Science.gov

Sample records for air medical evacuation

  1. Laryngeal Cuff Force Application Modeling During Air Medical Evacuation Simulation.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, David; Eisenbrey, Arthur B; Pettengill, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal tubes are intended to protect the airway and assist with mechanical ventilation in sedated patients. The blood vessels of the tracheal mucosa can be compressed by high tracheal tube cuff pressures (> 30 cm H2O), leading to reduced mucosal blood flow with resulting ischemia and morbidity. Previous research showed a direct correlation between aircraft pressure altitude and the pressure reading from the tracheal cuff, with resulting pressures > 80 cm H2O at 10,000 ft. Standard practice is to periodically remove air from the cuff during ascent based on assumed increased pressure on the adjacent tracheal mucosa. Using a vacuum chamber and a direct reading micropressure sensor in a 22-mm-diameter semirigid tube, we assessed the direct force applied by the tracheal cuff against the laryngeal tube analog. Standard tracheal cuffs showed direct force/pressure relationships when properly inflated to 20 cm H2O but much less than reported in the literature. Current literature reports values of 55 to 150 cm H2O at 5,000 ft, whereas we report 23 to 25 cm H2O. Our data indicate that a properly inflated cuff does not exceed the critical pressure of 30 cm H2O until the altitude exceeds 8,000 ft. Thus, the standard practice of deflating the laryngeal cuff on ascent should be reconsidered because it may be counterproductive to patient safety. PMID:27637439

  2. [Ways of optimization of air-medical evacuation of wounded and ill patients during the armed conflict].

    PubMed

    An, R N; Ivantsov, V A; Shelepov, A M; Sidel'nikov, V O; Tiurin, M V; Adzhegitov, A Iu; Kravtsov, S N; Chmyrev, I V; Miliutin, D V

    2007-06-01

    The article is devoted to the experience of airmedical evacuation struck during operations in territory of the Chechen Republic of 1999-2002. We consider, that optimal medical-evacuation system in local wars, local fight actions and battles consists only two stages, then victim after first physician aid is evacuated to specialized medical unit. Own experience of preflight preparation and support is generalized and analysed at carrying out of airmedical evacuation of 928 critically wounded patients and the struck on tactical, operative and strategic levels during a confrontation in territory of the Chechen Republic (1999-2002).

  3. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 1842.7003 - Emergency medical services and evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7003 Emergency medical services and evacuation. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.242-78, Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation, in all solicitations and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency medical...

  7. 48 CFR 1842.7003 - Emergency medical services and evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7003 Emergency medical services and evacuation. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.242-78, Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation, in all solicitations and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency medical...

  8. 75 FR 49507 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.4, Emergency Medical Care and Medical Evacuations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy, RP9525.4, Emergency Medical Care and Medical..., Emergency Medical Care and Medical Evacuations. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to... policy identifies the extraordinary emergency medical care and medical evacuation expenses that...

  9. [Provision of medical care to the wounded with craniocerebral injuries at stages of medical evacuation in mountains and desert areas].

    PubMed

    Orlov, V P

    2015-01-01

    The author shows that surgery with craniocerebral injuries should be fully performed at the stage of specialized medical care. Wounded have to be evacuated not earlier than 5-7 days after surgery with the mandatory use of a special air transport ("Scalpel" or "Spasatel"), accompanied by Anaesthetist. In the absence of the possibility of surgery in 5-7 days at this stage the wounded have to be evacuated by air to the center hospitals. On the stage there are only patients requiring specialized care because of health reasons. Wounded with gunshot wounds of the soft tissues of the head, and those with mild forms of brain damage during the explosive and combat injury (concussion, mild brain contusion) can be evacuated by air transport accompanied by a doctor or paramedic at any period of time after the injury (trauma).

  10. Air evacuation under high-level biosafety containment: the aeromedical isolation team.

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, G. W.; Eitzen, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Military contingency operations in tropical environments and potential use of biological weapons by adversaries may place troops at risk for potentially lethal contagious infections (e.g., viral hemorrhagic fevers, plague, and zoonotic poxvirus infections). Diagnosis and treatment of such infections would be expedited by evacuating a limited number of patients to a facility with containment laboratories. To safely evacuate such patients by military aircraft and minimize the risk for transmission to air crews, caregivers, and civilians, the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases maintains an aeromedical isolation team. This rapid response team, which has worldwide airlift capability designed to evacuate and manage patients under high-level containment, also offers a portable containment laboratory, limited environmental decontamination, and specialized consultative expertise. This article also examines technical aspects of the team's equipment, training, capabilities, and deployments. PMID:10221876

  11. Registered nurses as permanent members of medical evacuation crews: the critical link.

    PubMed

    Wissemann, Michael W; Vanfosson, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Medical evacuation has changed form the experiences of the past decade of combat operations. Much of the focus of the medical support in the combat zone is now critical care during evacuation, which is, and will continue to be, a very successful, life-saving asset. The assignment of Army critical care or trauma nurses to medical evacuation units is consistent with the recognition that the medical evacuation system is a truly vital asset in the success of today's American military. Our NATO allies, and our sister services, rely heavily on the availability, reliability, and especially continuity of care of the Arm medical evacuation system. It is time to upgrade the system of evacuation and provide our Warriors with the greatest possibilities of survival. Army nurses trained in critical care and trauma nursing are best suited to provide that continuity of care. PMID:23007941

  12. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... assignment, for hospital emergency medical evacuation service helicopter operations unless that...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.242-78 - Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Evacuation. 1852.242-78 Section 1852.242-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.242-78 Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation. As prescribed in 1842.7003, insert the following clause: Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation—April 2001 The Contractor...

  14. 48 CFR 728.307-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). 728.307-70 Section 728.307-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY...-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). The Contracting Officer shall insert the...

  15. 48 CFR 728.307-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). 728.307-70 Section 728.307-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY...-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). The Contracting Officer shall insert the...

  16. Expatriate clinics and medical evacuation companies are a growth industry worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Roselieb, Marcus; Hanvesakul, Rekha; Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Pruksapong, Chumsak

    2003-01-01

    Globalization and the growth of tourism, which now includes "adventure" visits to very remote regions, has created new employment but also new problems. For example, elderly tourists break their hips where there is no competent orthopedic surgeon, a traveler gets bitten by a cobra in rural Cambodia where there is not even an "Ambu" bag to keep him oxygenated, and a tour guide develops high-altitude cerebral edema on a remote Nepalese mountain. What would we do without organizations that are capable of removing such victims rapidly and safely to a place able to provide appropriate medical care? Fortunately, several well-staffed and well-equipped air ambulance companies stand ready almost worldwide to help 24 hours a day. Medical assistance firms, which sell their own travel insurance and/or act as agents of large insurance companies, are also at hand and have offices in major cities worldwide. They have 24-hour telephone numbers and are prepared to advise a sick or injured traveler where he or she should go to obtain competent medical care. Most of these firms have regional medical advisors in strategic locations who maintain a network of contacts. They can ensure that an ill traveler is receiving appropriate care and will act as quality controllers. They are also able to advise whether medical evacuation to a higher level of care is needed and where the traveler should be evacuated to.

  17. [Organization of anesthesia management and advanced life support at military medical evacuation levels].

    PubMed

    Shchegolev, A V; Petrakov, V A; Savchenko, I F

    2014-07-01

    Anesthesia management and advanced life support for the severely wounded personnel at military medical evacuation levels in armed conflict (local war) is time-consuming and resource-requiring task. One of the mathematical modeling methods was used to evaluate capabilities of anesthesia and intensive care units at tactical level. Obtained result allows us to tell that there is a need to make several system changes of the existing system of anesthesia management and advanced life support for the severely wounded personnel at military medical evacuation levels. In addition to increasing number of staff of anesthesiology-critical care during the given period of time another solution should be the creation of an early evacuation to a specialized medical care level by special means while conducting intensive monitoring and treatment.

  18. [Medical and technical means for united circle of evacuation measures in military-medical organisations of the Ministry of Defence].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Shchegolev, A V; Vertii, B D

    2015-06-01

    Experts of the medical service of the Armed Forces carried out an analysis of capabilities of modern Russian enterprises and their innovative projects regarding creation of unified means of evacuation of wounded and providing to them necessary types of emergency care with the use of existing and future special and regular means of transport for medical evacuation. As a result of the work of industrial enterprises of the OAO Kazan "Vertoletniy Zavod", "Zarechie", "Vysota" was created a device for the medical evacuation of severe wounded patients. The device is designed for medical evacuation of severe wounded patients from the military medical unit to the site providing comprehensive medical care with maintenance of vital functions and monitoring of his condition. Testing was conducted on the products of regular vehicles medical company of one of the brigades of the Western Military District. The device was presented at the special tactical exercises the Armed Forces Medical Service "Frontier-2014", "Innovation Day" of the Defence Ministry in 2014.

  19. [Medical and technical means for united circle of evacuation measures in military-medical organisations of the Ministry of Defence].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Shchegolev, A V; Vertii, B D

    2015-06-01

    Experts of the medical service of the Armed Forces carried out an analysis of capabilities of modern Russian enterprises and their innovative projects regarding creation of unified means of evacuation of wounded and providing to them necessary types of emergency care with the use of existing and future special and regular means of transport for medical evacuation. As a result of the work of industrial enterprises of the OAO Kazan "Vertoletniy Zavod", "Zarechie", "Vysota" was created a device for the medical evacuation of severe wounded patients. The device is designed for medical evacuation of severe wounded patients from the military medical unit to the site providing comprehensive medical care with maintenance of vital functions and monitoring of his condition. Testing was conducted on the products of regular vehicles medical company of one of the brigades of the Western Military District. The device was presented at the special tactical exercises the Armed Forces Medical Service "Frontier-2014", "Innovation Day" of the Defence Ministry in 2014. PMID:26442308

  20. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements §...

  1. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements §...

  2. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements §...

  3. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements §...

  4. [Experience in development of deployment tools of medical evacuation stages].

    PubMed

    Korniushko, I G; Ikovlev, S V; Medvedev, V R; Sidorov, V A

    2011-11-01

    Paper is devoted to the history of creation of various types of field installations of the tent, mobile medical units and facilities, the experience of their usage in combat. An analysis of approaches to medical support of troops and equipment of the medical service in accordance with the changing nature of military operations in the XX-XI centuries is performed. Description of several generations of means taken to supply is given. PMID:22329176

  5. [Hurricane Ike and the University of Texas Medical Branch Hospital's evacuation].

    PubMed

    Maybauer, D M; Megna, M; Kafka, G; Maybauer, M O

    2009-12-01

    In September 2008 the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston was threatened by Hurricane Ike. The incident commander decided to evacuate the hospital. This is a report on how this was accomplished and the lessons learned. An adequate disaster preparedness plan, sufficient logistics, a comprehensive incident command center and the use of complex communication systems were crucial for success. Within 11 h a total of 469 patients had been evacuated using 143 ambulances, 23 helicopters, 2 fixed wing aircraft, buses and numerous passenger vans. The authors encourage physicians, as responsible members of the health care team, to be prepared to respond to disasters.

  6. A new device for evacuating air from the cardiac chambers.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, B T

    1993-01-01

    A new device has been developed to provide complete de-airing of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass. The apparatus consists of a special aspiration needle threaded to the bottom of a transparent bulb. A 1-way flutter valve is mounted at the top of the bulb, which creates a vacuum when the bulb is squeezed. This device has been used in 4 adults and 2 children, for both congenital and acquired heart disease. Preliminary results have shown that this device's active suctioning of air results in effective removal of air from the cardiac chambers; the transparent bulb enables the surgeon to visually determine that the de-airing procedure is complete. PMID:8219828

  7. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have

  8. International Organization for Migration: experience on the need for medical evacuation of refugees during the Kosovo crisis in 1999.

    PubMed

    Szilard, Istvan; Cserti, Arpad; Hoxha, Ruhija; Gorbacheva, Olga; O'Rourke, Thomas

    2002-04-01

    The International Organization for Migration (IOM) developed and implemented a three-month project entitled Priority Medical Screening of Kosovar Refugees in Macedonia, within the Humanitarian Evacuation Program (HEP) for Kosovar refugees from FR Yugoslavia, which was adopted in May 1999. The project was based on an agreement with the office of United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and comprised the entry of registration data of refugees with medical condition (Priority Medical Database), and classification (Priority Medical Screening) and medical evacuation of refugees (Priority Medical Evacuation) in Macedonia. To realize the Priority Medical Screening project plan, IOM developed and set up a Medical Database linked to IOM/UNHCR HEP database, recruited and trained a four-member data entry team, worked out and set up a referral system for medical cases from the refugee camps, and established and staffed medical contact office for refugees in Skopje and Tetovo. Furthermore, it organized and staffed a mobile medical screening team, developed and implemented the system and criteria for the classification of referred medical cases, continuously registered and classified the incoming medical reports, contacted regularly the national delegates and referred to them the medically prioritized cases asking for acceptance and evacuation, and co-operated and continuously exchanged the information with UNHCR Medical Co-ordination and HEP team. Within the timeframe of the project, 1,032 medical cases were successfully evacuated for medical treatment to 25 host countries throughout the world. IOM found that those refugees suffering from health problems, who at the time of the termination of the program were still in Macedonia and had not been assisted by the project, were not likely to have been priority one cases, whose health problems could be solved only in a third country. The majority of these vulnerable people needed social rather than medical care and

  9. Misoprostol use in medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage: Pilot drug use evaluation study at the Women's Hospital in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    ElSalem, Samah A.; AlSaad, Doua T.; Abdulrouf, Palli V.; Ahmed, Afif A.; AlHail, Moza S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 that induces cervical effacement and uterine contractions at all gestational ages, thus facilitating uterine evacuation and pregnancy termination. Successful medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage with minimal adverse effects can be performed using misoprostol-only regimen if given as indicated and if the administered dose, frequency of the dosage, and number of total doses are appropriate. Aim: To conduct a drug use evaluation by investigating indications, appropriateness of dosing, and clinical outcome of misoprostol-only regimen when used for medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage at the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Materials and methods: A retrospective descriptive drug use evaluation was conducted on women with spontaneous miscarriage who received misoprostol for medical evacuation during August 2013. The current practice at the Women's Hospital was compared with the recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients were stratified into three groups based on weeks of amenorrhea. Results: A total of 107 patients received misoprostol during August 2013, of which 33 (31%) were included in the study. In these patients, the main indication for misoprostol use was missed miscarriage (54.5%). In the group of patients at ≤ 9 weeks of gestation, 80% received an initial dose of 800 μg, 80% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and the majority had surgical evacuation (80%). In the group of patients at 10–12 weeks of gestation, more than 80% received an initial dose of 800 μg, 6% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and more than 75% had successful medical evacuation. In the group of patients at 13–22 weeks of gestation, more than 80% received an initial dose of 400 μg, more than 80% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and 54% had successful medical evacuation. Overall, more than 70% of the patients received ≤ 3 total doses of

  10. Air medical evacuations from a developing world conflict zone.

    PubMed

    Low, Adam; Vadera, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Somalia has been without effective government for close to two decades, with more than 1 million people internally displaced. The political unrest persists, with United Nations-backed African Union peacekeeping forces supporting the Transitional National government of Sharif Ahmed, struggling to maintain control of central Mogadishu from Islamist extremist groups, such as the reportedly Al-Qaeda-backed Al-Shabab. The African Union force of 5,000 troops is predominantly of Ugandan and Burundian origin, making up the African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) effort. However, its mandate is limited to operations only in Mogadishu, and it is unauthorized to actively pursue insurgents. As with other ongoing high-profile conflicts, African Union troops face an enemy that blends into the civilian populace, fighting with a lethal mixture of improvised explosive devices and suicide bombers. PMID:22055174

  11. A simple technique for evacuating air bubbles with scum from the bladder dome during transurethral resection of bladder tumor.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Hideki; Moriyama, Shingo; Chiba, Koji; Noro, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Air bubbles floating in the bladder dome during transurethral resection of a bladder tumor can interfere with the resection, causing intravesical explosion and increasing the potential risk of tumor cell reimplantation. We describe a simple and effective technique for evacuating air bubbles from the bladder dome using routine resectoscopes. First, the beak of the resectoscope is positioned near the air bubble in the bladder dome. Second, the drainage channel of the resectoscope is closed. Third, the irrigation tube is detached from the irrigation channel, and then the channel is opened. Subsequently, the air bubble with entangled scum will be retrogradely aspirated from the beak of the resectoscope to the irrigation channel. Reversing the direction of the water stream enables evacuation of the air bubble with the scum under direct vision. This simple and effective technique may assist surgeons and ensure the safety of patients during a transurethral procedure. PMID:25562002

  12. Design of rapid medical evacuation system for trauma patients resulting from biological and chemical terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Frieder, Russell S; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Renfroe, David; Myers, Will J; Harvey, L Williams

    2006-01-01

    In the event of a large scale, biological or chemical terrorist attack it is unlikely that local emergency response organizations will have sufficient quantities of dedicated ambulances to evacuate all of the affected victims. As a potential solution to this problem, we have developed a device that can be retrofitted to a variety of government or civilian utility vehicles in order to convert them for emergency medical transport (US Pat. 7,028,351). Each installed device allows the host vehicle to safely transport either a single patient on a stretcher or multiple ambulatory patients. Additionally, each device provides a means for temporary or permanent attachment of emergency medical equipment. When not in use, the device can be collapsed to improve ease and efficiency of storage. Preliminary analyses of certain highly loaded structures on the device were carried out using known principles of solid mechanics. The analyses were carried out assuming the highest reasonable loading condition. This condition was determined to occur when the device is configured for the transport three 95(th) percentile males and 20 kg of medical equipment. This loading condition was assumed to be more severe than any that might occur due to an attendant performing CPR, or any other medical procedures, on a single supine patient. The base sections of the load bearing stretcher supports were then modeled using 3D CAD software and run through a finite element analysis (FEA) as a means to more accurately simulate the stresses that are likely to occur in the actual parts. As the device must be highly mobile, these analyses were used to confirm that the load bearing structures can be manufactured from low cost materials and still be light enough to be easily transported. Future work will include sizing and installation studies to ensure that the production version of the device can be rapidly implemented in a wide variety of private, commercial, and government utility vehicles.

