our study, it is found that the ratio of the global time to the lateral density distribution of the muons gives better results than other ratios; also in the case of single observables, the muon density gives better results compared with the other observables. Also it is shown that below 1 PeV primary energies, the ratio of the muon global time to the muon density (Δτ_{global}/ρ_{μ}) results in a better mass discrimination relative to the muon density only.

  17. Enhancement of acidic gases in biomass burning impacted air masses over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefer, B. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Olson, J. O.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Shipham, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass-burning impacted air masses sampled over central and eastern Canada during the summer of 1990 as part of ABLE 3B contained enhanced mixing ratios of gaseous HNO3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, and what appears to be (COOH)2. These aircraft-based samples were collected from a variety of fresh burning plumes and more aged haze layers from different source regions. Values of the enhancement factor, delta X/delta CO, where X represents an acidic gas, for combustion-impacted air masses sampled both near and farther away from the fires, were relatively uniform. However, comparison of carboxylic acid emission ratios measured in laboratory fires to field plume enhancement factors indicates significant in-plume production of HCOOH. Biomass-burning appears to be an important source of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH to the troposphere over subarctic Canada.

  18. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  19. Spatial variability of hailfalls in France: an analysis of air mass retro-trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Hail is the main meteorological risk in south-west France, with the strongest hailfalls being concentrated in just a few days. Specifically, this phenomenon occurs most often and with the greatest severity in the Midi-Pyrénées area. Previous studies have revealed the high spatial variability of hailfall in this part of France, even leading to different characteristics being recorded on hailpads that were relatively close together. For this reason, an analysis of the air mass trajectories was carried out at ground level and at altitude, which subsequently led to the formation of the hail recorded by these hailpads. It is already known that in the study zone, the trajectories of the storms usually stretch for long distances and are oriented towards the east, leading to hailstones with diameters in excess of 3 cm, and without any change in direction above 3 km. We analysed different days with hail precipitation where there was at least one stone with a diameter of 3 cm or larger. Using the simulations from these days, an analysis of the backward trajectories of the air masses was carried out. We used the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) to determine the origin of the air masses, and tracked them toward each of the hailpads that were hit during the day studied. The height of the final points was the height of the impacted hailpads. Similarly, the backward trajectories for different heights were also established. Finally, the results show how storms that affect neighbouring hailpads come from very different air masses; and provide a deeper understanding of the high variability that affects the characteristics of hailfalls. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2. This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22).

  20. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  1. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  2. Assimilating airborne gas and aerosol measurements into HYSPLIT: a visualization tool for simultaneous assessment of air mass history and back trajectory reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, S.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; Campos, T.; Brekhovskikh, V. L.; Zhou, J.

    2013-06-01

    Backward trajectories are commonly used to gain knowledge about the history of airborne observations in terms of possible processes along their path as well as feasible source regions. Here, we describe a refined approach that incorporates airborne gas, aerosol, and environmental data into back trajectories and show how this technique allows for simultaneous assessment of air mass history and back trajectory reliability without the need of calculating trajectory errors. We use the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and add a simple semi-automated computing routine to facilitate high-frequency coverage of back trajectories initiated along the flight track every 10 s. We integrate our in-situ physiochemical data by color-coding each of these trajectories with its corresponding in-situ tracer values measured at the back trajectory start points along the flight path. The unique color for each trajectory aids assessment of trajectory reliability through the visual clustering of air mass pathways of similar coloration. Moreover, marked changes in trajectories associated with marked changes evident in measured physiochemical or thermodynamic properties of an air mass add credence to trajectories, particularly when these air mass properties are linked to trajectory features characteristic of recognized sources or processes. This visual clustering of air mass pathways is of particular value for large-scale 3-D flight tracks common to aircraft experiments where air mass features of interest are often spatially distributed and temporally separated. The cluster-visualization tool used here reveals most back trajectories with pollution signatures measured in the Central Equatorial Pacific reach back to sources on the South American continent over 10 000 km away and 12 days back in time, e.g. the Amazonian basin. We also demonstrate the distinctions in air mass properties between these and trajectories that penetrate deep convection in the

  3. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  4. Small-size mass spectrometer for determining gases and volatile compounds in air during breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, V. T.; Kozlenok, A. V.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.; Lebedev, D. S.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Moroshkin, V. S.; Berezina, A. V.; Viktorova-Leclerc, O. S.; Vlasov, S. A.; Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an automated mass spectrometer for diagnostics of deceases from the composition of exhaled air. It includes a capillary system, which performs a rapid direct feeding of the sample to the instrument without changing substantially its composition and serves for studying the dynamics of variation of the ratio between various components of exhaled air. The membrane system for introducing the sample is intended for determining low concentrations of volatile organic compounds which are biomarkers of pathologies. It is characterized by selective transmittance and ensures the detection limits of target compounds at the parts per million-parts per billion (ppm-ppb) level. A static mass analyzer operating on permanent magnets possesses advantages important for mobile devices as compared to its dynamic analogs: it is more reliable in operation, has a larger dynamic range, and can be used for determining the concentration of components in the mixture one-by-one or simultaneously. The curvilinear output boundary of the magnetic lens of the mass analyzer makes it possible to reduce its weight and size by 2.5 times without deteriorating the mass resolution. We report on the results of testing of the instrument and consider the possibility of its application for early detection of deceases of respiratory and blood circulation system, gastrointestinal tract, and endocrine system.

  5. Measurements of CO in an aircraft experiment and their correlation with biomass burning and air mass origin in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boian, C.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements are obtained in an aircraft experiment during 1-7 September 2000, conducted over Central Brazil in a special region of anticyclonic circulation. This is a typical transport regime during the dry season (July-September), when intense biomass burning occurs, and which gives origin to the transport of burning poluents from the source to distant regions. This aircraft experiment included in situ measurements of CO concentrations in three different scenarios: (1) areas of fresh biomass burning air masses, or source areas; (2) areas of aged biomass burning air masses; and (3) areas of clean air or pristine air masses. The largest CO concentrations were of the order of 450 ppbv in the source region near Conceicao do Araguaia (PA), and the smallest value near 100 ppbv, was found in pristine air masses, for example, near the northeast coastline (clean air, or background region). The observed concentrations were compared to the number of fire pixels seen by the AVHRR satellite instrument. Backward isentropic trajectories were used to determine the origin of the air masses at each sampling point. From the association of the observed CO mixing ratios, fire pixels and air mass trajectories, the previous scenarios may be subdivided as follows: (1a) source regions of biomass burning with large CO concentrations; (1b) regions with few local fire pixels and absence of contributions by transport. Areas with these characteristics include the northeast region of Brazil; (1c) regions close to the source region and strongly affected by transport (region of Para and Amazonas); (2) regions that have a consistent convergence of air masses, that have traveled over biomass burning areas during a few days (western part of the Cerrado region); (3a) Pristine air masses with origin from the ocean; (3b) regions with convergent transport that has passed over areas of no biomass burning, such as frontal weather systems in the southern regions.

  6. On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiang-De; Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The Tibet Plateau (TP) is a key region that imposes profound impacts on the atmospheric water cycle and energy budget of Asia, even the global climate. In this work, we develop a climatology of origin (destination) of air mass and moisture transported to (from) the TP using a Lagrangian moisture diagnosis combined with the forward and backward atmospheric tracking schemes. The climatology is derived from 6-h particle positions based on 5-year (2005-2009) seasonal summer trajectory dataset from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART using NCEP/GFS data as input, where the regional model atmosphere was globally filled with particles. The results show that (1) the dominant origin of the moisture supplied to the TP is a narrow tropical-subtropical band in the extended Arabian Sea covering a long distance from the Indian subcontinent to the Southern Hemisphere. Two additional moisture sources are located in the northwestern part of TP and the Bay of Bengal and play a secondary role. This result indicates that the moisture transporting to the TP more depends on the Indian summer monsoon controlled by large-scale circulation. (2) The moisture departing from the TP can be transported rapidly to East Asia, including East China, Korea, Japan, and even East Pacific. The qualitative similarity between the regions of diagnosed moisture loss and the pattern of the observed precipitation highlights the robustness of the role of the TP on precipitation over East Asia. (3) In contrast to the moisture origin confined in the low level, the origin and fate of whole column air mass over the TP is largely controlled by a strong high-level Asian anticyclone. The results show that the TP is a crossroad of air mass where air enters mainly from the northwest and northeast and continues in two separate streams: one goes southwestwards over the Indian Ocean and the other southeastwards through western North Pacific. Both of them partly enter the trade wind zone, which manifests the

  7. COMPARISON OF TIME-OF-FLIGHT AND DOUBLE FOCUSING MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR REACHING TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATIONS FOR UNANTICIPATED COMPOUNDS ADDED TO DRINKING WATER BY TERRORISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...

  8. A multivariate/chemical mass balance model for air pollution in China: A hybrid methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenka, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of using a two step method of identifying and quantifying air pollution emissions in an urban environment. The procedure uses a mathematical model called Target Transformation Factor Analysis (TTFA) to estimate source profiles using ambient trace element air concentration data. A source profile is analogous to a fingerprint since it is unique to each source of air pollution. It is important to use source profiles that are measured or estimated for the specific location under study. The profiles estimated by TTFA are then employed in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source apportionment analysis for the airshed. Other known sources are estimated using source signatures from the literature. Applying the TTFA and CMB models in this fashion is called receptor modeling. Generically, a receptor model is the combination of measured air pollution concentration data with a numerical technique which apportions the measured air pollution among distinct source types. The results show that TTFA can be used to provide quantitative estimates of air pollution source profiles for an urban center in China. The number of profiles for unique source types was limited for this data set since emissions from certain types of sources co-varied during each sampling day. Consequently, the CMB analyses that applied the TTFA source profiles needed to be supplemented with standard US EPA source profiles. The application of TTFA for estimating source profiles from ambient data and the subsequent use of those profiles in CMB analyses with source profiles obtained from the EPA's source library can improve the statistical quality of the source apportionment analysis. TTFA can identify source categories of airborne pollution for specific cities, as well as give quantitative data on the composition of the emissions from those source types.

  9. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  10. Effect of the relative optical air mass and the clearness index on solar erythemal UV irradiance.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J C; Serrano, M A; Cañada, J; Gurrea, G; Utrillas, M P

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyses the effects of the clearness index (Kt) and the relative optical air mass (mr) on erythemal UV irradiance (UVER). The UVER measurements were made in Valencia (Spain) from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm between June 2003 and December 2012 and (140,000 data points). Firstly, two models were used to calculate values for the erythemal ultraviolet irradiance clearness index (KtUVER) as a function of the global irradiance clearness index (Kt). Secondly, a potential regression model to measure the KtUVER as a function of the relative optical air mass was studied. The coefficients of this regression were evaluated for clear and cloudy days, as well as for days with high and low ozone levels. Thirdly, an analysis was made of the relationship between the two effects in the experimental database, with it being found that the highest degree of agreement, or the joint highest frequencies, are located in the optical mass range mr∈[1.0, 1.2] and the clearness index range of Kt∈[0.8, 1.0]. This is useful for establishing the ranges of parameters where models are more efficient. Simple equations have been tested that can provide additional information for the engineering projects concerning thermal installations. Fourthly, a high dispersion of radiation data was observed for intermediate values of the clearness for UV and UVER. PMID:24911276

  11. Calibration of Dissolved Noble Gas Mass Spectrometric Measurements by an Air-Water Equilibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, Darren; Matsumoto, Takuya; Jaklitsch, Manfred; Han, Liang-Feng; Klaus, Philipp; Wassenaar, Leonard; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    Precise measurements by mass spectrometry of dissolved noble gases (He, Ar, Ne, Kr, Xe) in water samples require careful calibration against laboratory standards with known concentrations. Currently, air pipettes are used for day-to-day calibrations, making estimation of overall analytical uncertainties for dissolved noble gas measurements in water difficult. Air equilibrated water (AEW) is often used as a matrix-equivalent laboratory standard for dissolved gases in groundwater, because of the well-known and constant fractions of noble gases in the atmosphere. AEW standards, however, are only useful if the temperature and pressure of the gas-water equilibrium can be controlled and measured precisely (i.e., to better than 0.5%); contamination and partial sample degassing must also be prevented during sampling. Here we present the details of a new custom air-water equilibration system which consists of an insulated 600 liter tank filled with deionized water, held isothermally at a precise target temperature (<0.05 °C) through the use of a heat exchanger. The temperature and total dissolved gas of the water in the tank are monitored continually, as are atmospheric pressure and air temperature in the laboratory. Different noble gas concentration standards can be reliably produced by accurately controlling the water temperature of the equilibration system. Equilibration characteristics and reproducibility of this system for production of copper tubes containing known amounts of noble gases will be presented.

  12. Community air monitoring for pesticides-part 2: multiresidue determination of pesticides in air by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Matt; Lee, P

    2014-03-01

    Two multiresidue methods were developed to determine pesticides in air collected in California. Pesticides were trapped using XAD-4 resin and extracted with ethyl acetate. Based on an analytical method from the University of California Davis Trace Analytical Laboratory, pesticides were detected by analyzing the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine chlorothalonil, chlorthal-dimethyl, cycloate, dicloran, dicofol, EPTC, ethalfluralin, iprodione, mefenoxam, metolachlor, PCNB, permethrin, pronamide, simazine, trifluralin, and vinclozolin. A GC with a flame photometric detector was used to determine chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, diazinon, diazinon oxon, dimethoate, dimethoate oxon, fonophos, fonophos oxon, malathion, malathion oxon, naled, and oxydemeton. Trapping efficiencies ranged from 78 to 92 % for low level (0.5 μg) and 37-104 % for high level (50 and 100 μg) recoveries. Little to no degradation of compounds occurred over 31 days; recoveries ranged from 78 to 113 %. In the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) method, pesticides were detected by analyzing the extract by GC-MS to determine chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, dicofol, endosulfan 1, endosulfan sulfate, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, propargite, and trifluralin. A liquid chromatograph coupled to a MS was used to determine azinphos-methyl, chloropyrifos oxon, DEF, diazinon, diazinon oxon, dimethoate, dimethoate oxon, diuron, EPTC, malathion, malathion oxon, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, phosmet, propanil, simazine and thiobencarb. Trapping efficiencies for compounds determined by the CDFA method ranged from 10 to 113, 22 to 114, and 56 to 132 % for 10, 5, and 2 μg spikes, respectively. Storage tests yielded 70-170 % recovery for up to 28 days. These multiresidue methods represent flexible, sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective ways to determine residues of various pesticides in ambient air. PMID:24370860

  13. Determination of the effect of transfer between vacuum and air on mass standards of platinum-iridium and stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports work undertaken to assess the change in the mass values of stainless steel and platinum-iridium weights transferred between air and vacuum and to determine the repeatability of this change. Sets of kilogram transfer standards, manufactured from stainless steel and platinum-iridium and with different surface areas, were used to determine the effect of transfer between air and vacuum on the values of the mass standards. The SI unit of mass is the only unit of the seven base SI quantities which is still defined in terms of an artefact rather than by relation to a fundamental physical constant. Work is underway to identify a means of deriving the SI unit of mass from fundamental constants and at present the two principal approaches are the International Avogadro Coordination and the watt balance projects. Both of these approaches involve realizing a kilogram in vacuum and therefore the traceability from a kilogram realized in vacuum to mass standards in air is crucial to the effective dissemination of the mass scale. The work reported here characterizes the changes in mass values of standards on transfer between air and vacuum and thus will enable traceability to be established for an in-air mass scale based on a definition of the unit in vacuum.

  14. Ozone Modulation/Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Pollutants in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Modulation of volatile hydrocarbons in two-component mixtures is demonstrated using an ozonolysis pretreatment with membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS). The MIMS technique allows selective introduction of volatile and semivolatile analytes into a mass spectrometer via processes known collectively as pervaporation [Kotiaho and Cooks, 1992]. A semipermeable polymer membrane acts as an interface between the sample (vapor or solution) and the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. This technique has been demonstrated to allow for sensitive analysis of hydrocarbons and other non-polar volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) in air samples[Cisper et al., 1995] . The methodology has the advantages of no sample pretreatment and short analysis time, which are promising for online monitoring applications but the chief disadvantage of lack of a separation step for the different analytes in a mixture. Several approaches have been investigated to overcome this problem including use of selective chemical ionization [Bier and Cooks, 1987] and multivariate calibration techniques[Ketola et al., 1999] . A new approach is reported for the quantitative measurement of VOCs in complex matrices. The method seeks to reduce the complexity of mass spectra observed in hydrocarbon mixture analysis by selective pretreatment of the analyte mixture. In the current investigation, the rapid reaction of ozone with alkenes is used, producing oxygenated compounds which are suppressed by the MIMS system. This has the effect of removing signals due to unsaturated analytes from the compound mass spectra, and comparison of the spectra before and after the ozone treatment reveals the nature of the parent compounds. In preliminary investigations, ozone reacted completely with cyclohexene from a mixture of cylohexene and cyclohexane, and with β -pinene from a mixture of toluene and β -pinene, suppressing the ion signals from the olefins. A slight attenuation of the cyclohexane and toluene in those

  15. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, retrieved from AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In this decade, understanding the impact of human activities on climate is one of the key issues of discussion globally. The continuous rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere, predominantly due to human activities, is alarming and requires continuous monitoring to understand the dynamics. Radiocarbon is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. Measurement of 14C (or radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 generally requires collection of large air samples (few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined. Currently, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most precise, reliable and widely used technique for atmospheric radiocarbon detection. However, the regular collection of air samples from troposphere and stratosphere, for example using aircraft, is prohibitively expensive. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, developed by NOAA. It comprises of a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ~ 30 km) measurements of CH4and CO2(Karion et al. 2010). In Europe, AirCore measurements are being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of two such AirCore samples collected in July 2014, Finland, for determining the 14C concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore samples were collected on consecutive days. Each stratospheric AirCore sample was divided into six fractions, each containing ~ 35 μg CO2 (~9.5 μg C). Each fraction was separately trapped in 1 /4 inch coiled stainless steel tubing for radiocarbon measurements. The procedure for CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples; the sample preparation, with samples containing < 10

  16. A thunderstorm cell-lightning activity analysis: The new concept of air mass catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Tamás; Horváth, Ákos; Ács, Ferenc

    2016-03-01

    Thunderstorm cell-lightning activity is discussed in terms of analysing a thunderstorm's lightning frequency-equipotential temperature relationship. Thunderstorms were tracked using Doppler radars in five-minute time steps. Lightning is assigned to the nearest thunderstorm cell, it is characterised by lightning frequency data using LINET. Equipotential temperature is not directly estimated, instead the notion of air mass catchment is introduced to represent it. It is shown in this paper that the thunderstorm cell with maximum lightning frequency in the current time step is almost always the so-called leading storm cell. The lightning frequency activity of the non-leading storm cells is not significant.

  17. Diode laser-based air mass flux sensor for subsonic aeropropulsion inlets.

    PubMed

    Miller, M F; Kessler, W J; Allen, M G

    1996-08-20

    An optical air mass flux sensor based on a compact, room-temperature diode laser in a fiber-coupled delivery system has been tested on a full-scale gas turbine engine. The sensor is based on simultaneous measurements of O(2) density and Doppler-shifted velocity along a line of sight across the inlet duct. Extensive tests spanning engine power levels from idle to full afterburner demonstrate accuracy and precision of the order of 1-2% of full scale in density, velocity, and mass flux. The precision-limited velocity at atmospheric pressure was as low as 40 cm/s. Multiple data-reduction procedures are quantitatively compared to suggest optimal strategies for flight sensor packages. PMID:21102916

  18. Diode laser-based air mass flux sensor for subsonic aeropropulsion inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael F.; Kessler, William J.; Allen, Mark G.

    1996-08-01

    An optical air mass flux sensor based on a compact, room-temperature diode laser in a fiber-coupled delivery system has been tested on a full-scale gas turbine engine. The sensor is based on simultaneous measurements of O 2 density and Doppler-shifted velocity along a line of sight across the inlet duct. Extensive tests spanning engine power levels from idle to full afterburner demonstrate accuracy and precision of the order of 1 2 of full scale in density, velocity, and mass flux. The precision-limited velocity at atmospheric pressure was as low as 40 cm s. Multiple data-reduction procedures are quantitatively compared to suggest optimal strategies for flight sensor packages.

  19. Uncertainty evaluation of mass values determined by electronic balances in analytical chemistry: a new method to correct for air buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Wunderli, S; Fortunato, G; Reichmuth, A; Richard, Ph

    2003-06-01

    A new method to correct for the largest systematic influence in mass determination-air buoyancy-is outlined. A full description of the most relevant influence parameters is given and the combined measurement uncertainty is evaluated according to the ISO-GUM approach [1]. A new correction method for air buoyancy using an artefact is presented. This method has the advantage that only a mass artefact is used to correct for air buoyancy. The classical approach demands the determination of the air density and therefore suitable equipment to measure at least the air temperature, the air pressure and the relative air humidity within the demanded uncertainties (i.e. three independent measurement tasks have to be performed simultaneously). The calculated uncertainty is lower for the classical method. However a field laboratory may not always be in possession of fully traceable measurement systems for these room climatic parameters.A comparison of three approaches applied to the calculation of the combined uncertainty of mass values is presented. Namely the classical determination of air buoyancy, the artefact method, and the neglecting of this systematic effect as proposed in the new EURACHEM/CITAC guide [2]. The artefact method is suitable for high-precision measurement in analytical chemistry and especially for the production of certified reference materials, reference values and analytical chemical reference materials. The method could also be used either for volume determination of solids or for air density measurement by an independent method. PMID:12732918

  20. VOC Composition of Air Masses Transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, B.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated onboard a NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiment in 2002. Enhancements of acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and in some cases benzene were observed in air masses that were impacted by outflow from Asia. The enhancement ratios with respect to carbon monoxide are compared to emission factors for fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, which gives some insight into the sources responsible for the pollution. The observed mixing ratios for acetone, methanol and in particular acetonitrile were generally reduced in the marine boundary layer, suggesting the presence of an ocean uptake sink. The ocean uptake of acetonitrile was found to be particularly efficient in a zone with upwelling water off of the U.S. west coast. Reduced mixing ratios of acetone and methanol were observed in a stratospheric intrusion. This observation gives some information about the lifetime of these VOCs in the stratosphere. Enhanced concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in air masses that were impacted by urban sources in California. The ratio between the concentrations of benzene, toluene and higher aromatics indicated the degree of photochemical oxidation. PTR-MS only gives information about the mass of the ions produced by proton-transfer reactions between H3O+ and VOCs in the instrument. The identification of VOCs was confirmed by coupling a gas-chromatographic (GC) column to the instrument and post-flight GC-PTR-MS analyses of canister samples collected during the flights.

  1. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  2. Characteristics of dimethylsulfide, ozone, aerosols, and cloud condensation nuclei in air masses over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    1999-05-01

    Long-term measurements of several trace gases and aerosols were carried out from December 1994 to October 1996 at Ogasawara Hahajima Island over the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The continental impact on the concentrations of sulfur compounds, ozone (O3), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was estimated on the basis of the classification of air mass into seven types by isentropic trajectory analysis. From May to October, the air mass originating from the central North Pacific Ocean is predominant and regarded as the clean marine air for the concentrations of sulfur compounds and CCN. From the results of the molar ratio of methane sulfonic acid to non-sea-salt sulfate (NSS) and the positive correlation between dimethylsulfide (DMS) and CCN in this air mass it can be concluded that DMS largely contributes to the production of NSS and CCN. On the other hand, continental and anthropogenic substances are preferably transported to the northwestern Pacific Ocean by the predominant continental air mass from November to March. The enhancement of concentrations by the outflow from the Asian continent are estimated by a factor of 2.8 for O3, 3.9 for SO2, 3.5 for CCN activated at 0.5% supersaturation (0.5% CCN), 4.7 for 1.0% CCN, and 5.5 for NSS. Moreover, the CCN supersaturation spectra are also affected by the continental substances resulting in factor 2 of enhancement of cloud droplet number concentration. The diurnal variations of DMS and O3 for each air mass show a pattern of daytime minimum and nighttime maximum, which are typically found in remote ocean, even though those amplitudes are different for each air mass. Consequently, it can be concluded that the influence of nitric oxides (NOx) for the daytime O3 production and nitrate (NO3) radical for the nighttime oxidation of DMS are small even in the continental air mass.

  3. Precipitation chemistry and corresponding transport patterns of influencing air masses at Huangshan Mountain in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, ChunE; Deng, Xueliang; Yang, Yuanjian; Huang, Xiangrong; Wu, Biwen

    2014-09-01

    One hundred and ten samples of rainwater were collected for chemical analysis at the summit of Huangshan Mountain, a high-altitude site in East China, from July 2010 to June 2011. The volume-weighted-mean (VWM) pH for the whole sampling period was 5.03. SO{4/2-} and Ca2+ were the most abundant anion and cation, respectively. The ionic concentrations varied monthly with the highest concentrations in winter/spring and the lowest in summer. Evident inter-correlations were found among most ions, indicating the common sources for some species and fully mixing characteristics of the alpine precipitation chemistry. The VWM ratio of [SO{4/2-}]/[NO{3/-}] was 2.54, suggesting the acidity of rainwater comes from both nitric and sulfuric acids. Compared with contemporary observations at other alpine continental sites in China, the precipitation at Huangshan Mountain was the least polluted, with the lowest ionic concentrations. Trajectories to Huangshan Mountain on rainy days could be classified into six groups. The rainwater with influencing air masses originating in Mongolia was the most polluted with limited effect. The emissions of Jiangxi, Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces had a strong influence on the overall rain chemistry at Huangshan Mountain. The rainwater with influencing air masses from Inner Mongolia was heavily polluted by anthropogenic pollutants.

  4. Aerosol composition in a stagnant air mass impacted by dense fogs: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, D.J.; Munger, J.W.; Waldman, J.M.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Over the last two winters, our research group has been investigating the chemical composition of fogwater and haze aerosol during wintertime stagnation episodes in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The valley is encompassed by mountain ranges. During the winter a strong subsidence inversion based below the natural boundaries of the valley restricts the ventilation of the air masses below the inversion. The residence time of an air parcel in the valley under these stagnation conditions is on the order of 8 days. Because the trapped air is very humid, stagnation episodes are associated with a persistent thick haze and frequent widespread nighttime fogs. During the winter 1982-1983 the authors sampled fog and haze at one site (Bakersfield); results from this preliminary study have been discussed in detail in a previous report. In the winter 1983-1984 the scale of the program was expanded in order to test hypotheses formulated as a result of first year data. The present paper first reports briefly on the 1982-1983 results and outlines the essential conclusions. They then describe the large-scale experiment conducted during the winter of 1983-1984, and discuss some preliminary fogwater data.

  5. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  6. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  7. Aerosols in polluted versus nonpolluted air masses Long-range transport and effects on clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Van Valin, C. C.; Castillo, R. C.; Kadlecek, J. A.; Ganor, E.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on the physics and chemistry of clouds in the northeastern United States, aerosol and cloud-drop size distributions, elemental composition of aerosols as a function of size, and ionic content of cloud water were measured on Whiteface Mountain, NY, during the summers of 1981 and 1982. In several case studies, the data were cross-correlated with different air mass types - background continental, polluted continental, and maritime - that were advected to the sampling site. The results are the following: (1) Anthropogenic sources hundreds of kilometers upwind cause the small-particle (accumulation) mode number to increase from hundreds of thousands per cubic centimeter and the mass loading to increase from a few to several tens of micrograms per cubic meter, mostly in the form of sulfur aerosols. (2) A significant fraction of anthropogenic sulfur appears to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to affect the cloud drop concentration. (3) Clouds in Atlantic maritime air masses have cloud drop spectra that are markedly different from those measured in continental clouds. The drop concentration is significantly lower, and the drop size spectra are heavily skewed toward large drops. (4) Effects of anthropogenic pollutants on cloud water ionic composition are an increase of nitrate by a factor of 50, an increase of sulfate by more than one order of magnitude, and an increase of ammonium ion by a factor of 7. The net effect of the changes in ionic concentrations is an increase in cloud water acidity. An anion deficit even in maritime clouds suggests an unknown, possibly biogenic, source that could be responsible for a pH below neutral, which is frequently observed in nonpolluted clouds.

  8. Fullerene Soot in Eastern China Air: Results from Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ge, X.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Sun, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collier, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the observation and quantification of fullerenes in ambient airborne particulate using an Aerodyne Soot Particle - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) deployed during 2015 winter in suburban Nanjing, a megacity in eastern China. The laser desorption and electron impact ionization techniques employed by the SP-AMS allow us to differentiate various fullerenes from other aerosol components. Mass spectrum of the identified fullerene soot is consisted by a series of high molecular weight carbon clusters (up to m/z of 2000 in this study), almost identical to the spectral features of commercially available fullerene soot, both with C70 and C60 clusters as the first and second most abundant species. This type of soot was observed throughout the entire study period, with an average mass loading of 0.18 μg/m3, accounting for 6.4% of the black carbon mass, 1.2% of the total organic mass. Temporal variation and diurnal pattern of fullerene soot are overall similar to those of black carbon, but are clearly different in some periods. Combining the positive matrix factorization, back-trajectory and analyses of the meteorological parameters, we identified the petrochemical industrial plants situating upwind from the sampling site, as the major source of fullerene soot. In this regard, our findings imply the ubiquitous presence of fullerene soot in ambient air of industry-influenced area, especially the oil and gas production regions. This study also offers new insights into the characterization of fullerenes from other environmental samples via the advanced SP-AMS technique.

  9. The Use of Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-Convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Moltham, A. L.; Folmer, M. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of non-convective winds associated with passing extratropical cyclones and the formation of the sting jet in North Atlantic cyclones that impact Europe has been gaining interest. Sting jet research has been limited to North Atlantic cyclones that impact Europe because it is known to occur in Shapiro-Keyser cyclones and theory suggests it does not occur in Norwegian type cyclones. The global distribution of sting jet cyclones is unknown and questions remain as to whether cyclones with Shapiro-Keyser characteristics that impact the United States develop features similar to the sting jet. Therefore unique National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) products were used to analyze an event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) ozone data were used in conjunction with NASA's global Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis and higher-resolution regional 13-km Rapid Refresh (RAP) data to analyze the role of stratospheric air in producing high winds. The RGB Air Mass imagery and a new AIRS ozone anomaly product were used to confirm the presence of stratospheric air. Plan view and cross sectional plots of wind, potential vorticity, relative humidity, omega, and frontogenesis were used to analyze the relationship between stratospheric air and high surface winds during the event. Additionally, the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to plot trajectories to determine the role of the conveyor belts in producing the high winds. Analyses of new satellite products, such as the RGB Air Mass imagery, show the utility of future GOES-R products in forecasting non-convective wind events.

  10. Number size distribution of aerosols at Mt. Huang and Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Effects of air masses and characteristics of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 μm were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt

  11. An Air Mass Based Approach to the Establishment of Spring Season Synoptic Characteristics in the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, R.; Messina, A.; Godek, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The spring season is indicative of marked meteorological, ecological, and biological changes across the Northeast United States. The onset of spring coincides with distinct meteorological phenomena including an increase in severe weather events and snow meltwaters that can cause localized flooding and other costly damages. Increasing and variable springtime temperatures also influence Northeast tourist operations and agricultural productivity. Even with the vested interest of industry in the season and public awareness of the dynamic characteristics of spring, the definition of spring remains somewhat arbitrary. The primary goal of this research is to obtain a synoptic meteorological definition of the spring season through an assessment of air mass frequency over the past 60 years. A secondary goal examines the validity of recent speculations that the onset and termination of spring has changed in recent decades, particularly since 1975. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is utilized to define daily air masses over the region. Annual and seasonal baseline frequencies are identified and their differences are acquired to characterize the season. Seasonal frequency departures of the early and late segments of the period of record around 1975 are calculated and examined for practical and statistical significance. The daily boundaries of early and late spring are then isolated and frequencies are obtained for these periods. Boundary frequencies are assessed across the period of record to identify important changes in the season's initiation and termination through time. Results indicate that the Northeast spring season is dominated by dry air masses, mainly the Dry Moderate and Dry Polar types. Significant differences in seasonal air mass frequency are also observed through time. Prior to 1975, higher frequencies of polar air mass types are detected while after 1975 there is an increase in the frequencies of both moderate and tropical types. This finding is also

  12. Evidence of rapid production of organic acids in an urban air mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.; Cochran, Anthony K.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; Holloway, John S.; Graus, Martin; Flynn, James; Lefer, Barry; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost

    2011-09-01

    Gas-phase acids (nitric, formic, acrylic, methacrylic, propionic, and pyruvic/butryic acid) were measured using negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS) in Pasadena, CA as part of the CalNex 2010 (Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) study in May-June 2010. Organic acid concentrations ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume (pptv) to several parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with the largest concentrations observed for formic and propionic acids. Photochemically processed urban emissions transported from Los Angeles were frequently sampled during the day. Analysis of transported emissions demonstrates a strong correlation of organic acid concentrations with both nitric acid and odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) showing that the organic acids are photochemically and rapidly produced from urban emissions.

  13. Progress Toward a Global, EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    The MISR and MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra Satellite have been collecting data containing information about the state of Earth's atmosphere and surface for over eleven years. Data from these instruments have been used to develop a global, monthly climatology of aerosol amount that is widely used as a constraint on climate models, including those used for the 2007 IPCC assessment report. The next frontier in assessing aerosol radiative forcing of climate is aerosol type, and in particular, the absorption properties of major aerosol air masses. This presentation will focus on the prospects for constraining aerosol type globally, and the steps we are taking to apply a combination of satellite and suborbital data to this challenge.

  14. Identification of aerosol types over an urban site based on air-mass trajectory classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, G. V.; Devara, P. C. S.; Aher, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from MICROTOPS II Sun Photometer measurements during 2010-2013 over Pune (18°32‧N; 73°49‧E, 559 m amsl), a tropical urban station in India, are analyzed to identify aerosol types in the atmospheric column. Identification/classification is carried out on the basis of dominant airflow patterns, and the method of discrimination of aerosol types on the basis of relation between aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm) and Ångström exponent (AE, α). Five potential advection pathways viz., NW/N, SW/S, N, SE/E and L have been identified over the observing site by employing the NOAA-HYSPLIT air mass back trajectory analysis. Based on AE against AOD500 nm scatter plot and advection pathways followed five major aerosol types viz., continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB), desert dust (DD) and indeterminate or mixed type (MT) have been identified. In winter, sector SE/E, a representative of air masses traversed over Bay of Bengal and Eastern continental Indian region has relatively small AOD (τpλ = 0.43 ± 0.13) and high AE (α = 1.19 ± 0.15). These values imply the presence of accumulation/sub-micron size anthropogenic aerosols. During pre-monsoon, aerosols from the NW/N sector have high AOD (τpλ = 0.61 ± 0.21), and low AE (α = 0.54 ± 0.14) indicating an increase in the loading of coarse-mode particles over Pune. Dominance of UB type in winter season for all the years (i.e. 2010-2013) may be attributed to both local/transported aerosols. During pre-monsoon seasons, MT is the dominant aerosol type followed by UB and DD, while the background aerosols are insignificant.

  15. AUTOMATED DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA OBTAINED WITH AN OPEN-AIR IONIZATIONS SOURCE BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTIPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals dispersed by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events must be rapidly identified to assess health risks. Mass spectra from high levels of analytes obtained using rapid, open-air ionization by a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART®) ion source often contain

  16. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  17. Enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides in Asian, trans-Pacific, and western U.S. air masses.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan A; Simonich, Staci L Massey; Primbs, Toby K; Bidleman, Terry F; Jantunen, Liisa M; Ryoo, Keon-Sang; Zhu, Tong

    2009-04-15

    The enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses from Okinawa, Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern United States: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a marine boundary layer site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m above sea level (m.a.s.l); Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m.a.s.l in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2763 m.a.s.l in Oregon's Cascade range. The enantiomeric signatures of composite soil samples, collected from China, South Korea, and the western U.S. were also measured. The data from chiral analysis was expressed asthe enantiomeric fraction, defined as (+) enantiomer/(sum of the (+) and (-) enantiomers), where a racemic composition has EF = 0.5. Racemic alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) was measured in Asian air masses at Okinawa and in Chinese and South Korean soils. Nonracemic alpha-HCH (EF = 0.528 +/- 0.0048) was measured in regional air masses at CPO, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the alpha-HCH EFs were significantly more racemic (EF = 0.513 +/- 0.0003, p < 0.001). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured at MPO and MBO in trans-Pacific air masses that had spent considerable time in the free troposphere. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were negatively correlated (p = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer, along the 10-day back air mass trajectory, prior to being sampled. This suggests that, on the West coast of the U.S., the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. Racemic signatures of cis- and trans-chlordane were measured in air masses at all four air sampling sites, suggesting that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordane that has not yet been biotransformed. PMID:19475954

  18. CBOs: Reaching the Hardest to Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The agents most successful in reaching and teaching those most in need of basic skills instruction are the community-based organizations (CBOs). They come into being in response to social and economic problems faced by their constituents--disadvantaged minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and the alienated. Because of their close ties to the…

  19. Characteristics of tyre dust in polluted air: Studies by single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; Gietl, Johanna K.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi A.; Yang, Xiaoguang; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    There is a paucity of quantitative knowledge on the contributions of non-exhaust (abrasion and re-suspension) sources to traffic emissions. Abrasive emissions can be broadly categorised as tyre wear, brake wear and road dust/road surface wear. Current research often considers road dust and tyre dust as externally mixed particles, the former mainly composed of mineral matter and the latter solely composed of mainly organic matter and some trace elements. The aim of this work was to characterise tyre wear from both laboratory and field studies by using Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS). Real-time single particle chemical composition was obtained from a set of rubber tyres rotating on a metal surface. Bimodal particle number size distributions peaking at 35 nm and 85 nm were obtained from SMPS/APS measurements over the range 6-20,000 nm. ATOFMS mass spectra of tyre wear in the particle size range 200-3000 nm diameter show peaks due to exo-sulphur compounds, nitrate, Zn and ions of high molecular weight (m/z > 100) attributed to organic polymers. Two large ATOFMS datasets collected from a number of outdoor studies were examined. The former was constituted of 48 road dust samples collected on the roads of London. The latter consisted of ATOFMS ambient air field studies from Europe, overall composed of more than 2,000,000 single particle mass spectra. The majority (95%) of tyre wear particles present in the road dust samples and atmospheric samples are internally mixed with metals (Li, Na, Ca, Fe, Ti), as well as phosphate. It is concluded that the interaction of tyres with the road surface creates particles internally mixed from two sources: tyre rubber and road surface materials. Measurements of the tyre rubber component alone may underestimate the contribution of tyre wear to concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The results presented are especially relevant for urban aerosol source apportionment and PM2.5 exposure assessment.