  13. 48 CFR 1852.242-78 - Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evacuation, if required, for its employees while performing work under this contract outside the United States or in remote locations in the United States. If necessary to deal with certain emergencies,...

  14. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  15. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services. PMID:21226561

  16. Medical relief activities, medical resourcing, and inpatient evacuation conducted by Nippon Medical School due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsushi; Fuse, Akira; Hagiwara, Jun; Matsumoto, Gaku; Shiraishi, Shinichiro; Masuno, Tomohiko; Miyauchi, Masato; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the government declared a nuclear emergency following damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A second hydrogen explosion occurred on March 14 at the plant's No. 3 reactor and injured 11 people. At that time the prime minister urged people living 20 to 30 km from the Daiichi plant to stay indoors. Under these circumstances, many residents of Iwaki City, which was largely outside the 30-km zone, left the city, making it difficult to get supplies to the remaining residents. The only transportation route open for supplies and medical resources was roads, and many drivers feared the rumor that the city was contaminated by radioactive materials and, so, refused to go there. Nippon Medical School (NMS) heard that medical resources were running short at Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital, which requested water, medications, food, fuel (gasoline), medical support, and the evacuation of 300 inpatients. As a first step, NMS decided to evaluate the situation at the hospital and, on March 16, the director of the NMS Advanced Emergency Center visited the hospital and helped provide triage for about 200 patients. Critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support were given priority for evacuation because they would be most at risk of not being able to evacuate should the Japanese government order an immediate evacuation of the city. We tried to evacuate the inpatients via an official framework, such as the Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), but DMAT could not support this mission because this hospital was not within the 30-km evacuation zone. Moreover, the Iwaki City government could not support the evacuation efforts because they were fearful of the rumor that Iwaki was contaminated by radioactive material. Ultimately, we realized that we had to conduct the mission ourselves and, so, contacted our colleagues in the Tokyo metropolitan area to prepare enough hospital beds. We evacuated 15 patients

  17. Medical relief activities, medical resourcing, and inpatient evacuation conducted by Nippon Medical School due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsushi; Fuse, Akira; Hagiwara, Jun; Matsumoto, Gaku; Shiraishi, Shinichiro; Masuno, Tomohiko; Miyauchi, Masato; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the government declared a nuclear emergency following damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A second hydrogen explosion occurred on March 14 at the plant's No. 3 reactor and injured 11 people. At that time the prime minister urged people living 20 to 30 km from the Daiichi plant to stay indoors. Under these circumstances, many residents of Iwaki City, which was largely outside the 30-km zone, left the city, making it difficult to get supplies to the remaining residents. The only transportation route open for supplies and medical resources was roads, and many drivers feared the rumor that the city was contaminated by radioactive materials and, so, refused to go there. Nippon Medical School (NMS) heard that medical resources were running short at Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital, which requested water, medications, food, fuel (gasoline), medical support, and the evacuation of 300 inpatients. As a first step, NMS decided to evaluate the situation at the hospital and, on March 16, the director of the NMS Advanced Emergency Center visited the hospital and helped provide triage for about 200 patients. Critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support were given priority for evacuation because they would be most at risk of not being able to evacuate should the Japanese government order an immediate evacuation of the city. We tried to evacuate the inpatients via an official framework, such as the Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), but DMAT could not support this mission because this hospital was not within the 30-km evacuation zone. Moreover, the Iwaki City government could not support the evacuation efforts because they were fearful of the rumor that Iwaki was contaminated by radioactive material. Ultimately, we realized that we had to conduct the mission ourselves and, so, contacted our colleagues in the Tokyo metropolitan area to prepare enough hospital beds. We evacuated 15 patients

  18. Damage control surgery and casualty evacuation: techniques for surgeons, lessons for military medical planners.

    PubMed

    Parker, Paul J

    2006-12-01

    Damage Control Surgery (DCS) is a three-phase team-based approach to maximal injury penetrating abdominal trauma. In Phase I, the hypothermic, coagulopathic, acidotic, hypotensive casualty undergoes a proactively planned one-hour time limited laparotomy by an appropriately trained surgical trauma team. In phase II physiological stabilization takes place in the Intensive Care Unit. In phase III--definitive repair occurs. DCS is extremely resource intensive but will save lives on the battlefield. A military DCS patient will perioperatively require fourteen units of blood and seven units of fresh frozen plasma--half the blood stock of a light-scaled FST. Two DCS patients will in one day, exhaust this FSTs oxygen supply. We know that hypothermic patients with an iliac vascular injury (initial core temp < 34 degrees C) suffer four-fold increases in their mortality, yet we cannot heat our tents above 20 degrees C during a mild British winter. Our primary casualty retrieval is excessively slow. A simple casevac request has to go to too much 'middle-management' before a flight decision is made. In Vietnam, wounded soldiers arrived in hospital within twenty-five minutes of injury. In Iraq in 2005, that figure is over one hundred and ten minutes. We use support or anti-tank helicopters that are re-roled on an adhoc basis for the critical care and transport of our sickest patients. We still do not have a dedicated all-weather military helicopter evacuation fleet despite significant evidence that intensive care unit level military evacuation is safe and eminently achievable in both in the primary and secondary care setting. Should we not be asking why?

  19. Statewide air medical transports for Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Elizabeth; Mango, Nicholas K; Prenney, Brad

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) established a process to centralize air medical transport information. This database is one of the first statewide, population-based sources for civilian rotary-wing air medical transports (U.S. Coast Guard, police, and military missions are not included). The purpose of this database is to facilitate MDPH review of air medical transport service utilization, with input from a multidisciplinary committee. This article discusses the challenges in producing uniform data from multiple service submissions and presents aggregate "baseline" utilization information for 1996. These data served as a starting point for later studies using data linkage. This indexed article is the first to report statewide, population-based data for all types of air medical helicopter transports. The only other indexed "statewide air medical transport" paper focused on scene transports to trauma centers in Pennsylvania. A previous article by the authors in the July-September 2000 Air Medical Journal provided an overview of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes for 1 region of the state.

  20. OP deference--Libyan crisis 2011. Non combatant evacuation operations (NEO) --role one medical experience.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A; Ellery, N; Shepherd, S; Knox, C; Nelstrop, A

    2012-01-01

    It is the author's belief that Role 1 GDMO led medical care continues to be a potent and adaptable force, capable of operating efficiently and with a high degree of autonomy in potentially high threat environments. The medical team was able to adapt to the operational demand and retained the full confidence of the command chain, however the MO felt acutely aware of gaps in his New Entry Medical Officer clinical training. Short duration courses such as Advanced Paediatric Life Support, Basic Surgical Skills and MIMMS provide excellent added value for medical officers and increase self confidence. NEMO training in the future may benefit from the inclusion of these. Despite the challenges faced during the NEOs the Role 1 medical team in CUMBERLAND found the experience very rewarding and an example of what they joined the Royal Navy to do.

  1. Haughton-Mars Project/NASA 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation: Equipment and Methods for Medical Evacuation of an Injured Crewmember

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, S. P.; Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chase, T.; Gernhardt M.; Wilkinson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving NASA's Space Exploration Vision scientific objectives will require human access into cratered and uneven terrain for the purpose of sample acquisition to assess geological, and perhaps even biological features and experiments. Operational risk management is critical to safely conduct the anticipated tasks. This strategy, along with associated contingency plans, will be a driver of EVA system requirements. Therefore, a medical contingency EVA scenario was performed with the Haughton-Mars Project/NASA to develop belay and medical evacuation techniques for exploration and rescue respectively. Methods: A rescue system to allow two rescuer astronauts to evacuate one in incapacitated astronaut was evaluated. The systems main components were a hard-bottomed rescue litter, hand-operated winch, rope, ground picket anchors, and a rover-winch attachment adapter. Evaluation was performed on 15-25deg slopes of dirt with embedded rock. The winch was anchored either by adapter to the rover or by pickets hammered into the ground. The litter was pulled over the surface by rope attached to the winch. Results: The rescue system was utilized effectively to extract the injured astronaut up a slope and to a waiting rover for transport to a simulated habitat for advanced medical care, although several challenges to implementation were identified and overcome. Rotational stabilization of the winch was found to be important to get maximize mechanical advantage from the extraction system. Discussion: Further research and testing needs to be performed to be able to fully consider synergies with the other Exploration surface systems, in conducting contingency operations. Structural attachment points on the surface EVA suits may be critical to assist in incapacitated evacuation. Such attach points could be helpful in microgravity incapacitated crewmember transport as well. Wheeled utility carts or wheels that may be attachable to a litter may also aid in extraction and

  2. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  3. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation. PMID:27625486

  4. Medical advice for commercial air travelers.

    PubMed

    Bettes, T N; McKenas, D K

    1999-09-01

    Family physicians are often asked to advise patients who are preparing to travel. The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 has enabled more passengers with medical disabilities to choose air travel. All domestic U.S. airlines are required to carry basic (but often limited) medical equipment, although several physiologic stresses associated with flight may predispose travelers with underlying medical conditions to require emergency care. Recommendations for passengers with respiratory, cardiac or postsurgical conditions must be individualized and should be based on objective testing measures. Specific advice for patients with diabetes, postsurgical or otolaryngologic conditions may make air travel less hazardous for these persons. Air travel should be delayed after scuba diving to minimize the chance of developing decompression sickness. Although no quick cure for jet lag exists, several simple suggestions may make travel across time zones more comfortable.

  5. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet air purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in the air by...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  9. The 2003 Air Medical Leadership Congress: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Frank; Robinson, Kenneth; Judge, Tom; Eastlee, Connie; Frazer, Eileen; Thomas, Stephen H; Romig, Laurie; Blumen, Ira; Brozen, Reed; Williams, Ken; Swanson, Eric R; Hartsell, Stephen; Johnson, Jill; Hutton, Kevin; Heffernan, J; North, Michelle; Johnson, Kent; Petersen, Pat; Toews, Robert; Zalar, Christine M

    2004-01-01

    To address important concerns facing the air medical community, 149 air medical transport leaders, providers, consultants, and experts met September 4-6, 2003, in Salt Lake City, Utah, for a 3-day summit-the Air Medical Leadership Congress: Setting the Health Care Agenda for the Air Medical Community. Using data from a Web-based survey, top air medical transport issues were identified in four core areas: safety, medical care, cost/benefit, and regulatory/compliance. This report reviews the findings of previous congresses and summarizes the discussions, findings, recommendations, and proposed industry actions to address these issues as set forth by the 2003 congress participants. PMID:15127042

  10. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  12. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment.

  13. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  14. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  18. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  19. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  20. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  1. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  3. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  4. Evacuation of the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Alexander S.; Beninati, William; Fang, Ray; Einav, Sharon; Rubinson, Lewis; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the high risk for patient harm during unanticipated ICU evacuations, critical care providers receive little to no training on how to perform safe and effective ICU evacuations. We reviewed the pertinent published literature and offer suggestions for the critical care provider regarding ICU evacuation. The suggestions in this article are important for all who are involved in pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The Evacuation and Mobilization topic panel used the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology to develop seven key questions for which specific literature searches were conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Based on current best evidence, we provide 13 suggestions outlining a systematic approach to prepare for and execute an effective ICU evacuation during a disaster. Interhospital and intrahospital collaboration and functional ICU communication are critical for success. Pre-event planning and preparation are required for a no-notice evacuation. A Critical Care Team Leader must be designated within the Hospital Incident Command System. A three-stage ICU Evacuation Timeline, including (1) no immediate threat, (2) evacuation threat, and (3) evacuation implementation, should be used. Detailed suggestions on ICU evacuation, including regional planning, evacuation drills, patient transport preparation and equipment, patient prioritization and distribution for evacuation, patient information and tracking, and federal and international evacuation assistance systems, are also provided. CONCLUSIONS: Successful ICU evacuation during a disaster requires

  5. What's new in medical management strategies for raised intra-abdominal pressure: evacuating intra-abdominal contents, improving abdominal wall compliance, pharmacotherapy, and continuous negative extra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart; Regli, Adrian; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    In the future, medical management may play an increasingly important role in the prevention and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). A review of different databases was used (PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE) with the search terms 'Intra-abdominal Pressure' (IAP), 'IAH', ' Abdominal Compartment Syndrome' (ACS), 'medical management' and 'non-surgical management'. We also reviewed all papers with the search terms 'IAH', 'IAP' and 'ACS' over the last three years, only extracting those papers which showed a novel approach in the non-surgical management of IAH and ACS.IAH and ACS are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Non-surgical management is an important treatment option in critically ill patients with raised IAP. There are five medical treatment options to be considered to reduce IAP: 1) improvement of abdominal wall compliance; 2) evacuation of intra-luminal contents; 3) evacuation of abdominal fluid collections; 4) optimisation of fluid administration; and 5) optimisation of systemic and regional perfusion. This paper will review the first three treatment arms of the WSACS algorithm: abdominal wall compliance; evacuation of intra-luminal contents and evacuation of abdominal fluid collections. Emerging medical treatments will be analysed and finally some alternative specific treatments will be assessed. Other treatment options with regard to optimising fluid administration and systemic and regional perfusion will be described elsewhere, and are beyond the scope of this review. Medical management of critically ill patients with raised IAP should be instigated early to prevent further organ dysfunction and to avoid progression to ACS. Many treatment options are available and are often part of routine daily management in the ICU (nasogastric, rectal tube, prokinetics, enema, sedation, body position). Some of the newer treatments are very promising options in specific patient populations with raised IAP. Future studies are warranted to confirm

  6. An historical perspective of early Italian air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The early times of aviation medicine were dominated by military actions and needs. This article describes the pioneering era of Italian air medical transport during the period between World War I and early World War II.

  7. A literature review of air medical work hazards and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    An increased percentage of miscarriages among coworkers at one air medical transport company in 2008 prompted a literature review of selected hazards relevant to the profession of rotor wing air medical flight crew. Because of a lack of known research specific to this population, relevant studies from 1990 to 2008 were chosen to investigate pregnancy risks associated with exposure to vibration, jet fuel, noise, altitude, and fatigue in other occupations. Findings were summarized and recommendations made for future research. PMID:20123310

  8. Cabin air quality. Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, C

    1997-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality has generated considerable public and workers' concern and controversy in the last few years. To clarify the situation, AsMA requested the Passenger Health Subcommittee of the Air Transport Medicine Committee to review the situation and prepare a position statement. After identifying the various sources of confusion, we review the scientifically accepted facts in the different elements involved in Cabin Air Quality: pressurization, ventilation, contaminants, humidity and temperature. At the same time, we identify areas that need more research and make recommendations accordingly.

  9. Medical waste autoclaves: not just a lot of hot air.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, G R

    1998-04-01

    Over the past ten years, the treatment of medical waste has received much attention. During this time, an entire new industry to develop "alternate medical waste treatment technologies" has emerged. Much of this has been in response to increasingly stringent air quality standards along with public sentiment opposed to incineration, with a resultant decline in the use of on-site medical waste incinerators. However, in between incinerators and alternative treatment systems is a technology that is as much a part of American healthcare as hospitals themselves. Medical waste regulation in all fifty states recognize steam sterilization as an acceptable method of treatment prior to disposal. Within this category of medical waste treatment technology, there is a wide array of systems available, many of which have altered the basic, simple principles of steam treatment to make it more conducive to this application. This Professional Development Series reviews some the basic and newer innovative techniques of steam treatment of medical waste.

  10. Intraosseous access in trauma by air medical retrieval teams.

    PubMed

    Sheils, Mark; Ross, Mark; Eatough, Noel; Caputo, Nicholas D

    2014-01-01

    Trauma accounts for a significant portion of overall mortality globally. Hemorrhage is the second major cause of mortality in the prehospital environment. Air medical retrieval services throughout the world have been developed to help improve the outcomes of patients suffering from a broad range of medical conditions, including trauma. These services often utilize intraosseous (IO) devices as an alternative means for access of both medically ill and traumatically injured patients in austere environments. However, studies have suggested that IO access cannot reach acceptable rates for massive transfusion. We review the subject to find the answer of whether IO access should be performed by air medical teams in the prehospital setting, or would central venous (CVC) access be more appropriate? We decided to assess the literature for capacity of IO access to meet resuscitation requirements in the prehospital management of trauma. We also decided to compare the insertion and complication characteristics of IO and CVC access. PMID:25049187

  11. Use of restraints in air medical transport: a survey.

    PubMed

    Brauer, K I; Hutton, K C

    1997-01-01

    Although the practice of restraining combative patients is commonplace, restraint has been neither uniform nor scrutinized in the air medical transport environment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the use of physical and chemical restraining methods in air medical and critical care transport settings. A retrospective study was performed through faxed questionnaires to 92 medical directors who were members of the Air Medical Physician Association (AMFA). Neither program size nor program type correlated with the use of a particular restraint method. Cloth, including gauze, was the most common physical restraint (73%); both benzodiazepines and paralytics were the most common chemical restraints (53%). Injury to crew members was not widespread. This study of air transport services reported a lower incidence of injury to personnel (17%) than is reported in studies from emergency departments (EDs) (60%). This study also indicated that air transport services possess protocols governing actions toward violent patients (65%) more often than has been reported in studies on EDs (50%). Protocols varied in nature and extent. Consensus protocols should be established and implemented with the aid of detailed data acquisition to standardize personnel education in managing violent patients.

  12. The impact of the San Diego wildfires on a general mental health population residing in evacuation areas.

    PubMed

    Tally, Steven; Levack, Ashley; Sarkin, Andrew J; Gilmer, Todd; Groessl, Erik J

    2013-09-01

    San Diego County Mental Health system clients completed a questionnaire after the October 2007 wildfires. As compared to those not in an evacuation area, those residing in an evacuation area reported significantly more impact of the fires. Clients who evacuated were most affected, followed by those in an evacuation area who did not evacuate. Evacuation strongly impacted client-reported emotional effects of the fire, confusion about whether to evacuate, and ability to obtain medications. Gender and clinical diagnosis interacted with evacuation status for some fire impact variables. Loss of control and disruption of routine are discussed as possibly related factors.

  13. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Christopher N.; Mills, Gregory H.

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI) responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. PMID:21691470

  14. Transfer of sick children by air.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, N N; Aggarwal, S

    2000-08-01

    The annual growth rate of air traffic is increasing at the rate of about 7% all over the world. Children and adolescents make a significant chunk of travelling population. Some of the neonates too take to civil air and travel under various circumstances. Others travel for the reasons of medical air evacuation and better treatment at some specialized tertiary care centers, within India or abroad or simply as medical emergency. With the increasing availability of air taxis and air ambulances, it has become necessary for the pediatricians to know the consequences and potential hazards of transfer of the sick by air, lest they lose their patients unintentionally despite professional proficiency. Air evacuation of sick child is a highly specialized job, much different from an evacuation by any fast car ambulance. The paper discusses the general impact of aviation stresses in civil aviation with special reference to sick neonates, children and adolescents, and provides general guidelines, which could be applied to any particular clinical condition with knowledge of underlying physiological processes and anticipated alterations in cabin environment. It also brings out the issues of proper pre-flight assessment, fitness to undertake air transfer, general handling of patient under transfer, desirable onboard procedures, do s and don ts during air transfer, limitations of conventional neonatal/child resuscitation kits, available medical support in aircraft cabins, proper use of hardware including physiology monitoring systems, permissible specialized medical aids, and the requirement and use of equipment during air evacuation. The importance of high awareness and preventive measures is reiterated.

  15. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  16. Prevention of Medical Events During Air Travel: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Naouri, Diane; Lapostolle, Frederic; Rondet, Claire; Ganansia, Olivier; Pateron, Dominique; Yordanov, Youri

    2016-09-01

    Prior to traveling, and when seeking medical pretravel advice, patients consult their personal physicians. Inflight medical issues are estimated to occur up to 350 times per day worldwide (1/14,000-40,000 passengers). Specific characteristics of the air cabin environment are associated with hypoxia and the expansion of trapped gases into body cavities, which can lead to harm. The most frequent medical events during air travel include abdominal pain; ear, nose, and throat pathologies; psychiatric disorders; and life-threatening events such as acute respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Physicians need to be aware of the management of these conditions in this unusual setting. Chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are common and are at increased risk of acute exacerbation. Physicians must be trained in these conditions and inform their patients about their prevention. PMID:27267286

  17. Aeromedical evacuation in the "Luftwaffe" from its origins until 1945.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    Prior to WWII, Germany had little experience in aeromedical evacuation (AE) of the sick and wounded. The need for a specialized AE organization was recognized, organized, and used extensively on all fronts during WWII. Nearly 2.5 million casualties were transported by regular troop carriers and 11 specialized AE Units, which concentrated on the intensive care air transport of the seriously wounded, especially those with injuries of the brain, eyes, or jaw, thoracic or abdominal wounds, or gun-shot fractures. The AE Units were commanded by medical officers, most of whom were pilot-physicians, who had command jurisdiction over flying and line personnel as well as medical service personnel. The AE Units were equipped with both Junkers Ju-52s, which could carry up to 12 litter patients plus 3 to 5 ambulatory patients each, and with Fieseler Fi -156s (STOL "Stork" for 1 or 2 litter patients), ambulances, as well as the personnel needed for operating and maintaining the vehicles and materiel. The AE Units of the Luftwaffe--the Sanitaetsflugbereitschaften--made an outstanding contribution to military medical care in achieving this significant number of casualties evacuated under the humanitarian symbol of the Red Cross. PMID:16422459

  18. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  19. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making.

  20. Image Guided Endoscopic Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chad M; Vespa, Paul; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Carmichael, Stanley T.; Alger, Jeffry; Frazee, John; Starkman, Sid; Liebeskind, David; Nenov, Valeriy; Elashoff, Robert; Martin, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. ICH lacks an effective medical or surgical treatment despite the acknowledged pathophysiological benefits of achieved hemostasis and clot removal. Image guided stereotactic endoscopic hematoma evacuation is a promising minimally invasive approach designed to limit operative injury and maximize hematoma removal. Methods A single center randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of stereotactic hematoma evacuation compared to best medical management. Patients were randomized within 24 hours of hemorrhage in a 3:2 fashion to best medical management plus endoscopic hematoma evacuation or best medical management alone. Data was collected to assess efficacy and safety of hematoma evacuation and to identify procedural components requiring technical improvement. Results 10 patients have been enrolled and randomized to treatment. Six patients underwent endoscopic evacuation with a hematoma volume reduction of 80% +/−13 at 24 hours post procedure. The medical arm demonstrated a hematoma enlargement of 78% +/−142 during this same period. Rehemorrhage rates and deterioration rates were similar in the two groups. Mortality was 20% in the endoscopic group and 50% in the medical treatment cohort. The endoscopic technique was shown to be effective in identification and evacuation of hematomas while reduction in the number of endoscopic passes and maintenance of hemostasis require further study. Conclusion Image guided stereotactic endoscopic hematoma removal is a promising minimally invasive technique that is effective in immediate hematoma evacuation. This technique deserves further investigation to determine its role in ICH management. PMID:18424298

  1. Disaster aeromedical evacuation.

    PubMed

    Lezama, Nicholas G; Riddles, Lawrence M; Pollan, William A; Profenna, Leonardo C

    2011-10-01

    Successful disaster aeromedical evacuation depends on applying the principles learned by moving patients since World War II, culminating in today's global patient movement system. This article describes the role of the Department of Defense patient movement system in providing defense support to civil authorities during the 2008 hurricane season and the international disaster response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Adapting and applying the principles of active partnerships, establishing patient movement requirements, patient preparation, and in-transit visibility have resulted in the successful aeromedical evacuation of over 1,600 patients since the federal response to Hurricane Katrina.

  2. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come. PMID:21413425

  3. Distance Learning Methodologies. TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Carroll R.

    The TRANSCOM (Transportation Command) Regulating Command and Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES), which applies state-of-the-art technology to manage global medical regulating (matching patients to clinical availability) and medical evacuation processes, will be installed at all Department of Defense medical locations globally. A combination of…

  4. Modeling Evacuation of a Hospital without Electric Power.

    PubMed

    Vugrin, Eric D; Verzi, Stephen J; Finley, Patrick D; Turnquist, Mark A; Griffin, Anne R; Ricci, Karen A; Wyte-Lake, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Hospital evacuations that occur during, or as a result of, infrastructure outages are complicated and demanding. Loss of infrastructure services can initiate a chain of events with corresponding management challenges. This report describes a modeling case study of the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas (USA). The study uses a model designed to track such cascading events following loss of infrastructure services and to identify the staff, resources, and operational adaptations required to sustain patient care and/or conduct an evacuation. The model is based on the assumption that a hospital's primary mission is to provide necessary medical care to all of its patients, even when critical infrastructure services to the hospital and surrounding areas are disrupted. Model logic evaluates the hospital's ability to provide an adequate level of care for all of its patients throughout a period of disruption. If hospital resources are insufficient to provide such care, the model recommends an evacuation. Model features also provide information to support evacuation and resource allocation decisions for optimizing care over the entire population of patients. This report documents the application of the model to a scenario designed to resemble the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital, demonstrating the model's ability to recreate the timeline of an actual evacuation. The model is also applied to scenarios demonstrating how its output can inform evacuation planning activities and timing.

  5. Management of pneumothorax in cattle by continuous-flow evacuation.

    PubMed

    Peek, Simon E; Slack, J A; McGuirk, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    Pneumothorax in cattle can develop subsequent to acute or chronic pulmonary disease, and if unresolved may lead to respiratory distress and death due to hypoxia and compression and collapse of cardiac and thoracic great vessels. Therapeutic evacuation of free air within the pleural space can provide acute relief and improve chances of survival. This article descibes the adaptation and use of a continuous flow evacuation device to resolve pneumothorax in 3 cattle with pneumothorax associated with infectious lower airway disease. PMID:12564738

  6. [Roles and functions of military flight nursing: aeromedical evacuation].

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Lan; Hsiao, Yun-Chien; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2012-06-01

    Evacuating the injured is an important part of disaster medicine. Aircraft provide timely access to distant and remote areas and, in an emergency, can evacuate sick or injured individuals in such areas quickly and safely for critical treatment elsewhere. Aeromedical evacuation (AE) comprises the two categories of fixed-wing ambulance service and helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS). Each aims to accomplish unique objectives. In Taiwan, the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1958 established the unique role and functions of medical flight nursing. Significant knowledge and experience has been accumulated in the field since that time in such areas as the effects of high altitude environments on individuals and equipment; physiological, psychological, social and spiritual factors that affect the injured and / or response team members; and emergency care delivery techniques. All have been essential elements in the development and delivery of comprehensive medical flight nurse training. Medical flight nursing belongs in a special professional category, as nurses must master knowledge on general and special-case casualty evacuation procedures, relevant instruments and equipment, triage, in-flight medical care, and aircraft loading requirements related to transporting the sick and injured. The internationalization of medical care has opened the potential to expand medical flight nursing roles and functions into disaster nursing. Although military considerations continue to frame medical flight nursing training and preparation today, the authors feel that creating strategic alliances with disaster nursing specialists and organizations overseas is a future developmental direction for Taiwan's medical flight nursing sector worth formal consideration. PMID:22661029

  7. Canadian Evacuation and Nisei Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Japanese Canadians were interviewed to determine the effect of World War II evacuation on their ethnic identity. Older respondents deemphasized issues related to evacuation when discussing their ethnic identity. Younger Japanese Canadians are aware of this "cloud" as part of their ethnic heritage but are unaware of its exact origin. (MK)

  8. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70%) with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20%) met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70%) evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services. PMID:26767134

  9. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to evacuate You will hear from the local police, emergency coordinators, or government on the radio and/ ... school will put them, and you, at increased risk. The emergency shelter will have most supplies that ...

  10. 14 CFR 29.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 29.803 Section 29.803... Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have means for rapid evacuation in a crash... evacuation capability of the rotorcraft, equivalent to that which would be obtained by actual demonstration....

  11. 14 CFR 23.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 23.803 Section 23.803... Cargo Accommodations § 23.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) For commuter category airplanes, an evacuation... passengers with no prior practice or rehearsal for the demonstration. Evacuation must be completed within...

  12. 14 CFR 23.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 23.803 Section 23.803... Cargo Accommodations § 23.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) For commuter category airplanes, an evacuation... passengers with no prior practice or rehearsal for the demonstration. Evacuation must be completed within...

  13. 14 CFR 29.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 29.803 Section 29.803... Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have means for rapid evacuation in a crash... evacuation capability of the rotorcraft, equivalent to that which would be obtained by actual demonstration....

  14. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed.

  15. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed. PMID:23808204

  16. [Improvement of the system of medico-evacuational interventions in the troops with the help of mobile specialized elements].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Vlasov, A Iu; Sushil'nikov, S I; Bulatov, M R

    2013-07-01

    Taking into account the historical experience the authors considered the main principles of improvement of the system of preventive and curative interventions in the troops with the help of mobile functional elements. The authors suggested to develop medical reinforcement groups which satisfy requirements of high mobility and self-contained operations. 3 types of functional elements must be developed: 17 specialized doctor-nurse teams of the central military--treatment facilities, 10 doctor-nurse teams of district military (navy) clinical hospitals, 11 doctor-nurse teams of branches of district military hospitals. Assignment of air transport with the following reconversion in evacuation transport with the medical air station and medical helicopter station is concerned.

  17. High-Dose Ketamine Sedation of an Agitated Patient During Air Medical Transport.

    PubMed

    Reicher, David

    2016-01-01

    We report a case in which a high-dose ketamine infusion was used to sedate an agitated patient for air medical transport, avoiding the risks of general anesthesia and causing no exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27021674

  18. 38 CFR 17.58 - Evacuation of community nursing homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to another facility that meets certain minimum standards, as set forth in 38 CFR 51.59(c)(1... nursing homes. 17.58 Section 17.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Community Nursing Home Care Facilities § 17.58 Evacuation of community nursing homes....

  19. 38 CFR 17.58 - Evacuation of community nursing homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to another facility that meets certain minimum standards, as set forth in 38 CFR 51.59(c)(1... nursing homes. 17.58 Section 17.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Community Nursing Home Care Facilities § 17.58 Evacuation of community nursing homes....

  20. 38 CFR 17.58 - Evacuation of community nursing homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to another facility that meets certain minimum standards, as set forth in 38 CFR 51.59(c)(1... nursing homes. 17.58 Section 17.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Community Nursing Home Care Facilities § 17.58 Evacuation of community nursing homes....