  20. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nemuc, Anca; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2016-06-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  1. Large-scale transport of a CO-enhanced air mass from Europe to the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, V. S.; Miles, T.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    On November 14, 1981, the shuttle-borne Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment observed a carbon monoxide (CO) enhanced air mass in the middle troposphere over the Middle East. The primary source of this polluted air was estimated by constructing adiabatic isentropic trajectories backwards from the MAPS measurement location over a 36 h period. The isentropic diagnostics indicate that CO-enhanced air was transported southeastward over the Mediterranean from an organized synoptic-scale weather regime, albeit of moderate intensity, influencing central Europe on November 12. Examination of the evolving synoptic scale vertical velocity and precipitation patterns during this period, in conjuction with Meteosat visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery, suggests that the presence of this disturbed weather system over Europe may have created upward transport of CO-enhanced air between the boundary-layer and midtropospheric levels, and subsequent entrainment in the large-scale northwesterly jet stream flow over Europe and the Mediterranean.

  2. Characterizing Air Masses in the Lower Troposphere (< 2 km) during the 2011 Student Airborne Program (SARP) Mission in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Elder, C.; Kauffman, E. J.; Weathers, E.; Thomas, E.; Johnson, E.; Turrentine, H.; Saad, K.; Nighelli, K.; Burns, M.; Heath, N.; Shetter, R. E.; Schaller, E.; Webster, A.; Buzay, E.; Peterson, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    During the NASA Student Airborne Program (SARP) mission, high frequency whole air sampling during a missed-approach to Los Angeles International airport (LAX) provided air mass signatures collected in close proximity to their urban and oceanic sources. Each whole air sample was analyzed for 80 halocarbons, hydrocarbons and organic nitrates. Unlike other airborne missions, high frequency whole air sampling of about 70 samples collected over a 20 minute period (15 second fill per sample) during a 150 km flight path at low altitude (< 2 km) provided a more detailed profile of the Los Angeles air shed than has been previously accomplished. Correlations between CH3I, CHBr3, and MeONO2 (marine tracers) versus C2Cl4 and HCFC-22 (anthropogenic tracers) were used to distinguish between purely marine air and air influenced by emissions from Los Angeles (Figure 1). Of the 80 C1-C10 volatile organic compounds that were measured, 60 were elevated in air from the Los Angeles air shed. These included C1-C10 alkanes, C6-C8 aromatics, C2-C3 alkenes, halons, HCFCs, HFCs, CH3CCl3, chlorinated solvents (e.g., C2Cl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2), and organic nitrates. Marine species emitted in this region of the Pacific were found to include MeONO2, EtONO2, CH2Br2, CHBr3, CH3I and DMS. Note that the C3 organic nitrates were not enhanced in the marine influenced air, and instead they are attributed to urban photochemistry. Overall, high-frequency and low-altitude whole air sampling during the LAX missed-approach clearly distinguished urban and oceanic sources and allowed a detailed chemical signature for Los Angeles air to be determined.

  3. Dust and Pollution Aerosol Air Mass Mapping from Satellite Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, R. A.; Nelson, D. L.; Yau, K. S.; Martonchik, J.; Diner, D. J.; Gaitley, B. J.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Quinn, P. R.; Clarke, A. R.; Howell, S.; McNaughton, C.; Reid, J.; Holben, B.; Wendisch, M.; Petzold, A.

    2006-12-01

    One objective of the NASA Earth Observing System's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is to map aerosol air mass types, based on retrieved column-average particle microphysical properties. Early results demonstrated the ability to distinguish three-to-five bins over the 0.1 to 2.5 micron aerosol size range, about two-to-four groupings of single-scattering albedo, and to separate spherical from randomly oriented non- spherical particles, under good but not ideal viewing conditions. These results relied heavily on the MISR Research Aerosol Retrieval algorithm, which allows flexibility in choosing retrieval patch size and location, component aerosol properties and mixtures, and mixture acceptance criteria, compared to early versions of the MISR Standard algorithm, designed to routinely process the entire global data set. Early mid-visible column aerosol optical depth results were validated against surface-based sun photometer measurements. The corresponding particle property results appeared qualitatively promising, but formal validation requires quantitative constraints on component particle properties and mixtures in a range of natural settings, available mainly from the combination of height-resolved and total column data collected by surface and airborne instruments during field campaigns. This presentation will highlight the latest detailed, multi-platform case studies, as well as MISR regional mapping, of smoke, Saharan dust, and mixtures of pollution aerosol and desert dust collected during the INTEX, SAMUM, and UAE-2 campaigns, respectively. The broader implications of these results for global, and especially regional, aerosol climate and air quality studies will also be discussed. This work is performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Optimization of solar cells for air mass zero operation and a study of solar cells at high temperatures, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, A. E.; Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The etch-back epitaxy process is described for producing thin, graded composition GaAlAs layers. The palladium-aluminum contact system is discussed along with its associated problems. Recent solar cell results under simulated air mass zero light and at elevated temperatures are reported and the growth of thin polycrystalline GaAs films on foreign substrates is developed.

  5. An objective classification system of air mass types for Szeged, Hungary, with special attention to plant pollen levels.

    PubMed

    Makra, László; Juhász, Miklós; Mika, János; Bartzokas, Aristides; Béczi, Rita; Sümeghy, Zoltán

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the characteristic air mass types over the Carpathian Basin in relation to plant pollen levels over annual pollination periods. Based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts dataset, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC were prepared for each air mass type (cluster) in order to relate sea-level pressure patterns to pollen levels in Szeged, Hungary. The database comprises daily values of 12 meteorological parameters and daily pollen concentrations of 24 species for their pollination periods from 1997 to 2001. Characteristic air mass types were objectively defined via factor analysis and cluster analysis. According to the results, nine air mass types (clusters) were detected for pollination periods of the year corresponding to pollen levels that appear with higher concentration when irradiance is moderate while wind speed is moderate or high. This is the case when an anticyclone prevails in the region west of the Carpathian Basin and when Hungary is under the influence of zonal currents (wind speed is high). The sea level pressure systems associated with low pollen concentrations are mostly similar to those connected to higher pollen concentrations, and arise when wind speed is low or moderate. Low pollen levels occur when an anticyclone prevails in the region west of the Carpathian Basin, as well as when an anticyclone covers the region with Hungary at its centre. Hence, anticyclonic or anticyclonic ridge weather situations seem to be relevant in classifying pollen levels. PMID:16575583

  6. Background NO/sub x/ mixing ratios in air masses over the North Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1981-08-20

    A chemiluminescence analyzer was used to measure NO/sub x/ mixing ratios at the west coast of Ireland. Two measurement modes allowed the determination of NO and NO/sub x/ = NO+NO/sub 2/. In a third mode using a molybdenum converter, higher signals were observed than was in the second mode indicating that nitrogen compounds other than NO+NO/sub 2/ are registered. They are denoted 'excess NO/sub x/'. The average NO/sub 2/ mixing ratio for a week period was 101 +- 87 pptv. In pure marine air masses identified by means of trajectory calculations, the NO/sub 2/ mixing ratios were lower and exhibited in addition a diurnal variation with nighttime values of 37 +- 6 pptv and average values of 87 +- 47 pptv. Possible origins of the diurnal variation are discussed. For such conditions, the NO mixing ratio generally was unmeasurably small, certainly less than 10 pptv. The excess NO/sub x/ is also higher during the day compared with nighttime values of about 70 pptv. Further studies are required to identify the compounds involved.

  7. New Directions: Questions surrounding suspended particle mass used as a surrogate for air quality and for regulatory control of ambient urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, John L.

    2014-07-01

    The original choice of particulate matter mass (PM) as a realistic surrogate for gross air pollution has gradually evolved into routine use nowadays of epidemiologically-based estimates of the monetary and other benefits expected from regulating urban air quality. Unfortunately, the statistical associations facilitating such calculations usually are based on single indices of air pollution whereas the health effects themselves are more broadly based causally. For this and other reasons the economic benefits of control tend to be exaggerated. Primarily because of their assumed inherently inferior respirability, particles ≥10 μm are generally excluded from such considerations. Where the particles themselves are chemically heterogeneous, as in an urban context, this may be inappropriate. Clearly all air-borne particles, whether coarse or fine, are susceptible to inhalation. Hence, the possibility exists for any adhering potentially harmful semi-volatile substances to be subsequently de-sorbed in vivo thereby facilitating their transport deeper into the lungs. Consequently, this alone may be a sufficient reason for including rather than rejecting during air quality monitoring the relatively coarse 10-100 μm particle fraction, ideally in conjunction with routine estimation of the gaseous co-pollutants thereby facilitating a multi-pollutant approach apropos regulation.

  8. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  9. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  10. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M.; Bertman, S. B.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  11. Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims/Survivors of Mass Violence. A Workshop To Reach Consensus on Best Practices (Warrenton, Virginia, October 29-November 1, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Americans have been exposed to increased levels of mass violence during the past decade. School violence, shootings in the workplace, and terrorist acts both here and abroad--all have affected individuals, families, communities, and our country. This report addresses the urgent need to evaluate the various psychological interventions that are…

  12. Chiral Signatures of Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Asian, trans- Pacific, and Pacific Northwestern Air Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genualdi, S.; Primbs, T.; Bidleman, T.; Jantunen, L.; Simonich, S.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this research is to use the chiral signatures of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SOCs) to distinguish between new and old sources in Asian, trans-Pacific, and regional air masses. During 2004, a six week air sampling campaign was conducted at a remote site in Okinawa, Japan to determine the chemical composition of Eurasian air masses. During 2003 and 2004, high volume air samples were collected at three different locations in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. These sampling locations were; Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO) located at 1250m in the Oregon Coast Range, Mt. Bachelor located at 2800m in Oregon's Cascade Range, and Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO) located at 500m in the state of Washington. The air samples consisted of both polyurethane foam and XAD-2 resin to collect the gas phase SOCs, and glass fiber filters to collect the particulate phase SOCs. The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and enantiomer fractions were determined using GCMS-ECNI with the use of a BGB Analytik chiral column. The chiral SOCs, á-Hexachlorocyclohexane, cis and trans chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and o'p' DDT, were measured, the enantiomer ratios were determined, and potential new and historical sources of these compounds were identified.

  13. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Glenn C.

    1999-12-01

    {sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}5}, and 10{sup {minus}5} respectively. To understand how internal surface area influences the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet, a model of ozone diffusion into and reaction with internal carpet components was developed. This was then used to predict apparent reaction probabilities for carpet. He combines this with a modified model of turbulent mass transfer developed by Liu, et al. to predict deposition rates and indoor ozone concentrations. The model predicts that carpet should have an equivalent reaction probability of about 10{sup {minus}5}, matching laboratory measurements of the reaction probability. For both carpet and duct materials, surfaces become progressively quenched (aging), losing the ability to react or otherwise take up ozone. He evaluated the functional form of aging and find that the reaction probability follows a power function with respect to the cumulative uptake of ozone. To understand ozone aging of surfaces, he developed several mathematical descriptions of aging based on two different mechanisms. The observed functional form of aging is mimicked by a model which describes ozone diffusion with internal reaction in a solid. He shows that the fleecy nature of carpet materials in combination with the model of ozone diffusion below a fiber surface and internal reaction may explain the functional form and the magnitude of power function parameters observed due to ozone interactions with carpet. The ozone induced aldehyde emissions, measured from duct materials, were combined with an indoor air quality model to show that concentrations of aldehydes indoors may approach odorous levels. He shows that ducts are unlikely to be a significant sink for ozone due to the low reaction probability in combination with the short residence time of air in ducts.

  14. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; López, M.; Costa, M. J.; Serrano, A.; Bortoli, D.; Bañón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Silva, A. M.

    2009-08-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75°. In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85°. These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7±1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80°. Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes.

  15. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chuan; Yue, Kai; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm) was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and oak (Quercus baronii) in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa) in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana) and birch (Betula albosinensis) in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8%) was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8%) was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter decomposition and

  16. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  17. Study of the Tropospheric Aerosol Structure Under Changing of the Air Mass Type from Lidar Observations in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, S. V.; Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Penner, I. É.

    2016-04-01

    The aerosol optical characteristics in the main tropospheric layers are investigated based on joint interpretation of data of multi-frequency lidar sensing (110 sessions) and results of modeling of back air mass trajectories. Methodical problems for separating layers with different scattering properties and estimating their vertical boundaries are considered. Three optical criteria are simultaneously used to distinguish aerosol layers from cloud formations, including the gradient of the backscattering coefficient, optical depth, and the depolarization ratio. High values of the lidar ratio (66 sr) and of the Angstrom exponent (1.62) in the shortwavelength spectral range are observed in the boundary layer for Arctic transport. At the same time, low values of these optical parameters are characteristic for Asian transport: the lidar ratio is 54 sr and the Angstrom exponent is 1.1, which is explained by different relative contributions of the coarse and fine aerosol fractions to the air mass.

  18. Calculations of relative optical air masses for various aerosol types and minor gases in Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Petkov, Boyan H.

    2014-02-01

    The dependence functions of relative optical air mass on apparent solar zenith angle θ have been calculated over the θ < 87° range for the vertical profiles of wet-air molecular number density in the Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres, extinction coefficients of different aerosol types, and molecular number density of water vapor, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen dimer. The calculations were made using as weight functions the seasonal average vertical profiles of (i) pressure and temperature derived from multiyear sets of radiosounding measurements performed at Ny-Ålesund, Alert, Mario Zucchelli, and Neumayer stations; (ii) volume extinction coefficients of background summer aerosol, Arctic haze, and Kasatochi and Pinatubo volcanic aerosol measured with lidars or balloon-borne samplings; and (iii) molecular number concentrations of the above minor gases, derived from radiosonde, ozonesonde, and satellite-based observations. The air mass values were determined using a formula based on a realistic atmospheric air-refraction model. They were systematically checked by comparing their mutual differences with the uncertainties arising from the seasonal and daily variations in pressure and temperature conditions within the various ranges, where aerosol and gases attenuate the solar radiation most efficiently. The results provide evidence that secant-approximated and midlatitude air mass values are inappropriate for analyzing the Sun photometer measurements performed at polar sites. They indicate that the present evaluations can be reliably used to estimate the aerosol optical depth from the Arctic and Antarctic measurements of total optical depth, after appropriate corrections for the Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption optical depths.

  19. Screening for sarin in air and water by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J. F.; Boparai, A. S.; Reed, L. L.

    2001-10-01

    A method of screening air and water samples for the chemical-warfare agent Sarin is developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). The SPME field kit sampler is ideal for collecting air and water samples in the field and transporting samples safely to the laboratory. The sampler also allows the sample to be introduced into the GC-MS system without further sample preparation. Results of the tests with Sarin using the SPME technique indicate that a sample collection time of 5 min is sufficient to detect 100 ng/L of Sarin in air. For water samples, Sarin is detected at a concentration of 12 {mu}g/mL or higher. This method is ideal for screening samples for quick response situations.

  20. On the relationship between Arctic ice clouds and polluted air masses over the north slope of Alaska in April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, C.; Pelon, J.; Girard, E.; Ancellet, G.; Blanchet, J. P.; Delanoë, J.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, two Types of Ice Clouds (TICs) properties have been characterized using ISDAC airborne measurements (Alaska, April 2008). TIC-2B were characterized by fewer (<10 L-1) and larger (>110 μm) ice crystals, a larger ice supersaturation (>15%) and a fewer ice nuclei (IN) concentration (<2 order of magnitude) when compared to TIC-1/2A. It has been hypothesized that emissions of SO2 may reduce the ice nucleating properties of IN through acidification, resulting to a smaller concentration of larger ice crystals and leading to precipitation (e.g. cloud regime TIC-2B) because of the reduced competition for the same available moisture. Here, the origin of air masses forming the ISDAC TIC-1/2A (1 April 2008) and TIC-2B (15 April 2008) is investigated using trajectory tools and satellite data. Results show that the synoptic conditions favor air masses transport from the three potentials SO2 emission areas to Alaska: eastern China and Siberia where anthropogenic and biomass burning emission respectively are produced and the volcanic region from the Kamchatka/Aleutians. Weather conditions allow the accumulation of pollutants from eastern China/Siberia over Alaska, most probably with the contribution of acid volcanic aerosol during the TIC-2B period. OMI observations reveal that SO2 concentrations in air masses forming the TIC-2B were larger than in air masses forming the TIC-1/2A. Airborne measurements show high acidity near the TIC-2B flight where humidity was low. These results strongly support the hypothesis that acidic coating on IN are at the origin of the formation of TIC-2B.

  1. On the relationship between Arctic ice clouds and polluted air masses over the North Slope of Alaska in April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, C.; Pelon, J.; Girard, E.; Ancellet, G.; Blanchet, J. P.; Delanoë, J.

    2014-02-01

    Recently, two types of ice clouds (TICs) properties have been characterized using the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) airborne measurements (Alaska, April 2008). TIC-2B were characterized by fewer (< 10 L-1) and larger (> 110 μm) ice crystals, and a larger ice supersaturation (> 15%) compared to TIC-1/2A. It has been hypothesized that emissions of SO2 may reduce the ice nucleating properties of ice nuclei (IN) through acidification, resulting in a smaller concentration of larger ice crystals and leading to precipitation (e.g., cloud regime TIC-2B). Here, the origin of air masses forming the ISDAC TIC-1/2A (1 April 2008) and TIC-2B (15 April 2008) is investigated using trajectory tools and satellite data. Results show that the synoptic conditions favor air masses transport from three potential SO2 emission sources into Alaska: eastern China and Siberia where anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, are produced, and the volcanic region of the Kamchatka/Aleutians. Weather conditions allow the accumulation of pollutants from eastern China and Siberia over Alaska, most probably with the contribution of acidic volcanic aerosol during the TIC-2B period. Observation Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations reveal that SO2 concentrations in air masses forming the TIC-2B were larger than in air masses forming the TIC-1/2A. Airborne measurements show high acidity near the TIC-2B flight where humidity was low. These results support the hypothesis that acidic coating on IN could be at the origin of the formation of TIC-2B.

  2. On the Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Spectrum in Alaskan Air Mass Systems: Arctic Haze and Non-Haze Episodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1983-05-01

    Aerosols in central Alaskan winter air mass system were classified according to size by diffusive separation and light-scattering spectrometry. Particles entering central Alaska from the Pacific Marine environment had number concentrations ranging from 300 to 2000 cm3 (geometric mean 685 cm3) and unimodal size spectra, with maximum in number concentration near 1 × 106 cm radius.Air masses entering Alaska from the Eurasian Arctic possessed a factor of two smaller aerosol number concentrations than Pacific Marine systems (e.g., 150-700 cm3; geometric mean 386 cm3) but contained a factor of two greater particle volume loading within the fine particle radius range 5 × 107 < r < 1 × 105 cm. The particles in Eurasian Arctic air masses were bimodally distributed, with maxima in the particle size spectra near r = 3 × 107 and 5 × 106 cm. Sulfur was the predominant element in all cases studied.A particle depleted region was present in the size spectra obtained for Eurasian Arctic air masses. The deficiency of particles in the 106 cm radius range is interpreted as being the result of thermal coagulation taking place between sulfur-rich nuclei (produced at a rate of 1020 to 1018 g cm3 s1 and in sizes r < 106 cm) and `large' (r 105 cm) imported primary particles. The primary particles are in the removal-resistant Greenfield Gap (r 105 cm) and seem to originate in the central Eurasian region.

  3. Influence of power ultrasound application on mass transport and microstructure of orange peel during hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, Carmen; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Puig, Ana; Riera, Enrique; Garcia-Perez, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    Power ultrasound application on convective drying of foodstuffs may be considered an emergent technology. This work deals with the influence of power ultrasound on drying of natural materials addressing the kinetic as well as the product's microstructure. Convective drying kinetics of orange peel slabs (thickness 5.95±0.41 mm) were carried out at 40 ∘C and 1 m/s with (US) and without (AIR) power ultrasound application. A diffusion model considering external resistance to mass transfer was considered to describe drying kinetics. Fresh, US and AIR dried samples were analyzed using Cryo-SEM. Results showed that drying kinetics of orange peel were significantly improved by the application of power ultrasound. From modeling, it was observed a significant (p¡0.05) increase in both mass transfer coefficient and effective moisture diffusivity. The effects on mass transfer properties were confirmed from microestructural observations. In the cuticle surface, the pores were obstructed by wax components scattering, which evidence the ultrasonic effects on the interfaces. The cells of the flavedo were compressed and large intercellular air spaces were generated in the albedo facilitating water transfer through it.

  4. Features of air masses associated with the deposition of Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea by rain and snowfall

    PubMed Central

    Monteil, Caroline L; Bardin, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-01-01

    Clarifying the role of precipitation in microbial dissemination is essential for elucidating the processes involved in disease emergence and spread. The ecology of Pseudomonas syringae and its presence throughout the water cycle makes it an excellent model to address this issue. In this study, 90 samples of freshly fallen rain and snow collected from 2005–2011 in France were analyzed for microbiological composition. The conditions favorable for dissemination of P. syringae by this precipitation were investigated by (i) estimating the physical properties and backward trajectories of the air masses associated with each precipitation event and by (ii) characterizing precipitation chemistry, and genetic and phenotypic structures of populations. A parallel study with the fungus Botrytis cinerea was also performed for comparison. Results showed that (i) the relationship of P. syringae to precipitation as a dissemination vector is not the same for snowfall and rainfall, whereas it is the same for B. cinerea and (ii) the occurrence of P. syringae in precipitation can be linked to electrical conductivity and pH of water, the trajectory of the air mass associated with the precipitation and certain physical conditions of the air mass (i.e. temperature, solar radiation exposure, distance traveled), whereas these predictions are different for B. cinerea. These results are pertinent to understanding microbial survival, emission sources and atmospheric processes and how they influence microbial dissemination. PMID:24722630

  5. Constraining Aerosol Optical Models Using Ground-Based, Collocated Particle Size and Mass Measurements in Variable Air Mass Regimes During the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulphate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulphate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Extinctive features at significantly smaller time scales than the one-day sample period of IMPROVE are more difficult to reproduce, as this requires further knowledge concerning the source apportionment of major chemical components in the model. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an important link for advancing remote

  6. Chemical compositions and radiative properties of dust and anthropogenic air masses study in Taipei Basin, Taiwan, during spring of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Chen, Wei-Nai

    Asia is one of the major sources of not only mineral dust but also anthropogenic aerosols. Continental air masses associated with the East Asian winter monsoon always contain high contents of mineral dust and anthropogenic species and transported southeastward to Taiwan, which have significant influences on global atmospheric radiation transfer directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation in each spring. However, few measurements for the long-range transported aerosol and its optical properties were announced in this area, between the Western Pacific and the southeastern coast of Mainland China. The overall objective of this work is to quantify the optical characteristics of different aerosol types in the Eastern Asian. In order to achieve this objective, meteorological parameters, concentrations of PM 10 and its soluble species, and optical property of atmospheric scattering coefficients were measured continuously with 1 h time-resolved from 11 February to 7 April 2004 in Taipei Basin (25°00'N, 121°32'E). In this work, the dramatic changes of meteorological parameters such as temperature and winds were used to determine the influenced period of each air mass. Continental, strong continental, marine, and stagnant air masses defined by the back-trajectory analysis and local meteorology were further characterized as long-range transport pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols, respectively, according to the diagnostic ratios. The aerosol mass scattering efficiency of continental pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols were ranged from 1.3 to 1.6, 0.7 to 1.0, 1.4 and 1.4 to 2.3 m 2 g -1, respectively. Overall, there are two distinct populations of aerosol mass scattering efficiencies, one for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by dust (<1.0 m 2 g -1) and the other for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by anthropogenic pollutants (1.3-2.3 m 2 g -1), which were similar to the previous measurements with

  7. Reaching for the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper-Davis, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining one of…

  8. Reaching into Pictorial Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcic, Robert; Vishwanath, Dhanraj; Domini, Fulvio

    2014-02-01

    While binocular viewing of 2D pictures generates an impression of 3D objects and space, viewing a picture monocularly through an aperture produces a more compelling impression of depth and the feeling that the objects are "out there", almost touchable. Here, we asked observers to actually reach into pictorial space under both binocular- and monocular-aperture viewing. Images of natural scenes were presented at different physical distances via a mirror-system and their retinal size was kept constant. Targets that observers had to reach for in physical space were marked on the image plane, but at different pictorial depths. We measured the 3D position of the index finger at the end of each reach-to-point movement. Observers found the task intuitive. Reaching responses varied as a function of both pictorial depth and physical distance. Under binocular viewing, responses were mainly modulated by the different physical distances. Instead, under monocular viewing, responses were modulated by the different pictorial depths. Importantly, individual variations over time were minor, that is, observers conformed to a consistent pictorial space. Monocular viewing of 2D pictures thus produces a compelling experience of an immersive space and tangible solid objects that can be easily explored through motor actions.

  9. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  10. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  11. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  12. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    PubMed

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  13. Stability of reference masses: VII. Cleaning methods in air and vacuum applied to a platinum mass standard similar to the international and national kilogram prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumpson, Peter J.; Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders J.; Portoles, Jose F.

    2013-10-01

    Mercury contamination and the build-up of carbonaceous contamination are two contributing factors to the instability observed in kilogram prototype masses. The kilogram prototypes that lie at the core of the dissemination of the SI base unit were manufactured in the late 19th century, and have polished surfaces. In papers IV and V of this series we developed a method for cleaning noble metal mass standards in air to remove carbonaceous contamination. At the core of this ‘UVOPS’ protocol is the application of UV light and ozone gas generated in situ in air. The precise nature of the carbonaceous contamination that builds up on such surfaces is difficult to mimic demonstrably or quickly on new test surfaces, yet data from such tests are needed to provide the final confidence to allow UVOPS to be applied to a real 19th century kilogram prototype. Therefore, in the present work we have applied the UVOPS method to clean a platinum avoirdupois pound mass standard, ‘RS2’, manufactured in the mid-19th century. This is thought to have been polished in a similar manner to the kilogram prototypes. To our knowledge this platinum surface has not previously been cleaned by any method. We used x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify organic contamination, and weighing to quantify the mass lost at each application of the UVOPS procedure. The UVOPS procedure is shown to be very effective. It is likely that the redefinition of the kilogram will require mass comparisons in vacuum in the years to come. Therefore, in addition to UVOPS a cleaning method for use in vacuum will also be needed. We introduce and evaluate gas cluster ion-beam (GCIB) treatment as a potential method for cleaning reference masses in vacuum. Again, application of this GCIB cleaning to a real artefact, RS2, allows us to make a realistic evaluation of its performance. While it has some attractive features, we cannot recommend it for cleaning mass standards in its present form.

  14. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  15. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  16. Chemical and Trajectory Analysis of an Air Mass Plume from Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. J.; Marrero, J. E.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking the source of pollution events is important in understanding the transport of pollution plumes and impact on areas far from the source. Previous studies have shown that the rising contribution of Asian air pollution to the US has increased the number of days that pollution events exceed National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Whole air samples collected over the Edwards Air Force Base during a June 2014 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) flight exhibited enhancements in the concentrations of several compounds between 23-32 thousand feet. Chemical tracer analysis of these high altitude samples reveal that the air does not correspond to California emitted air. Chemical signatures in the plume, including high levels of OCS, chloroform, and methyl chloride, and low levels of methyl bromide, indicate that the plume was most heavily influence by coal combustion with contributions from biomass burning events from Asia. Low concentrations of ethene at the high altitude despite enhanced concentrations of ethane and ethyne suggest that this plume was aged. Further analysis of the plume using meteorological wind trajectories reveal that the plume had originated in China approximately 4-5 days prior. This is faster than results from previous studies that had found a Spring transport time of approximately 6 days.

  17. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles and NOAA G-IV Dropsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    RGB air mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. The combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting imagery does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles and NOAA G-IV dropsondes provide insight about the vertical structure of the air mass represented on the RGB air mass imagery and are a first step to validating the imagery.

  18. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  19. Use of Chiral Signatures of Organochlorine Pesticides in Asian, Trans-Pacific, and Western U.S. Air Masses to Identify Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S.; Genualdi, S.; Primbs, T.; Ryoo, K.; Bidleman, T.; Jantunen, L.

    2008-12-01

    Chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses on Okinawa Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern U.S.: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a coastal site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m; Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2300 m in Oregon's Cascade range. The chiral signature of composite soil samples collected from agricultural areas in China and South Korea were also measured. Racemic alpha-HCH was measured in Asian air masses and soil from China and South Korea. Non-racemic (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.528 ± 0.0048) alpha-HCH was measured in regional air masses at CPO, a marine boundary layer site, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the EFs were significantly (p-value <0.001) more racemic (EF = 0.513 ± 0.0003). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured in trans- Pacific air masses at MPO and MBO. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were positively correlated (p-value = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer along the 10-day back air mass trajectory prior to being sampled. This suggests that the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. The racemic signatures of cis and trans chlordane in air masses at all four air sampling sites suggest that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordanes that have not yet undergone biotransformation.

  20. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine phthalate and organophosphate esters from air samples.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2013-08-16

    A method based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed to determine four organophosphate esters, seven phthalate esters, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in the gas phase from harbour and urban air samples. The method involves the sampling of 1.5L of air in a Tenax TA sorbent tube followed by thermal desorption (using a Tenax TA cryogenic trap) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD (n=3) is less than 15% and the MQLs are between 0.007μgm(-3) (DMP, TBP, BBP, TPP and DnOP) and 6.7μgm(-3) (DEHP). The method was successfully applied in two areas (urban and harbour) testing two and three points in each one, respectively. Some of these compounds were found in both urban and harbour samples. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant compound found in both areas at concentration levels between 6.7μgm(-3) and 136.4μgm(-3). This study demonstrates that thermal desorption is an efficient method for the determination of these semi-volatile compounds in the gas phase fraction of air samples. PMID:23859797

  1. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening. PMID:26838378

  2. Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

  3. An automated gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obersteiner, F.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument (GC-TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. The setup comprises three fundamental enhancements compared to our earlier work (Hoker et al., 2015): (1) full automation, (2) a mass resolving power R = m/Δm of the TOFMS (Tofwerk AG, Switzerland) increased up to 4000 and (3) a fully accessible data format of the mass spectrometric data. Automation in combination with the accessible data allowed an in-depth characterization of the instrument. Mass accuracy was found to be approximately 5 ppm in mean after automatic recalibration of the mass axis in each measurement. A TOFMS configuration giving R = 3500 was chosen to provide an R-to-sensitivity ratio suitable for our purpose. Calculated detection limits are as low as a few femtograms by means of the accurate mass information. The precision for substance quantification was 0.15 % at the best for an individual measurement and in general mainly determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatographic peak. Detector non-linearity was found to be insignificant up to a mixing ratio of roughly 150 ppt at 0.5 L sampled volume. At higher concentrations, non-linearities of a few percent were observed (precision level: 0.2 %) but could be attributed to a potential source within the detection system. A straightforward correction for those non-linearities was applied in data processing, again by exploiting the accurate mass information. Based on the overall characterization results, the GC-TOFMS instrument was found to be very well suited for the task of quantitative halocarbon trace gas observation and a big step forward compared to scanning, quadrupole MS with low mass resolving power and a TOFMS technique reported to be non-linear and restricted by a small dynamical range.

  4. Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities ( 7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    Studies of radionuclide activities in aerosol particles provide a means for evaluating the integrated effects of transport and meteorology on the atmospheric loadings of substances with different sources. Measurements of aerosol mass concentration and specific activities of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols at Málaga (36° 43' 40″ N; 4° 28' 8″ W) for the period 2000-2006 were used to obtain the relationships between radionuclide activities and airflow patterns by comparing the data grouped by air mass trajectory clusters. The average concentration values of 7Be and 210Pb over the 7 year period have been found to be 4.6 and 0.58 mBq m -3, respectively, with mean aerosol mass concentration of 53.6 μg m -3. The identified air flow types arriving at Málaga reflect the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula and show significant differences in radionuclide activities. Air concentrations of both nuclides and the aerosol mass concentration are controlled predominantly by the synoptic scenarios leading to the entrance of dust-laden continental flows from northern Africa and the arrival of polar maritime air masses, as implied by the strong correlations found between the monthly frequencies of the different air masses and the specific activities of both radionuclides. Correlations between activity concentrations and precipitation are significant though lower than with air masses.

  5. Petroleum mass removal from low permeability sediment using air sparging/soil vapor extraction: impact of continuous or pulsed operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland, Brian C.; Aelion, C. Marjorie

    2000-02-01

    Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) are innovative remediation techniques that utilize volatilization and microbial degradation to remediate petroleum spills from soils and groundwater. This in situ study investigated the use of AS/SVE to remediate a gasoline spill from a leaking underground storage tank (UST) in the low permeability, clayey soil of the Appalachian Piedmont. The objectives of this study were to evaluate AS/SVE in low permeability soils by quantifying petroleum mass removal rates, monitoring vadose zone contaminant levels, and comparing the mass extraction rates of continuous AS/SVE to 8 and 24 h pulsed operation. The objectives were met by collecting AS/SVE exhaust gas samples and vadose zone air from multi-depth soil vapor probes. Samples were analyzed for O 2, CO 2, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), and total combustible hydrocarbon (TCH) concentrations using portable hand meters and gas chromatography. Continuous AS/SVE was effective in removing 608 kg of petroleum hydrocarbons from low permeability soil in 44 days (14.3 kg day -1). Mass removal rates ranged from 2.6 times higher to 5.1 times lower than other AS/SVE studies performed in sandy sediments. BTEX levels in the vadose zone were reduced from about 5 ppm to 1 ppm. Ten pulsed AS/SVE tests removed 78 kg in 23 days and the mean mass removal rate (17.6 kg day -1) was significantly higher than the last 15 days of continuous extraction. Pulsed operation may be preferable to continuous operation because of increased mass removal and decreased energy consumption.

  6. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lili; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air with combination of thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The air samples were collected by active sampling method using Tenax-TA sorbent tubes, and desorbed by thermal desorption. The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and internal standard method was applied to quantify the VOCs. The results of all the 23 VOCs showed good linearities in low level (0. 01-1 ng) and high level (1-100 ng) with all the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0. 99. The method quantification limits were between 0. 000 08-1 µg/m3. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) at three spiked levels of 2, 10 and 50 ng. The recoveries between 77% and 124% were generally obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all cases were lower than 20%, except for chlorobenzene at the low spiked level. The developed method was applied to determine VOCs in ambient air collected at three sites in Shanghai. Several compounds, like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylenes, p-xylenes, styrene, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and hexachlorobutadiene were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the VOCs in ambient air. PMID:27382728

  7. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. PMID:26493981

  8. Potential Reach of mHealth Versus Traditional Mass Media for Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Evidence From a Nationally Representative Survey in a Middle-Income Country in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude

    2016-01-01

    health-related SMS, which was positively associated with female sex (P <.001), younger age (P <.001), and higher SES (P <.001). Controlling for SES, exposure to NCD-related programs on public television or radio and willingness to receive health-related SMS were not independently associated with a person’s NCD risk. Conclusions Broadcasting health programs through traditional mass media (national public radio and television) reached the majority of the population under study, including older adults and those in lower socioeconomic groups. With a high penetration of mobile phones and willingness to receive health-related SMS, mHealth presents an opportunity for health programs, especially when targeted SMS messages are intended for younger adults and those in higher socioeconomic groups. By contrast, due to reduced Internet access, email-based programs had a more limited reach for health promotion programs. These findings emphasize the different reach of interventions using SMS or email versus traditional mass media, according to demographic and socioeconomic categories, for health education programs in a developing country. PMID:27207074

  9. Continental Land Mass Air Traffic Control (COLM ATC). [using three artificial satellite configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecar, J. A.; Henrich, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The application of various satellite systems and techniques relative to providing air traffic control services for the continental United States was studied. Three satellite configurations were reviewed. The characteristics and capabilities of the satellites are described. The study includes consideration for the various ranging waveforms, multiple access alternatives, and the power and bandwidth required as a function of the number of users.