  1. The Eighth Annual Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, March 2-4, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Papers read before the Eighth Annual American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, California, March 2-4, 1966, are presented in this document. Topics deal with basic approaches to the study of the effects of inhaled irritants on the lung; environmental parameters in relation to host responses; biological…

  2. Managing Field Evacuations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Jay A.; McEvoy, David; Merrill, Kurt

    In the event of a debilitating injury or illness, outdoor leaders should consider four critical phases in successfully managing backcountry field evaluations. The first phase, managing the immediate scene, involves assuring scene safety, medical care of the patient, instituting the emergency response plan, and providing for the needs of uninjured…

  3. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  4. [Medical Problems in Air Travel from a General Practitioner’s Perspective].

    PubMed

    Stutz, Andreas; Ensslin, Angela

    2016-07-01

    As travel by air increases, so does the number of passengers with chronic or acute medical issues. To evaluate fitness for air travel, it is necessary to consider the impact of the altered atmospheric surroundings in an airplane on the current illness to avoid a worsening of health conditions or even an emergency. As first medical contact person, the general practitioner will define supportive measures together with the patient and discuss these with the Medical Service of the airline for implementation. After a thorough evaluation, most patients will be classified fit to fly. Furthermore, a pre-travel consultation should address necessary vaccinations and information on infectious diseases.

  5. [Medical Problems in Air Travel from a General Practitioner’s Perspective].

    PubMed

    Stutz, Andreas; Ensslin, Angela

    2016-07-01

    As travel by air increases, so does the number of passengers with chronic or acute medical issues. To evaluate fitness for air travel, it is necessary to consider the impact of the altered atmospheric surroundings in an airplane on the current illness to avoid a worsening of health conditions or even an emergency. As first medical contact person, the general practitioner will define supportive measures together with the patient and discuss these with the Medical Service of the airline for implementation. After a thorough evaluation, most patients will be classified fit to fly. Furthermore, a pre-travel consultation should address necessary vaccinations and information on infectious diseases. PMID:27381306

  6. Urban Emergency Evacuation Data Fusion Based on "ONE MAP"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Sun, Q.; Chen, H.

    2013-07-01

    Urban emergency evacuation is a complicated systems engineering, which relates to many departments. How to fuse different scale, different format, different mathematical base spatial data effectively provided by such as police, fire protection, medical and health organization, traffic, emergency rescue and so on is a realistic matter that decision-makers are faced with. This paper analyses the characteristic of multisource spatial data in urban emergency evacuation and assorts it, brings forward the fusion strategy of multisource spatial data based on "one map", designs the frame of multisource spatial data fusion, makes an experiment in the end. The experiment indicates that the efficiency and level of urban emergency evacuation decision-making advances remarkably supported by multisource spatial data fusion.

  7. Pedestrian evacuation at the subway station under fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao; Xu-Bin, Sun

    2016-04-01

    With the development of urban rail transit, ensuring the safe evacuation of pedestrians at subway stations has become an important issue in the case of an emergency such as a fire. This paper chooses the platform of line 4 at the Beijing Xuanwumen subway station to study the emergency evacuation process under fire. Based on the established platform, effects of the fire dynamics, different initial pedestrian densities, and positions of fire on evacuation are investigated. According to simulation results, it is found that the fire increases the air temperature and the smoke density, and decreases pedestrians’ visibility and walking velocity. Also, there is a critical initial density at the platform if achieving a safe evacuation within the required 6 minutes. Furthermore, different positions of fire set in this paper have little difference on crowd evacuation if the fire is not large enough. The suggestions provided in this paper are helpful for the subway operators to prevent major casualties. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322307 and 61233001).

  8. Mortality Risk amongst Nursing Home Residents Evacuated after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. Methods A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04–3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34–1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74–4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07–3.49). Conclusion High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. PMID:23555921

  9. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  10. [The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Grebeniuk, A N; Lizogub, I N

    2014-02-01

    Blaginin A.A., Grebenyuk A.N., Lizogub LN. - The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions. Aircrew conducting active hostilities suffers from the whole spectrum of factors and conditions of the combat situation. The main task for the medical service of the Air Force is to carry out preventive and curative action for aviation specialists who are responsible for the combat capability of aircraft formations. The medical service of the Air Force must have forces and facilities for planning, organization and implementation of the treatment of lightly wounded and sick aviation professionals with short periods of recovery, medical rehabilitation of aircrew qfter suffering injuries, diseases, sanatorium therapy of aircrew with partial failure of health, outpatient and inpatient medical examination aircrew - flight commissions, preventive rest of aviation specialists with symptoms of chronic fatigue. Should be trained aviation physicians, including both basic military medical education and in-depth study of the medical aspects of various fields of personnel of the Air Force. PMID:25046924

  11. Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplowitz, Brad; And Others

    This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…

  12. Samuel Franklin Cody: aviation and aeromedical evacuation pioneer.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T M

    1999-06-01

    In the summer of 1913, Woodrow Wilson had just become the 28th President of the United States and King George V was on the throne of the United Kingdom. It was nearly 10 yr since the historical flight at Kitty Hawk and 3 yr since Blériot had first flown the English Channel. At Farnborough, "Colonel" Samuel F. Cody, originally a horseman, hunter, crack shot, showman and theatrical impresario from the USA, was preparing a new floatplane for a round Britain flying race. One of the features of the floatplane, a biplane with a four bladed pusher propeller, was that it had already demonstrated its ability to carry passengers. Cody calculated that it would allow him to carry five passengers for a 4-h flight and may even have medical uses. He arranged a demonstration of its potential as an air ambulance at Farnborough. This paper describes, with the use of photographs of the event, the airplane, the demonstration and the reasons why it would be left to others to carry out the first, real aeromedical evacuation 4 yr later.

  13. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 25.803 Section 25.803 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have emergency means to allow rapid evacuation in...

  14. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, J. F.; Price, R. O.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Mohamed, A.-A H.; Swanson, R. J.

    2008-06-16

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2 cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  15. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, J. F.; Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Price, R. O.; Swanson, R. J.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2008-06-01

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  16. U.S. Army MEDEVAC in the new millennium: a medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R T; McGhee, J S; Cloonan, C; Pfaff, J A; De Lorenzo, R A

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Army Aeromedical Evacuation community (MEDEVAC) possesses a long-standing tradition of excellence in the care and transportation of combat casualties. Recent developments in civilian air medical transport and quantitative review of MEDEVAC operations have identified potential areas for improvement, concentrating on enhanced flight medic standards, training, sustainment and medical oversight of the air ambulance system. These proposed changes are discussed in detail, from the perspective of current emergency medicine and aviation medicine standards of practice. If instituted, these changes would facilitate the emergence of a true air medical transport capability comparable with the civilian community standard.

  17. Medication use modifies the health effects of particulate sulfate air pollution in children with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A; Dockery, D W; Heinrich, J; Wichmann, H E

    1997-01-01

    Previous controlled studies have indicated that asthma medication modifies the adverse effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on lung function and asthma symptoms. The present report analyzed the role of medication use in a panel study of children with mild asthma. Children from Sokolov (n = 82) recorded daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, symptoms, and medication use in a diary. Linear and logistic regression analyses estimated the impact of concentrations of sulfate particles with diameters less than 2.5 microns, adjusting for linear trend, mean temperature, weekend (versus weekday), and prevalence of fever in the sample. Fifty-one children took no asthma medication, and only 31 were current medication users. Most children were treated with theophylline; only nine used sprays containing beta-agonist. For the nonmedicated children, weak associations between a 5-day mean of sulfates and respiratory symptoms were observed. Medicated children, in contrast, increased their beta-agonist use in direct association with an increase in 5-day mean of sulfates, but medication use did not prevent decreases in PEF and increases in the prevalence of cough attributable to particulate air pollution. Medication use was not a confounder but attenuated the associations between particulate air pollution and health outcomes. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:9189709

  18. Cold atmospheric air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen F.; Price, Robert O.; Stacey, Michael; Swanson, R. James; Bowman, Angela; Chiavarini, Robert L.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2008-10-01

    By flowing ambient air through the discharge channel of a microhollow cathode geometry, we were able to sustain a stable 1.5-2 cm long afterglow plasma jet with dc voltages of only a few hundred volts. The temperature in this expelled afterglow plasma is close to room temperature. Emission spectra show atomic oxygen, hydroxyl ions and various nitrogen compounds. The low heavy-particle temperature allows us to use this exhaust stream on biological samples and tissues without thermal damage. The high levels of reactive species suggest an effective treatment for pathological skin conditions caused, in particular, by infectious agents. In first experiments, we have successfully tested the efficacy on Candida kefyr (a yeast), E.coli, and a matching E.coli strain-specific virus. All pathogens investigated responded well to the treatment. In the yeast case, complete eradication of the organism in the treated area could be achieved with an exposure of 90 seconds at a distance of 5 mm. A 10-fold increase of exposure, to 900 seconds caused no observable damage to murine integument.

  19. Evacuation of a neonatal intensive care unit in a disaster: lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Michael; Patil, Uday; Cruz, Hannaise; Gupta, Arpit; Matterson, Heideh; Kim, Yang; Caprio, Martha; Mally, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    NICU patients are among those potentially most vulnerable to the effects of natural or man-made disaster on a medical center. The published data on evacuations of NICU patients in the setting of disaster are sparse. In October of 2012, New York University Langone Medical Center was evacuated during Hurricane Sandy in the setting of a power outage secondary to a coastal surge. In this setting, 21 neonates were safely evacuated from the medical center's NICU to receiving hospitals within New York City in a span of 4.5 hours. Using data recorded during the evacuation and from staff debriefings, we describe the challenges faced and lessons learned during both the power outage and vertical evacuation. From our experience, we identify several elements that are important to the functioning of an NICU in a disaster or to an evacuation that may be incorporated into future NICU-focused disaster planning. These include a clear command structure, backups (personnel, communication, medical information, and equipment), establishing situational awareness, regional coordination, and flexibility as well as special attention to families and to the availability of neonatal transport resources.

  20. 78 FR 10608 - David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... adequate clinical case mix of patients for approved Graduate Medical Education program functioning in the... demonstration would be initially conducted at DGMC and its satellite clinic, the McClellan Clinic (MCC) as well as the clinic located at Beale Air Force Base (Beale). However, it could be expanded to other...

  1. Air Force disaster response: Haiti experience.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Joseph J; Johnson, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    After the devastating earthquake in Haiti, the United States Air Force deployed multiple medical units as part of the disaster response. Air Force Special Operations Command medical teams provided initial medical response and assisted in the organization of medical assets. A small portable expeditionary aeromedical rapid response team with the assistance of a mobile aeromedical staging facility team stabilized patients for flight and coordinated air evacuation to the United States. An expeditionary medical support hospital was set up and assisted in patient movement to and from the USNS Comfort hospital ship. These units were able to adapt to the unique circumstances in Haiti and provide great patient care. The lessons learned from these experiences may help the United States better respond to future disasters.

  2. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Wildfire disaster leads to facilities evacuation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Joanne; Dennis-Rouse, Melissa; Martinez, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Disaster preparedness in the healthcare setting traditionally focuses on accepting the capacity surge and influx of patients in time of crisis. The concept of a hospital evacuation is given little thought, and minimal time is spent practicing even though healthcare organizations have identified a hazard vulnerability that may require a full-scale evacuation. One healthcare organization recently pushed its staff to stretch its idea of disaster preparedness when it evacuated a community hospital and skilled nursing facility to ensure the safety of its patients and staff. The success of the evacuation was attributed to communication, preplanning, and leadership within the organization.

  4. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure before, during, and after fixed-wing air medical retrieval.

    PubMed

    Brendt, Peter; Schnekenburger, Marc; Paxton, Karen; Brown, Anthony; Mendis, Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure is associated with compromised tracheal mucosal perfusion and injuries. No published data are available for Australia on pressures in the fixed-wing air medical retrieval setting. Objective. After introduction of a cuff pressure manometer (Mallinckrodt, Hennef, Germany) at the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) Base in Dubbo, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we assessed the prevalence of increased cuff pressures before, during, and after air medical retrieval. Methods. This was a retrospective audit in 35 ventilated patients during fixed-wing retrievals by the RFDS in NSW, Australia. Explicit chart review of ventilated patients was performed for cuff pressures and changes during medical retrievals with pressurized aircrafts. Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the relation of ascent and ETT cuff pressure change from ground to flight level. Results. The mean (± standard deviation) of the first ETT cuff pressure measurement on the ground was 44 ± 20 cmH2O. Prior to retrieval in 11 patients, the ETT cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O and in 11 patients >50 cmH2O. After ascent to cruising altitude, the cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O in 22 patients and >50 cmH2O in eight patients. The cuff pressure was reduced 1) in 72% of cases prior to take off and 2) in 85% of cases during flight, and 3) after landing, the cuff pressure increased in 85% of cases. The correlation between ascent in cabin altitude and ETT cuff pressure was r = 0.3901, p = 0.0205. Conclusions. The high prevalence of excessive cuff pressures during air medical retrieval can be avoided by the use of cuff pressure manometers. Key words: cuff pressure; air medical retrieval; prehospital. PMID:23252881

  5. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure before, during, and after fixed-wing air medical retrieval.

    PubMed

    Brendt, Peter; Schnekenburger, Marc; Paxton, Karen; Brown, Anthony; Mendis, Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure is associated with compromised tracheal mucosal perfusion and injuries. No published data are available for Australia on pressures in the fixed-wing air medical retrieval setting. Objective. After introduction of a cuff pressure manometer (Mallinckrodt, Hennef, Germany) at the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) Base in Dubbo, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we assessed the prevalence of increased cuff pressures before, during, and after air medical retrieval. Methods. This was a retrospective audit in 35 ventilated patients during fixed-wing retrievals by the RFDS in NSW, Australia. Explicit chart review of ventilated patients was performed for cuff pressures and changes during medical retrievals with pressurized aircrafts. Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the relation of ascent and ETT cuff pressure change from ground to flight level. Results. The mean (± standard deviation) of the first ETT cuff pressure measurement on the ground was 44 ± 20 cmH2O. Prior to retrieval in 11 patients, the ETT cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O and in 11 patients >50 cmH2O. After ascent to cruising altitude, the cuff pressure was >30 cmH2O in 22 patients and >50 cmH2O in eight patients. The cuff pressure was reduced 1) in 72% of cases prior to take off and 2) in 85% of cases during flight, and 3) after landing, the cuff pressure increased in 85% of cases. The correlation between ascent in cabin altitude and ETT cuff pressure was r = 0.3901, p = 0.0205. Conclusions. The high prevalence of excessive cuff pressures during air medical retrieval can be avoided by the use of cuff pressure manometers. Key words: cuff pressure; air medical retrieval; prehospital.

  6. Direct air activation measurements at a 15-MV medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M K; Poppe, B; Fischer, H W

    2015-02-01

    Direct radiometric determination of (14)N (γ, n) (13)N air activation was achieved at a 15-MV medical linear accelerator operating in a high-energy photon mode. (13)N was identified by irradiating a gas-tight Marinelli beaker filled with nitrogen gas and later observing the 10-min half-life of the 511-keV positron-electron annihilation line using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. Quantitative evaluation of the spectral signal yielded a (13)N production rate of 836.8 ± 32 Bq Gy(-1) in air per 40 × 40 cm(2) field cross section at 100 cm source-surface distance.

  7. Pedestrian Evacuation Analysis for Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent catastrophic tsunamis in the last decade, as well as the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Alaskan event, have heightened awareness of the threats these natural hazards present to large and increasing coastal populations. For communities located close to the earthquake epicenter that generated the tsunami, strong shaking may also cause significant infrastructure damage, impacting the road network and hampering evacuation. There may also be insufficient time between the earthquake and first wave arrival to rely on a coordinated evacuation, leaving at-risk populations to self-evacuate on foot and across the landscape. Emergency managers evaluating these coastal risks need tools to assess the evacuation potential of low-lying areas in order to discuss mitigation options, which may include vertical evacuation structures to provide local safe havens in vulnerable communities. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software tool for use by researchers and emergency managers to assist in the assessment of a community's evacuation potential by modeling travel times across the landscape and producing both maps of travel times and charts of population counts with corresponding times. The tool uses an anisotropic (directionally dependent) least cost distance model to estimate evacuation potential and allows for the variation of travel speed to measure its effect on travel time. The effectiveness of vertical evacuation structures on evacuation time can also be evaluated and compared with metrics such as travel time maps showing each structure in place and graphs displaying the percentage change in population exposure for each structure against the baseline. Using the tool, travel time maps and at-risk population counts have been generated for some coastal communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The tool can also be used to provide valuable decision support for tsunami vertical evacuation siting.