  10. Resonance-mode effect on microcantilever mass-sensing performance in air.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoyuan; Li, Xinxin

    2008-07-01

    This research investigates the air drag damping effect of the micromachined cantilevers in different resonance modes on the quality factor, which are operated in ambient air. Based on a simplified dish-string model for air drag force acting on the resonant cantilever, the air drag damping properties of the cantilevers vibrating in different modes are analyzed with theoretic vibration mechanics, which is complemented and further confirmed with finite-element simulation. Four kinds of integrated cantilevers, which resonate in the first flexural mode, the second flexural mode, the first torsional mode, and the second torsional mode, respectively, are designed and fabricated by using micromachining techniques. Finally, biomolecular sensing experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results obtained before. From both the modeling and experimental results, it can be seen that damping characteristics of the torsional cantilever resonators are generally better than that of the flexural ones, and quality factor of the cantilever resonator in a higher-frequency mode is always superior to that in a lower-frequency one. Among the four kinds of microcantilever resonators operated in our experiments, the one operated in the second flexural modes exhibits the highest Q factor and the best biomass sensing performance. PMID:18681721

  11. Resonance-mode effect on microcantilever mass-sensing performance in air

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Xiaoyuan; Li Xinxin

    2008-07-15

    This research investigates the air drag damping effect of the micromachined cantilevers in different resonance modes on the quality factor, which are operated in ambient air. Based on a simplified dish-string model for air drag force acting on the resonant cantilever, the air drag damping properties of the cantilevers vibrating in different modes are analyzed with theoretic vibration mechanics, which is complemented and further confirmed with finite-element simulation. Four kinds of integrated cantilevers, which resonate in the first flexural mode, the second flexural mode, the first torsional mode, and the second torsional mode, respectively, are designed and fabricated by using micromachining techniques. Finally, biomolecular sensing experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results obtained before. From both the modeling and experimental results, it can be seen that damping characteristics of the torsional cantilever resonators are generally better than that of the flexural ones, and quality factor of the cantilever resonator in a higher-frequency mode is always superior to that in a lower-frequency one. Among the four kinds of microcantilever resonators operated in our experiments, the one operated in the second flexural modes exhibits the highest Q factor and the best biomass sensing performance.

  12. Aerosol composition and properties variation at the ground and over the column under different air masses advection in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Pavese, G; Lettino, A; Calvello, M; Esposito, F; Fiore, S

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol composition and properties variation under the advection of different air masses were investigated, as case studies, by contemporary measurements over the atmospheric column and at the ground in a semi-rural site in South Italy. The absence of local strong sources in this area allowed to characterize background aerosol and to compare particle mixing effects under various atmospheric circulation conditions. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ǻngström parameters from radiometric measurements allowed the detection and identification of polluted, dust, and volcanic atmospheric conditions. AODs were the input for a suitable model to evaluate the columnar aerosol composition, according to six main atmospheric components (water-soluble, soot, sea salt accumulation, sea salt coarse, mineral dus,t and biological). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of particulate sampled with a 13-stage impactor at the ground showed not only fingerprints typical of the different air masses but also the effects of transport and aging on atmospheric particles, suggesting processes that changed their chemical and optical properties. Background columnar aerosol was characterized by 72% of water-soluble and soot, in agreement with ground-based findings that highlighted 60% of contribution from anthropogenic carbonate particles and soot. In general, a good agreement between ground-based and columnar results was observed. Under the advection of trans-boundary air masses, water-soluble and soot were always present in columnar aerosol, whereas, in variable percentages, sea salt and mineral particles characterized both dust and volcanic conditions. At the ground, sulfates characterized the amorphous matrix produced in finer stages by the evaporation of solutions of organic and inorganic aerosols. Sulfates were also one of the key players involved in heterogeneous chemical reactions, producing complex secondary aerosol, as such clay-sulfate internally mixed particle externally mixed

  13. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using bio-aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.; Steele, Paul T.; Coffee, Keith R.; Fergenson, David P.; Riot, Vincent J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Gard, Eric E.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Lebrilla, Carlito

    2006-05-01

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  14. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-03-16

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  15. Elemental composition and oxidative properties of PM(2.5) in Estonia in relation to origin of air masses - results from the ECRHS II in Tartu.

    PubMed

    Orru, Hans; Kimmel, Veljo; Kikas, Ulle; Soon, Argo; Künzli, Nino; Schins, Roel P F; Borm, Paul J A; Forsberg, Bertil

    2010-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was sampled at an urban background site in Tartu, Estonia over one-year period during the ECRHS II study. The elemental composition of 71 PM(2.5) samples was analyzed for different chemical elements using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF). The oxidative activity of 36 samples was assessed by measuring their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The origin of air masses was determined by computing 96-hour back trajectories of air masses with the HYSPLIT Model. The trajectories of air masses were divided into four sectors according to geographical patterns: "Russia," "Eastern Europe," "Western Europe," and "Scandinavia." During the study period, approximately 30% of air masses originated from "Scandinavia." The other three sectors had slightly lower values (between 18 and 22%). In spring, summer, and winter, higher total PM levels originated from air masses from continental areas, namely "Russia" and "Eastern Europe" (18.51+/-7.33 and 19.96+/-9.23microg m(-3), respectively). In autumn, the PM levels were highest in "Western Europe". High levels of Fe, Ti, and AlCaSi (Al, Ca, and Si) were also detected in air masses from the Eurasian continent. The oxidative properties were correlated to the origin of air masses. The OH values were approximately 1.5 times higher when air masses originated from the direction of "Eastern Europe" or "Russia." The origin of measured particles was evaluated using principal component factor analysis. When comparing the PM(2.5) elemental composition with seasonal variation, factor scores, and other studies, the factors represent: (1) combustion of biomass; (2) crustal dust; (3) traffic; and (4) power plants and industrial processes associated with oil burning. The total PM(2.5) is driven mainly by biomass and industrial combustion (63%) and other unidentified sources (23%). Other sources of PM, such as crustal dust and traffic, contribute a total

  16. High-efficiency, one-sun (22. 3% at air mass 0; 23. 9% at air mass 1. 5) monolithic two-junction cascade solar cell grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B.; Virshup, G.F.; Werthen, J.G.

    1988-05-30

    A high-efficiency monolithic two-junction solar cell consisting of an Al/sub 0.37/Ga/sub 0.63/As (E/sub g/ = 1.93 eV) upper cell and a GaAs lower cell has been grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Since both component cells have the n-on-p configuration, the unwanted p-n junction has been eliminated with the use of metal-interconnect contact during post-growth processing. As a two-terminal device, an efficiency of 22.3% has been achieved under 1 sun, air mass 0 illumination conditions, whereas an efficiency of 23.9% was obtained when the cascade cell was operated as a three-terminal device under 1 sun, air mass 1.5 illumination. This result represents the highest 1 sun efficiency ever reported. The advantages of utilizing this multijunction solar cell for terrestrial and space applications are also described.

  17. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  18. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  19. Smart tetroons for Lagrangian air-mass tracking during ACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Johnson, Randy; Katzfey, Jack; Siems, Steven; Wang, Qing

    1999-05-01

    A series of "smart" tetroons was released from shipboard during the recent ACE 1 field experiment designed to monitor changes in the sulfur budget in a remote marine boundary layer (MBL) south of Tasmania, Australia. The smart tetroons were designed at NOAA Air Resources Laboratory Field Research Division to provide air parcel tracking information. The adjective smart here refers here to the fact that the buoyancy of the tetroons automatically adjusts through the action of a pump and valves when the tetroon travels vertically outside a range of pressures set prior to tetroon release. The smart tetroon design provides GPS location, barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and tetroon status data via a transponder to the NCAR C-130 research aircraft flying in the vicinity of the tetroons. In this paper we will describe (1) the design and capability of the smart tetroons and their performance during the two Lagrangian experiments conducted during ACE 1, (2) the synoptic context of the Lagrangians, including the origin of the air parcels being tracked, and (3) the results of trajectory predictions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Spectral Model (GSM) and Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Division of Atmospheric Research (DAR) limited-area model.

  20. Concentrations of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Associated with African Dust Air Masses in Mali, Cape Verde, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mohammed, Azad; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-01-01

    Every year, billions of tons of fine particles are eroded from the surface of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel of West Africa, lifted into the atmosphere by convective storms, and transported thousands of kilometers downwind. Most of the dust is carried west to the Americas and the Caribbean in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Dust air masses predominately impact northern South America during the Northern Hemisphere winter and the Caribbean and Southeastern United States in summer. Dust concentrations vary considerably temporally and spatially. In a dust source region (Mali), concentrations range from background levels of 575 micrograms per cubic meter (mu/u g per m3) to 13,000 mu/u g per m3 when visibility degrades to a few meters (Gillies and others, 1996). In the Caribbean, concentrations of 200 to 600 mu/u g per m3 in the mid-Atlantic and Barbados (Prospero and others, 1981; Talbot and others, 1986), 3 to 20 mu/u g per m3 in the Caribbean (Prospero and Nees, 1986; Perry and others, 1997); and >100 mu/u g per m3 in the Virgin Islands (this dataset) have been reported during African dust conditions. Mean dust particle size decreases as the SAL traverses from West Africa to the Caribbean and Americas as a result of gravitational settling. Mean particle size reaching the Caribbean is <1 micrometer (mu/u m) (Perry and others, 1997), and even finer particles are carried into Central America, the Southeastern United States, and maritime Canada. Particles less than 2.5 mu/u m diameter (termed PM2.5) can be inhaled deeply into human lungs. A large body of literature has shown that increased PM2.5 concentrations are linked to increased cardiovascular/respiratory morbidity and mortality (for example, Dockery and others, 1993; Penn and others, 2005).

  1. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  2. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  3. REACH. Teacher's Guide Volume II. Check Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this second volume of the postsecondary teacher guide contains the check points which the instructor may want to refer to when the unit sheet directs the…

  4. Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-05-30

    Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. PMID:21504010

  5. Dependence of air masses type on PBL vertical structure retrieved at the Mace Head station during EUCAARI campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    During the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period held at the Mace Head GAW station from mid-May to mid-June, 2008, the PBL depth has been continuously measured by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO). The Lidar-Ceilometer, through the gradients in aerosol backscatter profiles, and the microwave profiler, through gradients in the specific humidity profiles, were used to remotely-sense the boundary layer structure. An automatic, newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) have been applied to both type of instruments data to retrieve the 2-layered structure of the local marine boundary layer. The two layers are defined as a lower, well mixed layer, i.e. the surface mixed layer, and the layer occupying the region below the free Troposphere inversion, i.e. the decoupled residual or convective layer. A categorization of the incoming air masses has been performed based on their origins and been used to asses the correlation with the PBL depths. The study confirmed the dependence of PBL vertical structure on different air masses and different type of advected aerosol.

  6. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  7. Mass transfer coefficients developed from the air gasification of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A convertible updraft/downdraft, fixed-bed gasifier was used in the gasification of 3/8-inch diameter wood pellets. The test data was used to develop mass transfer coefficients and describe the gasification process for each gasifier configuration. The results show that the production of the principal combustion gases, i.e., hydrogen (H{sub c}), carbon monozide (CO), and methane (CH{sub 4}), varies directly as to their mass transfer coefficient: H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} = k h{sub DA}. Factoring the Reynolds (Re{sub d}) and Schmidt (Sc) numbers with the influence of the noncombustible gases, i.e., nitrogen (N{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), is used to define the mass transfer coefficients. The general form describing this joint variation is: H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} = kx (the effect of the noncombustible gases) x Re x Sc where Re = Reynolds number and Sc = Schmidt number. The developments of these mass transfer coefficients are shown for updraft and downdraft gasification.

  8. Europe reaches the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken

  9. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  10. Air-sea fluxes and satellite-based estimation of water masses formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabia, Roberto; Klockmann, Marlene; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Recent work linking satellite-based measurements of sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) with traditional physical oceanography has demonstrated the capability of generating routinely satellite-derived surface T-S diagrams [1] and analyze the distribution/dynamics of SSS and its relative surface density with respect to in-situ measurements. Even more recently [2,3], this framework has been extended by exploiting these T-S diagrams as a diagnostic tool to derive water masses formation rates and areas. A water mass describes a water body with physical properties distinct from the surrounding water, formed at the ocean surface under specific conditions which determine its temperature and salinity. The SST and SSS (and thus also density) at the ocean surface are largely determined by fluxes of heat and freshwater. The surface density flux is a function of the latter two and describes the change of the density of seawater at the surface. To obtain observations of water mass formation is of great interest, since they serve as indirect observations of the thermo-haline circulation. The SSS data which has become available through the SMOS [4] and Aquarius [5] satellite missions will provide the possibility of studying also the effect of temporally-varying SSS fields on water mass formation. In the present study, the formation of water masses as a function of SST and SSS is derived from the surface density flux by integrating the latter over a specific area and time period in bins of SST and SSS and then taking the derivative of the total density flux with respect to density. This study presents a test case using SMOS SSS, OSTIA SST, as well as Argo ISAS SST and SSS for comparison, heat fluxes from the NOCS Surface Flux Data Set v2.0, OAFlux evaporation and CMORPH precipitation. The study area, initially referred to the North Atlantic, is extended over two additional ocean basins and the study period covers the 2011-2012 timeframe. Yearly, seasonal

  11. Influence of dissolved humic substances on the mass transfer of organic compounds across the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Ksenia; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Georgi, Anett

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dissolved humic substances (DHS) on the rate of water-gas exchange of two volatile organic compounds was studied under various conditions of agitation intensity, solution pH and ionic strength. Mass-transfer coefficients were determined from the rate of depletion of model compounds from an apparatus containing a stirred aqueous solution with continuous purging of the headspace above the solution (dynamic system). Under these conditions, the overall transfer rate is controlled by the mass-transfer resistance on the water side of the water-gas interface. The experimental results show that the presence of DHS hinders the transport of the organic molecules from the water into the gas phase under all investigated conditions. Mass-transfer coefficients were significantly reduced even by low, environmentally relevant concentrations of DHS. The retardation effect increased with increasing DHS concentration. The magnitude of the retardation effect on water-gas exchange was compared for Suwannee River fulvic and humic acids, a commercially available leonardite humic acid and two synthetic surfactants. The observed results are in accordance with the concept of hydrodynamic effects. Surface pressure forces due to surface film formation change the hydrodynamic characteristics of water motion at the water-air interface and thus impede surface renewal. PMID:22051345

  12. What is the role of wind pumping on heat and mass transfer rates at the air-snow interface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the turbulent exchange of sensible heat and water vapour between the atmosphere and snowpack remains a challenging task under all but the most ideal conditions. Heat and mass transfer coefficients that recognize the unique properties of the snow surface are warranted. A particular area requiring improvement concerns the role of the porous nature of snow which provides a large surface area for heat and mass exchange with the atmosphere. Wind-pumping has long been considered as a viable mechanism for incorporating aerosols into snowpacks; however these processes are not considered in parameterization schemes for heat and mass transfer near the surface. This study attempts to determine the degree to which wind pumping can increase the rates of heat and mass transfer to snow, and to ascertain which structural properties of the snowpack are needed for inclusion in heat and mass transfer coefficients that reflect wind pumping processes. Based upon a review of recent geophysical and engineering literature where porous surfaces are exploited for their ability to augment heat and mass transfer rates, a technical analysis was conducted. Numerous conceptual mechanisms of wind pumping were considered: topographically-induced flow; barometric pressure changes; high frequency pressure fluctuations at the surface; and steady flow in the interfacial region. A sensitivity analysis was performed, subjecting each conceptual model to varying thermal and hydraulic conditions at the air-snow interface, as well as variable micro-structural properties of snow. It is shown that the rate of heat and mass exchange is most sensitive to the interfacial thermal conditions and factors controlling the energy balance of the uppermost snow grains. The effect upon the thermal regime of the snowpack was found to be most significant for mechanisms of wind pumping that result in shorter flow paths near the surface, rather than those caused by low frequency pressure changes. In

  13. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in urban air masses intercepted at a rural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Vlasenko, Alexander; Sjostedt, Steve; Chang, Rachel; Shantz, Nicole; Abbatt, Jonathan; Slowik, J. G.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Brickell, P. C.; Stroud, C.; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2010-11-01

    Measurements made at a rural site in central Ontario during May-June 2007 are used to investigate the composition of organic aerosol (OA) downwind of an urban region. Observations of aerosol organic carbon and oxygen containing fragments from a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) are combined with toluene to benzene ratios to estimate the relative importance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary organic aerosol (POA) to the total OA at the site during periods of significant urban influence. We estimate that SOA formed within 1-2 days of the anthropogenic source regions was 40-50% of the measured OA and that POA was 5-16% of the OA. The remaining 35-45% of the OA is assumed to have been present in the aerosol upwind of the source regions prior to entering the study domain as defined by trajectories and estimates of the potential photochemical aging time. The apportionment results were also compared to that of positive matrix factorization analysis. In addition, the measurements of the molar oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in the OA demonstrates that SOA becomes progressively more oxygenated with increasing photochemical age and at low total OA mass.

  14. Interactions effectives, théories de champ moyen masses et rayons nucléaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.

    2003-05-01

    Effective interactions, mean field theories, masses and nuclear radii A review of effective interactions used in mean field theories for the description of properties of atomic nuclei is presented. Relativistic as well as non relativistic theories are discussed with a special attention to the cases where their results are very different. We will concentrate on the effective forces built up to investigate the nuclear medium in extreme conditions. Masses and r.m.s. radii along long chain of isotopes will be discussed. Large deformations, as observed in the fission of heavy nuclei, and exotic neutron rich nuclei will be taken as examples of these extreme conditions. Le principal propos de cet ouvrage est : (i) de passer en revue les outils théoriques utilisés sous le sigle ”théories microscopiques de champ moyen ”. Sans entrer dans le détail des formalismes (le lecteur sera systématiquement renvoyé ”pour en savoir plus ” à des cours plus complets qui ont déjà été donnés dans le passé à l'École Joliot-Curie) il s'agira surtout de préciser le contexte, les hypothèses et les approximations qui se cachent sous les sigles : Hartree-Fock (HF), Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB), Approximation BCS (HFBCS), Champ Moyen Relativiste (RMF), Approximations Hartree (RH), Hartree-Fock (RHF) et Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) Relativistes, ... ; (ii) de présenter la procédure générale et les ingrédients qui entrent dans la construction d'une interaction effective, élément de base de ces théories dont l'intérêt majeur est de livrer des résultats comparables à l'expérience sans paramètre ajustable ; (iii) de discuter des effets des différentes approximations ou interactions effectives sur des résultats expérimentaux pris dans diverses zones de noyaux. Ces discussions seront surtout centrées sur les masses et les rayons des noyaux mais aussi sur certaines quantités plus significatives que l'on peut en extraire : énergies de séparation de deux neutrons

  15. Brief Communication: Upper-air relaxation in RACMO2 significantly improves modelled interannual surface mass balance variability in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Berg, Willem Jan; Medley, Brooke

    2016-03-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  16. Seasonal variability of tritium and ion concentrations in rain at Kumamoto, Japan and back-trajectory analysis of air mass

    SciTech Connect

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Toyoshima, T.; Nagao, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium and major ion concentrations in rain were analyzed in Kumamoto (Japan)) between 2001 and 2006 to examine present tritium concentration and seasonal variation. The average tritium concentration was 0.36 {+-} 0.19 Bq/L (n=104) and higher tritium concentrations were observed in spring than the other seasons. Among the ions, non-sea-salt (nss) SO{sub 4}{sup 2}'- showed higher concentration in winter while other ions did not show marked increase in winter. Based on the back-trajectory analyses of air masses, the increase in tritium concentrations in spring arises from downward movement of naturally produced tritium from stratosphere to troposphere, while the increase of the nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in winter is due to long range transport of pollutants from China to Japan. (authors)

  17. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  18. Measurement error models in chemical mass balance analysis of air quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, William F.; Gunst, Richard F.

    The chemical mass balance (CMB) equations have been used to apportion observed pollutant concentrations to their various pollution sources. Typical analyses incorporate estimated pollution source profiles, estimated source profile error variances, and error variances associated with the ambient measurement process. Often the CMB model is fit to the data using an iteratively re-weighted least-squares algorithm to obtain the effective variance solution. We consider the chemical mass balance model within the framework of the statistical measurement error model (e.g., Fuller, W.A., Measurement Error Models, Wiley, NewYork, 1987), and we illustrate that the models assumed by each of the approaches to the CMB equations are in fact special cases of a general measurement error model. We compare alternative source contribution estimators with the commonly used effective variance estimator when standard assumptions are valid and when such assumptions are violated. Four approaches for source contribution estimation and inference are compared using computer simulation: weighted least squares (with standard errors adjusted for source profile error), the effective variance approach of Watson et al. (Atmos, Environ., 18, 1984, 1347), the Britt and Luecke (Technometrics, 15, 1973, 233) approach, and a method of moments approach given in Fuller (1987, p. 193). For the scenarios we consider, the simplistic weighted least-squares approach performs as well as the more widely used effective variance solution in most cases, and is slightly superior to the effective variance solution when source profile variability is large. The four estimation approaches are illustrated using real PM 2.5 data from Fresno and the conclusions drawn from the computer simulation are validated.

  19. Selected Ion Flow-Drift Tube Mass Spectrometry: Quantification of Volatile Compounds in Air and Breath.

    PubMed

    Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-12-15

    A selected ion flow-drift tube mass spectrometric analytical technique, SIFDT-MS, is described that extends the established selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, by the inclusion of a static but variable E-field along the axis of the flow tube reactor in which the analytical ion-molecule chemistry occurs. The ion axial speed is increased in proportion to the reduced field strength E/N (N is the carrier gas number density), and the residence/reaction time, t, which is measured by Hadamard transform multiplexing, is correspondingly reduced. To ensure a proper understanding of the physics and ion chemistry underlying SIFDT-MS, ion diffusive loss to the walls of the flow-drift tube and the mobility of injected H3O(+) ions have been studied as a function of E/N. It is seen that the derived diffusion coefficient and mobility of H3O(+) ions are consistent with those previously reported. The rate coefficient has been determined at elevated E/N for the association reaction of the H3O(+) reagent ions with H2O molecules, which is the first step in the production of H3O(+)(H2O)1,2,3 reagent hydrate ions. The production of hydrated analyte ion was also experimentally investigated. The analytical performance of SIFDT-MS is demonstrated by the quantification of acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath. Finally, the essential features of SIFDT-MS and SIFT-MS are compared, notably pointing out that a much lower speed of the flow-drive pump is required for SIFDT-MS, which facilitates the development of smaller cost-effective analytical instruments for real time breath and fluid headspace analyses. PMID:26583448

  20. A mass balance method for non-intrusive measurements of surface-air trace gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denmead, O. T.; Harper, L. A.; Freney, J. R.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Leuning, R.; Sharpe, R. R.

    A mass balance method is described for calculating gas production from a surface or volume source in a small test plot from measurements of differences in the horizontal fluxes of the gas across upwind and downwind boundaries. It employs a square plot, 24 m×24 m, with measurements of gas concentration at four heights (up to 3.5 m) along each of the four boundaries. Gas concentrations are multiplied by the appropriate vector winds to yield the horizontal fluxes at each height on each boundary. The difference between these fluxes integrated over downwind and upwind boundaries represents production. Illustrations of the method, which involve exchanges of methane and carbon dioxide, are drawn from experiments with landfills, pastures and grazing animals. Tests included calculation of recovery rates from known gas releases and comparisons with a conventional micrometeorological approach and a backward dispersion model. The method performed satisfactorily in all cases. Its sensitivity for measuring exchanges of CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O in various scenarios was examined. As employed by us, the mass balance method can suffer from errors arising from the large number of gas analyses required for a flux determination, and becomes unreliable when there are light winds and variable wind directions. On the other hand, it is non-disturbing, has a simple theoretical basis, is independent of atmospheric stability or the shape of the wind profile, and is appropriate for flux measurement in situations where conventional micrometeorological methods can not be used, e.g. for small plots, elevated point sources, and heterogeneous surface sources.

  1. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  2. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. PMID:24211802

  3. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

  4. Spectral effects on latitude-tilt and vertical PV modules as affected by latitude, air mass, and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueymard, Christian A.

    2007-09-01

    Using the same SMARTS radiative code as for the development of improved reference spectra for PV rating, an analysis of the spectral sensitivity of specific PV technologies to varying air mass and other factors is presented. To the difference of previous studies, the approach taken here considers realistic atmospheric conditions, as measured at five North- American sites from widely different climatic zones. Two different PV applications (latitude-tilted flat-plates and vertical building-integrated modules) are showcased with seven possible materials, including a-Si, m-Si, and triple junctions. Considering the most frequent clear-sky conditions around the summer solstice at the selected sites, the Spectral Enhancement Factor (SEF) is calculated both for a fixed air mass (1.5) and daily-average spectral conditions. This analysis provides a preliminary assessment of how latitude, local climatic conditions, and PV geometry affect the relative merits of different technologies relatively to standard rating conditions. In particular, it is shown that, in summer, latitude-tilt PV modules experience bluer incident spectra than the reference spectrum, therefore favoring the a-Si modules (SEF > 1). For vertical-tilt PV systems, the SEF is generally lower than for latitude-tilt systems, with the notable exception of m- Si. When considering daily-average results, the effective SEF can become extremely low in the case of a-Si (down to 0.65) and moderately high for m-Si (up to 1.09). It is concluded that the effects of location, season, and PV material on the spectral effect needs to be investigated in detail, particularly for applications involving vertical building-integrated systems.

  5. Atmospheric pollutants in Chiang Mai (Thailand) over a five-year period (2005-2009), their possible sources and relation to air mass movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantara, Somporn; Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and analysis of the chemical composition of air pollutants were conducted over a five-year period (2005-2009) in the sub-urban area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study aims to determine the seasonal variation of atmospheric ion species and gases, examine their correlations, identify possible sources and assess major air-flow patterns to the receptor. The dominant gas and particulate pollutants were NH3 (43-58%) and SO42- (39-48%), respectively. The annual mean concentrations of NH3 (μg m-3) in descending order were 4.08 (2009) > 3.32 (2007) > 2.68 (2008) > 2.47 (2006) and 1.87 (2005), while those of SO42- (μg m-3) were 2.60 (2007) > 2.20 (2006) > 1.95 (2009) > 1.75 (2008) and 1.26 (2005). Concentrations of particulate ions were analyzed by principle component analysis to find out the possible sources of air pollutants in this area. The first component of each year had a high loading of SO42- and NH4+, which probably came from fuel combustion and agricultural activity, respectively. K+, a tracer of biomass burning, also contributed to the first or the second components of each year. Concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were well correlated (r > 0.777, p < 0.01), which lead to the conclusion that (NH4)2SO4 was a major compound present in this area. The 3-day backward trajectories of air mass arriving at Chiang Mai from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed using the hybrid single particle langrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and grouped by cluster analysis. The air mass data was analyzed for the dry season (n = 18; 100%). The trajectory of air mass in 2005 mainly originated locally (67%). In 2006, the recorded data showed that 56% of air mass was emitted from the western continental region of Thailand. In 2007, the percent ratios from the western and eastern continental areas were equal (39%). In 2008, 67% originated from the western continental area. In 2009, the recorded air mass mainly came from the western continental area (72%). In conclusion, the

  6. Identification of water-soluble polar organics in air and vehicular emitted particulate matter using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and Capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Yassine, M.; Gebefugi, I.; Hertkorn, N.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aerosols on human health, atmospheric chemistry, and climate are among the central topics in current environmental health research. Detailed and accurate measurements of the chemical composition of air particulate matter (PM) represent a challenging analytical task. Minute sample amounts are usually composed of several main constituents and hundreds of minor and trace constituents. Moreover, the composition of individual particles can be fairly uniform or very different (internally or externally mixed aerosols), depending on their origin and atmospheric aging processes (coagulation, condensation / evaporation, chemical reaction). The aim of the presentation was the characterization of the organic matter (OM) fraction of environmental aerosols which is not accessible by GC-methods, either because of their high molecular weight, their polarity or due to thermal instability. We also describe the main chemical characteristics of complexe oligomeric organic fraction extracted from different aerosols collected in urban and rural area in Germany and Canada. Mass spectrometry (MS) became an essential tool used by many prominent leaders of the biological research community and the importance of MS to the future of biological research is now clearly evident as in the fields of Proteomics and Metabolomics. Especially Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) is an ultrahigh resolution MS that allows new approach in the analysis of complex mixtures. The mass resolution (< 200 ppb) allowed assigning the elemental composition (C, H, O, N, S…) to each of the obtained mass peaks and thus already a description of the mixture in terms of molecular composition. This possibility is used by the authors together with a high resolution separation method of charged compounds: capillary electrophoresis. A CE-ESI-MS method using an ammonium acetate based background electrolyte (pH 4.7) was developed for the determination of isomeric benzoic acids in

  7. Large-Scale Air Mass Characteristics Observed Over the Remote Tropical Pacific Ocean During March-April 1999: Results from PEM-Tropics B Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grant, William B.; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Kooi, Susan A.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Clayton, Marian B.; Avery, Melody A.

    2001-01-01

    Eighteen long-range flights over the Pacific Ocean between 38 S to 20 N and 166 E to 90 W were made by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM) Tropics B conducted from March 6 to April 18, 1999. Two lidar systems were flown on the DC-8 to remotely measure vertical profiles of ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O), aerosols, and clouds from near the surface to the upper troposphere along their flight track. In situ measurements of a wide range of gases and aerosols were made on the DC-8 for comprehensive characterization of the air and for correlation with the lidar remote measurements. The transition from northeasterly flow of Northern Hemispheric (NH) air on the northern side of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to generally easterly flow of Southern Hemispheric (SH) air south of the ITCZ was accompanied by a significant decrease in O3, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and aerosols and an increase in H2O. Trajectory analyses indicate that air north of the ITCZ came from Asia and/or the United States, while the air south of the ITCZ had a long residence time over the Pacific, perhaps originating over South America several weeks earlier. Air south of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) came rapidly from the west originating over Australia or Africa. This air had enhanced O3 and aerosols and an associated decrease in H2O. Average latitudinal and longitudinal distributions of O3 and H2O were constructed from the remote and in situ O3 and H2O data, and these distributions are compared with results from PEM-Tropics A conducted in August-October 1996. During PEM-Tropics B, low O3 air was found in the SH across the entire Pacific Basin at low latitudes. This was in strong contrast to the photochemically enhanced O3 levels found across the central and eastern Pacific low latitudes during PEM-Tropics A. Nine air mass types were identified for PEM-Tropics B based on their O3, aerosols, clouds, and potential vorticity characteristics. The

  8. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  9. Selective Mass Spectrometer Characterization of Halogen Gases in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, S.; Ivey, M. M.; Foster, K. L.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a new interface for use with a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-MS). The new interface uses a mechanical pump to draw gaseous analyte through a glass manifold and into the corona discharge area of the APCI-MS. This new method of delivering a gaseous sample at atmospheric pressure directly to the MS has been used to obtain real-time measurements of Br2 and Cl2 over synthetic seawater ice. The ion intensity of a halogen gas measured by the MS is affected by the pumping rate and the position of the glass manifold. The MS signals for Br2 are linear in the 0.1 to 10.6 ppbv range, and the estimated 3 sigma detection limit is 20.7 pptv. The MS signals for Cl2 are linear in the 0.2 to 25 ppbv range, and the estimated 3 sigma detection limit is 1.081 ppbv. This lab-based technique is suitable to be the basis for a portable field-based design. Such a design, a miniaturized instrument, will help elucidate the role of seawater snow and ice surfaces on the photochemical production of Br2 and Cl2 in the high Arctic.

  10. Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-02-01

    A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 μm3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with the mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons of the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air mass from south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime of Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from south has been twice higher compared to the average of the previous years, these southerly air masses did however not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. This result implied that the air mass history was not the key factor, explaining reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified to local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air on small spatial and temporal scales - II. Mass size distributions and gas-particle partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana; Ilić, Predrag; Kohoutek, Jiří; Gasić, Bojan; Kovacić, Igor; Škrdlíková, Lenka

    2010-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured together with inorganic air pollutants at two urban sites and one rural background site in the Banja Luka area, Bosnia and Hercegovina, during 72 h in July 2008 using a high time resolution (5 samples per day) with the aim to study gas-particle partitioning, aerosol mass size distributions and to explore the potential of a higher time resolution (4 h-sampling). In the particulate phase the mass median diameters of the PAHs were found almost exclusively in the accumulation mode (0.1-1.0 μm of size). These were larger for semivolatile PAHs than for non-volatile PAHs. Gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile PAHs was strongly influenced by temperature. The results suggest that the Junge-Pankow model is inadequate to explain the inter-species variation and another process must be significant for phase partitioning which is less temperature sensitive than adsorption. Care should be taken when interpreting slopes m of plots of the type log K p = m log p L0 + b based on 24 h means, as these are found sensitive to the time averaging, i.e. tend to be higher than when based on 12 h-mean samples.

  12. Intercomparison between satellite-derived aerosol optical thickness and PM2.5 mass: Implications for air quality studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-11-01

    We explore the relationship between column aerosol optical thickness (AOT) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) on the Terra/Aqua satellites and hourly fine particulate mass (PM2.5) measured at the surface at seven locations in Jefferson county, Alabama for 2002. Results indicate that there is a good correlation between the satellite-derived AOT and PM2.5 (linear correlation coefficient, R = 0.7) indicating that most of the aerosols are in the well-mixed lower boundary layer during the satellite overpass times. There is excellent agreement between the monthly mean PM2.5 and MODIS AOT (R > 0.9), with maximum values during the summer months due to enhanced photolysis. The PM2.5 has a distinct diurnal signature with maxima in the early morning (6:00 ~ 8:00AM) due to increased traffic flow and restricted mixing depths during these hours. Using simple empirical linear relationships derived between the MODIS AOT and 24hr mean PM2.5 we show that the MODIS AOT can be used quantitatively to estimate air quality categories as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with an accuracy of more than 90% in cloud-free conditions. We discuss the factors that affect the correlation between satellite-derived AOT and PM2.5 mass, and emphasize that more research is needed before applying these methods and results over other areas.

  13. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Nabi, Deedar; Würz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Brussaard, Corina P D; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan R; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-08-19

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitted, unrestrained 4.3 m(3) oil release conducted on the North Sea. Rapid mass transfers of volatile and soluble hydrocarbons were observed, with >50% of ≤C17 hydrocarbons disappearing within 25 h from this oil slick of <10 km(2) area and <10 μm thickness. For oil sheen, >50% losses of ≤C16 hydrocarbons were observed after 1 h. We developed a mass transfer model to describe the evolution of oil slick chemical composition and water column hydrocarbon concentrations. The model was parametrized based on environmental conditions and hydrocarbon partitioning properties estimated from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) retention data. The model correctly predicted the observed fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the oil slick resulting from evaporation and dissolution. This is the first report on the broad-spectrum compositional changes in oil during the first day of a spill at the sea surface. Expected outcomes under other environmental conditions are discussed, as well as comparisons to other models. PMID:25103722

  14. Reaching for the Unreachable: Reorganization of Reaching with Walking

    PubMed Central

    Grzyb, Beata J.; Smith, Linda B.; del Pobil, Angel P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reaching and walking behaviors may be linked developmentally as reaching changes at the onset of walking. Here we report new evidence on an apparent loss of the distinction between the reachable and nonreachable distances as children start walking. The experiment compared nonwalkers, walkers with help, and independent walkers in a reaching task to targets at varying distances. Reaching attempts, contact, leaning, and communication behaviors were recorded. Most of the children reached for the unreachable objects the first time it was presented. Nonwalkers, however, reached less on the subsequent trials showing clear adjustment of their reaching decisions with the failures. On the contrary, walkers consistently attempted reaches to targets at unreachable distances. We suggest that these reaching errors may result from inappropriate integration of reaching and locomotor actions, attention control and near/far visual space. We propose a reward-mediated model implemented on a NAO humanoid robot that replicates the main results from our study showing an increase in reaching attempts to nonreachable distances after the onset of walking. PMID:26110046

  15. Physical and chemical processes of air masses in the Aegean Sea during Etesians: Aegean-GAME airborne campaign.

    PubMed

    Tombrou, M; Bossioli, E; Kalogiros, J; Allan, J D; Bacak, A; Biskos, G; Coe, H; Dandou, A; Kouvarakis, G; Mihalopoulos, N; Percival, C J; Protonotariou, A P; Szabó-Takács, B

    2015-02-15

    High-resolution measurements of gas and aerosols' chemical composition along with meteorological and turbulence parameters were performed over the Aegean Sea (AS) during an Etesian outbreak in the framework of the Aegean-GAME airborne campaign. This study focuses on two distinct Etesian patterns, with similarities inside the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) and differences at higher levels. Under long-range transport and subsidence the pollution load is enhanced (by 17% for CO, 11% for O3, 28% for sulfate, 62% for organic mass, 47% for elemental carbon), compared to the pattern with a weaker synoptic system. Sea surface temperature (SST) was a critical parameter for the MABL structure, turbulent fluxes and pollutants' distribution at lower levels. The MABL height was below 500 m asl over the eastern AS (favoring higher accumulation), and deeper over the western AS. The most abundant components of total PM1 were sulfate (40-50%) and organics (30-45%). Higher average concentrations measured over the eastern AS (131 ± 76 ppbv for CO, 62.5 ± 4.1 ppbv for O3, 5.0 ± 1.1 μg m(-3) for sulfate, 4.7 ± 0.9 μg m(-3) for organic mass and 0.5 ± 0.2 μg m(-3) for elemental carbon). Under the weaker synoptic system, cleaner but more acidic air masses prevailed over the eastern part, while distinct aerosol layers of different signature were observed over the western part. The Aitken and accumulation modes contributed equally during the long-range transport, while the Aitken modes dominated during local or medium range transport. PMID:25460953

  16. The potential of LIRIC to validate the vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration estimated by an air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomos, Nikolaos; Filoglou, Maria; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spyros; Melas, Dimitris; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Balis, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by a retrieval algorithm that uses combined sunphotometer and LIDAR data (LIRIC) were used in order to validate the mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. LIDAR and CIMEL measurements of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki were used for this validation.The aerosol mass concentration profiles of the fine and coarse mode derived by CAMx were compared with the respective profiles derived by the retrieval algorithm. For the coarse mode particles, forecasts of the Saharan dust transportation model BSC-DREAM8bV2 were also taken into account. Each of the retrieval algorithm's profiles were matched to the models' profile with the best agreement within a time window of four hours before and after the central measurement. OPAC, a software than can provide optical properties of aerosol mixtures, was also employed in order to calculate the angstrom exponent and the lidar ratio values for 355nm and 532nm for each of the model's profiles aiming in a comparison with the angstrom exponent and the lidar ratio values derived by the retrieval algorithm for each measurement. The comparisons between the fine mode aerosol concentration profiles resulted in a good agreement between CAMx and the retrieval algorithm, with the vertical mean bias error never exceeding 7 μgr/m3. Concerning the aerosol coarse mode concentration profiles both CAMx and BSC-DREAM8bV2 values are severely underestimated, although, in cases of Saharan dust transportation events there is an agreement between the profiles of BSC-DREAM8bV2 model and the retrieval algorithm.