  8. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 25.803 Section 25.803 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Emergency Provisions § 25.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew...

  9. Ultra-Scale Computing for Emergency Evacuation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nutaro, James J; Liu, Cheng; Zacharia, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Emergency evacuations are carried out in anticipation of a disaster such as hurricane landfall or flooding, and in response to a disaster that strikes without a warning. Existing emergency evacuation modeling and simulation tools are primarily designed for evacuation planning and are of limited value in operational support for real time evacuation management. In order to align with desktop computing, these models reduce the data and computational complexities through simple approximations and representations of real network conditions and traffic behaviors, which rarely represent real-world scenarios. With the emergence of high resolution physiographic, demographic, and socioeconomic data and supercomputing platforms, it is possible to develop micro-simulation based emergency evacuation models that can foster development of novel algorithms for human behavior and traffic assignments, and can simulate evacuation of millions of people over a large geographic area. However, such advances in evacuation modeling and simulations demand computational capacity beyond the desktop scales and can be supported by high performance computing platforms. This paper explores the motivation and feasibility of ultra-scale computing for increasing the speed of high resolution emergency evacuation simulations.

  10. A regional review of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Garthe, E A; Mango, N K; Prenney, B

    2000-01-01

    This article presents study results from an assessment of the performance of the air medical (and advanced life support) components of the EMS system in response to fatal motor vehicle crashes. Results are presented for one of Massachusetts' five EMS regions, including the finding that air medical transports are involved in 20% of the fatal crashes for the region and transport 11% of the involved individuals. Although the study focused on air medical utilization, it also identified issues related to the future implementation of motor vehicle automatic crash notification (ACN) and telematics that could relay crash severity data from onboard computers (e.g., event data recorders) to auto manufacturers' help centers or state emergency call centers. This technology will place new demands on state EMS systems. To meet the challenges posed by these technological changes, states will need to assess the type and number of EMS services required to respond to ACN motor vehicle crashes and develop methods to determine what level of service to deploy based on the information relayed from the vehicles. An initial step in this evaluation process is to determine the current use of EMS resources to place planned system changes and demand into context.

  11. Necessity of guides in pedestrian emergency evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Sun, Xubin; Wang, Qianling; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The role of guide who is in charge of leading pedestrians to evacuate in the case of emergency plays a critical role for the uninformed people. This paper first investigates the influence of mass behavior on evacuation dynamics and mainly focuses on the guided evacuation dynamics. In the extended crowd model proposed in this paper, individualistic behavior, herding behavior and environment influence are all considered for pedestrians who are not informed by the guide. According to the simulation results, herding behavior makes more pedestrians evacuate from the room in the same period of time. Besides, guided crowd demonstrates the same behavior of group dynamics which is characterized by gathering, conflicts and balance. Moreover, simulation results indicate guides with appropriate initial positions and quantity are more conducive to evacuation under a moderate initial density of pedestrians.

  12. Spatial game in cellular automaton evacuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schantz, Anton; Ehtamo, Harri

    2015-11-01

    For numerical simulations of crowd dynamics in an evacuation we need a computationally light environment, such as the cellular automaton model (CA). By choosing the right model parameters, different types of crowd behavior and collective effects can be produced. But the CA does not answer why, when, and how these different behaviors and collective effects occur. In this article, we present a model, where we couple a spatial evacuation game to the CA. In the game, an agent chooses its strategy by observing its neighbors' strategies. The game matrix changes with the distance to the exit as the evacuation conditions develop. In the resulting model, an agent's strategy choice alters the parameters that govern its behavior in the CA. Thus, with our model, we are able to simulate how evacuation conditions affect the behavior of the crowd. Also, we show that some of the collective effects observed in evacuations are a result of the simple game the agents play.

  13. Comparing rural ground and air emergency medical services: a level I trauma center's experience.

    PubMed

    von Recklinghausen, Friedrich Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    We sought to compare differences in patients transported by ground and air emergency medical services directly from the scenes of their injuries to a rural level I trauma facility. Variables examined included age, gender, vital signs, Glasgow Coma Scale score, discharge location, length of stay, and survival metrics. Student t tests and odds ratios were used for analysis. Demographics and vital signs differed between trauma patients transported by air versus those transported by ground. Generally, length of stay was longer in air-transported patients, who also had poorer survival metrics with negligible risk of death. Significant differences exist in the markers of physiology such as vital signs, expected survival, and degree of injury. PMID:22157533

  14. The analysis of in-air reverberation patterns from medical ultrasound transducers

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T

    2014-01-01

    National guidelines for routine ultrasound quality assurance include the measurement of transducer sensitivity using the in-air reverberation pattern generated from a transducer operating in air. The in-air reverberation method has been compared with other well-known measures of transducer sensitivity, such as the Sonora FirstCall probe tester (Sonora Medical Systems Inc, Longmont, CO, USA) and phantom-based images. There is good agreement between the in-air reverberation images and the Sonora FirstCall probe data for individual crystal sensitivity. However, the in-air reverberation approach is cheaper and easier to implement for linear and curvilinear transducers. The methods used for measuring the in-air reverberation pattern and the influence of scanner parameters such as gain and output power have been investigated. In general, reliance on a visual assessment of reverberation depth can lead to inconsistencies in the measurement of reverberation depth, when taken over a period of several months. The value of scanner parameters, in particular scanner gain, is also important when trying to measure changes in reverberation depth due to changes in transducer performance. A more accurate assessment of changes in transducer sensitivity, using the in-air reverberation method, is found by measuring the peak pixel grey scale values within a chosen reverberation band in the image. This quantitative approach can be taken a step further by assessing changes within the whole in-air reverberation pattern, by applying a two-dimensional cross correlation between two reverberation images to assess changes in transducer performance. PMID:27433190

  15. Heat Transfar Properties of Flat-Panel Evacuated Porous Insrlators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneno, Hirosyi; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    Flat Panel evacuated porous insulators have been produced by filling powder or fiber (such as perlite powder, diatomaceous earth powder, silica aerogel powder, g lass fiber and ceramic fiber) in film-like laminated plastic container and by evacuating to form vacuum in it is interior. Heat transfer properties of these evacuated insulators have been studied under various conditions (such as particle diameter, surface area, packing density, solid volume fraction and void dimension). The apparent mean thermal conductivity has been measured for the boundary surface temperature at cold face temperature 13°C and hot face temperature 35°. The effect of air pressure ranging from 1 Pa to one atomosphere (105 Pa) was examined. The results were as follows. (1) For each powder the apparent mean thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing residual air pressure, and at very low pressure bellow 1 -103 Pa the conductivity becomes indeqendent of pressure. The thermal conductivity at 1.3Pa is 0.0053 W/mK for perlite powder, 0.0048W/mK for diatomaceous earth powder, 0.0043 W/mK for silica aerogel powder and 0.0029W/mK for glass fiber. (2) With decreasing particle size, the apparent mean thermal conductivity is constant independent of residual air pressure in higher pressure region. It is that void dimension continues to decrease with particle size and the mean free path of air becomes comparable with void dimension. (3) In the range of minor solid volume fraction, the apparent mean thermal conductivity at very low precreases with decreasing particle size. This shows the thermal contact resistance of the solid particle increases with decreasing particle size.

  16. Aeromedical evacuation planning using geospatial decision-support.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Nathaniel D; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we proffer an algorithmic, geospatial-based decision-support methodology that assists military decision-makers in determining which aeromedical evacuation (MEDEVAC) assets to launch after receiving an injury location, given knowledge only of terrain, aircraft location, and aircraft capabilities. The objective is for military medical planners to use this decision-support tool (1) to improve real-time situational awareness by visualization of MEDEVAC coverage, showing which areas can be reached within established timelines; (2) to support medical planning by visualizing the impact of changes in the medical footprint to the MEDEVAC coverage; and (3) to support decision-making by providing a time-sorted list of MEDEVAC asset packages to select from, given the location of the patients. This same geospatial-based decision tool can be used for proper emplacement of evacuation assets such that the theater is covered within a truly representative 1-hour response time. We conclude with a discussion of applicability of this tool in medical force structure planning.

  17. Evacuation of a maternal-newborn area during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Marirose; Mathews, Pamela R

    2008-01-01

    On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall and inflicted devastation across the Gulf Coast. The catastrophic hurricane and flooding from failed levees in New Orleans made this event the most destructive natural and man-made disaster to occur in the United States' history (White House, 2006). Such a massive disaster challenged survival for everyone in its path, including patients and healthcare professionals. This hurricane challenged the usual standards of care and disaster management strategies well beyond what we had ever prepared for or experienced. The city of New Orleans was under 8 to 12 feet of water. Memorial Medical Center, located in one of the lowest sections of the city, quickly became isolated from everyone and everything. The challenges that nurses faced during the 6 days after the disaster were arduous and multifaceted. Nurses had no choice but to be creative and flexible and improvise by using what limited resources were available. Nurses were not able to provide care in the typical patient care environment because patients were relocated to multiple areas of the hospital, the ER ramp, and the parking garage to await evacuation. The temperature soared to 110 degrees F, and evacuation efforts were chaotic and disorganized. This article describes the heroic efforts of a strong and cohesive nursing team in caring for our patients and providing for the evacuation of 16 critically ill newborns from the Level 3 regional neonatal intensive care unit and 5 well newborns and their mothers.

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  20. The Civil Air Patrol's role in medical countermeasure distribution in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Jennifer Lixey; Chamberlain, Kerry; Doctor, Suzanne M; Macqueen, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Michigan's unique geological features and highly variable climatic conditions make distribution of medical countermeasures during a public health emergency situation very challenging. To enhance distribution during these situations, the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) has agreed to support the state of Michigan by transporting life-saving medical countermeasures to remote areas of the state. The Michigan Strategic National Stockpile (MISNS) program has successfully developed, exercised, and enhanced its partnership with the CAP to include distribution of federally provided Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) assets. The CAP has proven to be a reliable and valuable partner, as well as a cost-effective and time-efficient means of transporting vital resources during a public health emergency. PMID:22060035

  1. The Civil Air Patrol's Role in Medical Countermeasure Distribution in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Jennifer Lixey; Doctor, Suzanne M.; Macqueen, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Michigan's unique geological features and highly variable climatic conditions make distribution of medical countermeasures during a public health emergency situation very challenging. To enhance distribution during these situations, the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) has agreed to support the state of Michigan by transporting life-saving medical countermeasures to remote areas of the state. The Michigan Strategic National Stockpile (MISNS) program has successfully developed, exercised, and enhanced its partnership with the CAP to include distribution of federally provided Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) assets. The CAP has proven to be a reliable and valuable partner, as well as a cost-effective and time-efficient means of transporting vital resources during a public health emergency. PMID:22060035

  2. Wildland fire evacuation/relocation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to ensure that appropriate actions are taken to provide for the safety of LBL employees by minimizing their exposure to the effects of an urban-wildland fire threatening the Laboratory. This plan has the following objectives: Provide a continuous assessment of the urban-wildland fire threat to LBL. Provide the mechanisms for alerting employees, visitors, and the Emergency Management Team when fire threatens the Laboratory. Provide guidelines for the Emergency Management Team to determine when to relocate or evacuate employees. Outline the communications pathways used to issue and control evacuations. Describe the options for the Emergency Management Team to consider during evacuation. Outline the specific responsibilities of the Emergency Response Organization when implementing an evacuation or relocation.

  3. Feasibility of Remote Ischemic Peri-conditioning during Air Medical Transport of STEMI Patients.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Wayne, Max; Guyette, Francis X; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Toma, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic peri-conditioning (RIPC) has gained interest as a means of reducing ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are undergoing emergent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, process, and patient-related factors related to the delivery of RIPC during air medical transport of STEMI patients to tertiary pPCI centers. We performed a retrospective review of procedural outcomes of a cohort of STEMI patients who received RIPC as part of a clinical protocol in a multi-state air medical service over 16 months (March 2013 to June 2014). Eligible patients were transported to two tertiary PCI centers and received up to four cycles of RIPC by inflating a blood pressure cuff on an upper arm to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes and subsequently deflating the cuff for 5 minutes. Data regarding feasibility, process variables, patient comfort, and occurrence of hypotension were obtained from prehospital records and prospectively completed quality improvement surveys. The primary outcome was whether at least 3 cycles of RIPC were completed by air medical transport crews prior to pPCI. Secondary outcomes included the number of cycles completed prior to pPCI, time spent with the patient prior to transport (bedside time), patient discomfort level, and incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) during the procedure. RIPC was initiated in 99 patients (91 interfacility, 8 scene transports) and 83 (83.3%) received 3 or 4 cycles of RIPC, delivered over 25-35 minutes. Median bedside time for interfacility transfers was 8 minutes (IQR 7, 10). More than half of patients reported no pain related to the procedure (N = 53, 53.3%), whereas 5 (5.1%) patients reported discomfort greater than 5 out of 10. Two patients developed hypotension while receiving RIPC and both had experienced hypotension prior to initiation of RIPC. RIPC is feasible and safe to implement for STEMI patients

  4. 5 CFR 550.407 - Termination of payments during evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of payments during evacuation... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.407 Termination of payments during evacuation. Advance payments or evacuation payments terminate when the agency determines that— (a)...

  5. 5 CFR 550.407 - Termination of payments during evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of payments during evacuation... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.407 Termination of payments during evacuation. Advance payments or evacuation payments terminate when the agency determines that— (a)...

  6. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  7. A computer-based Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation - SAFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation (SAFE) system has been developed for the computerized evaluation of safety in civil Emergency Medical Service (EMS) operations. The speed of the microprocessor used to analyze data allows many individual factors to be considered, as well as the interactions among those factors. SAFE's data base is structured as if-then conditional statements. SAFE also allows the most important of the factors to be given greater weight in the final score. The questionnaire filled by EMS crews encompassed mission-, crew-, organization-, environment-, and aircraft-related factors; each of these was subdivided into as many as eight variables affecting the EMS-mission risk of that factor.

  8. Managed traffic evacuation using distributed sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Biswas, Subir

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an integrated sensor network and distributed event processing architecture for managed in-building traffic evacuation during natural and human-caused disasters, including earthquakes, fire and biological/chemical terrorist attacks. The proposed wireless sensor network protocols and distributed event processing mechanisms offer a new distributed paradigm for improving reliability in building evacuation and disaster management. The networking component of the system is constructed using distributed wireless sensors for measuring environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and detecting unusual events such as smoke, structural failures, vibration, biological/chemical or nuclear agents. Distributed event processing algorithms will be executed by these sensor nodes to detect the propagation pattern of the disaster and to measure the concentration and activity of human traffic in different parts of the building. Based on this information, dynamic evacuation decisions are taken for maximizing the evacuation speed and minimizing unwanted incidents such as human exposure to harmful agents and stampedes near exits. A set of audio-visual indicators and actuators are used for aiding the automated evacuation process. In this paper we develop integrated protocols, algorithms and their simulation models for the proposed sensor networking and the distributed event processing framework. Also, efficient harnessing of the individually low, but collectively massive, processing abilities of the sensor nodes is a powerful concept behind our proposed distributed event processing algorithms. Results obtained through simulation in this paper are used for a detailed characterization of the proposed evacuation management system and its associated algorithmic components.

  9. Evacuation of institutionalized and specialized populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the needs of organizations caring for institutional and specialized populations when faced with a threat or hazard requiring an evacuation. Individuals within specialized populations are unlike other victims of disaster because of their inherent dependency on organizational care givers and require different management strategies on the part of organizations and agencies in an evacuation. The research sought to identify those aspects of coping strategies that have been used successfully to manage an emergency evacuation. To identify special populations that have evacuated from institutions and similar facilities over a four-year period, a computerized search was conducted of media accounts describing such events. The search yielded a total of 1024 accounts from which four major subgroups were identified: nursing homes and related care facilities, hospitals, educational institutions, and correctional facilities. A miscellaneous group including housing for the elderly, apartments and other building complexes, workplaces and factories, public facilities, and places occupied by transient populations, such as transportation units and recreational facilities, could be used for future study. Among the factors found to affect evacuations were the extent of organizational resources (such as the number of staff or other individuals available at the time of the event), the type and number of clientele, and such community characteristics as population density. The study focuses on selected organizational characteristics of health care facilities (nursing homes and related care facilities and hospitals) which have recently experienced either a partial or complete evacuation of their facilities. 165 refs., 13 tabs.