  17. Cumulative ventilation air drying potential as an indication of dry mass content in wastewater sludge in a thin-layer solar drying facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Controlling low-temperature drying facilities which utilise nonprepared air is quite difficult, due to very large variability of ventilation air parameters - both in daily and seasonal cycles. The paper defines the concept of cumulative drying potential of ventilation air and presents experimental evidence that there is a relation between this parameter and condition of the dried matter (sewage sludge). Knowledge on current dry mass content in the dried matter (sewage sludge) provides new possibilities for controlling such systems. Experimental data analysed in the paper was collected in early 2012 during operation of a test solar drying facility in a sewage treatment plant in Błonie near Warsaw, Poland.

  18. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  19. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomos, N.; Filioglou, M.; Poupkou, A.; Liora, N.; Dimopoulos, S.; Melas, D.; Chaikovsky, A.; Balis, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC), that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E) from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  20. Analysis of heat and mass transfer between air and falling film desiccant for different flow configurations in the presence of ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmad A.

    This work focuses on the enhancement of heat and mass transfer between air and falling desiccant film for different flow channel configurations. Cu-Ultrafine particles are added to the desiccant film to investigate the enhancement in heat and mass transfer between air and desiccant film for dehumidification and cooling processes of the air and regeneration of desiccant film. A detailed comparative study between parallel and counter flow channels is performed using a parametric study to investigate the enhancements in dehumidification, cooling, and regeneration processes in terms of the pertinent parameters. The results reveal that the parallel flow arrangement provides better dehumidification and cooling for the air than the counter flow channel for a wide range of parameters. Next, the inclined parallel and counter flow configurations are investigated using an Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) and successive over-relaxation methods to discretize the vorticity and stream-function equations, respectively. A parametric study is employed to investigate the inclination angle effects in enhancing the heat and mass transfer in terms of the controlling parameters. It is shown that inclination angle plays a significant role in enhancing the dehumidification, cooling, and regeneration processes. Finally, the enhancements in heat and mass transfer in cross flow channel between air and desiccant film is examined based on a parametric study to investigate the dehumidification and cooling processes of the air in terms of the pertinent controlling parameters. These parameters are air and desiccant Reynolds numbers, dimensions of the channel, volume fraction of Cu-ultrafine particles, and thermal dispersion effects. It is found that an increase in the Cu-volume fraction increases dehumidification and cooling capabilities and produce more stable Cu-desiccant film.

  1. Characterization of key aerosol, trace gas and meteorological properties and particle formation and growth processes dependent on air mass origins in coastal Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesch, J.; Drewnick, F.; Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of aerosols at a certain site can vary depending on season, the air mass source region and distance from sources. Regardless of the environment, new particle formation (NPF) events are one of the major sources for ultrafine particles which are potentially hazardous to human health. Grown particles are optically active and efficient CCN resulting in important implications for visibility and climate (Zhang et al., 2004). The study presented here is intended to provide information about various aspects of continental, urban and marine air masses reflected by wind patterns of the air arriving at the measurement site. Additionally we will be focusing on NPF events associated with different types of air masses affecting their emergence and temporal evolution. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters were performed within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from mid-November to mid-December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean. Number and mass as well as PAH and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distribution instruments covered the size range 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). In order to evaluate the characteristics of different air masses linking local and regional sources as well as NPF processes, characteristic air mass types were classified dependent on backwards trajectory pathways and local meteorology. Large nuclei mode concentrations in the number size distribution were found within continental and urban influenced air mass types due to frequently occurring NPF events. Exploring individual production and sink variables, sulfuric

  2. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  3. Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO2 from Air Using Water and NaOH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William M.; Jackson, Yaminah Z.; Morin, Michael T.; Ferraro, Giacomo P.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and computer models for studying the mass transfer process of removing CO2 from air using water or dilute NaOH solution as absorbent are presented. Models tie experiment to theory and give a visual representation of concentration profiles and also illustrate the two-film theory and the relative importance of various…

  4. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  5. Determination of trichloroanisole and trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air by passive sampling and thermal desorption-gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Bermúdez-Peinado, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ruíz-García, J; Vílchez-Quero, J L

    2015-02-01

    The present paper describes the calibration of selected passive samplers used in the quantitation of trichlorophenol and trichloroanisole in wineries' ambient air, by calculating the corresponding sampling rates. The method is based on passive sampling with sorbent tubes and involves thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis. Three commercially available sorbents were tested using sampling cartridges with a radial design instead of axial ones. The best results were found for Tenax TA™. Sampling rates (R-values) for the selected sorbents were determined. Passive sampling was also used for accurately determining the amount of compounds present in the air. Adequate correlation coefficients between the mass of the target analytes and exposure time were obtained. The proposed validated method is a useful tool for the early detection of trichloroanisole and its precursor trichlorophenol in wineries' ambient air while avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities. PMID:25576042

  6. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  7. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic determination of benzene in indoor air during the use of biomass fuels in cooking time.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Kulkarni, P K; Desai, N M; Shah, S H; Patel, G M; Mansuri, M M; Parikh, D J; Saiyed, H N

    2005-02-18

    A gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic method in electron ionization (EI) mode with MS/MS ion preparation using helium at flow rate 1 ml min(-1) as carrier gas on DB-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. film thickness 0.25 microm) has been developed for the determination of benzene in indoor air. The detection limit for benzene was 0.002 microg ml(-1) with S/N: 4 (S: 66, N: 14). The benzene concentration for cooks during cooking time in indoor kitchen using dung fuel was 114.1 microg m(-3) while it was 6.6 microg m(-3) for open type kitchen. The benzene concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in indoor kitchen with respect to open type kitchen using dung fuels. The wood fuel produces 36.5 microg m(-3) of benzene in indoor kitchen. The concentration of benzene in indoor kitchen using wood fuel was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in comparison to dung fuel. This method may be helpful for environmental analytical chemist dealing with GC-MS in confirmation and quantification of benzene in environmental samples with health risk exposure assessment. PMID:15782977

  8. Energetics and efficiency analysis of a cobaloxime-modified semiconductor under simulated air mass 1.5 illumination.

    PubMed

    Krawicz, Alexandra; Cedeno, Diana; Moore, Gary F

    2014-08-14

    We report on the energetics and efficiency of a p-type (100) gallium phosphide (GaP) semiconductor functionalized with molecular hydrogen production catalysts via polymer grafting. The catalysts belong to the cobaloxime class of compounds that have recently shown promise in electrocatalysis and solar-to-fuel applications. Attachment of the complex to a semiconductor surface allows direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements of performance. Under simulated air mass 1.5 illumination, the catalyst-modified photocathode yields a 0.92 mA cm(-2) current density when operating at the equilibrium potential for the hydrogen production half reaction. The open circuit photovoltage (VOC) is 0.72 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and the fill factor (FF) is 0.33 (a 258% increase compared to polymer-modified electrodes, without cobaloxime treatment). The external quantum efficiency (EQE), measured under a reverse bias of +0.17 vs. RHE, shows a maximum of 67% under 310 nm illumination. Product analysis of the head-space gas yields a lower limit on the Faradaic efficiency of 88%. In addition, the near linear photoresponse of the current density upon increasing illumination indicates that photocarrier transport to the interface can limit performance. These results give insights into the design of improved photocatalytic constructs with additional performance gains. PMID:24619031

  9. Urban air pollution: a representative survey of PM(2.5) mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; de Fatima Andrade, Maria; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Astolfo, Rosana; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-03-01

    In urban areas of Brazil, vehicle emissions are the principal source of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). The World Health Organization air quality guidelines state that the annual mean concentration of PM(2.5) should be below 10 μg m(-3). In a collaboration of Brazilian institutions, coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine and conducted from June 2007 to August 2008, PM(2.5) mass was monitored at sites with high traffic volumes in six Brazilian state capitals. We employed gravimetry to determine PM(2.5) mass concentrations, reflectance to quantify black carbon concentrations, X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition, and ion chromatography to determine the composition and concentrations of anions and cations. Mean PM(2.5) concentrations and proportions of black carbon (BC) in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Recife, and Porto Alegre were 28.1 ± 13.6 μg m(-3) (38% BC), 17.2 ± 11.2 μg m(-3) (20% BC), 14.7 ± 7.7 μg m(-3) (31% BC), 14.4 ± 9.5 μg m(-3) (30% BC), 7.3 ± 3.1 μg m(-3) (26% BC), and 13.4 ± 9.9 μg m(-3) (26% BC), respectively. Sulfur and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, and Fe), derived from fuel combustion and soil resuspension, respectively, were the principal elements of the PM(2.5) mass. We discuss the long-term health effects for each metropolitan region in terms of excess mortality risk, which translates to greater health care expenditures. This information could prove useful to decision makers at local environmental agencies. PMID:22408694

  10. Elemental composition and radical formation potency of PM10 at an urban background station in Germany in relation to origin of air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Beuck, Henning; Wick, Gabriele; Kuttler, Wilhelm; Schins, Roel P. F.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2015-03-01

    At an urban background station in Mülheim-Styrum, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, a set of 75 PM10 samples was collected over a one year period, followed by analyses for mass, chemical composition and hydroxyl radical (OHrad) formation potency. Additionally, the origin of air masses for the sampling days was calculated by 48-h backward trajectories, subdivided into the four cardinal sectors. Significant lower PM10 mass concentrations were observed for summertime air masses from the west compared to the other seasons and cardinal sectors. For the OHrad formation potency higher values were detected if air masses originate from east and south, thus predominantly being of continental origin. From the elevated OHrad formation potencies in fall and winter a seasonal trend with low potencies in summers is assumed. Furthermore, source apportionment was performed by a positive matrix factor analysis, separating seven plausible factors which could be attributed to mineral dust, secondary nitrate, industry, non-exhaust traffic, fossil fuel combustion, marine aerosol and secondary aerosol factors. The intrinsic OHrad formation potency was found to be associated mainly with the fossil fuel combustion factor (45%) and industry factor (22%).

  11. Size-Segregated Aerosol Composition and Mass Loading of Atmospheric Particles as Part of the Pacific Northwest 2001(PNW2001) Air Quality Study In Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Barrie, L. A.; Shutthanadan, S.; Cliff, S.; Cahill, T.

    2001-12-01

    In mid-August, 2001, an aircraft-based air-quality study was performed in the Puget Sound, WA, area entitled PNW2001 (http://www.pnl.gov/pnw2001). The objectives of this field campaign were the following: 1. reveal information about the 3-dimensional distribution of ozone, its gaseous precursors and fine particulate matter during weather conditions favoring air pollution; 2. derive information about the accuracy of urban and biogenic emissions inventories that are used to drive the air quality forecast models; and 3. examine the accuracy of modeled ozone concentration with that observed. In support of these efforts, we collected time-averaged ( { ~}10 minute averages), size-segregated, aerosol composition and mass-loading information using ex post facto analysis techniques of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (s-XRF), proton induced x-ray emissions(PIXE), proton elastic scattering (PESA), and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). This is the first time these analysis techniques have been used together on samples collected from aircraft using an optimized 3-stage rotating drum impactor. In our presentation, we will discuss the aerosol components in three aerosol size fractions as identified by statistical analysis of multielemental data (including total mass, H, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb) and relate variations in these components to physical aerosol properties, other gaseous trace constituents and to air mass origin.

  12. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon). Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  13. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  14. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-01-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  15. Development and characterisation of a state-of-the-art GOME-2 formaldehyde air-mass factor algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewson, W.; Barkley, M. P.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Bösch, H.; Kurosu, T.; Spurr, R.; Tilstra, L. G.

    2015-10-01

    Space-borne observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) are frequently used to derive surface emissions of isoprene, an important biogenic volatile organic compound. The conversion of retrieved HCHO slant column concentrations from satellite line-of-sight measurements to vertical columns is determined through application of an air mass factor (AMF), accounting for instrument viewing geometry, radiative transfer, and vertical profile of the absorber in the atmosphere. This step in the trace gas retrieval is subject to large errors. This work presents the AMF algorithm in use at the University of Leicester (UoL), which introduces scene-specific variables into a per-observation full radiative transfer AMF calculation, including increasing spatial resolution of key environmental parameter databases, input variable area weighting, instrument-specific scattering weight calculation, and inclusion of an ozone vertical profile climatology. Application of these updates to HCHO slant columns from the GOME-2 instrument is shown to typically adjust the AMF by ±20 %, compared to a reference algorithm without these advanced parameterisations. On average the GOME-2 AMFs increase by 4 %, with over 70 % of locations having an AMF of 0-20 % larger than originally, largely resulting from the use of the latest GOME-2 reflectance product. Furthermore, the new UoL algorithm also incorporates a full radiative transfer error calculation for each scene to help characterise AMF uncertainties. Global median AMF errors are typically 50-60 %, and are driven by uncertainties in the HCHO profile shape and its vertical distribution relative to clouds and aerosols. If uncertainty on the a priori HCHO profile is relatively small (< 10 %) then the median AMF total error decreases to about 30-40 %.

  16. Air Mass Factor Formulation for Spectroscopic Measurements from Satellites: Application to Formaldehyde Retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Martin, Randall V.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert; Fiore, Arlene; Li, Qinbin

    2004-01-01

    We present a new formulation for the air mass factor (AMF) to convert slant column measurements of optically thin atmospheric species from space into total vertical columns. Because of atmospheric scattering, the AMF depends on the vertical distribution of the species. We formulate the AMF as the integral of the relative vertical distribution (shape factor) of the species over the depth of the atmosphere, weighted by altitude-dependent coefficients (scattering weights) computed independently from a radiative transfer model. The scattering weights are readily tabulated, and one can then obtain the AMF for any observation scene by using shape factors from a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric chemistry model for the period of observation. This approach subsequently allows objective evaluation of the 3-D model with the observed vertical columns, since the shape factor and the vertical column in the model represent two independent pieces of information. We demonstrate the AMF method by using slant column measurements of formaldehyde at 346 nm from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite instrument over North America during July 1996. Shape factors are cumputed with the Global Earth Observing System CHEMistry (GEOS-CHEM) global 3-D model and are checked for consistency with the few available aircraft measurements. Scattering weights increase by an order of magnitude from the surface to the upper troposphere. The AMFs are typically 20-40% less over continents than over the oceans and are approximately half the values calculated in the absence of scattering. Model-induced errors in the AMF are estimated to be approximately 10%. The GEOS-CHEM model captures 50% and 60% of the variances in the observed slant and vertical columns, respectively. Comparison of the simulated and observed vertical columns allows assessment of model bias.

  17. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

  18. Measurement and analysis of aerosol and black carbon in the southwestern United States and Panama and their dependence on air mass origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, C.; Sheahan, J. N.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Brien, P.; Hinds, B. D.; Martinez-Twary, E.; Hansen, A. D. A.; White, C.; Garvey, D. M.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2004-07-01

    Total aerosol mass loading, aerosol absorption, and black carbon (BC) content were determined from aerosol collected on 598 quartz fiber filters at a remote, semiarid site near Orogrande, New Mexico from December 1989 to October 1995. Aerosol mass was determined by weighing filters before and after exposure, and aerosol absorption was determined by measuring the visible light transmitted through loaded filter samples and converting these measurements to aerosol absorption. BC content was determined by measuring visible light transmitted through filter samples before and after firing and converting the absorption to BC mass, assuming a BC absorption cross section of 19 m2/g in the fiber filter medium. Two analyses were then performed on each of the logged variables: an autoregressive integrating moving average (ARIMA) analysis and a decomposition analysis using an autoregressive model to accommodate first-order autocorrelation. The two analyses reveal that BC mass has no statistically significant seasonal dependence at the 5% level of significance but only random fluctuations varying around an average annual value that has a long-term decreasing trend (from 0.16 to 0.11 μg/m3 during 1990-1995). Aerosol absorption, which is dominated by BC, also displays random fluctuations about an average value, and decreases from 1.9 Mm-1 to 1.3 Mm-1 during the same period. Unlike BC, aerosol mass at the Orogrande site displays distinctly different character. The analyses reveal a pronounced seasonal dependence, but no long-term trend for aerosol mass. The seasonal indices resulting from the autoregression analysis have a minimum in January (-0.78) and maximum in June (+0.58). The geometric mean value over the 1990-1995 period for aerosol mass is 16.0 μg/m3. Since BC aerosol at the Orogrande site is a product of long-range atmospheric transport, a back trajectory analysis of air masses was conducted. Back trajectory analyses indicate that air masses traversing high population

  19. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  20. Properties of air mass mixing and humidity in the subtropics from measurements of the D/H isotope ratio of water vapor at the Mauna Loa Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, David; Galewsky, Joseph; Sharp, Zachary D.; Worden, John; Barnes, John; Baer, Doug; Bailey, Adriana; Brown, Derek P.; Christensen, Lance; Crosson, Eric; Dong, Feng; Hurley, John V.; Johnson, Leah R.; Strong, Mel; Toohey, Darin; van Pelt, Aaron; Wright, Jonathon S.

    2011-11-01

    Water vapor in the subtropical troposphere plays an important role in the radiative balance, the distribution of precipitation, and the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere. Measurements of the water vapor mixing ratio paired with stable isotope ratios provide unique information on transport processes and moisture sources that is not available with mixing ratio data alone. Measurements of the D/H isotope ratio of water vapor from Mauna Loa Observatory over 4 weeks in October-November 2008 were used to identify components of the regional hydrological cycle. A mixing model exploits the isotope information to identify water fluxes from time series data. Mixing is associated with exchange between marine boundary layer air and tropospheric air on diurnal time scales and between different tropospheric air masses with characteristics that evolve on the synoptic time scale. Diurnal variations are associated with upslope flow and the transition from nighttime air above the marine trade inversion to marine boundary layer air during daytime. During easterly trade wind conditions, growth and decay of the boundary layer are largely conservative in a regional context but contribute ˜12% of the nighttime water vapor at Mauna Loa. Tropospheric moisture is associated with convective outflow and exchange with drier air originating from higher latitude or higher altitude. During the passage of a moist filament, boundary layer exchange is enhanced. Isotopic data reflect the combination of processes that control the water balance, which highlights the utility for baseline measurements of water vapor isotopologues in monitoring the response of the hydrological cycle to climate change.

  1. sup 222 Rn, sup 222 Rn progeny and sup 220 Rn progeny as atmospheric tracers of air masses at the Mauno Loa Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, A.R.; George, A.C.; Maiello, M.L.; Fisenne, I.M.; Larsen, R.J.; Beck, H.L.; Wilson, F.C.

    1990-03-01

    {sup 222}Rn, {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations in air were measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii during March 1989 in order to investigate the feasibility of using them as atmospheric tracers to help determine local air mass flow patterns. Charcoal traps, cooled to dry ice temperatures, were used to collect {sup 222}Rn, which was subsequently measured in pulse ionization chambers at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML). {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny for 37 samples were measured at the Observatory by sampling high volumes of air through filters, which were counted for up to 11 h in alpha scintillation counters. Individual progeny concentrations were calculated using both least squares and maximum likelihood techniques. In general, {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations were low when free tropospheric air was present (downslope and tradewind conditions), and consistently higher when surface air from the island broke through the trade wind inversion layer (upslope conditions). The data suggest that {sup 222}Rn, {sup 222}Rn progeny, or {sup 220}Rn progeny monitoring may provide new and useful information to help indicate the different air flow patterns present at MLO. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Temperature Independent Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (tidas) and Simplified Atmospheric Air Mass Factor (samf) Techniques For The Measurement of Ozone Vertical Content From Gome Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, C.; Casadio, S.; di Sarra, A.; Putz, E.

    A simple technique for the fast retrieval of ozone vertical amount from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) spectra is described in detail. The TIDAS (Tempera- ture Independent Differential Absorption Spectroscopy) technique uses GOME's ca- pability of measuring atmospheric spectra over a broad wavelength range with high spectral resolution. The ozone slant columns are retrieved by applying the Beer- Lambert law to two spectral windows where the ozone absorption cross sections show similar temperature dependence. A simple geometric air mass factor is computed for a fixed height spherical atmosphere (SAMF: Simplified Atmospheric air Mass Factor) to retrieve ozone vertical amounts. Vertical ozone values are compared to the GDP (GOME Data Processor), and to ground based ozone measurements.

  3. Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-10-01

    A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during the Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 μm-3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons for the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air masses from the south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime in Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from the south was 1.3 times higher compared to the average of the previous years, which however did not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. Therefore, the reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games cannot be only explained by meteorological conditions. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified as local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

  4. The relationship between seasonal variations of total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus in rainfall and air mass advection paths in Matsue, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro; Kamiya, Hiroshi; Kano, Yoshihiro; Saki, Yukiko; Yamamuro, Masumi; Ishitobi, Yu

    We collected rainwater samples from every rainfall in Matsue, Japan in order to study variations of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations over time. The seasonal average concentration by magnitude order of Total Nitrogen (here after T-N) was highest in winter, then in spring, fall, and summer and that of Total Phosphorus (here after T-P) was highest in spring, then in winter, fall, and summer. These seasonal variations were examined in relation to the transportation paths of arrived air masses by using a backward trajectory and rainfall patterns from a surface synoptic weather chart. In winter, continental air masses frequently flow from China or Siberia and the resultant winter rainfall is on many occasions of a continental type. In summer, maritime air masses frequently arrive from the Pacific Ocean and this resultant rainfall therefore was often of maritime type. Looking at average concentrations of T-N and T-P for each rainfall type, continental types were high range and maritime types were low. It was therefore concluded that the monthly average concentration of T-N was affected by continental air masses from northern China in winter and by maritime ones from the Pacific Ocean in summer. The maximum deposition of T-N was caused by this concentration in winter and rainfall depth in summer. Seasonal variation of T-P showed a different fluctuation tendency from T-N, with a maximum concentration in spring, and minimum in summer and fall. T-P was susceptible to the yellow sand phenomenon which maximised T-P deposition in spring.

  5. Development of a particle-trap preconcentration-soft ionization mass spectrometric technique for the quantification of mercury halides in air.

    PubMed

    Deeds, Daniel A; Ghoshdastidar, Avik; Raofie, Farhad; Guérette, Élise-Andrée; Tessier, Alain; Ariya, Parisa A

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of oxidized mercury, Hg(II), in the atmosphere poses a significant analytical challenge as Hg(II) is present at ultra-trace concentrations (picograms per cubic meter air). Current technologies are sufficiently sensitive to measure the total Hg present as Hg(II) but cannot determine the chemical speciation of Hg(II). We detail here the development of a soft ionization mass spectrometric technique coupled with preconcentration onto nano- or microparticle-based traps prior to analysis for the measurement of mercury halides in air. The current methodology has comparable detection limits (4-11 pg m(-3)) to previously developed techniques for the measurement of total inorganic mercury in air while allowing for the identification of HgX2 in collected samples. Both mercury chloride and mercury bromide have been sporadically detected in Montreal urban and indoor air using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). We discuss limitations and advantages of the current technique and discuss potential avenues for future research including quantitative trace measurements of a larger range of mercury compounds. PMID:25837315

  6. Who should take responsibility for decisions on internationally recommended datasets? The case of the mass concentration of mercury in air at saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J. C.; Brewer, Paul J.; Ent, Hugo; Fisicaro, Paola; Horvat, Milena; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2015-10-01

    This paper considers how decisions on internationally recommended datasets are made and implemented and, further, how the ownership of these decisions comes about. Examples are given of conventionally agreed data and values where the responsibility is clear and comes about through official designation or by common usage and practice over long time periods. The example of the dataset describing the mass concentration of mercury in air at saturation is discussed in detail. This is a case where there are now several competing datasets that are in disagreement with each other, some with historical authority and some more recent but, arguably, with more robust metrological traceability to the SI. Further, it is elaborated that there is no body charged with the responsibility to make a decision on an international recommendation for such a dataset. This has led to the situation where several competing datasets are in use simultaneously. Close parallels are drawn with the current debate over changes to the ozone absorption cross section, which has equal importance to the measurement of ozone amount fraction in air and to subsequent compliance with air quality legislation. It is noted that in the case of the ozone cross section there is already a committee appointed to deliberate over any change. We make the proposal that a similar committee, under the auspices of IUPAC or the CIPM’s CCQM (if it adopted a reference data function) could be formed to perform a similar role for the mass concentration of mercury in air at saturation.

  7. PM2.5 chemical composition at a rural background site in Central Europe, including correlation and air mass back trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Karban, Jindřich; Chalupníčková, Eva; Havránek, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    of fresh, local aerosol and aged, long-range transport aerosol. The influences of different air masses were also investigated. The lowest concentrations of PM2.5 were recorded under the influence of marine air masses from the NW, which were also marked by increased concentrations of marine aerosol. In contrast, the highest concentrations of PM2.5 and most major chemical components were measured during periods when continental easterly air masses were dominant.

  8. Variation in airborne 137Cs peak levels with altitude from high-altitude locations across Europe after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Evrard, Olivier; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Tositti, Laura; de Vismes-Ott, Anne

    2015-04-01

    During the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, a dozen of high-altitude aerosol sampling stations, located between 850 and 3,454 m above sea level (a.s.l.), provided airborne activity levels across Europe (Fig. 1). This represents at most 5% of the total number of aerosol sampling locations that delivered airborne activity levels (at least one result) in Europe, in connection with this nuclear accident. High altitude stations are typically equipped with a high volume sampler that collects aerosols on filters. The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival and the peak of airborne cesium-137 (137Cs) activity levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location, with differences up to a factor of six on a regional scale. Besides this statement related to lowland areas, we have compared the maximum airborne levels registered at high-altitude European locations (850 m < altitudes < 3450 m) with what was observed at the closest lowland location. The vertical distribution of 137Cs peak level was not uniform even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. This being true at least in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere. Moreover the relation '137Csmax vs. altitude' shows a decreasing trend (Fig. 2). Results and discussion : Comparison of 137Cs and 7Be levels shows simultaneous increases at least when the 137Cs airborne level rose for the first time (Fig. 3). Zugspitze and Jungfraujoch stations attest of a time shift between 7Be and 137Cs peak that can be due to the particular dynamic of air movements at such high altitudes. After the 137Cs peak value, the plume concentration decreased whatever the 7Be level. Due to the cosmogenic origin of 7Be, its increase in the ground-level air is usually associated with downwind air movements, i.e. stratospheric air intrusions or at least air from high-tropospheric levels, into lower atmospheric layers. This means that Fukushima-labeled air masses registered at ground

  9. Intercomparison of OMI NO2 and HCHO air mass factor calculations: recommendations and best practices for retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente Delgado, Alba; Klaas Boersma, Folkert; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Yu, Huan; van Roozendael, Michel; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Barkley, Michael; Lamsal, Lok; Lin, Jintai; Liu, Mengyao

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the air mass factor (AMF) calculation process used by various research groups for OMI satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. Although satellite retrievals have strongly improved over the last decades, there is still a need to better understand and reduce the uncertainties associated with every retrieval step of satellite data products, such as the AMF calculation. Here we compare and evaluate the different approaches used to calculate AMFs by several scientific groups (KNMI (WUR), IASB-BIRA, IUP-UNI. BREMEN, MPI-C, NASA GSFC, LEICESTER UNI. and PEKING UNI.). Each group calculated altitude dependent (box-) AMFs and clear sky and total tropospheric AMFs for several OMI orbits. First, European groups computed AMFs for one OMI orbit using common settings for the choice of surface albedo data, terrain height, cloud treatment and a priori vertical profile. Second, every group computed AMFs for two complete days in different seasons using preferred settings for the ancillary data and cloud treatment as a part of a Round Robin exercise. Box-AMFs comparison showed good consistency and underlined the importance of a correct treatment of the physical processes affecting the effective light path and the vertical discretization of the atmosphere. Using common settings, tropospheric NO2 AMFs in polluted pixels on average agreed within 4.7% whereas in remote pixels agreed within 3.5%. Using preferred settings relative differences between AMFs increase up to 15-30%. This increase is traced back to the different choices and assumptions made throughout the AMF calculation, which affect the final AMF values and thus the uncertainty in the AMF calculation. Differences between state of the art cloud treatment approaches highlight the importance of an accurate cloud correction: total and clear sky AMFs in polluted conditions differ by up to 40% depending on the retrieval scenario. Based on the comparison results, specific recommendations on best

  10. Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and Lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2015-01-20

    A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment. PMID:25553788

  11. Project REACH Administrator's Manual. PRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piuma, Chesca; And Others

    The final volume in a series on Project REACH (Regular Education for All Children with Handicaps) is addressed to administrators involved in integrating severely disabled students into regular public schools. The manual is intended as a trouble-shooting tool with information on background theories and specific strategies. An introductory chapter…

  12. PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

  13. Reaching the "iBored"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauleke, Debra S.; Herrmann, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, they are always looking for creative ways to engage their students. They start the school year determined to bring to the classroom creative projects that generate student interest and foster critical thinking skills. Reaching today's Gen M student is challenging and changing the way they teach. The idea of using music to teach…

  14. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

  15. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Abanyie, S.; Akuffo, F. O.; Kutin-Sanwu, V.

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+) simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT). An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses. PMID:23878528

  16. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  17. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  18. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf

  19. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  20. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  1. Neural Correlates of Reach Errors

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics. PMID:16251440

  2. Observation of the transport of polluted air masses from the northeastern United States to Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the 1993 NARE summer intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, K. G.; Balsley, B. B.; Jensen, M. L.; Hanson, H. P.; Birks, J. W.

    1998-06-01

    Vertical profiles of ozone, temperature, pressure, and water vapor mass mixing ratio obtained using a parafoil kite platform during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993 summer intensive at Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada, demonstrate the of use of kite platforms for the collection of vertically and temporally resolved data over a fixed location. During the period August 8-28, 1993, 39 profiles of the lower atmosphere were collected. Data collected as part of this field campaign illustrate the complex vertical stratification and temporal variability of pollutants transported into the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Transport phenomena resulted in pollution events in which ozone at the ground level remained in the 20-40 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range, while mixing ratios of 90-130 ppbv were observed above ˜300 m. Back trajectories indicate that these highly elevated levels of ozone are attributable to source regions in the heavily industrialized northeastern United States. Vertical stratification of the lower atmosphere was also present during transport of Canadian air to the sampling site, with layers of both elevated and diminished ozone observed, while marine air did not exhibit layering characteristic of air masses originating from continental source regions.

  3. Development of a thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of haloanisoles and halophenols in wineries' ambient air.

    PubMed

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ruiz-García, J; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2013-08-30

    An analytical method for the detection and quantification of haloanisoles and their corresponding halophenols in wineries' ambient air was developed. The target analytes were haloanisoles and halophenols, reported by previous scientific literature as responsible for wine taint. A calibrated pump and active tubes filled with Tenax GR™ were used for sampling. These tubes were thermally desorbed and analyzed using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The adsorption efficiencies of five commercial sampling tubes filled with different materials were evaluated. The efficiencies of the selected adsorbent were close to 100% for all sampled compounds. Desorption, chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions were accurately optimized allowing very low limits of quantification and wide linear ranges. The limits of quantification in ambient air ranged from 0.8pgtube(-1) for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, to 28pgtube(-1) for pentachlorophenol. These results are of great importance because human sensory threshold for haloanisoles is very low. The chromatographic method was also validated and the instrumental precision and trueness were established, a maximum RSD of 9% and a mean recovery of 91-106% were obtained. The proposed method involves an easy and sensitive technique for the early detection of haloanisoles and their precursor halophenols in ambient air avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities. PMID:23891369

  4. The Use of Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery to Investigate the Role of Stratospheric Air in a Non-convective Wind Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Molthan, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis, and Rapid Refresh analyses.

  5. Numerical investigation of interfacial mass transport resistance and two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz, Mustafa

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are efficient and environmentally friendly electrochemical engines. The performance of a PEMFC is adversely affected by oxygen (O2) concentration loss from the air flow channel to the cathode catalyst layer (CL). Oxygen transport resistance at the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and air channel interface is a non-negligible component of the O2 concentration loss. Simplified PEMFC performance models in the available literature incorporate the O2 resistance at the GDL-channel interface as an input parameter. However, this parameter has been taken as a constant so far in the available literature and does not reflect variable PEMFC operating conditions and the effect of two-phase flow in the channels. This study numerically calculates the O2 transport resistance at the GDL-air channel interface and expresses this resistance through the non-dimensional Sherwood number (Sh). Local Sh is investigated in an air channel with multiple droplets and films inside. These water features are represented as solid obstructions and only air flow is simulated. Local variations of Sh in the flow direction are obtained as a function of superficial air velocity, water feature size, and uniform spacing between water features. These variations are expressed with mathematical expressions for the PEMFC performance models to utilize and save computational resources. The resulting mathematical correlations for Sh can be utilized in PEMFC performance models. These models can predict cell performance more accurately with the help of the results of this work. Moreover, PEMFC performance models do not need to use a look-up table since the results were expressed through correlations. Performance models can be kept simplified although their predictions will become more realistic. Since two-phase flow in channels is experienced mostly at lower temperatures, performance optimization at low temperatures can be done easier.

  6. Improved detection of low vapor pressure compounds in air by serial combination of single-sided membrane introduction with fiber introduction mass spectrometry (SS-MIMS-FIMS).

    PubMed

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Handberg, Eric; Noll, Robert J; Kilgour, David P A; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-05-01

    The use of two methods in tandem, single-sided membrane introduction mass spectrometry (SS-MIMS) and fiber introduction mass spectrometry (FIMS), is presented as a technique for field analysis. The combined SS-MIMS-FIMS technique was employed in both a modified commercial mass spectrometer and a miniature mass spectrometer for the selective preconcentration of the explosive simulant o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and the chemical warfare agent simulant, methyl salicylate (MeS), in air. A home-built FIMS inlet was fabricated to allow introduction of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber into the mass spectrometer chamber and subsequent desorption of the trapped compounds using resistive heating. The SS-MIMS preconcentration system was also home-built from commercial vacuum parts. Optimization experiments were done separately for each preconcentration system to achieve the best extraction conditions prior to use of the two techniques in combination. Improved limits of detection, in the low ppb range, were observed for the combination compared to FIMS alone, using several SS-MIMS preconcentration cycles. The SS-MIMS-FIMS response for both instruments was found to be linear over the range 50 to 800 ppb. Other parameters studied were absorption time profiles, effects of sample flow rate, desorption temperature, fiber background, memory effects, and membrane fatigue. This simple, sensitive, accurate, robust, selective, and rapid sample preconcentration and introduction technique shows promise for field analysis of low vapor pressure compounds, where analyte concentrations will be extremely low and the compounds are difficult to extract from a matrix like air. PMID:15852137

  7. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

  8. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  9. Theoretical study of the effect of liquid desiccant mass flow rate on the performance of a cross flow parallel-plate liquid desiccant-air dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Abdulrahman Th.; Mat, Sohif Bin; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Al-abidi, Abduljalil A.

    2013-11-01

    A computer simulation using MATLAB is investigated to predict the distribution of air stream parameters (humidity ratio and temperature) as well as desiccant parameters (temperature and concentration) inside the parallel plate absorber. The present absorber consists of fourteen parallel plates with a surface area per unit volume ratio of 80 m2/m3. Calcium chloride as a liquid desiccant flows through the top of the plates to the bottom while the air flows through the gap between the plates making it a cross flow configuration. The model results show the effect of desiccant mass flow rate on the performance of the dehumidifier (moisture removal and dehumidifier effectiveness). Performance comparisons between present cross-flow dehumidifier and another experimental cross-flow dehumidifier in the literature are carried out. The simulation is expected to help in optimizing of a cross flow dehumidifier.

  10. Combustion of a Methane-Air Mixture in a Slot Burner with an Inert Insert in Mass Transfer to the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. Yu.; Moiseeva, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    A problem on combustion of a methane-air mixture in a slot burner with an internal insert in mass transfer from the burner's exterior wall to the environment has been solved. A mathematical formulation of the problem takes account of the dependence of the diffusion, thermal-conductivity, and heat-transfer coefficients on temperature, and also of the heat removal from the gas to the environment by convective and radiant heat transfer. A numerical investigation has been carried out in a one-dimensional mathematical formulation of the problem in dimensional variables. The boundary of existence of a stable high-temperature regime of combustion of the methane-air mixture has been determined as a function of the rate of feed of the gas, the environmental temperature, and the width of the flow area of the burner.

  11. Determination of seven pyrethroids biocides and their synergist in indoor air by thermal-desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after sampling on Tenax TA ® passive tubes.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    A method coupling thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 7 pyrethroids (allethrin, bifenthrin, cyphenothrin, imiprothrin, permethrin, prallethrin and tetramethrin) and piperonyl butoxide adsorbed on Tenax TA(®) passive samplers after exposure in indoor air. Thermal desorption was selected as it permits efficient and rapid extraction without solvent used together with a good sensitivity. Detection (S/N>3) and quantification (S/N>10) limits varied between 0.001 ng and 2.5 ng and between 0.005 and 10 ng respectively with a reproducibility varied between 14% (bifenthrin) and 39% (permethrin). The method was used for the comparison indoor air contamination after low-pressure spraying and fumigation application in a rubbish chute situated in the basement of a building. PMID:25281107

  12. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  13. Large conversion rates of NO2 to HNO2 observed in air masses from the South China Sea: Evidence of strong production at sea surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Qiaozhi; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zheng; Yeung, Chungpong; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays important roles in tropospheric chemistry, but its source(s) are not completely understood. Here we analyze measurements of HONO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and related parameters at a coastal site in Hong Kong during September-December 2012. The nocturnal NO2-to-HONO conversion rates were estimated in air masses passing over land and sea surfaces. The conversion rates in the "sea cases" (3.17-3.36 × 10-2 h-1) were significantly higher than those in the "land cases" in our study (1.20-1.30 × 10-2 h-1) and in previous studies by others. These results suggest that air-sea interactions may be a significant source of atmospheric HONO and need to be considered in chemical transport models.

  14. Mirror versus parallel bimanual reaching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of their importance to everyday function, tasks that require both hands to work together such as lifting and carrying large objects have not been well studied and the full potential of how new technology might facilitate recovery remains unknown. Methods To help identify the best modes for self-teleoperated bimanual training, we used an advanced haptic/graphic environment to compare several modes of practice. In a 2-by-2 study, we compared mirror vs. parallel reaching movements, and also compared veridical display to one that transforms the right hand’s cursor to the opposite side, reducing the area that the visual system has to monitor. Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects (5 in each group) practiced 200 movements. We hypothesized that parallel reaching movements would be the best performing, and attending to one visual area would reduce the task difficulty. Results The two-way comparison revealed that mirror movement times took an average 1.24 s longer to complete than parallel. Surprisingly, subjects’ movement times moving to one target (attending to one visual area) also took an average of 1.66 s longer than subjects moving to two targets. For both hands, there was also a significant interaction effect, revealing the lowest errors for parallel movements moving to two targets (p < 0.001). This was the only group that began and maintained low errors throughout training. Conclusion Combined with other evidence, these results suggest that the most intuitive reaching performance can be observed with parallel movements with a veridical display (moving to two separate targets). These results point to the expected levels of challenge for these bimanual training modes, which could be used to advise therapy choices in self-neurorehabilitation. PMID:23837908

  15. HIGH PRECISION ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD FOR MEASURING THE O2/N2 RATIO OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of the distribution of O2 in air will inform us about critical problems in the global carbon cycle which are not readily accessed by other measurements, including the rate of seasonal net production in the oceans on a hemispheric scale, the rate at which the oceans are ta...

  16. Determination of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multi Photon Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA?s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as a pro...

  17. Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as...

  18. Simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air-condensing unit of Scientific Production Company "Turbocon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemov, V. I.; Minko, K. B.; Yan'kov, G. G.; Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to be used for numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air condenser (ESAC) created in the Scientific Production Company (SPC) "Turbocon" and mounted on the territory of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The simulations were performed using the author's CFD code ANES. The verification of the models was carried out involving the experimental data obtained in the tests of ESAC. The operational capability of the proposed models to calculate the processes in steam-air mixture and cooling air and algorithms to take into account the maldistribution in the various rows of tube bundle was shown. Data on the influence of temperature and flow rate of the cooling air on the pressure in the upper header of ESAC, effective heat transfer coefficient, steam flow distribution by tube rows, and the dimensions of the ineffectively operating zones of tube bundle for two schemes of steam-air mixture flow (one-pass and two-pass ones) were presented. It was shown that the pressure behind the turbine (in the upper header) increases significantly at increase of the steam flow rate and reduction of the flow rate of cooling air and its temperature rise, and the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient is fully determined by the flow rate of cooling air. Furthermore, the steam flow rate corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient substantially depends on the ambient temperature. The analysis of the effectiveness of the considered schemes of internal coolant flow was carried out, which showed that the two-pass scheme is more effective because it provides lower pressure in the upper header, despite the fact that its hydraulic resistance at fixed flow rate of steam-air mixture is considerably higher than at using the one-pass schema. This result is a consequence of the fact that, in the two-pass scheme, the condensation process involves the larger internal surface of tubes

  19. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  20. Heat and mass transfer in a dissociated laminar boundary layer of air with consideration of the finite rate of chemical reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyegbesan, A. O.; Algermissen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical investigation of heat and mass transfer in a dissociated laminar boundary layer of air on an isothermal flat plate is carried out for different degrees of cooling of the wall. A finite-difference chemical model is used to study elementary reactions involving NO2 and N2O. The analysis is based on equations of continuity, momentum, energy, conservation and state for the two-dimensional viscous flow of a reacting multicomponent mixtures. Attention is given to the effects of both catalyticity and noncatalyticity of the wall.

  1. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  2. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.

  3. Sensitive method for quantification of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in end-exhaled air by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B M; Ragas, Ad M J; Russel, Frans G M; Scheepers, Paul T J

    2014-06-17

    Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylpentasiloxane (D5) are used as ingredients for personal care products (PCPs). Because of the use of these PCPs, consumers are exposed daily to D4 and D5. A sensitive analytical method was developed for analysis of D4 and D5 in end-exhaled air by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS), to determine the internal dose for consumer exposure assessment. Fifteen consumers provided end-exhaled air samples that were collected using Bio-VOC breath samplers and subsequently transferred to automatic thermal desorption (ATD) tubes. Prior to use, the ATD tubes were conditioned for a minimum of 4 h at 350 °C. The TD unit and auto sampler were coupled to a GC-MS using electron ionization. Calibration was performed using 0-10 ng/μL solutions of D4/D5 and (13)C-labeled D4/D5 as internal standards. The ions monitored were m/z 281 for D4, 355 for D5, 285 for (13)C-labeled D4, and 360 for (13)C-labeled D5. The addition of internal standard reduced the coefficient of variation from 30.8% to 9.5% for D4 and from 37.8% to 12.5% for D5. The limit of quantification was 2.1 ng/L end-exhaled air for D4 and 1.4 ng/L end-exhaled air for D5. With this method, cyclic siloxanes (D4 and D5) can be quantified in end-exhaled air at concentrations as low as background levels observed in the general population. PMID:24833048

  4. Distribution and mass loss of volatile organic compounds in the surficial aquifer at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, November 2000-February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Neupane, Pradumna P.

    2002-01-01

    Landfills is the largest of the three plumes in the East Management Unit. In this plume, the parent compounds, tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene, as well as cis-1,2-dichloroethene, are present downgradient of the source. Vinyl chloride was not detected in the natural attenuation study area. Vertical water-quality profiles indicate that volatile organic compounds are present mainly in the upper part of the surficial aquifer. Plumes of fuel hydrocarbon constituents were not detected in the natural attenuation study area. Volatile organic compounds were present at concentrations above detection limits in 6 of 14 samples collected from the aquifer underlying the bed of Pipe Elm Branch and the drainage ditch adjacent to Fire Training Area Three, indicating that the plumes migrating from Fire Training Area Three and the Receiver Station and Liquid Waste Disposal Landfills are reaching these ground-water discharge areas. In contrast, sampling results indicated that the plume from the Rubble Area Landfill does not reach these ground-water discharge areas. Trichloroethene was present above detection limits in one of four surface-water samples collected from Pipe Elm Branch and the drainage ditch adjacent to Fire Training Area Three. The trichloroethene concentration is below applicable Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control surface-water-quality standards for human health. An assessment of chlorinated-solvent mass loss in the plume migrating from the Receiver Station and Liquid Waste Disposal Landfills indicates that tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene mass loss downgradient of the source is negligible. Cis-1,2-dichloroethene, however, appears to biodegrade by an unidentified reaction in the plume. Plan-view maps of the plume migrating from the Receiver Station and Liquid Waste Disposal Landfills indicate that tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethene may migrate off Dover Air Force Base property approximately 1,500 f

  5. Indications of photochemical histories of Pacific air masses from measurements of atmospheric trace species at Point Arena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, D. D.; Hahn, C. J.; Williams, E. J.; Norton, R. B.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Singh, H. B.; Shetter, J. D.; Gandrud, B. W.; Ridley, B. A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of a suite of photochemically active trace species (including light hydrocarbons, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, HNO3, NO3(-), NO(x), and NO(y)) in marine air collected during a 10-day period in April and May 1985 at Point Arena (California), a coastal inflow site. It was found that the mixing ratios of the alkanes, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and HNO3 correlated with variations in the origins of calculated air parcel trajectories and with variations in the ratios of the light alkanes. The highest levels of alkanes and the photochemical products were found in parcels that had been rapidly transported across the North Pacific Ocean from near the 600-mbar level above the east Asian coast. It is suggested that production over the continents, transport to the marine areas, and parallel removal processes account for much of the observed correlation.

  6. Reaching Critical Mass: Women in Faculty and Administrative Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Carol B.

    2010-01-01

    Faculty concerns over gender inequities surfaced in 2005-2006 at Franklin & Marshall College after new policies relating to childbirth and adoption and tenure clock stoppage were instituted two years prior. These structural changes were empowering and gave women faculty a sense that other meaningful changes were achievable, leading to renewed…

  7. Comparative analysis of dioxins and furans in ambient air by high-resolution and electron-capture mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C.J.; Harless, R.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Known mixtures and unknown atmospheric sample extracts containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were analyzed by both electron impact, high resolution, mass spectrometry (HRMS) and by electron capture, negative ion, low resolution mass spectrometry (ECNI). PCDD/F concentrations measured by the two methods were comparable, typically agreeing with + or - 33%. The major difference between the two techniques is that HRMS easily detects 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin but ECNI does not. Results suggest that ECNI can be a sensitive low cost alternative to HRMS for the determination of PCDD/F concentrations.

  8. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume I. Post-Secondary Program Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instruction units (CE 026 345-347, and CE 026 349-351) in the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this first volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide is devoted to the establishment of standard instructional procedures. Following an introductory…

  9. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume I. Secondary Program Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345 and CE 026 348-350) in the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this secondary teacher's guide is devoted to the establishment of standard instructional procedures. Following an introductory section, sections provide…

  10. Occupational Exposure to Cobalt and Tungsten in the Swedish Hard Metal Industry: Air Concentrations of Particle Mass, Number, and Surface Area.

    PubMed

    Klasson, Maria; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Pettersson, Carin; Husby, Bente; Arvidsson, Helena; Westberg, Håkan

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cobalt in the hard metal industry entails severe adverse health effects, including lung cancer and hard metal fibrosis. The main aim of this study was to determine exposure air concentration levels of cobalt and tungsten for risk assessment and dose-response analysis in our medical investigations in a Swedish hard metal plant. We also present mass-based, particle surface area, and particle number air concentrations from stationary sampling and investigate the possibility of using these data as proxies for exposure measures in our study. Personal exposure full-shift measurements were performed for inhalable and total dust, cobalt, and tungsten, including personal real-time continuous monitoring of dust. Stationary measurements of inhalable and total dust, PM2.5, and PM10 was also performed and cobalt and tungsten levels were determined, as were air concentration of particle number and particle surface area of fine particles. The personal exposure levels of inhalable dust were consistently low (AM 0.15mg m(-3), range <0.023-3.0mg m(-3)) and below the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 10mg m(-3) The cobalt levels were low as well (AM 0.0030mg m(-3), range 0.000028-0.056mg m(-3)) and only 6% of the samples exceeded the Swedish OEL of 0.02mg m(-3) For continuous personal monitoring of dust exposure, the peaks ranged from 0.001 to 83mg m(-3) by work task. Stationary measurements showed lower average levels both for inhalable and total dust and cobalt. The particle number concentration of fine particles (AM 3000 p·cm(-3)) showed the highest levels at the departments of powder production, pressing and storage, and for the particle surface area concentrations (AM 7.6 µm(2)·cm(-3)) similar results were found. Correlating cobalt mass-based exposure measurements to cobalt stationary mass-based, particle area, and particle number concentrations by rank and department showed significant correlations for all measures except for particle number

  11. Occupational Exposure to Cobalt and Tungsten in the Swedish Hard Metal Industry: Air Concentrations of Particle Mass, Number, and Surface Area

    PubMed Central

    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Pettersson, Carin; Husby, Bente; Arvidsson, Helena; Westberg, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cobalt in the hard metal industry entails severe adverse health effects, including lung cancer and hard metal fibrosis. The main aim of this study was to determine exposure air concentration levels of cobalt and tungsten for risk assessment and dose–response analysis in our medical investigations in a Swedish hard metal plant. We also present mass-based, particle surface area, and particle number air concentrations from stationary sampling and investigate the possibility of using these data as proxies for exposure measures in our study. Personal exposure full-shift measurements were performed for inhalable and total dust, cobalt, and tungsten, including personal real-time continuous monitoring of dust. Stationary measurements of inhalable and total dust, PM2.5, and PM10 was also performed and cobalt and tungsten levels were determined, as were air concentration of particle number and particle surface area of fine particles. The personal exposure levels of inhalable dust were consistently low (AM 0.15mg m−3, range <0.023–3.0mg m−3) and below the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 10mg m−3. The cobalt levels were low as well (AM 0.0030mg m−3, range 0.000028–0.056mg m−3) and only 6% of the samples exceeded the Swedish OEL of 0.02mg m−3. For continuous personal monitoring of dust exposure, the peaks ranged from 0.001 to 83mg m−3 by work task. Stationary measurements showed lower average levels both for inhalable and total dust and cobalt. The particle number concentration of fine particles (AM 3000 p·cm−3) showed the highest levels at the departments of powder production, pressing and storage, and for the particle surface area concentrations (AM 7.6 µm2·cm−3) similar results were found. Correlating cobalt mass-based exposure measurements to cobalt stationary mass-based, particle area, and particle number concentrations by rank and department showed significant correlations for all measures except for particle

  12. Desert Dust Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, using Particle Properties Derived from Space-based Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Fiebig, Marcus; Schladitz, Alexander; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the SAhara Mineral dUst experiMent (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the sub-orbital aerosol measurements into the satellite's larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days for which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 to 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR's ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (a) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (b) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow, and (c) show an air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometers away.

  13. Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.

  14. Student Understanding of the Volume, Mass, and Pressure of Air within a Sealed Syringe in Different States of Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of (n=101) 17- to 18-year-old students' responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under the given circumstances. (Author/MKR)

  15. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.; Woy, J. van

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF`s impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area.

  16. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer. PMID:23720533

  17. Air temperature variability over three glaciers in the Ortles-Cevedale (Italian Alps): effects of glacier fragmentation, comparison of calculation methods, and impacts on mass balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, L.; Cazorzi, F.; De Blasi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2015-05-01

    Glacier mass balance models rely on accurate spatial calculation of input data, in particular air temperature. Lower temperatures (the so-called glacier cooling effect) and lower temperature variability (the so-called glacier damping effect) generally occur over glaciers compared to ambient conditions. These effects, which depend on the geometric characteristics of glaciers and display a high spatial and temporal variability, have been mostly investigated on medium to large glaciers so far, while observations on smaller ice bodies (< 0.5 km2) are scarce. Using a data set from eight on-glacier and four off-glacier weather stations, collected in the summers of 2010 and 2011, we analyzed the air temperature variability and wind regime over three different glaciers in the Ortles-Cevedale. The magnitude of the cooling effect and the occurrence of katabatic boundary layer (KBL) processes showed remarkable differences among the three ice bodies, suggesting the likely existence of important reinforcing mechanisms during glacier decay and fragmentation. The methods proposed by Greuell and Bohm (1998) and Shea and Moore (2010) for calculating on-glacier temperature from off-glacier data did not fully reproduce our observations. Among them, the more physically based procedure of Greuell and Bohm (1998) provided the best overall results where the KBL prevails, but it was not effective elsewhere (i.e., on smaller ice bodies and close to the glacier margins). The accuracy of air temperature estimations strongly impacted the results from a mass balance model which was applied to the three investigated glaciers. Most importantly, even small temperature deviations caused distortions in parameter calibration, thus compromising the model generalizability.

  18. Air temperature variability over three glaciers in the Ortles-Cevedale (Italian Alps): effects of glacier disintegration, intercomparison of calculation methods, and impacts on mass balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, L.; Cazorzi, F.; De Blasi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier mass balance models rely on accurate spatial calculation of input data, in particular air temperature. Lower temperatures (the so-called glacier cooling effect), and lower temperature variability (the so-called glacier damping effect) generally occur over glaciers, compared to ambient conditions. These effects, which depend on the geometric characteristics of glaciers and display a high spatial and temporal variability, have been mostly investigated on medium- to large-size glaciers so far, while observations on smaller ice bodies are scarce. Using a dataset from 8 on-glacier and 4 off-glacier weather stations, collected in summer 2010 and 2011, we analyzed the air temperature variability and wind regime over three different glaciers in the Ortles-Cevedale. The magnitude of the cooling effect and the occurrence of katabatic boundary layer (KBL) processes showed remarkable differences among the three ice bodies, suggesting the likely existence of important reinforcing mechanisms during glacier decay and disintegration. None of the methods proposed in the literature for calculating on-glacier temperature from off-glacier data fully reproduced our observations. Among them, the more physically-based procedure of Greuell and Böhm (1998) provided the best overall results where the KBL prevail, but it was not effective elsewhere (i.e. on smaller ice bodies and close to the glacier margins). The accuracy of air temperature estimations strongly impacted the results from a mass balance model which was applied to the three investigated glaciers. Most importantly, even small temperature deviations caused distortions in parameter calibration, thus compromising the model generalizability.

  19. Climatological classification of five sectors in the Iberian Peninsula using columnar (AOD, α) and surface (PM10, PM2.5) aerosol data supported by air mass apportioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachorro, Victoria; Mateos, David; Toledano, Carlos; Burgos, Maria A.; Bennouna, Yasmine; Torres, Benjamín; Fuertes, David; González, Ramiro; Guirado, Carmen; Román, Roberto; Velasco-Merino, Cristian; Marcos, Alberto; Calle, Abel; de Frutos, Angel M.

    2015-04-01

    The study of atmospheric aerosol over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) under a climatologic perspective is an interesting and meaningful aim due to the wide variety of conditions (geographical position, air masses, topography, among others) which cause a complex role of the distribution of aerosol properties. In the deeply investigation on the annual cycle and time evolution of the particulate matter lower than 10 µm (PM10, surface) and aerosol optical depth (AOD, columnar) in a large number of sites covering the period 2000-2013, five sectors can be distinguished in the IP. Both set of data belong to EMEP and AERONET networks respectively, as representative of aerosol air quality and climate studies, are complementary elements for a global aerosol research. The prevalence of fine-coarse particles is also analyzed over each sector. Seasonal bimodality of the PM10 annual cycle with a strong North-South gradient is observed in most sites, but this is only reported in the AOD climatology for the southern IP. The northern coast is clearly governed by the Atlantic Ocean influence, while the northeastern area is modulated by the Mediterranean Sea. The southern area, very close to the African continent, presents a large influence of desert dust intrusions. However, the southern Atlantic and Mediterranean coast present discrepancies and two sectors have been defined in this area. Finally, the center of the Peninsula is a mix of conditions, with north-south and east-west gradients of different magnitude. Overall, there is a relationship between PM10 and AOD with a proportional factor varying from 20 to 90, depending on the sector. The particular characteristic of PM10-AOD annual cycle of each geographical sector can be understood by the different climatology of the air mass origins observed at 500 and 1500 m (a.s.l.) and its apportioning to PM10 and AOD, respectively.

  20. Back-trajectory modelling and DNA-based species-specific detection methods allow tracking of fungal spore transport in air masses.

    PubMed

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Sadyś, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Sylwia; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2016-11-15

    Recent advances in molecular detection of living organisms facilitate the introduction of novel methods to studies of the transport of fungal spores over large distances. Monitoring the migration of airborne fungi using microscope based spore identification is limited when different species produce very similar spores. In our study, DNA-based monitoring with the use of species-specific probes allowed us to track the aerial movements of two important fungal pathogens of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), i.e., Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa, which have identical spore shape and size. The fungi were identified using dual-labelled fluorescent probes that were targeted to a β-tubulin gene fragment of either Leptosphaeria species. Spore identification by Real-Time PCR techniques capable of detecting minute amounts of DNA of selected fungal species was combined with back-trajectory analysis, allowing the tracking of past movements of air masses using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Over a study period spanning the previous decade (2006-2015) we investigated two specific events relating to the long distance transport of Leptosphaeria spp. spores to Szczecin in North-West Poland. Based on the above mentioned methods and the results obtained with the additional spore sampler located in nearby Szczecin, and operating at the ground level in an oilseed rape field, we have demonstrated that on both occasions the L. biglobosa spores originated from the Jutland Peninsula. This is the first successful attempt to combine analysis of back-trajectories of air masses with DNA-based identification of economically important pathogens of oilseed rape in Europe. In our studies, the timing of L. biglobosa ascospore dispersal in the air was unlikely to result in the infection of winter oilseed rape grown as a crop plant. However, the fungus could infect other host plants, such as vegetable brassicas, cruciferous weeds, spring rapeseed

  1. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-05-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures—so-called metasurfaces—have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  2. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications. PMID:25705870

  3. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

  4. Dynamic behavior of air lubricated pivoted-pad journal-bearing, rotor system. 2: Pivot consideration and pad mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1972-01-01

    Rotor bearing dynamic tests were conducted with tilting-pad journal bearings having three different pad masses and two different pivot geometries. The rotor was vertically mounted and supported by two three-pad tilting-pad gas journal bearings and a simple externally pressurized thrust bearing. The bearing pads were 5.1 cm (2.02 in.) in diameter and 2.8 cm (1.5 in.) long. The length to diameter ratio was 0.75. One pad was mounted on a flexible diaphragm. The bearing supply pressure ranged from 0 to 690 kilonewtons per square meter (0 to 100 psig), and speeds ranged to 38,500 rpm. Heavy mass pad tilting-pad assemblies produced three rotor-bearing resonances above the first two rotor critical speeds. Lower supply pressure eliminated the resonances. The resonances were oriented primarily in the direction normal to the diaphragm.

  5. Associations between Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Coull, Brent A.; Just, Allan C.; Maxwell, Sarah L.; Schwartz, Joel; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Wright, Rosalind J.; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure is linked to adverse birth outcomes. However, modifying effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) and infant sex remain virtually unexplored. Objectives We examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and birth weight differed by sex and maternal BMI in 670 urban ethnically mixed mother-child pairs. Methods Black carbon (BC) levels were estimated using a validated spatio-temporal land-use regression (LUR) model; fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was estimated using a hybrid LUR model incorporating satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth measures. Using stratified multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, we examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and calculated birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) z-scores varied by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Results Median birth weight was 3.3±0.6 kg; 33% of mothers were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m3). In stratified analyses, the association between higher PM2.5 and lower birth weight was significant in males of obese mothers (−0.42 unit of BWGA z-score change per IQR increase in PM2.5, 95%CI: −0.79 to −0.06) ( PM2.5 × sex × obesity Pinteraction=0.02). Results were similar for BC models (Pinteraction=0.002). Conclusions Associations of prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and reduced birth weight were most evident in males born to obese mothers. PMID:25601728

  6. Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by Pump-and-Treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2011-01-01

    Pump and Treat (P&T) remediation is the primary technique used to contain and remove trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products cis 1-2,dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. Three methods were used to determine the masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed from groundwater by the P&T system since it became fully operational in 1996. Method 1, is based on the flow volume and concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater that entered the P&T building as influent. Method 2 is based on withdrawal volume from each active recovery well and the concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in the water samples from each well. Method 3 compares the maximum monthly amount of TCE, cDCE, and VC from Method 1 and Method 2. The greater of the two values is selected to represent the masses of TCE, cDCE and VC removed from groundwater each month. Previously published P&T monthly reports used Method 1 to determine the mass of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed. The reports state that 8,666 pounds (lbs) of TCE, 13,689 lbs of cDCE, and 2,455 lbs of VC were removed by the P&T system during 1996-2010. By using Method 2, the mass removed was determined to be 8,985 lbs of TCE, 17,801 lbs of cDCE, and 3,056 lbs of VC removed, and Method 3, resulted in 10,602 lbs of TCE, 21,029 lbs of cDCE, and 3,496 lbs of VC removed. To determine the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater, the individual masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC (determined using Methods 1, 2, and 3) were converted to numbers of moles, summed, and converted to pounds of original TCE. By using the molar conversion the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater by Methods 1, 2, and 3 was 32,381 lbs, 39,535 lbs, and 46,452 lbs, respectively, during 1996-2010. P&T monthly reports state that 24,805 lbs of summed TCE, cDCE, and VC were removed from groundwater. The simple summing method underestimates the mass of original TCE removed by the P&T system.

  7. Xmaxμ vs. Nμ from extensive air showers as estimator for the mass of primary UHECR's. Application for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsene, Nicusor; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-01

    We study the possibility of primary mass estimation for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's) using the Xmaxμ (the height where the number of muons produced on the core of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is maximum) and the number Nμ of muons detected on ground. We use the 2D distribution - Xmaxμ against Nμ in order to find its sensitivity to the mass of the primary particle. For that, we construct a 2D Probability Function Prob(p,Fe | Xmaxμ, Nμ) which estimates the probability that a certain point from the plane (Xmaxμ, Nμ) corresponds to a shower induced by a proton, respectively an iron nucleus. To test the procedure, we analyze a set of simulated EAS induced by protons and iron nuclei at energies of 1019eV and 20° zenith angle with CORSIKA. Using the Bayesian approach and taking into account the geometry of the infill detectors from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we observe an improvement in the accuracy of the primary mass reconstruction in comparison with the results obtained using only the Xmaxμ distributions.

  8. Direct AFM force measurements between air bubbles in aqueous polydisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) solutions: effect of collision speed, polyelectrolyte concentration and molar mass.

    PubMed

    Browne, Christine; Tabor, Rico F; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between colliding air bubbles in aqueous solutions of polydisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (NaPSS) using direct force measurements were studied. The forces measured with deformable interfaces were shown to be more sensitive to the presence of the polyelectrolytes when compared to similar measurements using rigid interfaces. The experimental factors that were examined were NaPSS concentration, bubble collision velocity and polyelectrolyte molar mass. These measurements were then compared with an analytical model based on polyelectrolyte scaling theory in order to explain the effects of concentration and bubble deformation on the interaction between bubbles. Typically structural forces from the presence of monodisperse polyelectrolyte between interacting surfaces may be expected, however, it was found that the polydispersity in molar mass resulted in the structural forces to be smoothed and only a depletion interaction was able to be measured between interacting bubbles. It was found that an increase in number density of NaPSS molecules resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the depletion interaction. Conversely this interaction was overwhelmed by an increase in the fluid flow in the system at higher bubble collision velocities. Polymer molar mass dispersity plays a significant role in the interactions present between the bubbles and has implications that also affect the polyelectrolyte overlap concentration of the solution. Further understanding of these implications can be expected to play a role in the improvement in operations in such fields as water treatment and mineral processing where polyelectrolytes are used extensively. PMID:25596872

  9. Two-dimensional two-phase mass transport model for methanol and water crossover in air-breathing direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Li, Jun; Fu, Qian

    A two-dimensional two-phase mass transport model has been developed to predict methanol and water crossover in a semi-passive direct methanol fuel cell with an air-breathing cathode. The mass transport in the catalyst layer and the discontinuity in liquid saturation at the interface between the diffusion layer and catalyst layer are particularly considered. The modeling results agree well with the experimental data of a home-assembled cell. Further studies on the typical two-phase flow and mass transport distributions including species, pressure and liquid saturation in the membrane electrode assembly are investigated. Finally, the methanol crossover flux, the net water transport coefficient, the water crossover flux, and the total water flux at the cathode as well as their contributors are predicted with the present model. The numerical results indicate that diffusion predominates the methanol crossover at low current densities, while electro-osmosis is the dominator at high current densities. The total water flux at the cathode is originated primarily from the water generated by the oxidation reaction of the permeated methanol at low current densities, while the water crossover flux is the main source of the total water flux at high current densities.

  10. Determining air pollutant emission rates based on mass balance using airborne measurement data over the Alberta oil sands operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M.; Li, S.-M.; Staebler, R.; Darlington, A.; Hayden, K.; O'Brien, J.; Wolde, M.

    2015-09-01

    Top-down approaches to measure total integrated emissions provide verification of bottom-up, temporally resolved, inventory-based estimations. Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring during a summer intensive field campaign between 13 August and 7 September 2013. The measurements contribute to knowledge needed in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples, based on the aircraft measurements. In this algorithm, the flight path around a facility at multiple heights is mapped to a two-dimensional vertical screen surrounding the facility. The total transport of SO2 and CH4 through this screen is calculated using aircraft wind measurements, and facility emissions are then calculated based on the divergence theorem with estimations of box-top losses, horizontal and vertical turbulent fluxes, surface deposition, and apparent losses due to air densification and chemical reaction. Example calculations for two separate flights are presented. During an upset condition of SO2 emissions on one day, these calculations are within 5 % of the industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. During a return to normal operating conditions, the SO2 emissions are within 11 % of industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. CH4 emissions calculated with the algorithm are relatively constant within the range of uncertainties. Uncertainty of the emission rates is estimated as less than 30 %, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.

  11. Bias in Dobson total ozone measurements at high latitudes due to approximations in calculations of ozone absorption coefficients and air mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, G.; Evans, R. D.; Labow, G. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Dobson spectrophotometer is the primary standard instrument for ground-based measurements of total column ozone. The accuracy of its data depends on the knowledge of ozone absorption coefficients used for data reduction. We document an error in the calculations that led to the set of absorption coefficients currently recommended by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). This error has little effect because an empirical adjustment was applied to the original calculations before the coefficients were adopted by WMO. We provide evidence that this adjustment was physically sound. The coefficients recommended by WMO are applied in the Dobson network without correction for the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross sections. On the basis of data measured by Dobson numbers 80 and 82, which were operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory at the South Pole, we find that omission of temperature corrections may lead to systematic errors in Dobson ozone data of up to 4%. The standard Dobson ozone retrieval method further assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height. This approximation leads to errors in air mass calculations, which are particularly relevant at high latitudes where ozone measurements are performed at large solar zenith angles (SZA). At the South Pole, systematic errors caused by this approximation may exceed 2% for SZAs larger than 80°. The bias is largest when the vertical ozone distribution is distorted by the "ozone hole" and may lead to underestimation of total ozone by 4% at SZA = 85° (air mass 9). Dobson measurements at the South Pole were compared with ozone data from a collocated SUV-100 UV spectroradiometer and Version 8 overpass data from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Uncorrected Dobson ozone values tend to be lower than data from the two other instruments when total ozone is below 170 Dobson units or SZAs are larger than

  12. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. PMID:24209303

  13. LIDAR technique: a central puzzle piece to build an integrated observation - modeling approach for air mass aerosols concentration evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, Ovidiu-Gelu

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the temporal and vertical variation of mixed aerosol mass concentration near Bucharest during a dedicated observation campaign performed in summer 2012. To obtain the vertical mass concentrations profiles a combination of measured (mainly based on LIDAR technique) and modeled data was used. This method is based on the hypothesis that any mixture in the atmosphere can be described as a combination of low-depolarizing and high-depolarizing particles of a particular type. It uses the method proposed by Tesche et al. (2009), combined with forward simulations (i.e. OPAC). Based on supplementary information (e.g. preliminary assessment of aerosol source from forecast models and back trajectories) and several optical indicators (Angstrom exponent, LIDAR ratio, particle depolarization, AOD we built an approach to 2 cases of aerosol mixture, and validate the results using other information sources: sun photometry, forecasts, back trajectories. The first case was proved to be a smoke predominant layer, the second a Saharan dust predominant layer. Information from various data sources (DREAM, HYSPLIT, AERONET, MODIS) was consistent with our retrievals.

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Externally Air-Cooled Low-Flow torch and the Attenuation of Space Charge and Matrix Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Praphairaksit, N.

    2000-09-12

    An externally air-cooled low-flow torch has been constructed and successfully demonstrated for applications in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The torch is cooled by pressurized air flowing at {approximately}70 L/min through a quartz air jacket onto the exterior of the outer tube. The outer gas flow rate and operating RF forward power are reduced considerably. Although plasmas can be sustained at the operating power as low as 400 W with a 2 L/min of outer gas flow, somewhat higher power and outer gas flows are advisable. A stable and analytical useful plasma can be obtained at 850 W with an outer gas flow rate of {approximately}4 L/min. Under these conditions, the air-cooled plasma produces comparable sensitivities, doubly charged ion ratios, matrix effects and other analytical merits as those produced by a conventional torch while using significantly less argon and power requirements. Metal oxide ion ratios are slightly higher with the air-cooled plasma but can be mitigated by reducing the aerosol gas flow rate slightly with only minor sacrifice in analyte sensitivity. A methodology to alleviate the space charge and matrix effects in ICP-MS has been developed. A supplemental electron source adapted from a conventional electron impact ionizer is added to the base of the skimmer. Electrons supplied from this source downstream of the skimmer with suitable amount and energy can neutralize the positive ions in the beam extracted from the plasma and diminish the space charge repulsion between them. As a result, the overall ion transmission efficiency and consequent analyte ion sensitivities are significantly improved while other important analytical aspects, such as metal oxide ion ratio, doubly charged ion ratio and background ions remain relatively unchanged with the operation of this electron source. This technique not only improves the ion transmission efficiency but also minimizes the matrix effects drastically. The matrix-induced suppression

  15. Thermally-driven advections of aerosol-rich air masses to an Alpine valley: Theoretical considerations and experimental evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, Henri; Magri, Tiziana; Pession, Giordano; Zublena, Manuela; Campanelli, Monica; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Barnaba, Francesca; Di Liberto, Luca; Dionisi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    A CHM-15k laser radar (lidar) was installed in April 2015 at the solar observatory of the Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley (Northern Italy, 45.74N, 7.36E, 560 m a.s.l.). The instrument operates at 1064 nm, is capable of mapping the vertical profile of aerosols and clouds up to the tropopause and is part of the Alice-net ceilometers network (www.alice-net.eu). The site is in a large Alpine valley floor, in a semi-rural context. Among the most interesting cases observed in the first months of operation, several days characterised by weak synoptic circulation and well-developed, thermally-driven up-valley winds are accompanied by the appearance of a thick aerosol layer in the afternoon. The phenomenon is frequent in Spring and Summer and is likely to be related to easterly airmass advections from polluted sites (e.g., the Po basin) rather than to local emissions. To test this hypothesis, the following method was adopted. First, some case studies were selected and the respective meteorological fields were analysed based on both observations at ground and the high-resolution output of the nonhydrostatic limited-area atmospheric prediction model maintained by the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling (COSMO) over the complex orography of the domain. Then, to evaluate the dynamics of the aerosol diffusion in the valley, the chemical transport 2D/3D eulerian Flexible Air quality Regional Model (FARM) was run. Finally, the three-dimensional output of the model was compared to the vertically-resolved aerosol field derived from the lidar-ceilometer soundings. The effects of up-slope winds, and the resulting subsidence along the main axis of the valley, is hypothesised to break up the aerosol layer close to the ground in the middle of the day and to drag the residual layer down into the mixing layer. The measurements by a co-located sun/sky photometer operating in the framework of the EuroSkyRad (ESR) network were additionally analysed to detect any

  16. Optimisation of sorbent trapping and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric conditions for sampling and analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Yannick; Le Moullec, Sophie; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

    2005-06-01

    Among the chemicals belonging to the schedules of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), sampling and analysis of highly volatile compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) require special consideration. The latter is present in numerous old chemical weapons that are stockpiled awaiting destruction in Northeastern France: thus, sampling on stockpile area and subsequent verification of HCN levels is compulsory to ensure safety of workers on these areas. The ability of several commercial sorbents to trap hydrogen cyanide at various concentration levels and in various humidity conditions, was evaluated. Furthermore, thermal desorption of the corresponding samples, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was also optimised. Carbosieve S-III, a molecular sieve possessing a very high specific area, proved the most efficient sorbent for HCN sampling in all conditions tested. Conversely, the presented results show that Tenax, albeit generally considered as the reference sorbent for air monitoring and analysis of CWC-related chemicals, is not suitable for HCN trapping. PMID:15912249

  17. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery. part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xinfang; Zhao, Xuan; Huang, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated.

  18. Dynamics of the flammable plumes resulting from the convective dispersion of a fixed mass of the buoyant gaseous fuel, methane, into air.

    PubMed

    Fardisi, S; Karim, Ghazi A

    2009-08-15

    The dynamics of the dispersion of a fixed mass of the buoyant fuel, methane, when exposed with a negligible pressure difference to overlaying air within vertical cylindrical enclosures open to the atmosphere is investigated. Features of the formation and dispersion of flammable mixtures created by the gas dissipation were examined using a 3D CFD model. For the cases considered, the lean-flammable mixture boundary appears to travel mainly at a near constant rate while the rich limit front shows a more chaotic behaviour. The corresponding simulation using an axis-symmetrical 2D model tended to under-predict the dynamics of the lean and rich boundaries, for the cases considered. PMID:19237243

  19. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer inside a vertical tube in evaporating a heated falling alcohols liquid film into a stream of dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senhaji, S.; Feddaoui, M.; Mediouni, T.; Mir, A.