  10. Medical assistance to travellers: a new concept in insurance--cooperation with an airline.

    PubMed

    Lavernhe, J P; Ivanoff, S

    1985-04-01

    Medical assistance to travellers is a new concept in insurance. Payment of a premium makes it possible in an emergency for a traveller, by means of a phone call, to obtain free medical support, i.e., on-the-spot treatment, repatriation, hospitalization, etc. This kind of service necessarily involves a 24-h telephone system; a network of national and international correspondents, physicians and nurses trained in resuscitation; and sophisticated medical equipment, aircraft, etc. This study gathered data on the activity across 1982 of such an assistance company, especially in its cooperation with a scheduled international airline for air evacuation of patients who had become ill or had been injured far from their homes. Of 1618 repatriated patients in the single year, 1241 were evacuated by air (247 of these by the airline involved in the study) mainly from Europe or Africa. Traumatology, cardiovascular diseases, and psychiatric syndromes were the main causes of air evacuation. Medical equipment and personnel were placed aboard aircraft based on the gravity of each case. Assistance contracts provide valuable back-up for travellers' medical and psychological safety; close cooperation with airlines is of prime importance, both to the patient and to airline operations.

  11. The evacuation of cairns hospitals due to severe tropical cyclone Yasi.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark; Stone, Theona; Stone, Richard; Burns, Jan; Reeves, Jim; Cullen, Paul; Humble, Ian; Finn, Emmeline; Aitken, Peter; Elcock, Mark; Gillard, Noel

    2012-09-01

    On February 2, 2011, Tropical Cyclone Yasi, the largest cyclone to cross the Australian coast and a system the size of Hurricane Katrina, threatened the city of Cairns. As a result, the Cairns Base Hospital (CBH) and Cairns Private Hospital (CPH) were both evacuated, the hospitals were closed, and an alternate emergency medical center was established in a sports stadium 15 km from the Cairns central business district. This article describes the events around the evacuation of 356 patients, staff, and relatives to Brisbane (approximately 1,700 km away by road), closure of the hospitals, and the provision of a temporary emergency medical center for 28 hours during the height of the cyclone. Our experience highlights the need for adequate and exercised hospital evacuation plans; the need for clear command and control with identified decision-makers; early decision-making on when to evacuate; having good communication systems with redundancy; ensuring that patients are adequately identified and tracked and have their medications and notes; ensuring adequate staff, medications, and oxygen for holding patients; and planning in detail the alternate medical facility safety and its role, function, and equipment. PMID:22978739

  12. The evacuation of cairns hospitals due to severe tropical cyclone Yasi.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark; Stone, Theona; Stone, Richard; Burns, Jan; Reeves, Jim; Cullen, Paul; Humble, Ian; Finn, Emmeline; Aitken, Peter; Elcock, Mark; Gillard, Noel

    2012-09-01

    On February 2, 2011, Tropical Cyclone Yasi, the largest cyclone to cross the Australian coast and a system the size of Hurricane Katrina, threatened the city of Cairns. As a result, the Cairns Base Hospital (CBH) and Cairns Private Hospital (CPH) were both evacuated, the hospitals were closed, and an alternate emergency medical center was established in a sports stadium 15 km from the Cairns central business district. This article describes the events around the evacuation of 356 patients, staff, and relatives to Brisbane (approximately 1,700 km away by road), closure of the hospitals, and the provision of a temporary emergency medical center for 28 hours during the height of the cyclone. Our experience highlights the need for adequate and exercised hospital evacuation plans; the need for clear command and control with identified decision-makers; early decision-making on when to evacuate; having good communication systems with redundancy; ensuring that patients are adequately identified and tracked and have their medications and notes; ensuring adequate staff, medications, and oxygen for holding patients; and planning in detail the alternate medical facility safety and its role, function, and equipment.

  13. The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Weinisch, Kevin; Brueckner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information

  14. The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Weinisch, Kevin; Brueckner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information

  15. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates. PMID:24762065

  16. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done in order to make evacuating with a pet easier. Abstract Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  17. [Military history of evacuation hospital No 3457 and the head of this hospital -- Porfirii Ivanovich Zabolotnyi].

    PubMed

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-05-01

    The article is devoted to publication of an archive document "History of evacuation hospital AN 3457". This archive document was found in one of the deserted country house in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. 32 pages of text is bright and eloquent testimony of the period of the Great Patriotic War. Hospital was founded in 1941 in Sumy Oblast and then was deployed in Siberia, in the region of the Far North, again in Ukraine and in Hungary. Army medical officer Porfirii Zabolotnyi was the chef of evacuation hospital during this period.

  18. Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States' largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county's emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

  19. Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

    1992-06-01

    Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States` largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county`s emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

  20. Panic evacuation of single pedestrians and couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing requirements for evacuation of people has focused primarily on independent pedestrians rather than pedestrians emotionally connected. However, the main statistical effects observed in crowds, the so-called “faster is slower”, “clever is not always better” and the “low visibility enhancement”, cannot explain the overall behavior of a crowd during an evacuation process when correlated pedestrians due to, for example feelings, are present. Our research addresses this issue and examines the statistical behavior of a mixture of individuals and couples during a (panic) escaping process. We found that the attractive feeling among couples plays an important role in the time delays during the evacuation of a single exit room.

  1. Evacuate and backfill apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Groves, Oliver J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus and method for treatment of hollow articles by evacuating existing gas or gases therefrom and purging or backfilling the articles with a second gas such as helium. The apparatus includes a sealed enclosure having an article storage drum mounted therein. A multiplicity of such articles are fed singly into the enclosure and loaded into radial slots formed in the drum. The enclosure is successively evacuated and purged with helium to replace the existing gas in the articles with helium. The purged articles are then discharged singly from the drum and transported out of the enclosure.

  2. Evacuate and backfill apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.; Groves, O.J.

    1984-06-27

    An apparatus and method as described for treatment of hollow articles by evacuating existing gas or gases therefrom and purging or backfilling the articles with a second gas such as helium. The apparatus includes a sealed enclosure having an article storage drum mounted therein. A multiplicity of such articles are fed singly into the enclosure and loaded into radial slots formed in the drum. The enclosure is successively evacuated and purged with helium to replace the existing gas in the articles with helium. The purged articles are then discharged singly from the drum and transported out of the enclosure.

  3. 3 Echo: concept of operations for early care and evacuation of victims of mass violence.

    PubMed

    Autrey, Allen W; Hick, John L; Bramer, Kurtis; Berndt, Jeremy; Bundt, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event. Field implementation of 3 Echo requires multi-disciplinary (Emergency Medical Services (EMS), fire and LE) training to optimize performance. This report details the mass-shooting event, the framework created to support the response, and also describes important aspects of the concepts of operation and curriculum evolved through years of collaboration between multiple disciplines to arrive at unprecedented EMS transport times in response to the event.

  4. 3 Echo: concept of operations for early care and evacuation of victims of mass violence.

    PubMed

    Autrey, Allen W; Hick, John L; Bramer, Kurtis; Berndt, Jeremy; Bundt, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event. Field implementation of 3 Echo requires multi-disciplinary (Emergency Medical Services (EMS), fire and LE) training to optimize performance. This report details the mass-shooting event, the framework created to support the response, and also describes important aspects of the concepts of operation and curriculum evolved through years of collaboration between multiple disciplines to arrive at unprecedented EMS transport times in response to the event. PMID:24909363

  5. Portable Cathode-Air Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator (OC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Missions on the International Space Station and future space exploration will present significant challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of onboard oxygen resources. Exploration vehicles will require lightweight, compact, and portable oxygen concentrators that can provide medical-grade oxygen from the ambient cabin air. Current pressure-swing adsorption OCs are heavy and bulky, require significant start-up periods, operate in narrow temperature ranges, and require a liquid water feed. Lynntech, Inc., has developed an electrochemical OC that operates with a cathode-air vapor feed, eliminating the need for a bulky onboard water supply. Lynntech's OC is smaller and lighter than conventional pressure-swing OCs, is capable of instant start-up, and operates over a temperature range of 5-80 C. Accomplished through a unique nanocomposite proton exchange membrane and catalyst technology, the unit delivers 4 standard liters per minute of humidified oxygen at 60 percent concentration. The technology enables both ambient-pressure operating devices for portable applications and pressurized (up to 3,600 psi) OC devices for stationary applications.

  6. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context. PMID:25555005

  7. The origins of casualty evacuation and echelons of care: lessons learned from the American Civil War.

    PubMed

    Blansfield, J S

    1999-01-01

    The American Civil War produced many victims of battle who challenged the medical community. Not long after the war started the medical community was forced to make rapid, significant changes in how soldiers were evacuated, how they were cared for both immediately and long-term, and how the spread of fatal infectious diseases was controlled. This was the era in which nurses proved their importance and became a permanent segment of trauma care. PMID:10085824

  8. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  9. The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst: geographic information systems software for modeling hazard evacuation potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a

  10. [Emergency and disaster response in critical care unit in the Mexican Social Security Institute: triage and evacuation].

    PubMed

    Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Elizondo-Argueta, Sandra; Martínez Valdés, Everardo; Franco-Bey, Rubén; Méndez-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Providing medical assistance in emergencies and disaster in advance makes the need to maintain Medical Units functional despite the disturbing phenomenon that confronts the community, but conflict occurs when the Medical Unit needs support and needs to be evacuated, especially when the evacuation of patients in a Critical Care Unit is required. In world literature there is little on this topic, and what is there usually focuses on the conversion of areas and increased ability to care for mass casualties, but not about how to evacuate if necessary, and when a wrong decision can have fatal consequences. That is why the Mexican Social Security Institute gave the task of examining these problems to a working group composed of specialists of the Institute. The purpose was to evaluate and establish a method for performing a protocol in the removal of patients and considering always to safeguard both staff and patients and maintain the quality of care.

  11. 48 CFR 1852.237-70 - Emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency evacuation... and Clauses 1852.237-70 Emergency evacuation procedures. As prescribed at 1837.110-70(a), insert the following clause: Emergency Evacuation Procedures (DEC 1988) The contractor shall assure that its...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.237-70 - Emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Emergency evacuation... and Clauses 1852.237-70 Emergency evacuation procedures. As prescribed at 1837.110-70(a), insert the following clause: Emergency Evacuation Procedures (DEC 1988) The contractor shall assure that its...

  13. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties....397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder shall, for each type and... functions to be performed in an emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The...

  14. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of emergency evacuation... Requirements § 125.189 Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures. (a) Each certificate holder must show... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction. (a... and evacuation plans and procedures and fire warning signals in effect at the mine. (b) Whenever...

  16. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of emergency evacuation... Requirements § 125.189 Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures. (a) Each certificate holder must show... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than...

  17. 14 CFR 121.397 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties....397 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder shall, for each type and... functions to be performed in an emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The...

  18. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties... Flight Operations § 135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder shall... be performed in an emergency or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate...

  19. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties... Requirements § 125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder shall, for each... necessary functions to be performed in an emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation....

  20. 14 CFR 125.271 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties... Requirements § 125.271 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder shall, for each... necessary functions to be performed in an emergency or a situation requiring emergency evacuation....

  1. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction. (a... and evacuation plans and procedures and fire warning signals in effect at the mine. (b) Whenever...

  2. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1) Each marine...

  3. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties... Flight Operations § 135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder shall... be performed in an emergency or in a situation requiring emergency evacuation. The certificate...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  14. 46 CFR 116.520 - Emergency evacuation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency evacuation plan. 116.520 Section 116.520... ARRANGEMENT Escape and Embarkation Station Requirements § 116.520 Emergency evacuation plan. The owner or managing operator shall prepare an evacuation plan that must: (a) Identify possible casualties...

  15. 46 CFR 116.520 - Emergency evacuation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency evacuation plan. 116.520 Section 116.520... ARRANGEMENT Escape and Embarkation Station Requirements § 116.520 Emergency evacuation plan. The owner or managing operator shall prepare an evacuation plan that must: (a) Identify possible casualties...

  16. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145... AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation...

  17. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1) Each marine...

  18. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1)...

  19. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  20. A novel approach for mental health disease management: the Air Force Medical Service's interdisciplinary model.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Christine N; Fonseca, Vincent P; Meyer, John G; Oordt, Mark S; Talcott, G Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Mental health disorders are one of the most substantial public health problems affecting society today, accounting for roughly 15% of the overall burden of disease from all causes in the United States. Although primary care (PC) has the potential to be the frontline for recognition and management of behavioral health conditions, this has been a challenge historically. In order to more effectively address the broad scope of behavioral health needs, the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) established a new model of behavioral health care. Through a series of coordinated steps, the AFMS ultimately placed trained behavioral health providers into PC clinics to serve as consultants to PC providers (PCPs). Behavioral Health Consultants (BHCs) provide focused assessments, present healthcare options to patients, and deliver brief collaborative interventions in the PC setting. BHCs see patients at the request of the PCP, in 15-30-min appointments. In the pilot study, patients averaged 1.6 visits to the BHC. Over 70% of patients fell into six categories of presenting problems: situational reactions, depressive disorders, adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, health promotion, and obesity. Patient data (n = 76) suggest 97% of patients seen were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with BHC services, and 100% of the PCPs (n = 23, 68% response rate) were highly satisfied and indicated they would "definitely recommend" others use BHC services for their patients. Both the implications and the limitations of this pilot study are discussed.

  1. Study on the Principle Mechanisms of Heat Transfer for Cryogenic Insulations: Especially Accounting for the Temperature-Dependent Deposition-Evacuation of the Filling Gas (Self-Evacuating Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Matthias; Vidi, Stephan; Ebert, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    This study concentrates on the principles of heat transfer within cryogenic insulation systems, especially accounting for self-evacuating systems (deposition-evacuation of the filling gas). These principles allow the extrapolation to other temperatures, gases and other materials with the input of only a few experimentally derived or carefully estimated material properties. The type of gas (e.g. air or CO2) within the porous insulation material dominates the behaviour of the effective thermal conductivity during the cooldown of the cryogenic application. This is due to the specific temperature-dependent saturation gas pressure which determines the contribution of the gas conductivity. The selected material classes include powders, fibrous insulations, foams, aerogels and multilayer insulations in the temperature range of 20 K to 300 K. Novel within this study is an analytical function for the total and the mean thermal conductivity with respect to the temperature, type of gas, external pressure and material class of the insulation. Furthermore, the integral mean value of the thermal conductivity, the so-called mean thermal conductivity, is calculated for a mechanically evacuated insulation material and an insulation material evacuated by deposition-evacuation of the filling gas, respectively. This enables a comparison of the total thermal conductivity of cryogenic insulation materials and their applicability for a self-evacuating cryogenic insulation system.

  2. Evacuation Criteria after A Nuclear Accident: A Personal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In any decision involving radiation a risk-risk or risk-benefit comparison should be done. This can be either explicit or implicit. When the adverse effect of an alternate action is less than the planned action, such as medical use of X rays or nuclear power in ordinary operation, the comparison is simple. But in this paper I argue that with the situation faced by the Japanese in Fukushima, the assumption that the risk of an alternate action is small is false. The risks of unnecessary evacuation exceeded the risk of radiation cancers hypothetically produced by staying in place. This was not realized by those that had to make a decision within hours. This realization suggests important changes, worldwide, in the guidelines for radiation protection in accident situations. PMID:23304100

  3. Optimization and Planning of Emergency Evacuation Routes Considering Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  4. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  5. Optimization and planning of emergency evacuation routes considering traffic control.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical.

  6. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  7. The significance of a small, level-3 'semi evacuation' hospital in a terrorist attack in a nearby town.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, Moshe; Leiba, Adi; Zaltsman, Eilon; Erez, Onn; Blumenfeld, Amir; Avinoam, Shkolnick; Laor, Daniel; Schwartz, Dagan; Goldberg, Avishay; Levi, Yehezkel; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2007-09-01

    Terrorist attacks can occur in remote areas causing mass-casualty incidents MCIs far away from level-1 trauma centres. This study draws lessons from an MCI pertaining to the management of primary and secondary evacuation and the operational mode practiced. Data was collected from formal debriefings during and after the event, and the medical response, interactions and main outcomes analysed using Disastrous Incidents Systematic Analysis through Components, Interactions and Results (DISAST-CIR) methodology. A total of 112 people were evacuated from the scene-66 to the nearby level 3 Laniado hospital, including the eight critically and severely injured patients. Laniado hospital was instructed to act as an evacuation hospital but the flow of patients ended rapidly and it was decided to admit moderately injured victims. We introduce a novel concept of a 'semi-evacuation hospital'. This mode of operation should be selected for small-scale events in which the evacuation hospital has hospitalization capacity and is not geographically isolated. We suggest that level-3 hospitals in remote areas should be prepared and drilled to work in semi-evacuation mode during MCIs.