    2009-03-01

    A numerical study of the evaporation in mixed convection of a pure alcohol liquid film: ethanol and methanol was investigated. It is a turbulent liquid film falling on the internal face of a vertical tube. A laminar flow of dry air enters the vertical tube at constant temperature in the downward direction. The wall of the tube is subjected to a constant and uniform heat flux. The model solves the coupled parabolic governing equations in both phases including turbulent liquid film together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. The systems of equations obtained by using an implicit finite difference method are solved by TDMA method. A Van Driest model is adopted to simulate the turbulent liquid film flow. The influence of the inlet liquid flow, Reynolds number in the gas flow and the wall heat flux on the intensity of heat and mass transfers are examined. A comparison between the results obtained for studied alcohols and water in the same conditions is made.

  20. Engineering correlations of variable-property effects on laminar forced convection mass transfer for dilute vapor species and small particles in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple engineering correlation scheme is developed to predict the variable property effects on dilute species laminar forced convection mass transfer applicable to all vapor molecules or Brownian diffusing small particle, covering the surface to mainstream temperature ratio of 0.25 T sub W/T sub e 4. The accuracy of the correlation is checked against rigorous numerical forced convection laminar boundary layer calculations of flat plate and stagnation point flows of air containing trace species of Na, NaCl, NaOH, Na2SO4, K, KCl, KOH, or K2SO4 vapor species or their clusters. For the cases reported here the correlation had an average absolute error of only 1 percent (maximum 13 percent) as compared to an average absolute error of 18 percent (maximum 54 percent) one would have made by using the constant-property results.

  1. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, XF; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-04-15

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JIVIAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H-2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of the Air Amplifier for Improved Detection of Biomolecules by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Robichaud, Guillaume; Dixon, R. Brent; Potturi, Amarnatha S.; Cassidy, Dan; Edwards, Jack R.; Sohn, Alex; Dow, Thomas A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Through a multi-disciplinary approach, the air amplifier is being evolved as a highly engineered device to improve detection limits of biomolecules when using electrospray ionization. Several key aspects have driven the modifications to the device through experimentation and simulations. We have developed a computer simulation that accurately portrays actual conditions and the results from these simulations are corroborated by the experimental data. These computer simulations can be used to predict outcomes from future designs resulting in a design process that is efficient in terms of financial cost and time. We have fabricated a new device with annular gap control over a range of 50 to 70 μm using piezoelectric actuators. This has enabled us to obtain better aerodynamic performance when compared to the previous design (2× more vacuum) and also more reproducible results. This is allowing us to study a broader experimental space than the previous design which is critical in guiding future directions. This work also presents and explains the principles behind a fractional factorial design of experiments methodology for testing a large number of experimental parameters in an orderly and efficient manner to understand and optimize the critical parameters that lead to obtain improved detection limits while minimizing the number of experiments performed. Preliminary results showed that several folds of improvements could be obtained for certain condition of operations (up to 34 folds). PMID:21499524

  3. Mass loading of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in the ambient air during fireworks episodes in eastern Central India.

    PubMed

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Verma, Santosh K

    2013-04-01

    The effects of combustion of the fire crackers on the air quality in eastern Central India were studied for the first time during Diwali festival. This case study analyzes the size distribution and temporal variation of aerosols collected in the rural area of eastern Central India during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period for the year of 2011. Fifteen aerosol samples were collected during the special case study of Diwali period using Andersen sampler. The mean concentrations of PM10 (respirable particulate matter) were found to be 212.8 ± 4.2, 555.5 ± 20.2 and 284.4 ± 5.8 during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. During Diwali festival PM10 concentration was about 2.6 and 1.9 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. PM2.5 (fine) and PM1 (submicron) concentrations during Diwali festival were more than 2 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali. PMID:23287842

  4. Distortion of thermospheric air masses by horizontal neutral winds over Poker Flat Alaska measured using an all-sky scanning Doppler imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.

    2016-01-01

    An air mass transported by a wind field will become distorted over time by any gradients present in the wind field. To study this effect in Earth's thermosphere, we examine the behavior of a simple parameter that we describe here as the "distortion gradient." It incorporates all of the wind field's departures from uniformity and is thus capable of representing all contributions to the distortion or mixing of air masses. The distortion gradient is defined such that it is always positive, so averaging over time and/or space does not suppress small-scale features. Conventional gradients, by contrast, are signed quantities that would often average to zero. To analyze the climatological behavior of this distortion gradient, we used three years (2010, 2011, and 2012) of thermospheric F region wind observations from a high-latitude ground-based all-sky wavelength scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Poker Flat Alaska. Climatological averaging of the distortion gradient allowed us to investigate its diurnal and seasonal (annual) behaviors at our observing location. Distortion was observed to be higher before local magnetic midnight and to be seasonally dependent. While maximum distortion occurred before local magnetic midnight under all geomagnetic conditions, the peak distortion occurred earlier under moderate geomagnetic conditions as compared to the quiet geomagnetic conditions and even earlier still when geomagnetic conditions were active. Peak distortion was stronger and appeared earlier when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward compared to northward. By contrast, we could not resolve any time-shift effect due to the IMF component tangential to Earth's orbit.

  5. Determination of fragrance allergens in indoor air by active sampling followed by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-03-19

    Fragrances are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, present in the most of household products, air fresheners, insecticides and cosmetics. Commercial perfumes may contain hundreds of individual fragrance chemicals. In addition to the widespread use and exposure to fragranced products, many of the raw fragrance materials have limited available health and safety data. Because of their nature as artificial fragrances, inhalation should be considered as an important exposure pathway, especially in indoor environments. In this work, a very simple, fast, and sensitive methodology for the analysis of 24 fragrance allergens in indoor air is presented. Considered compounds include those regulated by the EU Directive, excluding limonene; methyl eugenol was also included due to its toxicity. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a very low amount of adsorbent to retain the target compounds, and the rapid ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) using a very low volume of solvent which avoids further extract concentration. Quantification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influence of main factors involved in the UAE step (type of adsorbent and solvent, solvent volume and extraction time) was studied using an experimental design approach to account for possible factor interactions. Using the optimized procedure, 0.2 m(-3) air are sampled, analytes are retained on 25 mg Florisil, from which they are extracted by UAE (5 min) with 2 mL ethyl acetate. Linearity was demonstrated in a wide concentration range. Efficiency of the total sampling-extraction process was studied at several concentration levels (1, 5 and 125 microg m(-3)), obtaining quantitative recoveries, and good precision (RSD<10%). Method detection limits were < or =0.6 microg m(-3). Finally, the proposed method was applied to real samples collected in indoor environments in which several of the target compounds were determined. PMID:20138288

  6. Comparison of negative-ion proton-transfer with iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of isocyanic acid in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward-Massey, Robert; Taha, Youssef M.; Moussa, Samar G.; Osthoff, Hans D.

    2014-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a trace gas pollutant of potential importance to human health whose measurement has recently become possible through the development of negative-ion proton-transfer chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS) with acetate reagent ion. In this manuscript, an alternative ionization and detection scheme, in which HNCO is quantified by iodide CIMS (iCIMS) as a cluster ion at m/z 170, is described. The sensitivity was inversely proportional to water vapor concentration but could be made independent of humidity changes in the sampled air by humidifying the ion-molecule reaction (IMR) region of the CIMS. The performance of the two ionization schemes was compared and contrasted using ambient air measurements of HNCO mixing ratios in Calgary, AB, Canada, by NI-PT-CIMS with acetate reagent ion from Dec 16 to 20, 2013, and by the same CIMS operated in iCIMS mode from Feb 3 to 7, 2014. The iCIMS exhibited a greater signal-to-noise ratio than the NI-PT-CIMS, not because of its sensitivity, which was lower (˜0.083 normalized counts per second (NCPS) per parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv) compared to ˜9.7 NCPS pptv-1), but because of a much lower and more stable background (3 ± 4 compared to a range of ˜2 × 103 to ˜6 × 103 NCPS). For the Feb 2014 data set, the HNCO mixing ratios in Calgary air ranged from <12 to 94 pptv (median 34 pptv), were marginally higher at night than during day, and correlated with nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) mixing ratios and submicron particle volume. The ratios of HNCO to NOx observed are within the range of emission ratios reported for gasoline-powered motor vehicles.

  7. Molecular characterisation of organic material in air fine particles (PM10) using conventional and reactive pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Daniele; Prati, Silvia; Vassura, Ivano

    2002-04-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was applied to study the composition of organic constituents in air particulate matter (PM10) collected inside an industrial area. A few milligrams of sampling filters containing air particles were pyrolysed at 700 degrees C directly (conventional) or after the addition of a derivatising reagent (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH, for pyrolysis-methylation; hexamethyldisilazane, HMDS, for pyrolysis-silylation). Py-GC-MS was also applied to synthetic polymers (poly(styrene-co-isoprene), polylimonene and polypinene) and vegetation samples (coniferous pollen, bark and resin) to identify markers indicative of possible precursors. Pyrolysates of PM10 showed the same suite of compounds in all the four seasons, dominated by hydrocarbons like styrene, limonene and clusters of isomeric alkenes with 14, 15 and 16 carbon atoms. Pyrolysis products of natural origin, including furaldehyde, benzeneacetonitrile, dehydroabietin and other diterpenoids were found, while no specific markers of synthetic rubbers were detected. The principal products released from reactive pyrolysis of PM10 were methyl or trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of 1,6-anhydroglucose (levoglucosan), fatty acids, dehydroabietic acid and other resin acids along with hydroxy (di)carboxylic acids. Possible sources of the detected products (e.g. pine forest, biomass combustion) are discussed. PMID:11993758

  8. Development and validation of a sensitive thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method for the determination of phosgene in air samples.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y; Dubois, C; Bintein, F; Dissard, J; Bossée, A

    2014-08-01

    A new rapid, sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of phosgene in air samples using thermal desorption (TD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is based on a fast (10 min) active sampling of only 1 L of air onto a Tenax® GR tube doped with 0.5 mL of derivatizing mixture containing dimercaptotoluene and triethylamine in hexane solution. Validation of the TD-GC-MS method showed a low limit of detection (40 ppbv), acceptable repeatability, intermediate fidelity (relative standard deviation within 12 %) and excellent accuracy (>95%). Linearity was demonstrated for two concentration ranges (0.04 to 2.5 ppmv and 2.5 to 10 ppmv) owing to variation of derivatization recovery between low and high concentration levels. Due to its simple on-site implementation and its close similarity with recommended operating procedure (ROP) for chemical warfare agents vapour sampling, the method is particularly useful in the process of verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. PMID:24817348

  9. Project Outreach: Organizations Unified to Reach Youth.

    PubMed Central

    Dunnington, B C; Hayes, M L

    1989-01-01

    Youths of today are forced to deal with the external pressures of alcohol and drug abuse on all levels-from the older youngsters across the street pressuring them to be "cool," to the "cute dog" enticing them with the glamour of being the original "party animal." Through today's mass communications, young people are exposed to negative, self-destructive attitudes. It is important, therefore, to expose them to a more positive influence and try to reach them through parental guidance, personal contact, and peer pressure. To achieve this, the University of Missouri's Kansas City Chapter of the American Pharmaceutical Association's Academy of Students of Pharmacy, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Kansas City Area Task Force on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, proposed the development of an annual drug abuse prevention program that specifically targets fifth graders in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. A primary goal of Project Outreach (Organizations Unified to Reach Youth) is to unite drug abuse prevention programs in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area in their outreach efforts to give positive support to Kansas City's youth against alcohol and other drugs. Phase I of Project Outreach consisted of a series of programs for the parents in the community. Phase II entailed college students who spoke to fifth graders in their classrooms. These students also participated in poster and poem contents centered around drug abuse prevention. In Phase III, which featured an outstanding, motivated speaker, the sample group of 600 fifth graders in the area participated in a major event to give positive peer pressure to say no to drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2493666

  10. Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

  11. Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

  12. Assessing Patterns in the Surface Electric Field Prior to First CG Flashes and After Last CG Flashes in Air-Mass Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. E.; Beasley, W. H.; Hyland, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    In an effort to elicit patterns in the temporal and spatial evolution of the contours of surface electric field relevant to the occurrence of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, we have analyzed data from the network of 31 electric-field mills jointly operated by the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). To identify cases of interest, we used lightning ground-strike data, maps of in-cloud lightning discharges, rainfall data, and radar data. In particular, we have focused on two critical problems: 1) estimation of when and where the first CG flash in a storm might occur and 2) assessment of the likelihood of CG flashes occurring late in a storm after a long period without a CG flash. Our long-term goal is to understand the evolution of surface contours of electric field for periods of 30 minutes or more before the first flash of any kind and 30 minutes or more before and after the last flash of any kind. For practical reasons, we are reporting here on analysis of data for periods of 30 minutes before the first CG flash and 30 minutes after the last CG flash in each storm of interest. We have analyzed electric-field data from isolated air-mass convective storms that developed over KSC/CCAFS from late May through early September, 2004-2006. To identify thunderstorms that fit the air-mass, or "pop-up" criteria, we started by examining rainfall and CG lightning data, then looked at radar data. Then, for the storms selected, we performed a two-pass Barnes objective analysis on the electric-field data. Each analysis cycle resulted in one contour plot of 20-second averaged data, yielding 90 plots for each 30 minute interval, which we then animated. This resulted in 58 animations of the field contours prior to first CG flashes and 62 animations of the field contours after last CG flashes. Preliminary impressions from examinations of these cases suggest that the electric-field contours before the first flash exhibit a smooth transition

  13. Analysis of air-mass modification over Poland and Romania by means of multiwavelength lidars - a case study 19-21/07/2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nicolae, Doina; Nemuc, Anca; Janicka, Lucja; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Belegante, Livio; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    A case study of air-mass modification over Poland and Romania, assessing the role of the Carpathian Mountains, during 19-21/07/2014 is analyzed. The study is based mainly on measurements taken by two multiwavelength Raman lidars at two different sites: the Radiative Transfer Laboratory (RT-Lab) at the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw in Warsaw (Poland) and at the RADO site of the National Institute of R&D in Optoelectronics in Magurele (Romania). These data were complemented with meteorological data collected at two other sites: SolarAOT in Strzyżów (Poland) - equipped also with AERONET photometer and CHM15k ceilometer, and in Cluj (Romania). The RADO site, with its 7-wavelength aerosol-Raman-depolarization lidar (RALi) is integrated into EARLINET network. The RT-Lab site, with its 8-wavelength aerosol-Raman-depolarization (PollyXT-type) lidar, started the procedure to join in EARLINET last year. Moreover, RT-Lab and SolarAOT sites are part of the Poland AOD network. The analysis is focused on evaluating both multi-wavelength lidar data sets in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations. Accordingly to GDAS Hysplit 4-days backward trajectory ending up in Magurele at 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km an air-mass from western Europe entered Poland from the north-west on 19/07/2014, descended on the following day over the Poland AOD station in Strzyżów, followed by Cluj and end up at Magurele on 21/07/2014. As the four stations are located along a north-west to south-east line the objective was to evaluate the aerosol properties of the air flow transported over Poland and further to Romania. At both sites, backscatter profiles at 355, 532 and 1064nm, extinction profiles at 355 and 532nm, and depolarization profiles at 532nm and 355nm, show distinctly layered structure in the atmosphere. Along with these we used data from stations in Strzyżów and Cluj as well as information

  14. A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Body Mass Index and Childhood Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Air Pollution: The Southern California Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ernest; Gilliland, Frank D.; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Lurmann, Frederick; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood body mass index (BMI) and obesity prevalence have been associated with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), maternal smoking during pregnancy, and vehicular air pollution. There has been little previous study of joint BMI effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: Information on exposure to SHS and maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected on 3,318 participants at enrollment into the Southern California Children’s Health Study. At study entry at average age of 10 years, residential near-roadway pollution exposure (NRP) was estimated based on a line source dispersion model accounting for traffic volume, proximity, and meteorology. Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed by parent questionnaire. Associations with subsequent BMI growth trajectory based on annual measurements and attained BMI at 18 years of age were assessed using a multilevel modeling strategy. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with estimated BMI growth over 8-year follow-up (0.72 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.31) and attained BMI (1.14 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.62). SHS exposure before enrollment was positively associated with BMI growth (0.81 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.27) and attained BMI (1.23 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.61). Growth and attained BMI increased with more smokers in the home. Compared with children without a history of SHS and NRP below the median, attained BMI was 0.80 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.27, 1.32) with exposure to high NRP without SHS; 0.85 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.43, 1.28) with low NRP and a history of SHS; and 2.15 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 1.52, 2.77) with high NRP and a history of SHS (interaction p-value 0.007). These results suggest a synergistic effect. Conclusions: Our findings strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke and NRP contribute to development of childhood obesity and suggest that combined exposures may have synergistic effects. Citation: McConnell R, Shen E

  15. Determining the levels of volatile organic pollutants in urban air using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Nicoara, Simona; Tonidandel, Loris; Traldi, Pietro; Watson, Jonathan; Morgan, Geraint; Popa, Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X). Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of Cluj-Napoca, a highly populated urban centre in N-W Romania, with numerous and diversified road vehicles with internal combustion engines. The method is relatively inexpensive and simple and shows good precision and linearity in the ranges of 7-60 mug/m(3) (B), 13-90 mug/m(3) (T), 7-50 mug/m(3) (E), 10-70 mug/m(3) (X-m,p), and 20-130 mug/m(3) (X-o). The limits of quantitation/detection of the method LOQ/LOD are of 10/5 mug/m(3) (Xo), 5/3 mug/m(3) (B, E, X-m,p), and of 3/1 mug/m(3) (T), respectively. PMID:20168976

  16. RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES AND REACH AND LANDSCAPE ATTRIBUTES ON WADEABLE, WILLAMETTE VALLEY STREAMS IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In summer 1997, we sampled reaches in 24 wadeable, Willamette Valley ecoregion streams draining agriculturally-infiuenced watersheds. Within these reaches, physical habitat, water chemistry, aquatic invertebrate and fish data and samples were collected. Low-level air photos were ...

  17. On-line monitoring of benzene air concentrations while driving in traffic by means of isotopic dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Moggi, M; Ferrari, S; Fanelli, R

    1996-01-01

    There is no shortage of information about the average benzene concentrations in urban air, but there is very little about microenvironmental exposure, such as in-vehicle concentrations while driving in various traffic conditions, while refuelling, or while in a parking garage. The main reason for this lack of data is that no analytical instrumentation has been available to measure on-line trace amounts of benzene in such situations. We have recently proposed a highly accurate, high-speed cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for monitoring benzene concentrations in air. Accuracy of the analytical data is achieved by enrichment of the air sample before trapping, with a stable isotope permeation tube system. The same principles have been applied to a new instrument, specifically designed for operation on an electric vehicle (Ducato Elettra, Fiat). The zero emission vehicle and the fully transportable, battery-operated GC/MS system provide a unique possibility of monitoring benzene exposure in real everyday situations such as while driving, refuelling, or repairing a car. All power consumptions have been reduced so as to achieve a battery-operated GC/MS system. Liquid nitrogen cryofocusing has been replaced by a packed, inductively heated, graphitized charcoal microtrap. The instrument has been mounted on shock absorbers and installed in the van. The whole system has been tested in both fixed and mobile conditions. The maximum monitoring period without external power supply is 6 h. The full analytical cycle is 4 min, allowing close to real-time monitoring, and the minimum detectable level is 1 microgram/m3 for benzene. In-vehicle monitoring showed that, when recirculation was off and ventilation on, i.e., air from outside the vehicle was blown inside, concentrations varied widely in different driving conditions: moving from a parking lot into normal traffic on an urban traffic condition roadway yielded an increase in benzene concentration

  18. An evaluation of the impact of urban air pollution on paint dosimeters by tracking changes in the lipid MALDI-TOF mass spectra profile.

    PubMed

    Herrera, A; Navas, N; Cardell, C

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the impact of urban air pollution on egg yolk tempera paint dosimeters (binary mixture samples made with historic artist´s blue, red and white pigments) by tracking changes over time in their lipid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF-MS) profiles. We studied triacylglycerols (TGs), phospholipids (PLs) and their oxidation by-products from paint dosimeters that had been exposed outdoors for six months to the polluted atmosphere in the city center of Granada (Spain). Four types of chickens' eggs were also analyzed to find out whether their lipid mass spectra (lipid fingerprints) varied significantly. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide a precise analytical protocol to show whether the changes in the egg yolk identified in paint dosimeters are due to pigment-binder interactions. The Bligh-Dyer (BD) method was optimized for the extraction of the lipids. This innovative procedure included a washing-step prior to the mass spectrometric analysis, which proved crucial for obtaining higher quality lipid fingerprints. A novel interpretation of the results is proposed by applying the BD method, which suggests that transesterification processes occurred in the lipid fractions that were catalyzed by the pigments in the paint dosimeters. In blank dosimeters specific ions produced by oxidative cleavage of PLs and/or TGs may be used as markers of the presence of egg yolk binders. The composition and structure of the specific lipid compounds are also tentatively proposed. In aged dosimeters the intact content of the TGs and PLs decreased; however, we propose that short-chain oxidative products arising from TGs and PLs are present in all the samples, except for the white lead based dosimeter. We end with a new explanation as to why this dosimeter behaves differently from the others. PMID:27216656

  19. Use of proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry to characterize volatile organic compound sources at the La Porte super site during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Thomas; Jobson, Tom; Kuster, William C.; Williams, Eric; Stutz, Jochen; Shetter, Rick; Hall, Samuel R.; Goldan, Paul; Fehsenfeld, Fred; Lindinger, Werner

    2003-08-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was deployed for continuous real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a site near the Houston Ship Channel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000. Overall, 28 ions dominated the PTR-MS mass spectra and were assigned as anthropogenic aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, xylenes) and hydrocarbons (propene, isoprene), oxygenated compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, C7 carbonyls), and three nitrogen-containing compounds (e.g., HCN, acetonitrile and acrylonitrile). Biogenic VOCs were minor components at this site. Propene was the most abundant lightweight hydrocarbon detected by this technique with concentrations up to 100+ nmol mol-1, and was highly correlated with its oxidation products, formaldehyde (up to ˜40 nmol mol-1) and acetaldehyde (up to ˜80 nmol/mol), with typical ratios close to 1 in propene-dominated plumes. In the case of aromatic species the high time resolution of the obtained data set helped in identifying different anthropogenic sources (e.g., industrial from urban emissions) and testing current emission inventories. A comparison with results from complimentary techniques (gas chromatography, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) was used to assess the selectivity of this on-line technique in a complex urban and industrial VOC matrix and give an interpretation of mass scans obtained by "soft" chemical ionization using proton-transfer via H3O+. The method was especially valuable in monitoring rapidly changing VOC plumes which passed over the site, and when coupled with meteorological data it was possible to identify likely sources.

  20. Family planning reaches Mongolia's spacious steppes.

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, L; Naranchimeg, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Mr. Bolooj organized a branch of the Mongolian Family Welfare Association (MFWA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in the smallest administrative district in western Mongolia. Most of the people are nomadic shepherds, and there are 10 times as many domestic animals as humans in the sparsely population country. In rural areas, the idea of family planning is alien, and Mongolia's mass media also has a difficult time understanding population concerns. Mr. Bolooj began by using the media to explain the goals of the IPPF and the MFWA. He then recruited and trained volunteer medical workers to provide reproductive health services. In its first six months of operation, the MFWA branch created 38 hours of reproductive health lessons for use in local schools. These lessons included information on the importance of good hygiene despite the scarcity of water for bathing. The population is so scattered, however, that it is very expensive to reach individual households. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, maternal health services have deteriorated, and maternal mortality has increased. The new National Reproductive Health Program seeks to provide delivery rooms in remote areas. The MFWA branch is also working to help women who are heading households. A course on contraceptive choices organized for 50 women of childbearing age resulted in 12 acceptors of the IUD, 15 of oral contraceptives, and six of injectables. PMID:12293466

  1. Transport of Antarctic stratospheric strongly dehydrated air into the troposphere observed during the HALO-ESMVal campaign 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, C.; Afchine, A.; Bozem, H.; Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Guggenmoser, T.; Hoor, P.; Konopka, P.; Kretschmer, E.; Müller, S.; Schlager, H.; Spelten, N.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.; Zahn, A.; Krämer, M.

    2015-08-01

    Dehydration in the Antarctic winter stratosphere is a well-known phenomenon that is annually observed by satellites and occasionally observed by balloon-borne measurements. However, in situ measurements of dehydrated air masses in the Antarctic vortex are very rare. Here, we present detailed observations with the in situ and GLORIA remote sensing instrument payload aboard the German aircraft HALO. Strongly dehydrated air masses down to 1.6 ppmv of water vapor were observed as far north as 47° S in an altitude between 12 and 13 km in the lowermost stratosphere. The dehydration can be traced back to individual ice formation events above the Antarctic Peninsula and Plateau, where ice crystals sedimented out and water vapor was irreversibly removed. Within these dehydrated stratospheric air masses, filaments of moister air reaching down to the tropopause are detected with the high-resolution limb sounder, GLORIA. Furthermore, dehydrated air masses are observed with GLORIA in the Antarctic lowermost stratosphere down to 7 km. With the help of a backward trajectory analysis, a midlatitude origin of the moist filaments in the vortex can be identified, while the dry air masses down to 7 km have stratospheric origins. Antarctic stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and transport of dehydrated air masses into the troposphere are investigated. Further, it is shown that the exchange process can be attributed to several successive Rossby wave events in combination with an isentropic exchange of air masses across the thermal tropopause. The transport into the troposphere is caused by air masses that are detached from the potential vorticity (PV) structure by Rossby wave breaking events and subsequently transported diabatically across the dynamical tropopause. Once transported to the troposphere, air masses with stratospheric origin can reach near-surface levels within several days.

  2. Remote sensing of particulate pollution from space: have we reached the promised land?

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Brook, Jeffrey R; Chow, Judith C; Green, Mark; Husar, Rudy B; Lee, Colin; Scheffe, Richard D; Swanson, Aaron; Watson, John G

    2009-10-01

    estimate human exposure. They obtain mostly urban PM data from EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), but they neglect the potentially more useful PM2.5 and chemical speciation data from the nonurban Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) networks. They correlate PM2.5 mass with optical depth, although visibility assessments show that light extinction is better represented by a weighted sum of PM2.5 sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and soil dust. Their comparison of hourly measurements with filter measurements does not specify the source of the hourly values as TEOM or BAM. Spatial outliers for ground-level measurements are removed to improve the correlation of PM2.5 with AOD, although these "outliers" are probably real values that relate to human exposure or a nearby source effect. The point here is not to overly criticize a good publication that will be highly cited. The intent is to demonstrate the value of air quality and space scientists working together more closely on this topic. This is something the review authors alluded to in their review, but if, as they concluded, the "promised land" has not been reached, then perhaps it is an appropriate time for the atmospheric community to ask, "Can near-term satellite observations play a role in characterizing broad-based (outdoor) exposure to pollutants and consequently influence public health improvement?" and, if so, then, "What comprehensive, integrated system is needed if satellite observations are to be used together with ground-based observations and modeling to continue improving air quality management options?" PMID:19842321

  3. Structure and Composition of Air-Plane Soots and Surrogates Analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy and Laser/Ions Desorption Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ismael; Chazallon, Bertrand; Carpentier, Yvain; Irimiea, Cornelia; Focsa, Cristian; Ouf, François-Xavier; Salm, François; Delhaye, David; Gaffié, Daniel; Yon, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Aviation alters the composition of the atmosphere globally and can thus drive climate change and ozone depletion [1]. An aircraft exhaust plume contains species emitted by the engines, species formed in the plume from the emitted species and atmospheric species that become entrained into the plume. The majority of emitted species (gases and soot particles) are produced by the combustion of kerosene with ambient air in the combustion chamber of the engine. Emissions of soot particles by air-planes produce persistent contrails in the upper troposphere in ice-supersaturated air masses that contribute to cloudiness and impact the radiative properties of the atmosphere. These aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global climate models [2]. Though the formation of atmospheric ice particles has been studied since many years [3], there are still numerous opened questions on nucleation properties of soot particles [4], as the ice nucleation experiments showed a large spread in results depending on the nucleation mode chosen and origin of the soot produced. Most likely one of the reasons behind these discrepancies resides in the different physico-chemical properties (composition, structure) of soot particles produced in different conditions, e.g. with respect to fuel or combustion techniques. In this work, we use Raman microscopy (266, 514 and 785 nm excitation) and ablation techniques (SIMS, Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, and Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry) to characterize soot particles produced from air-plane at different engine regimes simulating a landing and taking-off (LTO) cycle. First, the spectral parameters of the first-order Raman band of various soot samples, collected from three different sources in the frame of the MERMOSE project (http://mermose.onera.fr/): PowerJet SaM-146 turbofan (four engine regimes), CAST generator (propane fuel, four different global equivalence ratios), and Kerosene laboratory flame

  4. Project Outreach: Organizations Unified to Reach Youth.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, B C; Hayes, M L

    1989-01-01

    Youths of today are forced to deal with the external pressures of alcohol and drug abuse on all levels-from the older youngsters across the street pressuring them to be "cool," to the "cute dog" enticing them with the glamour of being the original "party animal." Through today's mass communications, young people are exposed to negative, self-destructive attitudes. It is important, therefore, to expose them to a more positive influence and try to reach them through parental guidance, personal contact, and peer pressure. To achieve this, the University of Missouri's Kansas City Chapter of the American Pharmaceutical Association's Academy of Students of Pharmacy, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Kansas City Area Task Force on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, proposed the development of an annual drug abuse prevention program that specifically targets fifth graders in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. A primary goal of Project Outreach (Organizations Unified to Reach Youth) is to unite drug abuse prevention programs in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area in their outreach efforts to give positive support to Kansas City's youth against alcohol and other drugs. Phase I of Project Outreach consisted of a series of programs for the parents in the community. Phase II entailed college students who spoke to fifth graders in their classrooms. These students also participated in poster and poem contents centered around drug abuse prevention. In Phase III, which featured an outstanding, motivated speaker, the sample group of 600 fifth graders in the area participated in a major event to give positive peer pressure to say no to drugs. Pertinent entertainment also was provided, and the governor of Missouri, John Ashcroft, attended the rally. In the future, each fifth grader will receive a free T-shirt as a tangible reminder of the main event. In Phase IV, to reinforce concepts presented in previous programming, the college students returned to the fifth grade

  5. Determination of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in ambient air using multisorbent adsorption/thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankow, J.F.; Luo, W.; Isabelle, L.M.; Bender, D.A.; Baker, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Adsorption/thermal desorption with multisorbent air-sampling cartridges was developed for the determination of 87 method analytes including halogenated alkanes, halogenated alkenes, ethers, alcohols, nitriles, esters, ketones, aromatics, a disulfide, and a furan. The volatilities of the compounds ranged from that of dichlorofluoromethane (CFC12) to that of 1,2,3- trichlorobenzene. The eight most volatile compounds were determined using a 1.5-L air sample and a sample cartridge containing 50 mg of Carbotrap B and 280 mg of Carboxen 1000; the remaining 79 compounds were determined using a 5-L air sample and a cartridge containing 180 mg of Carbotrap B and 70 mg of Carboxen 1000. Analysis and detection were by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The minimum detectable level (MDL) concentration values ranged from 0.01 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for chlorobenzene to 0.4 ppbv for bromomethane; most of the MDL values were in the range 0.02-0.06 ppbv. No breakthrough was detected with the prescribed sample volumes. Analyte stability on the cartridges was very good. Excellent recoveries were obtained with independent check standards. Travel spike recoveries ranged from 90 to 110% for 72 of the 87 compounds. The recoveries were less than 70% for bromomethane and chloroethene and for a few compounds such as methyl acetate that are subject to losses by hydrolysis; the lowest travel spike recovery was obtained for bromomethane (62%). Blank values for all compounds were either below detection or very low. Ambient atmospheric sampling was conducted in New Jersey from April to December, 1997. Three sites characterized by low, moderate, and high densities of urbanization/traffic were sampled. The median detected concentrations of the compounds were either similar at all three sites (as with the chlorofluorocarbon compounds) or increased with the density of urbanization/traffic (as with dichloromethane, MTBE, benzene, and toluene). For toluene, the median detected

  6. Always Connected, but Hard to Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishi, Raju

    2007-01-01

    Students seem to be always connected through their computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or mobile phones, making it easy to reach them--if you are a peer. For colleges and universities, reaching students with timely and relevant information often proves a challenge. With rapid changes in both technology and social practices, what should…

  7. Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

  8. School Furniture Dimensions: Standing and Reaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    Performance of school children in regard to their standing and reach postures are described with dimensions given on the limits of their performance only. The facts of task performances are presented for the following tasks--(1) seeing into a shelf, (2) reaching into a shelf, (3) drawing on a vertical surface, (4) sitting or standing while…

  9. Interlaboratory evaluation of a standardized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of trace beryllium in air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Kevin; Brisson, Michael J; Howe, Alan M; Bartley, David L

    2009-12-01

    A collaborative interlaboratory evaluation of a newly standardized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for determining trace beryllium in workplace air samples was carried out toward fulfillment of method validation requirements for ASTM International voluntary consensus standard test methods. The interlaboratory study (ILS) was performed in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice, ASTM E691, which describes statistical procedures for investigating interlaboratory precision. Uncertainty was also estimated in accordance with ASTM D7440, which applies the International Organization for Standardization Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement to air quality measurements. Performance evaluation materials (PEMs) used consisted of 37 mm diameter mixed cellulose ester filters that were spiked with beryllium at levels of 0.025 (low loading), 0.5 (medium loading), and 10 (high loading) microg Be/filter; these spiked filters were prepared by a contract laboratory. Participating laboratories were recruited from a pool of over 50 invitees; ultimately, 20 laboratories from Europe, North America, and Asia submitted ILS results. Triplicates of each PEM (blanks plus the three different loading levels) were conveyed to each volunteer laboratory, along with a copy of the draft standard test method that each participant was asked to follow; spiking levels were unknown to the participants. The laboratories were requested to prepare the PEMs by one of three sample preparation procedures (hotplate or microwave digestion or hotblock extraction) that were described in the draft standard. Participants were then asked to analyze aliquots of the prepared samples by ICP-MS and to report their data in units of mu g Be/filter sample. Interlaboratory precision estimates from participating laboratories, computed in accordance with ASTM E691, were 0.165, 0.108, and 0.151 (relative standard deviation) for the PEMs spiked at 0.025, 0

  10. Communicating Astronomy with a Mass Audience — BBC's Stargazing Live goes Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baan, M.

    2015-06-01

    Following on from the hugely successful airing of Heel Nederland Kijkt Sterren — a Dutch stargazing event modelled on the BBC's programme Stargazing Live — this article explores some of the issues involved in communicating astronomy directly to a mass audience. This includes the production process, co-sponsorship, content, the reach and lessons learned.

  11. The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

  12. Reaching higher goals by means of a reflecting wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faella, O.; De Luca, R.

    2015-05-01

    A student realizes that a point particle that is able to rise at a given point P0 at height H when launched vertically from the origin O of a Cartesian plane at a fixed initial speed V0 cannot reach, by means of a direct shot from a small spring cannon, a point P positioned at the same height H and distance d from P0, with 0 < d ≤ R, where R is the maximum horizontal distance attainable with an optimum throw at an angle of 45°. However, the student realizes that, in the absence of air resistance, conservation of energy does not prevent this possibility. Therefore, in order to reach point P, the student uses a perfectly reflecting surface, opportunely inclined with respect to the horizontal. The full story of how this is done will be narrated in this article.

  13. Sensitive monitoring of volatile chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counter-flow introduction.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Tsuge, Koichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Iura, Kazumitsu; Itoi, Teruo; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Koji; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Nagano, Hisashi; Waki, Izumi; Ezawa, Naoya; Tanimoto, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Shigeru; Fukano, Masumi; Okada, Hidehiro

    2013-03-01

    A new method for sensitively and selectively detecting chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air was developed using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Four volatile and highly toxic CWAs were examined, including the nerve gases sarin and tabun, and the blister agents mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1). Soft ionization was performed using corona discharge to form reactant ions, and the ions were sent in the direction opposite to the airflow by an electric field to eliminate the interfering neutral molecules such as ozone and nitrogen oxide. This resulted in efficient ionization of the target CWAs, especially in the negative ionization mode. Quadrupole MS (QMS) and ion trap tandem MS (ITMS) instruments were developed and investigated, which were movable on the building floor. For sarin, tabun, and HD, the protonated molecular ions and their fragment ions were observed in the positive ion mode. For L1, the chloride adduct ions of L1 hydrolysis products were observed in negative ion mode. The limit of detection (LOD) values in real-time or for a 1 s measurement monitoring the characteristic ions were between 1 and 8 μg/m(3) in QMS instrument. Collision-induced fragmentation patterns for the CWAs were observed in an ITMS instrument, and optimized combinations of the parent and daughter ion pairs were selected to achieve real-time detection with LOD values of around 1 μg/m(3). This is a first demonstration of sensitive and specific real-time detection of both positively and negatively ionizable CWAs by MS instruments used for field monitoring. PMID:23339735

  14. Chemical composition of tropospheric air masses encountered during high altitude flights (>11.5 km) during the 2009 fall Operation Ice Bridge field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; Vay, Stephanie A.; Stohl, Andreas; Choi, Yonghoon; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    As part of the 2009 Operation Ice Bridge campaign, the NASA DC-8 aircraft was used to fill the data-time gap in laser observation of the changes in ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice between ICESat-I (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and ICESat-II. Complementing the cryospheric instrument payload were four in situ atmospheric sampling instruments integrated onboard to measure trace gas concentrations of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, water vapor and various VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). This paper examines two plumes encountered at high altitude (12 km) during the campaign; one during a southbound transit flight (13°S) and the other at 86°S over Antarctica. The data presented are especially significant as the Southern Hemisphere is heavily under-sampled during the austral spring, with few if any high-resolution airborne observations of atmospheric gases made over Antarctica. Strong enhancements of CO, CH4, N2O, CHCl3, OCS, C2H6, C2H2 and C3H8 were observed in the two intercepted air masses that exhibited variations in VOC composition suggesting different sources. The transport model FLEXPART showed that the 13°S plume contained predominately biomass burning emissions originating from Southeast Asia and South Africa, while both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were observed at 86°S with South America and South Africa as indicated source regions. The data presented here show evidence that boundary layer pollution is transported from lower latitudes toward the upper troposphere above the South Pole, which may not have been observed in the past.