  8. Evacuation behavior and Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Cutter, S; Barnes, K

    1982-06-01

    The responses of the residents to the nuclear power plant arcident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania illustrate the factors influencing pre-impact coping responses of populations exposed to technological hazards. Confusion itnd ambiguous information influenced both the decision to evaluate and to remain in place. Proximity to the facility, stage in life cycle and the actions of friends and neighbors influenced the decision to evacuate. PMID:20958525

  9. Effects of evacuation assistant’s leading behavior on the evacuation efficiency: Information transmission approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees’ movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees’ movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), , and , are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate is associated with the maximum of evacuees. The optimal combinations of and were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants’ information transmission radius. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB706900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71225007 and 71203006), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAK13B06), the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 10YJA630221 and 12YJCZH023), and the Beijing Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China (Grant Nos. 12JGC090 and 12JGC098).

  10. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  11. Pediatric issues in disaster management, part 2: evacuation centers and family separation/reunification.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E; Sharieff, Ghazala; Bern, Andrew; Benjamin, Lee; Burbulys, Dave; Johnson, Ramon; Schreiber, Merritt

    2010-01-01

    Although children and infants are likely to be victims in a disaster and are more vulnerable in a disaster than adults, disaster planning and management has often overlooked the specific needs of pediatric patients. We discuss key components of disaster planning and management for pediatric patients including emergency medical services, hospital/facility issues, evacuation centers, family separation/reunification, children with special healthcare needs, mental health issues, and overcrowding/surge capacity. Specific policy recommendations and an appendix with detailed practical information and algorithms are included. The first part of this three part series on pediatric issues in disaster management addresses the emergency medical system from the field to the hospital and surge capacity including the impact of crowding. The second part addresses the appropriate set up and functioning of evacuation centers and family separation and reunification. The third part deals with special patient populations: the special healthcare needs patient and mental health issues. PMID:20701172

  12. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  13. A cross-sectional survey of patient needs in hospital evacuation.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Rune; Holtan, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To aid development of contingency plans, a cross-sectional survey of inpatient needs in the event of a total hospital evacuation within a few hours was undertaken. The hospital is a part of a tertiary care facility with a mixed surgical and medical population and a relatively large load of emergency medicine. A doctor or nurse on each ward registered patients' physical mobility, special needs complicating transportation (intensive care, labor, isolation, etc), and the lowest acceptable level of care after evacuation. Of the 760 included patients, 57.8 percent could walk, 20.0 percent needed wheelchair, and 22.2 percent needed transport on stretcher. Special needs were registered for 18.2 percent of patients. Only 49.7 percent of patients needed to be evacuated to another hospital to continue care on an acceptable level, while 37.6 percent could be discharged to their own home, and 12.6 percent could be evacuated to a nursing home. Patients in psychiatric wards and high dependency units had distinctly different needs than patients in ordinary somatic wards. The differences between patients in surgical and nonsurgical wards were minor. Patient discharge seems to be a considerable capacity buffer in a hospital crisis situation. PMID:27149311

  14. A cross-sectional survey of patient needs in hospital evacuation.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Rune; Holtan, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To aid development of contingency plans, a cross-sectional survey of inpatient needs in the event of a total hospital evacuation within a few hours was undertaken. The hospital is a part of a tertiary care facility with a mixed surgical and medical population and a relatively large load of emergency medicine. A doctor or nurse on each ward registered patients' physical mobility, special needs complicating transportation (intensive care, labor, isolation, etc), and the lowest acceptable level of care after evacuation. Of the 760 included patients, 57.8 percent could walk, 20.0 percent needed wheelchair, and 22.2 percent needed transport on stretcher. Special needs were registered for 18.2 percent of patients. Only 49.7 percent of patients needed to be evacuated to another hospital to continue care on an acceptable level, while 37.6 percent could be discharged to their own home, and 12.6 percent could be evacuated to a nursing home. Patients in psychiatric wards and high dependency units had distinctly different needs than patients in ordinary somatic wards. The differences between patients in surgical and nonsurgical wards were minor. Patient discharge seems to be a considerable capacity buffer in a hospital crisis situation. PMID:26312655

  15. Simulation of local tsunami and evacuation of urban areas, informed by population exposure analysis and studies of tsunami evacuation behaviour.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Stuart; Wood, Nathan; Johnston, David; Leonard, Graham

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a methodology for the integration of hazard, population and evacuation modelling to optimise evacuation planning. Deterministic tsunami simulations are carried out to define the spatial and temporal evolution of tsunami inundation onshore in the several hours following local-source subduction zone earthquakes. Exposure of an urban population to the hazard and options for risk mitigation (specifically through evacuation) are then assessed, demonstrating how tsunami simulation and evacuation simulations can be combined for effective tsunami evacuation planning. The east coast of New Zealand is subject to significant local tsunami hazard due to the proximity of the Hikurangi subduction margin only 100 km offshore. Seismic, geodetic and paleo-tsunami studies have shown the potential for large subduction zone earthquakes (Mw 7.0 to > Mw 9.0) to occur on this margin, though none have been experienced in New Zealand's short European-recorded history. Deterministic simulation of earthquake-generated local tsunami indicates the variability in potential inundation extent and tsunami arrival time at Napier City, an urban centre located on the east coast of New Zealand. Maximum spatial extent of inundation is used to analyse the exposed population, while temporal evolution of inundation is implemented in GIS modelling of evacuation travel time. Exposure analysis reveals the spatial distribution of the urban population, including sub-populations with varying characteristics influencing their ability to evacuate effectively in the short time-frame available for a local tsunami. These include vulnerable groups such as those who are mobility-impaired, in the care of institutions (I.e. schools, prisons) and transient populations with little knowledge of local hazard or evacuation routes. Observations of evacuation behaviour in previous tsunami and research into awareness of appropriate evacuation behaviour in the Napier community are used to calibrate and validate

  16. Airworthiness testing of medical maggots.

    PubMed

    Peck, George W; Helgeson, Sandra M; Powell, Eric D; Roth, Amanda L; Flores, Micah; Kirkup, Benjamin C

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to test and certify medicinal maggots to facilitate rapid healing of traumatic and chronic wound infections in Wounded warriors being transported onboard military aircraft. Our specific aims included (1) to test the ability of medical grade larvae to withstand the rigors of U.S. Army aeromedical certification, including tolerance to change in pressure, temperature, and humidity inside ground-based chambers; (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the medical grade larvae during a high-vibration rotary-wing medical transport flight; and (3) to gain U.S. Army aeromedical certification and U.S. Air Force safe-to-fly approval and begin the steps needed to deploy/implement the use of medicinal maggots in patient care regimes for medical airlift standard operating procedures. This report outlines the ground-based and initial air-based tests performed during the study. Maggot mortality was very low during all tests, with a mortality rate of less than 1%. Maggot growth rates in wound arenas were mixed but generally depended on temperature. Overall, the results of these tests suggest that medicinal maggots can withstand the rigors of aeromedical evacuation flights in simulated flight environments and rotary- or fixed-wing aircraft.

  17. Airworthiness testing of medical maggots.

    PubMed

    Peck, George W; Helgeson, Sandra M; Powell, Eric D; Roth, Amanda L; Flores, Micah; Kirkup, Benjamin C

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to test and certify medicinal maggots to facilitate rapid healing of traumatic and chronic wound infections in Wounded warriors being transported onboard military aircraft. Our specific aims included (1) to test the ability of medical grade larvae to withstand the rigors of U.S. Army aeromedical certification, including tolerance to change in pressure, temperature, and humidity inside ground-based chambers; (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the medical grade larvae during a high-vibration rotary-wing medical transport flight; and (3) to gain U.S. Army aeromedical certification and U.S. Air Force safe-to-fly approval and begin the steps needed to deploy/implement the use of medicinal maggots in patient care regimes for medical airlift standard operating procedures. This report outlines the ground-based and initial air-based tests performed during the study. Maggot mortality was very low during all tests, with a mortality rate of less than 1%. Maggot growth rates in wound arenas were mixed but generally depended on temperature. Overall, the results of these tests suggest that medicinal maggots can withstand the rigors of aeromedical evacuation flights in simulated flight environments and rotary- or fixed-wing aircraft. PMID:25939116

  18. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-financed direct contract. USAID will reimburse reasonable, allowable, and allocable costs for MEDEVAC..., allowability, and allocability of the costs based on the applicable cost principles and in accordance with cost accounting standards. (b) Exceptions. (i) The Contractor is not required to provide MEDEVAC insurance...

  19. 48 CFR 1842.7003 - Emergency medical services and evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional... contracts when employees of the contractor are required to travel outside the United States or to...

  20. 48 CFR 1842.7003 - Emergency medical services and evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional... contracts when employees of the contractor are required to travel outside the United States or to...

  1. 48 CFR 1842.7003 - Emergency medical services and evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Additional... contracts when employees of the contractor are required to travel outside the United States or to...

  2. Can cooperation slow down emergency evacuations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    We study the motion of pedestrians through obscure corridors where the lack of visibility hides the precise position of the exits. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of cooperation on the overall exit flux (evacuation rate). More precisely, we study the effect of the buddying threshold (of no exclusion per site) on the dynamics of the crowd. In some cases, we note that if the evacuees tend to cooperate and act altruistically, then their collective action tends to favor the occurrence of disasters.

  3. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  4. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders.

  5. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders. PMID:25062822

  6. To Evacuate or Shelter in Place: Implications of Universal Hurricane Evacuation Policies on Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Dosa, David; Hyer, Kathryn; Thomas, Kali; Swaminathan, Shailender; Feng, Zhanlian; Brown, Lisa; Mor, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the differential morbidity/mortality associated with evacuation versus sheltering in place for nursing home (NH) residents exposed to the 4 most recent Gulf-hurricanes Methods Observational study using Medicare claims, and NH data sources. We compared the differential mortality/morbidity for long-stay residents exposed to 4 recent hurricanes (Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) relative to those residing at the same NHs over the same time periods during the prior 2 non-hurricane years as a control. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we then evaluated the independent effect of evacuation on outcomes at 90 days. Results Among 36,389 NH residents exposed to a storm, the 30 and 90 day mortality/hospitalization rates increased compared to non-hurricane control years. There were a cumulative total of 277 extra deaths and 872 extra hospitalizations at 30 days. At 90 days, 579 extra deaths and 544 extra hospitalizations were observed. Using the instrumental variable analysis, evacuation increased the probability of death at 90 days from 2.7-5.3% and hospitalization by 1.8-8.3%, independent of other factors. Conclusion Among residents exposed to hurricanes, evacuation significantly exacerbated subsequent morbidity/mortality. PMID:21885350

  7. Evacuation time estimate for total pedestrian evacuation using a queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bharat; Simini, Filippo; Johansson, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a nontrivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow, and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, the number of evacuees, and the resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). Using volunteered geographic information, we divide 50 United Kingdom cities into a total of 704 catchment areas (CAs) which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. 90% of the agents are within ≈6 ,847 m of CA exit nodes with ≈13 ,778 agents/CA. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node, and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in a free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based "queuing network" model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETEs. This relationship could enable emergency planners to make a rapid appraisal of evacuation strategies and help support decisions in the run up to a crisis.

  8. Evacuation assistants: An extended model for determining effective locations and optimal numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Zheng, Xiaoping; Cheng, Yuan

    2012-03-01

    The present research presents an extended evacuation field model for simulating crowd emergency evacuation processes under the control of evacuation assistants. Furthermore, a communication field for describing the escape information transmission process and its effect on evacuees is introduced. The effective locations and optimal numbers of evacuation assistants as generated through the model are proposed in an effort to verify as well as enhance existing models. Results show the following. (1) Locating evacuation assistants near exits reduces the time delay for pre-evacuation. (2) There is an optimal number of evacuation assistants for achieving evacuation efficiency; having excessive numbers of evacuation assistants does not improve the evacuation efficiency, and they may result in evacuation time delay and hinder the evacuation efficiency. (3) As the number of evacuees increases, the number of evacuation assistants needed decreases.

  9. Aviation pioneers: World War II air evacuation nurses.

    PubMed

    Stevens, S Y

    1994-01-01

    During World War II, nurses pioneered a new role for women in the skies. This study of the 1942-1944 Movietonews, the largest of the U.S. newsreel companies with international syndication, identified the exploits of these nurses, compared personal accounts and highlighted flight nurses' contributions to the profession, society, and aviation.

  10. BILATERAL SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL BLOCKS AS THE PRIMARY ANESTHETIC FOR THE PATIENT UNDERGOING AN EVACUATION OF NECK HEMATOMA AFTER PARATHYROID SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Heller, Benjamin; Levine, Adam

    2015-10-01

    This is the case of an 80-year-old female who presented for evacuation of a neck hematoma on POD#3 after a parathyroidectomy. Her medical history included coronary artery disease with a drug-eluding stent, off aspirin for 2 weeks. She had a significant hematoma from the hyoid bone extending down to below the suprasternal notch. She reported hoarseness. The anesthesiology team provided regional anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical blocks, supplemented with minimal sedation for patient compliance. The surgical team used no adjuvant local anesthetic. A deep exploration was performed and significant clot was evacuated. The patient went home safely from the PACU. PMID:26860031

  11. Computer simulation for optimization of offshore platform evacuation

    SciTech Connect

    Soma, H.; Drager, K.H.; Bjoerdal, P.

    1996-12-31

    A method for optimizing the evacuation system on offshore platforms, in which computer simulation provides a main contribution, is presented. The use of computer simulation in offshore projects is explained, and the contribution with respect to input to the Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRA) and to the engineering is also presented. In order to design an optimum evacuation system on offshore platforms, detailed analyses and sensitivity calculations are required. By utilizing computer programs and simulation tools, the work load is no longer prohibitive for comprehensive optimization calculations to be performed. The evacuation system can accordingly be designed based on engineering considerations, rather than mainly relying on the preferences of the design team involved in the project. A description of three computer programs which perform stochastic reliability analyses of evacuation operations is presented; Evacuation Simulations (EVACSIM) simulates the evacuation (egress) of personnel on the platform, Lifeboat Launch for Conventional lifeboats (LBL-C) simulates the launch and escape operation of davit launched lifeboats and Lifeboat Launch for Free fall lifeboats (LBL-F) simulates the launch and escape operation of slide launched or vertical drop free fall lifeboats. Other computer programs that analyze parts of the evacuation process, such as Offshore Rescue Simulation (ORS), are mentioned. The result of this synthesis is an estimate of the yearly number of lives lost during evacuation of a platform, which is a suitable parameter for optimizing the evacuation system and deciding improvements. The impact of changing design parameters is found by carrying out evacuation analyses for the revised design (i.e., a sensitivity) and comparing the resulting loss of lives with the Base Case results. By systematizing this approach, the evacuation system on the platform can thus be optimized.

  12. [Experience with passenger motor ship re-equipment used for evacuation of the wounded and sick].

    PubMed

    Sokolovskiĭ, N A; Grishchuk, A V; Tsymbal, A N

    2003-08-01

    In September 2002 the mobilization headquarters training was conducted on the base of Volga-Baltic steamship. During this training the passenger motor-vessel (the project 301) was re-equipped into sanitary-and-transport ship. The sanitary treatment coast post and the elements of evacuation receiving-room were developed by the personnel on the shore near the mooring wall. On the 3rd day the ship's sanitary treatment post, medical department (60 beds) with the wards for psychic patients (4 critical patients/ward), post for nurse on duty, room of physician on duty, dressing room, drugstore, autoclave room, clinical laboratory and collective defense post were created in the re-equipped rooms of the ship. The training has confirmed the advantages of casualty and patient transportation using the inner water-ways over the other types of transport. The following defects should be noted: the season work of river transport; frequent discrepancy of river trend with evacuation ways; comparatively low rate of transportation; different types of river ships used for medical evacuation. PMID:14564951

  13. [Experience with passenger motor ship re-equipment used for evacuation of the wounded and sick].