  15. Determination of 43 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate matter by use of direct elution and isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Pittman, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Mulholland, James; Sjödin, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    We are reporting a method for measuring 43 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their methylated derivatives (Me-PAHs) in air particulate matter (PM) samples using isotope dilution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). In this method, PM samples were spiked with internal standards, loaded into solid phase extraction cartridges, and eluted by dichloromethane. The extracts were concentrated, spiked with a recovery standard, and analyzed by GC/HRMS at 10,000 resolution. Sixteen (13)C-labeled PAHs and two deuterated Me-PAHs were used as internal standards to account for instrument variability and losses during sample preparation. Recovery of labeled internal standards was in the range of 86-115%. The proposed method is less time-consuming than commonly used extraction methods, such as sonication and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), and it eliminates the need for a filtration step required after the sonication extraction method. Limits of detection ranged from 41 to 332 pg/sample for the 43 analytes. This method was used to analyze reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The results were consistent with those from ASE and sonication extraction, and these results were also in good agreement with the certified or reference concentrations. The proposed method was then used to measure PAHs on PM(2.5) samples collected at three sites (urban, suburban, and rural) in Atlanta, GA. The results showed distinct seasonal and spatial variation and were consistent with an earlier study measuring PM(2.5) samples using an ASE method, further demonstrating the compatibility of this method and the commonly used ASE method. PMID:19936717

  16. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  17. Reach the Bottom Line of the Sbottom Search

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Bai, Yang

    2012-05-22

    We propose a new search strategy for directly-produced sbottoms at the LHC with a small mass splitting between the sbottom and its decayed stable neutralino. Our search strategy is based on boosting sbottoms through an energetic initial state radiation jet. In the final state, we require a large missing transverse energy and one or two b-jets besides the initial state radiation jet. We also define a few kinematic variables to further increase the discovery reach. For the case that the sbottom mainly decays into the bottom quark and the stable neutralino, we have found that even for a mass splitting as small as 10 GeV sbottoms with masses up to around 400 GeV can be excluded at the 95% confidence level with 20 inverse femtobarn data at the 8 TeV LHC.

  18. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle component-based factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, C. A.; Moran, M. D.; Makar, P. A.; Gong, S.; Gong, W.; Zhang, J.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Lu, G.; Brook, J. R.; Mihele, C.; Li, Q.; Sills, D.; Strawbridge, K. B.; McGuire, M. L.; Evans, G. J.

    2012-09-01

    Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007) in Southern Ontario, Canada, were used to evaluate predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and two other carbonaceous species, black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO), made for this summertime period by Environment Canada's AURAMS regional chemical transport model. Particle component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON) and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON) to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factors. A novel diagnostic model evaluation was performed by investigating model POA bias as a function of HOA mass concentration and indicator ratios (e.g. BC/HOA). Eight case studies were selected based on factor analysis and back trajectories to help classify model bias for certain POA source types. By considering model POA bias in relation to co-located BC and CO biases, a plausible story is developed that explains the model biases for all three species. At the rural sites, daytime mean PM1 POA mass concentrations were under-predicted compared to observed HOA concentrations. POA under-predictions were accentuated when the transport arriving at the rural sites was from the Detroit/Windsor urban complex and for short-term periods of biomass burning influence. Interestingly, the daytime CO concentrations were only slightly under-predicted at both rural sites, whereas CO was over-predicted at the urban Windsor site with a normalized mean bias of 134%, while good agreement was observed at Windsor for the comparison of daytime PM1 POA and HOA mean values, 1.1 μg m-3 and 1.2 μg m-3, respectively. Biases in model POA predictions also trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. Periods of POA over-prediction were most evident at the urban site on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. This model behaviour can be explained by a combination of model under

  19. The method for on-site determination of trace concentrations of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in air using a mobile mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, combined with a fast enrichment/separation system.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Andrey S; Makas, Alexey L; Troshkov, Mikhail L; Grachev, Mikhail А; Pod'yachev, Sergey P

    2014-06-01

    A method for fast simultaneous on-site determination of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in air was developed. The target compounds were actively collected on silica gel, followed by direct flash thermal desorption, fast separation on a short chromatographic column and detection by means of mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. During the sampling of ambient air, water vapor was removed with a Nafion selective membrane. A compact mass spectrometer prototype, which was designed earlier at Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, was used. The minimization of gas load of the atmospheric pressure ion source allowed reducing the power requirements and size of the vacuum system and increasing its ruggedness. The measurement cycle is about 3 min. Detection limits in a 0.6 L sample are 1 ppb for methyl mercaptan and 0.2 ppb for dimethyl sulfide. PMID:24725876

  20. Age-related changes in the performance of forward reach.

    PubMed

    Lin, S I; Liao, C F

    2011-01-01

    Aging is widely considered to be associated with limited balance capacity. It is not clear if forward reach ability is also affected by aging. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging was associated with reduced ability of forward reach or changes in movement patterns. Thirty-three young and 31 older adults were instructed to reach forward as far as possible without losing balance. A motion analysis system was used to record the body kinematics to calculate the joint angle and estimate the motion of center of mass (COM) using a five-segment model. Reach distance (measured from the finger marker), COM displacement, and the distance that the COM exceeded the 2nd toe marker (COM-toe) were used to represent reach performance. The movement patterns were classified as hip, ankle or mixed strategies based upon joint kinematics. It was found that the initial location of the COM was significantly more anterior in the older adults. Older adults were found to have significantly smaller COM displacement and greater hip flexion, but did not differ from young adults in reach distance or COM-toe. Older adults overwhelmingly adopted a hip strategy, but none adopted an ankle strategy. The distribution of the different strategies also differed significantly between groups. These findings suggest that aging appears to be associated with modifications in movement patterns, but not necessarily with a reduction in the ability to approach the boundary of stability. Clinically, balance training for older adults may include the exploration and instruction of atypical movement patterns. PMID:20951591

  1. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises.

  2. Is there a hard-to-reach audience?

    PubMed

    Freimuth, V S; Mettger, W

    1990-01-01

    The "hard-to-reach" label has been applied to many different audiences. Persons who have a low socioeconomic status (SES), members of ethnic minorities, and persons who have a low level of literacy often are tagged as "hard-to-reach." The authors identify reasons why these groups have been labelled "hard-to-reach," discuss preconceptions associated with the "hard-to-reach" label, propose alternative conceptualizations of these audiences, and present implications of such conceptualizations for health communication campaigns. Pejorative labels and preconceptions about various groups may lead to depicting these audiences as powerless, apathetic, and isolated. The authors discuss alternative conceptualizations, which highlight the strengths of different audience segments and encourage innovative approaches to the communication process. These alternative conceptualizations emphasize interactive communication, a view of society in which individuals are seen as members of equivalent--albeit different--cultures, and a shift of responsibility for health problems from individuals to social systems. Recommendations for incorporating these alternative concepts into health campaigns include formative research techniques that create a dialogue among participants, more sophisticated segmentation techniques to capture audience diversity, and new roles for mass media that are more interactive and responsive to individual needs. PMID:2113680

  3. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it will... for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the...

  4. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Douthwaite, Megan

    2003-01-01

    An innovative social marketing intervention in Pakistan distributes audiocassettes via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a segregated society with accurate information on hormonal contraceptives. Operations research was done to assess the utility of the cassette in knowledge dissemination and adoption of hormonal use. In total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. Listeners were significantly more knowledgeable than non-listeners about correct use of hormonals (OR = 8.6 for women and OR = 12.7 for men). Hormonal use increased from 12% to 25%. LHVs also organized discussion groups for women, and attending such a chat group was the strongest predictor for adoption of pills and injectables (OR = 4.15). Equivalent male groups are suggested to reach apprehensive men. By providing accurate information to urban couples and by acquiring a knowledgeable critical mass of satisfied users, the cassette could be a powerful catalyst to further contraceptive diffusion. PMID:12537155

  5. REACH: An Individualized AE Program for Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Karen E.

    1980-01-01

    Renewed Expectations for Adults in Continuing Higher Education (Project REACH) provides educational services tailored to the needs of blue-collar workers, including courses on audiocassette tapes and simplified registration procedures. The program has been enthusiastically received by people who had faced many barriers to continuing education. (SK)

  6. What Determines Limb Selection for Reaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Casi Rabb; Gabbard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    While motor dominance appears to drive limb selection for reaching movements at the midline and ipsilateral (dominant) side, this study examined the possible determinants associated with what drives the programming of movements in response to stimuli presented in contralateral space. Experiment 1 distinguished between object proximity and a…

  7. Project: "Teach 'n' Reach" Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Arleen

    The first of five volumes for Project Teach 'n' Reach, designed to help teachers of grades 1-6 in regular classrooms to teach about various kinds of handicapping conditions, is a teacher's guide. Performance objectives, activities, worksheets, and resources are listed for the use of these teachers in the implementation of their social-science and…

  8. Project Reach: Final Report--Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Samuel D.

    The second year of Project Reach, a Federally funded two-year program, pursued two tactics for increasing the adult basic education (ABE) program relevance and effectiveness in South Bend, Indiana: (1) the training/hiring of ABE students as media paraprofessionals, and (2) a media enrollment campaign of various media promotions (television/radio…

  9. Science Experiments: Reaching Out to Our Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maureen; Tschirhart, Lori; Wright, Stephanie; Barrett, Laura; Parsons, Matthew; Whang, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As more users access library services remotely, it has become increasingly important for librarians to reach out to their user communities and promote the value of libraries. Convincing the faculty and students in the sciences of the value of libraries and librarians can be a particularly "hard sell" as more and more of their primary journal…

  10. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  11. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  12. The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's REACH…

  13. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:25920952

  14. EPA method to-15 VOCs in air collected in SUMMA (trade name) canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McClenny, W.A.; Oliver, K.D.; Adams, J.R.

    1996-04-18

    Method TO-15 is an addition to the EPA Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air and consists of guidance for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The method has undergone an initial review by the EPA and has been placed on the AMTIC bulletin board maintained by EPA`s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) for further comments before final review and formal acceptance as a new method. The method is a companion method to the previously published TO-14 method entitled, `Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air Using SUMMA(TM) Polished Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic (GC) Analysis`. TO-15 differs from TO-14 in the following ways: (1) the water management system consists of the use of a small sample volume or a multisorbent/dry purge technique or both to dry the air sample; (2) the more extensive set of compounds given in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amemdments (CAAA) of 1990 constitutes the target list; (3) GC/MS techniques are recommended as the only means to identify and quantify target compounds; (4) method performance criteria are specified for acceptance of data, thereby allowing the use of alternate but equivalent sampling and analytical instrumentation; and (5) enhanced provisions for quality control are included.

  15. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary “lesion” had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving

  16. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle-component-based factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, C. A.; Moran, M. D.; Makar, P. A.; Gong, S.; Gong, W.; Zhang, J.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Lu, G.; Brook, J. R.; Mihele, C.; Li, Q.; Sills, D.; Strawbridge, K. B.; McGuire, M. L.; Evans, G. J.

    2012-02-01

    Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007) in southern Ontario (ON), Canada, were used to evaluate Environment Canada's regional chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA). Environment Canada's operational numerical weather prediction model and the 2006 Canadian and 2005 US national emissions inventories were used as input to the chemical transport model (named AURAMS). Particle-component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON) and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON) to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factors. Co-located carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 black carbon (BC), and PM1 SO4 measurements were also used for evaluation and interpretation, permitting a detailed diagnostic model evaluation. At the urban site, good agreement was observed for the comparison of daytime campaign PM1 POA and HOA mean values: 1.1 μg m-3 vs. 1.2 μg m-3, respectively. However, a POA overprediction was evident on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. Biases in model POA predictions trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. This trend has several possible explanations, including (1) underweighting of urban locations in particulate matter (PM) spatial surrogate fields, (2) overly-coarse model grid spacing for resolving urban-scale sources, and (3) lack of a model particle POA evaporation process during dilution of vehicular POA tail-pipe emissions to urban scales. Furthermore, a trend in POA bias was observed at the urban site as a function of the BC/HOA ratio, suggesting a possible association of POA underprediction for diesel combustion sources. For several time periods, POA overprediction was also observed for sulphate-rich plumes, suggesting that our model POA fractions for the PM2.5 chemical speciation profiles may be too high for these point sources. At the rural Harrow site

  17. Vertical variation of optical properties of mixed Asian dust/pollution plumes according to pathway of air mass transport over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S.-K.; Müller, D.; Lee, C.; Lee, K. H.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.

    2015-06-01

    We use five years (2009-2013) of multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements at Gwangju, South Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E) for the identification of changes of optical properties of East Asian dust depending on its transport path over China. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and backscatter-related Ångström exponents (wavelength pair 355/532 nm) were measured at Gwangju. Linear particle depolarization ratios were used to identify East Asian dust layers. We used backward trajectory modeling to identify the pathway and the vertical position of dust-laden air masses over China during long-range transport. Most cases of Asian dust events can be described by the emission of dust in desert areas and subsequent transport over highly polluted regions of China. The Asian dust plumes could be categorized into two classes according to the height above ground at which these plumes were transported: (case I) the dust layers passed over China at high altitude levels (> 3 km) until arrival over Gwangju, and (case II) the Asian dust layers were transported near the surface and within the lower troposphere (< 3 km) over industrialized areas before they arrived over Gwangju. We find that the optical characteristics of these mixed Asian dust layers over Gwangju differ depending on their vertical position above ground over China and the change of height above ground during transport. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.21 ± 0.06 (at 532 nm), the mean lidar ratios were 52 ± 7 sr at 355 nm and 53 ± 8 sr at 532 nm, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.74 ± 0.31 for case I. In contrast, plumes transported at lower altitudes (case II) showed low depolarization ratios (0.13 ± 0.04 at 532 nm), and higher lidar ratio (63 ± 9 sr at 355 nm and 62 ± 8 sr at 532 nm) and Ångström exponents (0.98 ± 0.51). These numbers show that the optical characteristics of mixed Asian plumes are more similar to optical characteristics of urban

  18. Dark Matter Reach of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorren, Kristopher; Majorana Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments are reducing backgrounds to unprecedented levels, allowing them to expand their physics reach. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is currently being built at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The experiment will utilize multiple p-type point-contact (PPC) germanium detectors constructed from approximately 40 kg of ultra-pure germanium (30 kg enriched) and radiopure components. Because of the large overburdern, low thresholds, and low background of the experiment, the DEMONSTRATOR will be well positioned to search for light (<10 GeV/c2) WIMPs. To do so, the low energy region (<20 keV) of the DEMONSTRATOR spectrum will need to be well characterized. This talk will discuss backgrounds in this region and the potential dark matter reach of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This work is supported by grants from the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and the NSF Particle Astrophysics program.

  19. Visuomotor transformations: early cortical mechanisms of reaching.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, R; Ferraina, S; Mayer, A B

    1998-12-01

    Recent studies of visually guided reaching in monkeys support the hypothesis that the visuomotor transformations underlying arm movements to spatial targets involve a parallel mechanism that simultaneously engages functionally related frontal and parietal areas linked by reciprocal cortico-cortical connections. The neurons in these areas possess similar combinations of response properties. The multimodal combinatorial properties of these neurons and the gradient architecture of the parietofrontal network emerge as a potential substrate to link the different sensory and motor signals that arise during reaching behavior into common hybrid reference frames. This convergent combinatorial process is evident at early stages of visual information processing in the occipito-parietal cortex, suggesting the existence of re-entrant motor influences on cortical areas once believed to have only visual functions. PMID:9914239

  20. Rules of engagement: reaching out to communities.

    PubMed

    Rellon, Lakhvir

    2009-06-01

    With the right form of engagement, so-called hard-to-reach communities can play vital roles in shaping and improving services. This article describes some of the innovative ways in which Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust engages with local communities and offers some advice to senior nurses and managers who want to make contact with people in their localities PMID:19534178

  1. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    PubMed

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  2. Reaching street youth on substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Lowry, C

    1995-01-01

    Street children and youth involved in substance abuse are often felt to be the hardest people in the world to reach with counselling, as well as those most obviously in need of it. The idea of making a work of art that both captures their imagination and steers them towards a safer way of life may seem more like wishful thinking than a practical proposal, but the author explains how it is done. PMID:7794447

  3. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  4. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  5. Monitoring Air Pollution In and Around the Premises of Industrial Parks Using Two Types of Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jen Yu; Ling, Yong Chien, Sr.

    2004-03-31

    Two types of electronic nose and GC-MS were used to monitor air pollution in the premises of seven industrial parks. Real-time analysis of air at the sites was performed using portable electronic noses. Air samples were analyzed from the up and down stream direction along the wind flow to investigate the effect or distribution of the pollutants on the surrounding environment. The advantage of multisensors in spatially resolved sensing for direct multicomponent analysis was explored to minimize tedious sample preparation procedure. Electronic nose could give characteristic odor fingerprints, which were correlated with the pollutants analyzed using GC-MS providing detailed diagnostic information such as the presence of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous benzenes, sulfur compounds, lipid-derived compounds, polysiloxanes, etc. Subsequent principal component analysis helped in identifying the source of pollutants. The applicability of the electronic nose was demonstrated confirming it to be a simple and rapid screening method for identifying the pollutant source.

  6. Kinematic analysis of reaching in the cat.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Cooper, S E; Ghez, C

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats reaching for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a "via-point" in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in front of the target. In the second, or thrust phase, the paw was directed forward into the food well. During the lift, the paw was moved toward the target primarily by elbow flexion, accompanied by a sequence of biphasic shoulder and wrist movements. Thrust was accomplished primarily by shoulder flexion while the wrist and the paw were maintained at near-constant angles. The animals varied the height of the reach primarily by varying elbow flexion with proportional changes in elbow angular velocity and angular acceleration and with corresponding variations in wrist speed. Thus, cats reached for targets at different heights by scaling a common kinematic profile. Over a relatively large range of target heights, animals maintained movement duration constant, according to a simple "pulse-height" control strategy (isochronous scaling). For reaches to a given target height, animals compensated for variability in peak acceleration by variations in movement time. We examined the coordination between the shoulder and the wrist with the elbow. Early during the lift, peak shoulder extensor and peak elbow flexor accelerations were synchronized. Late during the lift phase, wrist extensor acceleration was found to occur during the period of elbow flexor deceleration. We hypothesize that these linkages could, in part, be due to passive mechanical interactions. To determine how the angular trajectories of the different joints were organized in relation to target location, we plotted joint kinematic changes directly on the wrist and MCP joint paths. These plots revealed that for all target heights and movement speeds, wrist

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: EXTENDING THE USEFULNESS OF RECEPTOR MODELING BY COMBINING MULTIVARIATE AND CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research explores the possibility of using a two step method of identify and quantify air pollution emissions in an urban environment. he procedure was a mathematical model called Target Transformation Factor Analysis (TTFA) to estimate source profiles using ambient trace el...

  10. Parietal Reach Region Encodes Reach Depth Using Retinal Disparity and Vergence Angle Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Performing a visually guided reach requires the ability to perceive the egocentric distance of a target in three-dimensional space. Previous studies have shown that the parietal reach region (PRR) encodes the two-dimensional location of frontoparallel targets in an eye-centered reference frame. To investigate how a reach target is represented in three dimensions, we recorded the spiking activity of PRR neurons from two rhesus macaques trained to fixate and perform memory reaches to targets at different depths. Reach and fixation targets were configured to explore whether neural activity directly reflects egocentric distance as the amplitude of the required motor command, which is the absolute depth of the target, or rather the relative depth of the target with reference to fixation depth. We show that planning activity in PRR represents the depth of the reach target as a function of disparity and fixation depth, the spatial parameters important for encoding the depth of a reach goal in an eye centered reference frame. The strength of modulation by disparity is maintained across fixation depth. Fixation depth gain modulates disparity tuning while preserving the location of peak tuning features in PRR neurons. The results show that individual PRR neurons code depth with respect to the fixation point, that is, in eye centered coordinates. However, because the activity is gain modulated by vergence angle, the absolute depth can be decoded from the population activity. PMID:19439678

  11. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  12. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side. PMID:11153843

  13. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  14. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2009-09-30

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  15. Google Hangouts: Leveraging Social Media to Reach the Education Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; McCallister, Dan; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that educator professional development is most effective when it is sustained and/or when a follow-on component is included to support the learning process. In order to create more comprehensive learning experiences for our workshop participants, the education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is working collaboratively with scientific staff and other experts to create a follow-on component for our professional development program. The new component utilizes video conferencing platforms, such as Google's Hangouts On Air, to provide educators with content updates and extended learning opportunities in between in-person professional development experiences. The goal is to enhance our professional development program in a cost-effective way while reaching a greater cross-section of educators. Video broadcasts go live on Google+, YouTube, and our website - thus providing access to any user with a web browser. Additionally, the broadcasts are automatically recorded and archived for future viewing on our YouTube channel. This provides educators with anywhere, anytime training that best suits their needs and schedules. This poster will highlight our new Hangouts for educators as well as our cross-departmental efforts to expand the reach of our Hubble Hangouts for the public through a targeted recruitment strategy.

  16. AIDSCAP: reaching communities through local organizations.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    More than 100 community-based private voluntary organizations and nongovernmental organizations in more than 30 developing countries carry out 70% of the activities funded by the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). This reflects USAID's wish to capitalize on both the ability of community-based organizations to reach diverse populations and the years of experience these organizations have in working in their communities. By improving local technical and managerial capabilities, AIDSCAP is acting on its belief that containment of the AIDS epidemic depends upon the grassroots prevention efforts of community groups. One of the AIDSCAP-funded projects in Tanzania has trained more than 6000 peer educators who have reached more than 60,000 members of trade unions. In Brazil, one of the AIDSCAP-supported efforts has resulted in the training of 227 peer educators who have provided prevention information to more than 40,000 men who have sex with men. AIDSCAP is collaborating with the Red Cross, the Pharmacists' Association, Planned Parenthood, World Vision, and government agencies in Thailand and is improving the ability of a consortium of 40 NGOs to disseminate information and advocate for policy changes. PMID:12345908

  17. NASA's Astronomy Education Program: Reaching Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise Anne; Hertz, Paul; Meinke, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    An overview will be given of the rich programs developed by NASA to inject the science from it's Astrophysics missions into STEM activities targeted to diverse audiences. For example, Astro4Girls was started as a pilot program during IYA2009. This program partners NASA astrophysics education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families, and has been executed across the country. School curricula and NASA websites have been translated in Spanish; Braille books have been developed for the visually impaired; programs have been developed for the hearing impaired. Special effort has been made to reach underrepresented minorities. Audiences include students, teachers, and the general public through formal and informal education settings, social media and other outlets. NASA Astrophysics education providers include teams embedded in its space flight missions; professionals selected though peer reviewed programs; as well as the Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Education forum. Representative examples will be presented to demonstrate the reach of NASA education programs, as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs.

  18. Primary mass standard based on atomic masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Gläser, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The paper summarises the activities of several national and international Metrology Institutes in replacing the kilogram artefact, the unit of mass, by the mass of a certain number of atoms, in particular the atomic masses of silicon or bismuth. This task is based on two different experiments: a very accurate determination of the Avogadro constant, NA, measuring the density and lattice parameter of an enriched silicon-28 crystal, and the accumulation of decelerated bismuth-209 ions by using a mass separator. The relative measurement uncertainties reached so far are in the first case 2 parts in 107, and in the latter several part in 104. The bismuth experiment is still in an early state of the work. The ratios between the masses of 28Si or 209Bi, respectively, and the present atomic mass standard, the mass of 12C, can be determined with an accuracy now approaching 10-10 using high precision Penning traps mass spectrometers.

  19. Mass composition of 10{sup 17}- to 10{sup 18}-eV primary cosmic rays according to data on the lateral distribution of radio emission from extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, N. N. Konstantinov, A. A.; Vedeneev, O. V.

    2012-12-15

    Experimental data obtained for the lateral distribution of radio emission from extensive air showers (EAS) at the array of Moscow State University (30-34 MHz) and the LOPES array (40-80 MHz) were comparedwith the results of calculations performed within amicroscopic approach based on aMonte Carlo simulation of EAS (CORSIKA code). The same experimental data were used to reconstruct the distribution of the depth of the EAS maximum at cosmic-ray energies in the range of 1017-1018 eV. The energy dependence of the depth of the EAS maximum was constructed for the case of data from the LOPES array, and the mass composition of cosmic rays was estimated for this case. From the resulting dependences, it follows that the mass composition shows a trend toward becoming lighter in the energy range being considered.

  20. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve

  1. A model for learning human reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Karniel, A; Inbar, G F

    1997-09-01

    Reaching movement is a fast movement towards a given target. The main characteristics of such a movement are straight path and a bell-shaped speed profile. In this work a mathematical model for the control of the human arm during ballistic reaching movements is presented. The model of the arm contains a 2 degrees of freedom planar manipulator, and a Hill-type, non-linear mechanical model of six muscles. The arm model is taken from the literature with minor changes. The nervous system is modeled as an adjustable pattern generator that creates the control signals to the muscles. The control signals in this model are rectangular pulses activated at various amplitudes and timings, that are determined according to the given target. These amplitudes and timings are the parameters that should be related to each target and initial conditions in the work-space. The model of the nervous system consists of an artificial neural net that maps any given target to the parameter space of the pattern generator. In order to train this net, the nervous system model includes a sensitivity model that transforms the error from the arm end-point coordinates to the parameter coordinates. The error is assessed only at the termination of the movement from knowledge of the results. The role of the non-linearity in the muscle model and the performance of the learning scheme are analysed, illustrated in simulations and discussed. The results of the present study demonstrate the central nervous system's (CNS) ability to generate typical reaching movements with a simple feedforward controller that controls only the timing and amplitude of rectangular excitation pulses to the muscles and adjusts these parameters based on knowledge of the results. In this scheme, which is based on the adjustment of only a few parameters instead of the whole trajectory, the dimension of the control problem is reduced significantly. It is shown that the non-linear properties of the muscles are essential to achieve

  2. Reach and get capability in a computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2012-06-05

    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  3. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision.

    PubMed

    Svenkeson, A; Swami, A

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  4. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  5. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    PubMed Central

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  6. Reaching the people--the Indonesian experience.

    PubMed

    1989-10-01

    This 1st section of INTEGRATION is a 27-page special report entitled REACHING THE PEOPLE - THE INDONESIAN EXPERIENCE. The section includes 6 articles: 1) NGOs (Nongovernmental organizations) Promote Human Resource Development-Oriented Project, 2) Front Line of Integral Health: First Step is Parasite Control, 3) Mothers Should be Informed of Health Advantages: A Perception of Marriage, Family Planning, and Children by an Indonesian Woman of the New Generation, 4) BKKBN Chairman Haryona Suyono: Building a Self-Reliant Family Planning Program, 5) Developing a Fee-Charging Contraceptive Distribution System in Indonesia: The Experience of Kusuma Buana Foundation, and 6) President Soeharto's Speech at UN Award Rites: Transforming Population into an Asset for Development. PMID:12315967

  7. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  8. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  9. A general method for the calculation of absolute trace gas concentrations in air and breath from selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanel, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, David

    2006-03-01

    A complete description is presented of a numerical method that allows the calculation, in real time, of absolute concentrations of trace gases, including volatile organic compounds and water vapour, from selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, data. No assumptions are made concerning the SIFT-MS instrument size or its configuration and thus the calculation can be applied to the currently available, relatively large instruments and the anticipated new generation of smaller SIFT-MS instruments. This numerical method clearly distinguishes those parameters that are obviously specific to a particular instrument, including flow tube geometry, degree of mass discrimination in the analytical mass spectrometer and flow tube reaction time, from general fundamental processes, in particular the differential diffusive loss of ions along the flow tube that is dependent on the properties of those ions involved in the determination of the concentrations of particular trace gases. The essential reaction and transport kinetics are outlined, which describe the formation and loss of the product ions formed in the chemical ionisation of the trace gases by the precursor ions. A generalised calculation of the required ionic diffusion coefficients is introduced with options either for their accurate determination from the molecular geometry of ions or for less accurate but simpler estimates obtained using just the ionic mass. Based on the above ideas, a straightforward calculation sequence is shown to determine trace gas concentrations by SIFT-MS, and its utility demonstrated by an example of the analysis of acetone in exhaled breath.

  10. Rapid, Automated Determination of Elemental Compositions of Ions in Mass Spectra Obtained with an Open-Air Ion Source (2 of 2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inexpensive autosampler for a DART/TOFMS provides mass spectra from analytes absorbed on 76 cotton swab, wipe samples in 7.5 min. A field sample carrier simplifies sample collection and provides swabs nearly ready for analysis to the lab. Applications of the high throughput pr...

  11. The stability and generation pattern of thermally formed isocyanic acid (ICA) in air - potential and limitations of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for real-time workroom atmosphere measurements.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Mikolaj Jan; Olsen, Raymond; Thomassen, Yngvar; Molander, Paal

    2016-07-13

    Isocyanic acid (ICA) in vapour phase has been reported to be of unstable nature, making the occupational hygienic relevance of ICA questionable. The stability of pure ICA in clean air at different humidity conditions was investigated by Fourier transform-infrared spectrometric (FT-IR) measurements. Furthermore, the stability of ICA in a complex atmosphere representative thermal degradation hot-work procedures were examined by performing parallel measurements by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometric (PTR-MS) instrumentation and off-line denuder air sampling using di-n-butylamine (as a derivatization agent prior to liquid chromatography mass spectrometric (LC-MS) determination). The apparent half-life of ICA in pure ICA atmospheres was 16 to 4 hours at absolute humidity (AH) in the range 4.2 to 14.6 g m(-3), respectively. In a complex atmosphere at an initial AH of 9.6 g m(-3) the apparent half-life of ICA was 8 hours, as measured with the denuder method. Thus, thermally formed ICA is to be considered as a potential occupational hazard with regard to inhalation. The generation pattern of ICA formed during controlled gradient (100-540 °C) thermal decomposition of different polymers in the presence of air was examined by parallel PTR-MS and denuder air sampling. According to measurement by denuder sampling ICA was the dominant aliphatic isocyanate formed during the thermal decomposition of all polymers. The real-time measurements of the decomposed polymers revealed different ICA generation patterns, with initial appearance of thermally released ICA in the temperature range 200-260 °C. The PTR-MS ICA measurements was however affected by mass overlap from other decomposition products at m/z 44, illustrated by a [ICA]Denuder/[ICA]PTR-MS ratio ranging from 0.04 to 0.90. These findings limits the potential use of PTR-MS for real time measurements of thermally released ICA in field, suggesting parallel sampling with short-term sequential off-line methodology. PMID

  12. Characteristics of channel steps and reach morphology in headwater streams, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomi, Takashi; Sidle, Roy C.; Woodsmith, Richard D.; Bryant, Mason D.

    2003-03-01

    The effect of timber harvesting and mass movement on channel steps and reach morphology was examined in 16 headwater streams of SE Alaska. Channel steps formed by woody debris and boulders are significant channel units in headwater streams. Numbers, intervals, and heights of steps did not differ among management and disturbance regimes. A negative exponential relationship between channel gradient and mean length of step intervals was observed in the fluvial reaches (<0.25 unit gradient) of recent landslide and old-growth channels. No such relationship was found in upper reaches (≥0.25 gradient) where colluvial processes dominated. Woody debris and sediment recruitment from regenerating riparian stands may have obscured any strong relationship between step geometry and channel gradient in young alder, young conifer, and recent clear-cut channels. Channel reaches are described as pool-riffles, step-pools, step-steps, cascades, rapids, and bedrock. Geometry of channel steps principally characterized channel reach types. We infer that fluvial processes dominated in pool-riffle and step-pool reaches, while colluvial processes dominated in bedrock reaches. Step-step, rapids, and cascade reaches occurred in channels dominated by both fluvial processes and colluvial processes. Step-step reaches were transitional from cascades (upstream) to step-pool reaches (downstream). Woody debris recruited from riparian corridors and logging activities formed steps and then sequentially might modify channel reach types from step-pools to step-steps. Scour, runout, and deposition of sediment and woody debris from landslides and debris flows modified the distribution of reach types (bedrock, cascade, and step-pool) and the structure of steps within reaches.

  13. Transport of Antarctic stratospheric strongly dehydrated air into the troposphere observed during the HALO-ESMVal campaign 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, C.; Afchine, A.; Bozem, H.; Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Guggenmoser, T.; Hoor, P.; Konopka, P.; Kretschmer, E.; Müller, S.; Schlager, H.; Spelten, N.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.; Zahn, A.; Krämer, M.

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration in the Antarctic winter stratosphere is a well-known phenomenon that is occasionally observed by balloon-borne and satellite measurements. However, in-situ measurements of dehydration in the Antarctic vortex are very rare. Here, we present detailed observations with the in-situ and GLORIA remote sensing instrument payload aboard the new German aircraft HALO. Strongly dehydrated air masses down to 1.6 ppmv of water vapor were observed as far north as 47° S and between 12 and 13 km in altitude, which has never been observed by satellites. The dehydration can be traced back to individual ice formation events, where ice crystals sedimented out and water vapor was irreversibly removed. Within these dehydrated stratospheric air masses, filaments of moister air reaching down to the tropopause are detected with the high resolution limb sounder, GLORIA. Furthermore, dehydrated air masses are observed with GLORIA in the Antarctic troposphere down to 7 km. With the help of a backward trajectory analysis, a tropospheric origin of the moist filaments in the vortex can be identified, while the dry air masses in the troposphere have stratospheric origins. The transport pathways of Antarctic stratosphere/troposphere exchange are investigated and the irrelevant role of the Antarctic thermal tropopause as a transport barrier is confirmed. Further, it is shown that the exchange process can be attributed to several successive Rossby wave events in combination with an isentropic interchange of air masses across the weak tropopause and subsequent subsidence due to radiative cooling. Once transported to the troposphere, air masses with stratospheric origin are able to reach near-surface levels within 1-2 months.

  14. Air Quality Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brioude, J.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Meinardi, S.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion led to a rupture of the wellhead underneath the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling platform. In addition to impacts on marine life and coasts, the resulting oil spill and cleanup operations also affected air quality. We measured a wide range of gas and aerosol species in the air close to and downwind of the DWH site. Among all of the measured species, the most important air quality concern for populations along the Gulf coast and inland was aerosols in respirable sizes. Since the measured gas-phase hydrocarbons were distributed in a fairly narrow plume evaporating from fresh surface oil and organic aerosol was measured in a much broader plume, the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evidently formed from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around the site. Older surface oil near the coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida had little effect on SOA formation. The SOA mass increased with distance downwind of the DWH site. Preliminary results indicate that at least a few percent by mass of the spilled oil is converted into SOA. From the flaring, surface recovery, and cleanup operations, initial calculations of emission ratios also indicate that a few percent by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as black carbon aerosols. These organic and black carbon aerosols from the DWH oil spill influence local visibility and radiation and have potential health effects. Furthermore, they likely occasionally reached populated areas at concentrations that were a significant fraction of air quality standards.

  15. Reach-scale isotope tracer experiment to quantify denitrification and related processes in a nitrate-rich stream, midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Harvey, J.W.; Voytek, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted an in-stream tracer experiment with Br and 15N-enriched NO3- to determine the rates of denitrification and related processes in a gaining NO3--rich stream in an agricultural watershed in the upper Mississippi basin in September 2001. We determined reach-averaged rates of N fluxes and reactions from isotopic analyses of NO3-, NO 2-, N2, and suspended particulate N in conjunction with other data in a 1.2-km reach by using a forward time-stepping numerical simulation that included groundwater discharge, denitrification, nitrification, assimilation, and air-water gas exchange with changing temperature. Denitrification was indicated by a systematic downstream increase in the ??15N values of dissolved N2. The reach-averaged rate of denitrification of surface-water NO3- indicated by the isotope tracer was approximately 120 ?? 20 ??mol m-2 h-1 (corresponding to zero- and first-order rate constants of 0.63 ??mol L-1 h-1 and 0.009 h -1, respectively). The overall rate of NO3- loss by processes other than denitrification (between O and about 200 ??mol m-2 h-1) probably was less than the denitrification rate but had a large relative uncertainty because the NO3- load was large and was increasing through the reach. The rates of denitrification and other losses would have been sufficient to reduce the stream NO 3- load substantially in the absence of NO 3- sources, but the losses were more than offset by nitrification and groundwater NO3- inputs at a combined rate of about 500-700 ??mol m-2 h-1. Despite the importance of denitrification, the overall mass fluxes of N2 were dominated by discharge of denitrified groundwater and air-water gas exchange in response to changing temperature, whereas the flux of N2 attributed to denitrification was relatively small. The in-stream isotope tracer experiment provided a sensitive direct reach-scale measurement of denitrification and related processes in a NO3--rich stream where other mass-balance methods were not suitable because

  16. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A.; Dewald, Jules P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject’s success rate increases. PMID:21674392

  17. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A; Dewald, Jules P A

    2011-01-01

    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject's success rate increases. PMID:21674392

  18. Continuous measurements of surface water vapor isotopic ratios in the Bolivian Andes during the monsoon period: influence of regional convection and air masses mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimeux, Francoise; Tremoy, Guillaume; Roca, Manuel; Moreno, Isabel; Cattani, Olivier; Guilpart, Etienne; Velarde, Fernando; Andrade, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic composition of surface water vapor has been monitored since October 2013 in the Bolivian Andes on the Chacaltaya GAW Station (CHC). This platform is located at 16.21degree S and 68.08 degree W (elevation 5240m a.s.l) in the north western ridge of Mount Chacaltaya. Water vapor measurements have been recorded by a Picarro instrument (L2130-i model) which is based on Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). We focus here on the data interpretation at the synoptic scale from October 2013 to January 2014. This time period corresponds to the transition between dry and wet seasons and also includes some local and regional intense convective periods. Several processes are recorded in the isotopic composition of water vapor at the synoptic scale and two majors processes will be discussed: (1) dehydrated air parcels are mixed with moist air advected from the Amazon basin and (2) deep tropical convection over the Amazon basin produces the largest isotopic variability (up to 20 per mil in oxygen 18).

  19. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  20. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  1. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak?

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules. PMID:26094000

  2. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.

    2008-06-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  3. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  4. Gravitational wave detector with cosmological reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Sheila; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan W.; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Twenty years ago, construction began on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Advanced LIGO, with a factor of 10 better design sensitivity than Initial LIGO, will begin taking data this year, and should soon make detections a monthly occurrence. While Advanced LIGO promises to make first detections of gravitational waves from the nearby universe, an additional factor of 10 increase in sensitivity would put exciting science targets within reach by providing observations of binary black hole inspirals throughout most of the history of star formation, and high signal to noise observations of nearby events. Design studies for future detectors to date rely on significant technological advances that are futuristic and risky. In this paper we propose a different direction. We resurrect the idea of using longer arm lengths coupled with largely proven technologies. Since the major noise sources that limit gravitational wave detectors do not scale trivially with the length of the detector, we study their impact and find that 40 km arm lengths are nearly optimal, and can incorporate currently available technologies to detect gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances (z ≳7 ) .

  5. Reaching site closure for groundwater under multiple regulatory agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Glucksberg, N.; Couture, B.

    2007-07-01

    Groundwater at the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCO) Haddam Neck Plant (HNP) has been impacted by both radionuclides and chemical constituents. Furthermore, the cleanup standards and closure requirements for HNP are regulated both by federal and state agencies. The only consistent requirement is the development of a site conceptual model and an understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions that will govern contaminant transport and identify potential receptors. The cleanup criteria to reach site closure for radionuclides is regulated by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) Bureau of Air Management, Radiological Division. For license termination under the NRC, the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for all media can not exceed 25 milli-Rem per year (mRem/yr) plus As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The CTDEP has a similar requirement with the TEDE not to exceed 19 mRem/yr plus ALARA. To reach these criteria, derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) were developed for radiological exposures from three (3) media components; soil, existing groundwater and future groundwater from left-in place foundations or footings. Based on current conditions, the target dose contribution from existing and future groundwater is not to exceed 2 mRem/yr TEDE. After source (soil) remediation is complete, the NRC requires two (2) years of quarterly monitoring to demonstrate that groundwater quality meets the DCGLs and does not show an upward trend. CYAPCO's NRC License Termination Plan (LTP) specifies a minimum 18-month period of groundwater monitoring, as long as samples are collected during two spring/high water seasons, to verify the efficacy of remedial actions at HNP. In addition to the 19 mRem/yr criteria, the CTDEP also requires groundwater to be in compliance with the Remediation Standards Regulation (RSRs). There are no published criteria for radionuclides in the RSRs

  6. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  7. X{sub max}{sup μ} vs. N{sup μ} from extensive air showers as estimator for the mass of primary UHECR's. Application for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, Nicusor; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    We study the possibility of primary mass estimation for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's) using the X{sub max}{sup μ} (the height where the number of muons produced on the core of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is maximum) and the number N{sup μ} of muons detected on ground. We use the 2D distribution - X{sub max}{sup μ} against N{sup μ} in order to find its sensitivity to the mass of the primary particle. For that, we construct a 2D Probability Function Prob(p,Fe | X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) which estimates the probability that a certain point from the plane (X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) corresponds to a shower induced by a proton, respectively an iron nucleus. To test the procedure, we analyze a set of simulated EAS induced by protons and iron nuclei at energies of 10{sup 19}eV and 20° zenith angle with CORSIKA. Using the Bayesian approach and taking into account the geometry of the infill detectors from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we observe an improvement in the accuracy of the primary mass reconstruction in comparison with the results obtained using only the X{sub max}{sup μ} distributions.

  8. Teach to Reach: The Effects of Active Versus Passive Reaching Experiences on Action and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants’ own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received daily parent guided play sessions over a two-week training period. Using “Sticky Mittens”, one group was enabled to independently pick up objects whereas the other group only passively observed their parent’s actions on objects. Following training, infants’ manual and visual exploration of objects, agents, and actions in a live and a televised context were assessed. Our results showed that only infants who experienced independent object apprehension advanced in their reaching behavior, and showed changes in their visual exploration of agents and objects in a live setting. Passive observation was not sufficient to change infants’ behavior. To our surprise, the effects of the training did not seem to generalize to a televised observation context. Together, our results suggest that early motor training can jump-start infants’ transition into reaching and inform their perception of others’ actions. PMID:20828580

  9. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  10. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Wexler, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit) control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD). These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. Conclusion/Significance The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes. PMID:19847295

  12. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  13. Isotopic evidence from regional ground water and calcite cements that Late Wisconsin continental ice lobes were sustained by tropical air masses

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, D.I.; Muller, E. . Dept. of Geology); Pair, D. . Dept. of Geology); Martini, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Noll, R.

    1992-01-01

    The stable isotopic contents of ground water in New York regional flow systems (Lockport Group) and subglacially precipitated carbonate cement suggest that the minimum value for the Delta O-18 content of the late Pleistocene glacial ice lobes was probably about [minus]11 [per thousand]. This value, enriched by more than 20 [per thousand] relative to the commonly assumed value of < 30 [per thousand], is consistent with that previously determined for Wisconsin ice lobes from the isotopic content of ground water in Iowa and subglacially precipitated calcite in Ohio. The isotopic data support the hypothesis, based on the paleoecology of coleoptera, that moist, tropical air probably sustained the last continental ice lobes from central to eastern US.

  14. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  15. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  16. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  17. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  18. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  19. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  20. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  1. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

    2013-01-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

  2. Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM2.5 during winter haze period around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival at Nanjing: Insights of source changes, air mass direction and firework particle injection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Li; Yin, Yan; Chen, Kui; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Yingjie; Shan, Yunpeng; Ji, Yaqin

    2015-07-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Nanjing around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF) and analyzed for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS. Comparison of PAH concentrations during different periods, with different air mass origins and under different pollution situations was done. Sources were analyzed by diagnostics ratios and principal component analysis (PCA). The threat of PAHs was assessed by BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The averaged PAHs for pre-SF, SF and after SF periods were 50.6, 17.2 and 29 ng m(-3), indicating the variations of PAH sources, with reduced traffic, industrial and construction activities during SF and gradually re-starting of them after-SF. According to PAH mass concentrations, their relative abundance to particles, ratio of PAHs (3-ring+4-ring)/PAHs(5-ring+6-ring), mass concentrations of combustion-derived and carcinogenic PAHs, fireworks burning is an important source for PAHs during SF. The ILCR values for Chinese New Year day were 0.68 and 3.3 per 100,000 exposed children and adults. It suggested the necessity of controlling fireworks burning during Chinese SF period which was always companied with serious regional haze pollution. PAH concentrations exhibited decreasing trend when air masses coming from the following directions as North China Plain (63.9 ng m(-3))>Central China (53.0 ng m(-3))>Shandong Peninsula (46.6 ng m(-3))>Northwest China (18.8 ng m(-3))>Sea (15.8 ng m(-3)). For different pollution situations, they decreased as haze (44.5 ng m(-3))>fog-haze (28.4 ng m(-3))>clear (12.2 ng m(-3))>fog day (9.2 ng m(-3)). Coal combustion, traffic emission, industrial processes and petroleum (only for non-SF holiday periodss) were the main sources of PM2.5 associated PAHs. Fireworks burning contributed 14.0% of PAHs during SF period. Directly measurement of PAHs from fireworks burning is urgently needed for source apportionment studies in

  3. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  4. Laboratory study of air sparging of TCE-contaminated saturated soils and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1999-06-30

    Air sparging has proven to be an effective remediation technique for treating saturated soils and ground water contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since little is known about the system variables and mass transfer mechanisms important to air sparging, several researchers have recently performed laboratory investigations to study such issues. This paper presents the results of column experiments performed to investigate the behavior of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), specifically trichloroethylene (TCE), during air sparging. The specific objectives of the study were (1) to compare the removal of dissolved TCE with the removal of dissolved light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), such as benzene or toluene; (2) to determine the effect of injected air-flow rate on dissolved TCE removal; (3) to determine the effect of initial dissolved TCE concentration on removal efficiency; and (4) to determine the differences in removal between dissolved and pure-chase TCE. The test results showed that (1) the removal of dissolved TCE was similar to that of dissolved LNAPL; (2) increased air-injection rates led to increased TCE removal at lower ranges of air injection, but further increases at higher ranges of air injection did not increase the rate of removal, indicating a threshold removal rate had been reached; (3) increased initial concentration of dissolved TCE resulted in similar rates of removal; and (4) the removal pf pure-phase TCE was difficult using a low air-injection rate, but higher air-injection rates led to easier removal.

  5. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated. PMID:22063550

  6. Reaching for the APEX at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohut, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The multidimensional design of the APEX program is the result of an extensive research and development effort dating back nearly a decade. "In the late 1990s and early 2000, we were pretty successful at getting new research and technology projects here at the center," Johnson says, "and we had a lack of critical mass of project managers. We were taking people who were primarily researchers and putting them in the position of managing projects." Smith and Johnson held a series of workshops across the center during 2000 and 2001 to gather feedback about how to address this issue. When they briefed the center's senior management on their findings, one of the top recommendations was to establish a project manager development program at Ames. At that point, they cast a wide net for ideas and information. "We did centerwide needs assessment, we did focus groups, we did surveys," Smith says. "We came up with a proposal for what a program would look like, tying in what we knew about the Academy of Program1 Project Leadership (now the Academy for Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, or APPEL), what we've seen at other centers, what other centers have tried. We were always checking to make sure our program mapped to APPEL. We also looked at the PMI [Project Management Institute] model, INCOSE [International Council on Systems Engineering], CMMI [Capability Maturity Model Integration], you name it." "We had a lot of conversations with the Jet Propulsion Lab and Goddard," Johnson adds. "We saw those centers as models for what Ames was aspiring to be in terms of a center for managing space flight missions." Their research confirmed what they already knew-that strong practitioner involvement would be critical to their program design process. 'XPEX is for the practitioner by the practitioner," Smith says. "They have to be a part of designing it. Otherwise there's no way we could design a program that meets their needs." At the same time that they worked at the grassroots

  7. Control of Integrated Task Sequences Shapes Components of Reaching.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Priya; Whitall, Jill; Kagerer, Florian A

    2016-01-01

    Reaching toward an object usually consists of a sequence of elemental actions. Using a reaching task sequence, the authors investigated how task elements of that sequence affected feedforward and feedback components of the reaching phase of the movement. Nine right-handed adults performed, with their dominant and nondominant hands, 4 tasks of different complexities: a simple reaching task; a reach-to-grasp task; a reach-to-grasp and lift object task; and a reach-to-grasp, lift, and place object task. Results showed that in the reach-to-grasp and lift object task more time was allocated to the feedforward component of the reach phase, while latency between the task elements decreased. We also found between-hand differences, supporting previous findings of increased efficiency of processing planning-related information in the preferred hand. The presence of task-related modifications supports the concept of contextual effects when planning a movement. PMID:27254601

  8. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  9. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying

  10. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visible from Earth. This is known as its ‘occultation’ period. The spacecraft will re-emerge from behind Venus’s disc some ten minutes later. So, even with the low gain antenna’s signal, it will only be visible during the first half of the burn and the last six minutes. Receiving the spacecraft signal after the occultation period will be the first positive sign of successful orbit insertion. 11 April, h 11:13 (CEST), re-establish communication with Earth. At the end of the burn, Venus Express still has to perform a few automatic operations. These re-orient the solar panels towards the sun and one of the high gain antennas (the smaller High Gain Antenna 2) towards Earth. If everything goes as expected, at 11:13 the spacecraft should be able to establish its first communication link with ESA’s Cebreros ground station near Madrid. Over the next few hours, it will send much-awaited information about its state of health. Information about its actual trajectory will be available from ESOC’s flight dynamics team around 12:30 (CEST). 12 to 13 April 2006, full reactivation starts. During the 24 hours following orbital capture, time will be devoted to reactivating all spacecraft functions, including all internal monitoring capacity. By the morning of the 13th, the larger ‘High Gain Antenna 1, hitherto unused, will be oriented and fed by the transmitter to communicate with Earth. The two high gain antennas, located on different sides of the spacecraft, will be used alternately during the mission, to avoid exposure to the sun of critical equipment on the outside. Reaching final orbit A series of further manoeuvres and many more days will be required to settle Venus Express into its final orbit. The preliminary nine-day orbit is elliptical, ranging from 350 000 kilometres at its furthest point from the planet (apocentre) to less than 400 kilometres at its closest (pericentre). During

  11. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  12. Air quality implications of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Middlebrook, Ann M.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Atlas, Elliot L.; Bahreini, Roya; Blake, Donald R.; Brioude, Jerome; de Gouw, Joost A.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Frost, Gregory J.; Holloway, John S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lueb, Rich A.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Meagher, James F.; Meinardi, Simone; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.; Parrish, David D.; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne E.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Spackman, J. Ryan; Warneke, Carsten; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a wide range of gas and aerosol species were measured from an aircraft around, downwind, and away from the DWH site. Additional hydrocarbon measurements were made from ships in the vicinity. Aerosol particles of respirable sizes were on occasions a significant air quality issue for populated areas along the Gulf Coast. Yields of organic aerosol particles and emission factors for other atmospheric pollutants were derived for the sources from the spill, recovery, and cleanup efforts. Evaporation and subsequent secondary chemistry produced organic particulate matter with a mass yield of 8 ± 4% of the oil mixture reaching the water surface. Approximately 4% by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as soot particles. These yields can be used to estimate the effects on air quality for similar events as well as for this spill at other times without these data. Whereas emission of soot from burning surface oil was large during the episodic burns, the mass flux of secondary organic aerosol to the atmosphere was substantially larger overall. We use a regional air quality model to show that some observed enhancements in organic aerosol concentration along the Gulf Coast were likely due to the DWH spill. In the presence of evaporating hydrocarbons from the oil, NOx emissions from the recovery and cleanup operations produced ozone. PMID:22205764

  13. Air quality implications of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Middlebrook, Ann M; Murphy, Daniel M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Atlas, Elliot L; Bahreini, Roya; Blake, Donald R; Brioude, Jerome; de Gouw, Joost A; Fehsenfeld, Fred C; Frost, Gregory J; Holloway, John S; Lack, Daniel A; Langridge, Justin M; Lueb, Rich A; McKeen, Stuart A; Meagher, James F; Meinardi, Simone; Neuman, J Andrew; Nowak, John B; Parrish, David D; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne E; Pollack, Ilana B; Roberts, James M; Ryerson, Thomas B; Schwarz, Joshua P; Spackman, J Ryan; Warneke, Carsten; Ravishankara, A R

    2012-12-11

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a wide range of gas and aerosol species were measured from an aircraft around, downwind, and away from the DWH site. Additional hydrocarbon measurements were made from ships in the vicinity. Aerosol particles of respirable sizes were on occasions a significant air quality issue for populated areas along the Gulf Coast. Yields of organic aerosol particles and emission factors for other atmospheric pollutants were derived for the sources from the spill, recovery, and cleanup efforts. Evaporation and subsequent secondary chemistry produced organic particulate matter with a mass yield of 8 ± 4% of the oil mixture reaching the water surface. Approximately 4% by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as soot particles. These yields can be used to estimate the effects on air quality for similar events as well as for this spill at other times without these data. Whereas emission of soot from burning surface oil was large during the episodic burns, the mass flux of secondary organic aerosol to the atmosphere was substantially larger overall. We use a regional air quality model to show that some observed enhancements in organic aerosol concentration along the Gulf Coast were likely due to the DWH spill. In the presence of evaporating hydrocarbons from the oil, NO(x) emissions from the recovery and cleanup operations produced ozone. PMID:22205764

  14. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  15. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  16. Segmental Trunk Control Acquisition and Reaching in Typically Developing Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L.; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4–6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviours. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants that had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behaviour. PMID:23681292

  17. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-08-01

    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation. PMID:27014777

  18. ERF1 -- Enhanced River Reach File 1.2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Richard B.; Brakebill, John W.; Brew, Robert E.; Smith, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1) to ensure the hydrologic integrity of the digital reach traces and to quantify the mean water time of travel in river reaches and reservoirs [see USEPA (1996) for a description of the original RF1].

  19. On reaching the adiabatic limit in multi-field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaux-Petel, Sébastien; Turzyński, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the scalar spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in a class of recently proposed two-field no-scale inflationary models in supergravity. We show that, in order to obtain correct predictions, it is crucial to take into account the coupling between the curvature and the isocurvature perturbations induced by the noncanonical form of the kinetic terms. This coupling enhances the curvature perturbation and suppresses the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio to the per mille level even for values of the slow-roll parameter epsilon ~ 0.01. Beyond these particular models, we emphasise that multifield models of inflation are a priori not predictive, unless one supplies a prescription for the post-inflationary era, or an adiabatic limit is reached before the end of inflation. We examine the conditions that enabled us to actually derive predictions in the models under study, by analysing the various contributions to the effective isocurvature mass in general two-field inflationary models. In particular, we point out a universal geometrical contribution that is important at the end of inflation, and which can be directly extracted from the inflationary Lagrangian, independently of a specific trajectory. Eventually, we point out that spectator fields can lead to oscillatory features in the time-dependent power spectra at the end of inflation. We demonstrate how these features can be model semi-analytically as well as the theoretical uncertainties they can entail.

  20. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  1. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  2. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  3. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  4. Transport of Antarctic stratospheric strongly dehydrated air into the troposphere observed during the HALO-ESMVal mission 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, Christian; Afchine, Armin; Bozem, Heiko; Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Guggenmoser, Tobias; Hoor, Peter; Konopka, Paul; Kretschmer, Erik; Müller, Stefan; Schlager, Hans; Spelten, Nicole; Suminska-Ebersoldt, Olga; Ungermann, Jörn; Zahn, Andreas; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Dehydration in the Antarctic winter stratosphere is a well-known phenomenon and occasionally observed by ballon-borne and satellite measurements. However, in-situ measurements of dehydration in the Antarctic vortex are very rare. Here, we present detailed in-situ observations with the FISH, HAI, FAIRO, TRIHOP, and GLORIA payload aboard the new German aircraft HALO. Strongly dehydrated air masses down to 1.6 ppmv were observed in a region up to 47°S and at 12 to \\unit{13}{ km} altitude only, which has never been observed by satellites before. The dehydration can be traced back to individual ice formation events, where ice crystals sedimented out and water vapor was irreversibly removed. Within these dehydrated stratospheric air masses, filaments of moister air down to the tropopause are detected with the high resolution limb sounder GLORIA. Furthermore, dehydrated air masses are observed with GLORIA in the Antarctic troposphere down to \\unit{7}{ km}. With the help of a backward trajectory analysis, a tropospheric origin of the moist filaments in the vortex can be identified, while the dry air masses in the troposphere have stratospheric origin. The transport pathways of Antarctic stratosphere/troposphere exchange are investigated and the irrelevant role of the Antarctic thermal tropopause as a transport barrier is confirmed. Further, it is shown that the exchange process can be attributed to several successive Rossby wave events in combination with isentropic interchange of air masses crossing the weak tropopause and subsequent subsidence due to radiative cooling. Once transported to the troposphere, air masses are able to reach near surface levels within 1-2 months.

  5. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Angle-of-attack on the External Aerodynamics and Mass Capture of a Symmetric Three-engine Air-breathing Launch Vehicle Configuration at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Frate, Franco C.

    2001-01-01

    A subscale aerodynamic model of the GTX air-breathing launch vehicle was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 2.0 to 3.5 at various angles-of-attack. The objective of the test was to investigate the effect of angle-of-attack on inlet mass capture, inlet diverter effectiveness, and the flowfield at the cowl lip plane. The flow-through inlets were tested with and without boundary-layer diverters. Quantitative measurements such as inlet mass flow rates and pitot-pressure distributions in the cowl lip plane are presented. At a 3deg angle-of-attack, the flow rates for the top and side inlets were within 8 percent of the zero angle-of-attack value, and little distortion was evident at the cowl lip plane. Surface oil flow patterns showing the shock/boundary-layer interaction caused by the inlet spikes are shown. In addition to inlet data, vehicle forebody static pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and temperature-sensitive paint images to evaluate the boundary-layer transition are presented. Three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics calculations of the forebody flowfield are presented and show good agreement with the experimental static pressure distributions and boundary-layer profiles. With the boundary-layer diverters installed, no adverse aerodynamic phenomena were found that would prevent the inlets from operating at the required angles-of-attack. We recommend that phase 2 of the test program be initiated, where inlet contraction ratio and diverter geometry variations will be tested.

  7. Experimental study on the evaporative cooling of an air-cooled condenser with humidifying air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mao-Yu; Ho, Ching-Yen; Jang, Kuang-Jang; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiung

    2014-02-01

    Using six different materials to construct a water curtain, this study aims to determine the most effective spray cooling of an air cooled heat exchanger under wet conditions. The experiments were carried out at a mass flow rate of 0.005-0.01 kg/s (spraying water), an airspeed of 0.6-2.4 m/s and a run time of 0-72 h for the material degradation tests. The experimental results indicate that the cooling efficiency, the heat rejection, and the sprinkling density increase as the amount of spraying water increases, but, the air-flow of the condenser is reduced at the same time. In addition, the cooling efficiency of the pads decreases with an increase of the inlet air velocity. In terms of experimental range, the natural wood pulp fiberscan can reach 42.7-66 % for cooling efficiency and 17.17-24.48 % for increases of heat rejection. This means that the natural wood pulp fiberscan pad most effectively enhances cooling performance, followed in terms of cooling effectiveness by the special non-woven rayon pad, the woollen blanket, biochemistry cotton and kapok, non-woven cloth of rayon cotton and kapok, and white cotton pad, respectively. However, the natural wood pulp fiberscan and special non-woven rayon display a relatively greater degradation of the cooling efficiency than the other test pads used in the material degradation tests.

  8. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  9. Mass composition measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Bueno, L.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiment built so far. It is a hybrid detector, since it measures both the fluorescence light emitted while the air showers develop in the atmosphere and the particles reaching the ground. We present the results related to the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays as obtained from both types of measurements. The depth at which the maximum of the electromagnetic development takes place and its fluctuations are the most sensitive parameters to infer the nature of the cosmic rays. In addition, we present the latest muon measurements that can be used to test and constrain models of hadronic interactions at energies larger than those reached at LHC.

  10. Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2012-03-01

    This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers—the capital newspaper Diário de Notícias ( Daily News) and the Diário dos Açores ( Azores Daily). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout Europe, was reported by the capital newspaper, and how news on seismology were conveyed in the period 1907-1910 in the newspaper published in Azores, an archipelago with a significant seismic and volcanic activity. We argue that the importance conceded to these scientific news was related to their overwhelming features, that their dissimilar presentation stemmed from their local relevance allied to their different nature, predictable in the case of eclipses, and unpredictable in the case of earthquakes, and that behind these two instances of science journalism laid an attempt by the scientific and political communities to gain the support of the general public to such an extent that these two specific instances of science journalism transcended their usual features to become successful forms of expository science.

  11. Reaching the Masses: Marketing a Library Instruction Course to Incoming Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Mollie D.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the redesign of a freshman-level course in information literacy, information technology, and library research skills at Central Missouri State University that resulted in an increase in student enrollment. Supports the conclusion that marketing and promotion resulted in higher enrollment figures. (Author/LRW)

  12. GAS-LIQUID MASS TRANSFER ALONG SMALL SEWER REACHES. (R827930)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. CLOSURE TO: GAS-LIQUID MASS TRANSFER ALONG SMALL SEWER REACHES. (R827930)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout…

  15. News at Nine: The value of near-real time data for reaching mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Ward, K.; Simmon, R. B.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.; Voiland, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is an online publication featuring NASA Earth science news and images. Since its inception in 1999, the EO team has relied heavily on near-real time satellite data to publish imagery of breaking news events, such as volcanoes, floods, fires, and dust storms. Major news outlets (Associated Press, The Weather Channel, CNN, etc.) have regularly republished Earth Observatory imagery in their coverage of events. Because of the nature of modern 24-hour news cycle, media almost always want near-real time coverage; providing it depends heavily on rapid data turnaround, user-friendly data systems, and fast data access. We will discuss how we use near-real time data and provide examples of how data systems have been transformed in the past 13 years. We will offer some thoughts on best practices (from the view of a user) in expedited data systems and the positive effect of those practices on public awareness of our content.. Finally, we will share how we work with science teams to see the potential stories in their data and the value of providing the data in a timely fashionAcquired October 9, 2010, this natural-color image shows the toxic sludge spill from an alumina plant in southern Hungary.

  16. Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

  17. Kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements underwater: Neutral buoyancy effects.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, T; Bourdin, C; Buloup, F; Mille, M-L; Sainton, P; Sarlegna, F R; Taillebot, V; Vercher, J-L; Weiss, P; Bringoux, L

    2016-07-01

    Astronauts' training is conventionally performed in a pool to reproduce weightlessness by exploiting buoyancy which is supposed to reduce the impact of gravity on the body. However, this training method has not been scientifically validated yet, and requires first to study the effects of underwater exposure on motor behavior. We examined the influence of neutral buoyancy on kinematic features of whole-body reaching underwater and compared them with those produced on land. Eight professional divers were asked to perform arm reaching movements toward visual targets while standing. Targets were presented either close or far from the subjects (requiring in the latter case an additional whole-body displacement). Reaching movements were performed on land or underwater in two different contexts of buoyancy. The divers either wore a diving suit only with neutral buoyancy applied to their center of mass or were additionally equipped with a submersible simulated space suit with neutral buoyancy applied to their body limbs. Results showed that underwater exposure impacted basic movement features, especially movement speed which was reduced. However, movement kinematics also differed according to the way buoyancy was exerted on the whole-body. When neutral buoyancy was applied to the center of mass only, some focal and postural components of whole-body reaching remained close to land observations, notably when considering the relative deceleration duration of arm elevation and concomitant forward trunk bending when reaching the far target. On the contrary, when neutral buoyancy was exerted on body segments, movement kinematics were close to those reported in weightlessness, as reflected by the arm deceleration phase and the whole-body forward displacement when reaching the far target. These results suggest that astronauts could benefit from the application of neutral buoyancy across the whole-body segments to optimize underwater training and acquire specific motor skills which

  18. Reduction of noxious substance emissions at the pulverized fuel combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the Almaty heat electropower station using the "Overfire Air" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maximov, V. Yu.; Yergalieva, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The computational experiments using the "Overfire Air" (OFA) technology at the coal dust torch combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the heat power plant No. 2 in Almaty have been conducted. The results show a possibility of reaching a reduction of the emission of noxious nitrogen oxides NO x and minimizing the energy losses. The results of numerical experiments on the influence of the additional air supply on the main characteristics of heat and mass transfer are presented. A comparison with the base regime of the solid fuel combustion when there is no supply of the additional air (OFA = 0 %) has been made.

  19. Validating CAR - A comparison study of experimentally-derived and computer-generated reach envelopes. [Crewstation Assessment of Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R.; Bennett, J.; Stokes, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the present investigation, Crewstation Assessment of Reach (CAR) results in the form of male hand reach envelopes were generated and compared with an anthropometric survey performed by Kennedy (1978) to determine the extent of the validity of the CAR model with respect to experimentally-derived anthropometric data. The CAR-generated reach envelopes extensively matched the Kennedy envelopes. The match was particularly good in the areas to the front and side from which the reach originated. Attention is given to the crewstation model, the operator sample population, the CAR analysis, aspects of validation methodology, and the modeling of experimental parameters.

  20. Fortuitous consequence: The domestic politics of the 1991 Canada-United States agreement on air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    Following more than a decade of negotiations, the Canada-United States Agreement on Air Quality entered into force on March 13, 1991, with the signatures of then-Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and US President George Bush. Why was it so difficult for Canadian and US negotiators to reach agreement? The author argues that Canadian and US domestic politics were the primary impediments to resolving the US-Canada acid rain dispute. This article thus casts the dispute in terms of a pair of domestic environmental policy problems, whose timely and complementary solution, furthermore, required executive initiative as the handmaiden of ecological crisis. Heightened public concern about the threat of acidic air pollution in Canada prompted Mulroney's efforts to reduce acid rain. In the US, a likewise critical change in the public's perception of air quality as a national emergency created the mass support necessary for Bush's federal acid rain control initiative.

  1. Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

  2. Reference frames for reach planning in macaque dorsal premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Batista, Aaron P; Santhanam, Gopal; Yu, Byron M; Ryu, Stephen I; Afshar, Afsheen; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2007-08-01

    When a human or animal reaches out to grasp an object, the brain rapidly computes a pattern of muscular contractions that can acquire the target. This computation involves a reference frame transformation because the target's position is initially available only in a visual reference frame, yet the required control signal is a set of commands to the musculature. One of the core brain areas involved in visually guided reaching is the dorsal aspect of the premotor cortex (PMd). Using chronically implanted electrode arrays in two Rhesus monkeys, we studied the contributions of PMd to the reference frame transformation for reaching. PMd neurons are influenced by the locations of reach targets relative to both the arm and the eyes. Some neurons encode reach goals using limb-centered reference frames, whereas others employ eye-centered reference fames. Some cells encode reach goals in a reference frame best described by the combined position of the eyes and hand. In addition to neurons like these where a reference frame could be identified, PMd also contains cells that are influenced by both the eye- and limb-centered locations of reach goals but for which a distinct reference frame could not be determined. We propose two interpretations for these neurons. First, they may encode reach goals using a reference frame we did not investigate, such as intrinsic reference frames. Second, they may not be adequately characterized by any reference frame. PMID:17581846

  3. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

  4. Infants' Predictive Reaching for Moving Objects in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen infants were presented with a moving object under two lighting conditions to investigate the role of vision in early reaching. Infants were tested twice, at 5 and 7.5 months of age. The results suggest that proprioceptive feedback and sight of the target allowed for successful reaching with limited visual information, even in relatively…

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  6. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  7. Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    With a mass at least six orders of magnitudes smaller than the mass of an electron – but non-zero – neutrinos are a clear misfit in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. On the one hand, its tiny mass makes the neutrino one of the most interesting particles, one that might hold the key to physics beyond the Standard Model. On the other hand this minute mass leads to great challenges in its experimental determination. Three approaches are currently pursued: An indirect neutrino mass determination via cosmological observables, the search for neutrinoless double β-decay, and a direct measurement based on the kinematics of single β-decay. In this paper the latter will be discussed in detail and the status and scientific reach of the current and near-future experiments will be presented.

  8. In-Line Reactions and Ionizations of Vaporized Diphenylchloroarsine and Diphenylcyanoarsine in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2016-07-01

    We propose detecting a fragment ion (Ph2As+) using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for sensitive air monitoring of chemical warfare vomiting agents diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and diphenylcyanoarsine (DC). The liquid sample containing of DA, DC, and bis(diphenylarsine)oxide (BDPAO) was heated in a dry air line, and the generated vapor was mixed into the humidified air flowing through the sampling line of a mass spectrometer. Humidity effect on the air monitoring was investigated by varying the humidity of the analyzed air sample. Evidence of the in-line conversion of DA and DC to diphenylarsine hydroxide (DPAH) and then BDPAO was obtained by comparing the chronograms of various ions from the beginning of heating. Multiple-stage mass spectrometry revealed that the protonated molecule (MH+) of DA, DC, DPAH, and BDPAO could produce Ph2As+ through their in-source fragmentation. Among the signals of the ions that were investigated, the Ph2As+ signal was the most intense and increased to reach a plateau with the increased air humidity, whereas the MH+ signal of DA decreased. It was suggested that DA and DC were converted in-line into BDPAO, which was a major source of Ph2As+.

  9. In-Line Reactions and Ionizations of Vaporized Diphenylchloroarsine and Diphenylcyanoarsine in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2016-07-01

    We propose detecting a fragment ion (Ph2As(+)) using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for sensitive air monitoring of chemical warfare vomiting agents diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and diphenylcyanoarsine (DC). The liquid sample containing of DA, DC, and bis(diphenylarsine)oxide (BDPAO) was heated in a dry air line, and the generated vapor was mixed into the humidified air flowing through the sampling line of a mass spectrometer. Humidity effect on the air monitoring was investigated by varying the humidity of the analyzed air sample. Evidence of the in-line conversion of DA and DC to diphenylarsine hydroxide (DPAH) and then BDPAO was obtained by comparing the chronograms of various ions from the beginning of heating. Multiple-stage mass spectrometry revealed that the protonated molecule (MH(+)) of DA, DC, DPAH, and BDPAO could produce Ph2As(+) through their in-source fragmentation. Among the signals of the ions that were investigated, the Ph2As(+) signal was the most intense and increased to reach a plateau with the increased air humidity, whereas the MH(+) signal of DA decreased. It was suggested that DA and DC were converted in-line into BDPAO, which was a major source of Ph2As(+). Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27098411

  10. In-Line Reactions and Ionizations of Vaporized Diphenylchloroarsine and Diphenylcyanoarsine in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2016-04-01

    We propose detecting a fragment ion (Ph2As+) using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for sensitive air monitoring of chemical warfare vomiting agents diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and diphenylcyanoarsine (DC). The liquid sample containing of DA, DC, and bis(diphenylarsine)oxide (BDPAO) was heated in a dry air line, and the generated vapor was mixed into the humidified air flowing through the sampling line of a mass spectrometer. Humidity effect on the air monitoring was investigated by varying the humidity of the analyzed air sample. Evidence of the in-line conversion of DA and DC to diphenylarsine hydroxide (DPAH) and then BDPAO was obtained by comparing the chronograms of various ions from the beginning of heating. Multiple-stage mass spectrometry revealed that the protonated molecule (MH+) of DA, DC, DPAH, and BDPAO could produce Ph2As+ through their in-source fragmentation. Among the signals of the ions that were investigated, the Ph2As+ signal was the most intense and increased to reach a plateau with the increased air humidity, whereas the MH+ signal of DA decreased. It was suggested that DA and DC were converted in-line into BDPAO, which was a major source of Ph2As+.

  11. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  12. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  13. Steelhead Spawning Surveys Near Locke Island, Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist,; Mueller, RP

    1999-10-19

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed upper Columbia River steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus znykiss) as endangered. This action affected management of land-use activities along and within the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which flows through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Steelhead covered in this listing include all naturally spawned populations of steel-head and their progeny in streams in the Columbia River Basin upstream from the Yakima River to the United States/Canada border. The NMFS has identified a general listing of activities that could potentially result in harm to steelhead (62 FR 43937, August 18, 1997). One of these concerns includes land-use changes resulting in mass wasting or surface erosion. Landslide activity along the White Bluffs on the east ,side of Locke Island has redirected river flow into the island where substantial erosion has occurred. This erosion has exposed important anthropological and archaeological resources that were previously buried on the island. The DOE is working with affected tribes and other agencies to develop a plan for addressing the erosion of Locke Island. As part of this effort, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has prepared an assessment of potential alternatives to stabilize the erosion, including a no-action alternative. Steelhead historically spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island, but recent information on the occurrence of steelhead spawning or availability of spawning habitat was lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if steelhead spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island erosion and to evaluate the composition of substrate in the affected area. Surveys to document the occurrence of steelheads redds were conducted in Spring 1999. The surveys were conducted from the air as well as with the use of an underwater video camera. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented steelhead spawning within the survey area. Habitat surveys were

  14. The Effect of Charge Reactive Metal Cases on Air Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wilson, William H.

    2009-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a 23 m3 closed chamber using a charge encased in a cylindrical reactive metal case to study the effect on air blast from the case fragments. Parameters varied included case/charge mass ratio, charge diameter and charge type (i.e., detonation energy and pressure). The pressure histories measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock followed by the primary shock, suggesting the early-time reaction of small case fragments. During the early reflections on the chamber wall, significant pressure rises versus the steel-cased and bare charges indicated combustion of a large amount of small case particles generated by secondary fragmentation. The analysis of explosion pressures and recovered fragments and solid products gave an expression for burnt casing mass as a function of Gurney velocity and charge diameter. The equivalent bare charge mass that yields the same explosion pressure as the cased charge increased with case/charge mass ratio and reached 2.5 times charge mass at the ratio of 1.75.

  15. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  16. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  17. Proprioceptive