    PubMed

    Sokolovskiĭ, N A; Grishchuk, A V; Tsymbal, A N

    2003-08-01

    In September 2002 the mobilization headquarters training was conducted on the base of Volga-Baltic steamship. During this training the passenger motor-vessel (the project 301) was re-equipped into sanitary-and-transport ship. The sanitary treatment coast post and the elements of evacuation receiving-room were developed by the personnel on the shore near the mooring wall. On the 3rd day the ship's sanitary treatment post, medical department (60 beds) with the wards for psychic patients (4 critical patients/ward), post for nurse on duty, room of physician on duty, dressing room, drugstore, autoclave room, clinical laboratory and collective defense post were created in the re-equipped rooms of the ship. The training has confirmed the advantages of casualty and patient transportation using the inner water-ways over the other types of transport. The following defects should be noted: the season work of river transport; frequent discrepancy of river trend with evacuation ways; comparatively low rate of transportation; different types of river ships used for medical evacuation.

  14. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  15. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Hall, Christopher J.; Lye, Jessica E.; Nordstroem, Terese; Midgley, Stewart M.; Lewis, Robert A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  16. Taking the Blood Bank to the Field: The Design and Rationale of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) Trial.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua B; Guyette, Francis X; Neal, Matthew D; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Daley, Brian J; Harbrecht, Brian G; Miller, Richard S; Phelan, Herb A; Adams, Peter W; Early, Barbara J; Peitzman, Andrew B; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhage and trauma induced coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. Interest in the use of prehospital plasma in hemorrhaging patients as a primary resuscitation agent has grown recently. Trauma center-based damage control resuscitation using early and aggressive plasma transfusion has consistently demonstrated improved outcomes in hemorrhaging patients. Additionally, plasma has been shown to have several favorable immunomodulatory effects. Preliminary evidence with prehospital plasma transfusion has demonstrated feasibility and improved short-term outcomes. Applying state-of-the-art resuscitation strategies to the civilian prehospital arena is compelling. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital plasma transfusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk for traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with profound hypotension (SBP ≤ 70 mmHg) or hypotension (SBP 71-90 mmHg) and tachycardia (HR ≥ 108 bpm) from six level I trauma center air medical transport programs. The trial will also explore the effects of prehospital plasma transfusion on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research with an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizing a multipronged community consultation process. It is one of three ongoing Department of Defense-funded trials aimed at expanding our understanding of the optimal therapeutic approaches to coagulopathy in the hemorrhaging trauma patient.

  17. 14 CFR 121.291 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of emergency evacuation....291 Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, each certificate holder must conduct an actual demonstration of emergency...

  18. 14 CFR 121.291 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of emergency evacuation....291 Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, each certificate holder must conduct an actual demonstration of emergency...

  19. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder...

  20. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder...

  1. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency Evacuation J Appendix J to Part... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. J Appendix J to Part 25—Emergency Evacuation... an emergency exit. (j) Seat belts and shoulder harnesses (as required) must be fastened. (k)...

  3. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... debris and fluids during gastroenterological and urological procedures by drainage, aspiration, or irrigation. This generic type of device includes the fluid evacuator system, manually powered bladder evacuator, and the AC-powered vacuum pump. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls) for...

  4. Getting out of harm's way - evacuation from tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Maps of travel time can be used by emergency managers and community planners to identify where to focus evacuation training and tsunami education. The tool can also be used to examine the potential benefits of vertical-evacuation structures, which are buildings or berms designed to provide a local high ground in low-lying areas of the hazard zone. 

  5. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency Evacuation J Appendix J to Part... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. J Appendix J to Part 25—Emergency Evacuation... an emergency exit. (j) Seat belts and shoulder harnesses (as required) must be fastened. (k)...

  6. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545 Section 108.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system...

  7. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545 Section 108.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system...

  8. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545 Section 108.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system...

  9. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  10. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  11. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  12. A social force evacuation model with the leadership effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Pan, Xue; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-04-01

    When planning for the evacuation guidance, how to efficiently set the trained evacuation leaders is an important problem which has great impact on the evacuation process. This paper investigates the effect of the number and positions of evacuation leaders on the evacuation dynamics in rooms with limited visibility range. In the improved social force model, only the trained leaders exactly know the exit positions, and the others could only follow the guidance according to the positions and directions of evacuation leaders. According to the simulation results, only one or two leaders could get remarkable effect for a single-exit configuration. But for configurations with multi-exits, evacuation leaders would make the dynamic slower unless the guidance sufficiently utilizes every exit. The results indicate that, we should set as many leaders as the number of exits in the center of the multi-exits regular squared room, and when emergencies occur, each leader heads to a different exit. Moreover, if we do like this, the evacuation would be even faster than that with 20 random-position-leaders. This work may shed some light on the drawing up of emergency scheme for large public-gathering places like stadiums and shopping malls.

  13. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  15. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  16. 33 CFR 19.04 - Vessels requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... United States for emergency evacuation. 19.04 Section 19.04 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 19.04 Vessels requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation. Pursuant to the request of... emergency evacuation....

  17. 33 CFR 19.04 - Vessels requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States for emergency evacuation. 19.04 Section 19.04 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 19.04 Vessels requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation. Pursuant to the request of... emergency evacuation....

  18. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  19. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  20. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  1. Queuing network approach for building evacuation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Nurhanis; Khalid, Ruzelan; Baten, Md. Azizul; Nawawi, Mohd. Kamal Mohd.

    2014-12-01

    The complex behavior of pedestrians in a limited space layout can explicitly be modeled using an M/G/C/C state dependent queuing network. This paper implements the approach to study pedestrian flows through various corridors in a topological network. The best arrival rates and their impacts to the corridors' performances in terms of the throughput, blocking probability, expected number of occupants in the system and expected travel time were first measured using the M/G/C/C analytical model. These best arrival rates were then fed to its Network Flow Programming model to find the best arrival rates to source corridors and routes optimizing the network's total throughput. The analytical results were then validated using a simulation model. Various results of this study can be used to support the current Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) to efficiently and safely evacuate people in emergency cases.

  2. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  3. Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A.F.

    1987-04-28

    An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

  4. Evacuation of a critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    Emergency preparedness is crucial to the frontline nurse who provides patient care 24 hours a day, seven days a week, especially in the wake of the September 11 bombing of the World Trade Centre (9/11). It is the professional responsibility of both the organization and the nursing staff to ensure that knowledge about disaster procedures is adequate. Disasters do not necessarily occur when the majority of administrative and support staff are on duty. It is imperative that nurses are informed of disaster procedures and can provide leadership during a crisis. In this article, the author discusses a Code Red (fire) with Code Green potential and actual Code Green (evacuation) two days later, of a 20-bed critical care unit. PMID:14725143

  5. Extended duration orbiter medical project Microbial Air Sampler (STS-50/USML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Boettcher, Sheila W.

    1994-01-01

    The Microbial Air Sampler was used on mission days 1, 7, and 13 in the Spacelab during STS-50/USML-1. Microbial air samples were collected using two types of media strips containing agar (Rose Bengal for yeast and molds, TSA for bacteria). The bacterial level found on day 1 was lower than experienced on previous Spacelab missions. A high level of fungi was present on day 1, however subsequent samples on days 7 and 13 did not indicate fungal growth. Bacterial growth was also minimized in this microgravity environment as the mission progressed. No pathogenic microorganisms were isolated, and the health risk from airborne microbes was minimal throughout the mission.

  6. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

  7. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  8. An analysis of evacuation options for nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.; Schultz, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    In this report we consider the threat posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant. The objective is to establish relationships between radiation dose and the cost of evacuation under a wide variety of conditions. The dose can almost always be reduced by evacuating the population from a larger area. However, extending the evacuation zone outward will cause evacuation costs to increase. The purpose of this analysis was to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a data base for evaluating whether implementation costs and risks averted could be used to justify evacuation at lower doses. The procedures used and results of these analyses are being made available as background information for use by others. We develop cost/dose relationships for 54 scenarios that are based upon the severity of the reactor accident, meteorological conditions during the release of radionuclides into the environment, and the angular width of the evacuation zone. The 54 scenarios are derived from combinations of three accident severity levels, six meteorological conditions and evacuation zone widths of 70{degree}, 90{degree}, and 180{degree}.

  9. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D. K.; Gisladottir, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-02-01

    Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP), in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in this region. Our data can be used

  10. [Medical aspects of the environmental sanitation of workplaces in compressed air work in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mano, Y; Shibayama, M

    1987-01-01

    Actual follow-up investigations were made for a period of 5 yr and 10 months since February 1980 on 55 places of caisson and shield work. The maximum bottom pressure in caisson work was 3.6 kg/cm2 (4.6 ATA) and that of shield work was 1.6 kg/cm2. The number of exposures of workers was 23,737 in caisson work and 75,244 in shield work. The items of geomedical measurements were temperature (degrees C), humidity, dust, illumination, noise, oxygen, carbonic acid gas and others. In compressed air work, it is most important to prevent decompression sickness (bends) from the view of occupational health. The incidence of bends has decreased in recent years because of strict control by regulations. Environmental hygiene, however, has seldom been discussed in this field and little geomedical control has been made on compressed air work. In view of this situation, we have, therefore, studied, observed, and measured the hygienic factors of this work during the past five years. This investigation is without doubt the first of its kind in Japan and the areas covered most of the regions where compressed air works have been made in the past. From these results, it can be concluded as follows: The working temperature was controlled, but humidity was too high (nearly 90%). Illumination was insufficient. Dust was a problem, but high humidity played an important role in decreasing the volume. The environment was noisy. It is therefore natural that environmental studies should be continued and hygienic consideration be further emphasized in compressed air work. PMID:3613254

  11. Use of a Tourniquet by LIFE STAR Air Medical Crew: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Burns, Karyl J; Priest, Heather Standish; Muskett, William

    2015-10-01

    For many years tourniquets were perceived as dangerous due to the belief that they led to loss of limb because of ischemia. Their use in civilian and military environments was discouraged. Emergency medical responders were not taught about tourniquets and commercial tourniquets were not available. However, research by the United States military during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan has demonstrated that tourniquets are safe life-saving devices. As a consequence, they have been widely deployed in combat situations and there are now calls for the use of tourniquets in the civilian prehospital setting. This article presents a report of the successful application of a tourniquet by the LIFE STAR crew to control bleeding that local emergency medical services (EMS) personnel could not control with direct pressure. Tourniquets should be readily available in public places and carried by all EMS.

  12. Commentary on the Appropriate Radiation Level for Evacuations1

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Jerry M.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary reviews the international radiation protection policy that resulted in the evacuation of more than 90,000 residents from areas near the Fukushima Daiichi NPS and the enormous expenditures to protect them against a hypothetical risk of cancer. The basis for the precautionary measures is shown to be invalid; the radiation level chosen for evacuation is not conservative. The actions caused unnecessary fear and suffering. An appropriate level for evacuation is recommended. Radical changes to the ICRP recommendations are long overdue. PMID:23304099

  13. [The use of the new loads of expendable medical supplies by the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Iu V; Bunin, S A; Grebeniuk, A N; Kononov, V N; Sidorov, D A

    2014-09-01

    The new loads of expendable medical supplies adopted by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and included into regulating documents are the most important elements of the authorized equipment system. Nine loads of expendable medical supplies, combined into two classification groups, are provided for the medical service. The use of these loads improves the effectiveness of medical supply for all stages of medical evacuation, medical continuity during medical and evacuation procedures and allows to deliver medical aid to patients on the basis of modern and innovative medical technologies.

  14. [Organization of medical support for troops, defending Leningrad and the people of the blockaded city].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Kryuchkov, O A

    2015-03-01

    The data on the composition of forces of medical services and organization of medical-evacuation support for troops defending the blockaded Leningrad are presented. The information about the health losses among the population of Leningrad as a result of bombing, shelling and disease is given. Extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality in residents were associated with hunger, hypothermia and emotional stress. The clinical picture of some diseases has different peculiarities because of alimentary dystrophy background. The city health service suffered huge losses: 482 medical institutions were destroyed, only about 300 people from 1.5 thousand of medical personnel in 1942 saved working capability. The health care service of the local air defense played an essential role in delivery of medical aid. The contribution of civil and military health workers in saving residents lives in the blockaded Leningrad was appreciated. PMID:26454930

  15. [Organization of medical support for troops, defending Leningrad and the people of the blockaded city].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Kryuchkov, O A

    2015-03-01

    The data on the composition of forces of medical services and organization of medical-evacuation support for troops defending the blockaded Leningrad are presented. The information about the health losses among the population of Leningrad as a result of bombing, shelling and disease is given. Extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality in residents were associated with hunger, hypothermia and emotional stress. The clinical picture of some diseases has different peculiarities because of alimentary dystrophy background. The city health service suffered huge losses: 482 medical institutions were destroyed, only about 300 people from 1.5 thousand of medical personnel in 1942 saved working capability. The health care service of the local air defense played an essential role in delivery of medical aid. The contribution of civil and military health workers in saving residents lives in the blockaded Leningrad was appreciated.

  16. The Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM): a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; García, A.; Llinares, A.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Ortiz, R.

    2010-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most awesome and powerful displays of nature's force, constituting a major natural hazard for society (a single eruption can claim thousands of lives in an instant). Consequently, assessment and management of volcanic risk have become critically important goals of modern volcanology. Over recent years, numerous tools have been developed to evaluate volcanic risk and support volcanic crisis management: probabilistic analysis of future eruptions, hazard and risk maps, event trees, etc. However, there has been little improvement in the tools that may help Civil Defense officials to prepare Emergency Plans. Here we present a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crisis: the Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM). The main objective of the VSEM software is to optimize the evacuation process of Emergency Plans during volcanic crisis. For this, the VSEM allows the simulation of an evacuation considering different strategies depending on diverse impact scenarios. VSEM is able to calculate the required time for the complete evacuation taking into account diverse evacuation scenarios (number and type of population, infrastructure, road network, etc.) and to detect high-risk or "blackspots" of the road network. The program is versatile and can work at different scales, thus being capable of simulating the evacuation of small villages as well as huge cities.

  17. Design of instructions for evacuating disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Michael W; Al-Awar Smither, Janan; Fisher, Daniel O; Hancock, P A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how the design of instructions can affect performance in preparing emergency stair travel devices for the evacuation of disable individuals. We had three hypotheses: 1) Design of instructions would account for a significant portion of explained performance variance, 2) Improvements in design of instructions would reduce time on task across device type and age group, and 3) There would be a performance decrement for older adults compared to younger adults based on the slowing of older adult information processing abilities. Results showed that design of instructions does indeed account for a large portion of explained variance in the operation of emergency stair travel devices, and that improvements in design of instructions can reduce time on task across device type and age group. However, encouragingly for real-world operations, results did not indicate any significant differences between older versus younger adults. We look to explore ways that individuals with disabilities can exploit these insights to enhance the performance of emergency stair travel devices for use. PMID:27633197

  18. Design of instructions for evacuating disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Michael W; Al-Awar Smither, Janan; Fisher, Daniel O; Hancock, P A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how the design of instructions can affect performance in preparing emergency stair travel devices for the evacuation of disable individuals. We had three hypotheses: 1) Design of instructions would account for a significant portion of explained performance variance, 2) Improvements in design of instructions would reduce time on task across device type and age group, and 3) There would be a performance decrement for older adults compared to younger adults based on the slowing of older adult information processing abilities. Results showed that design of instructions does indeed account for a large portion of explained variance in the operation of emergency stair travel devices, and that improvements in design of instructions can reduce time on task across device type and age group. However, encouragingly for real-world operations, results did not indicate any significant differences between older versus younger adults. We look to explore ways that individuals with disabilities can exploit these insights to enhance the performance of emergency stair travel devices for use.

  19. The very large airplane: safety, health, and comfort considerations. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, aircraft manufacturers have been considering a very large airplane with a capacity of 600-1000 passengers. The human factors aspects of such an unprecedented enterprise demand that the aerospace medicine community take an active role early on in the design phase. Consequently, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an international task force to prepare a paper containing pertinent human factors recommendations for the manufacturers. This paper, including the recommendations herein, has been forwarded to Boeing and Airbus as well as to 50 major airlines of the world.

  20. Measurement and control of the air contamination generated in a medical cyclotron facility for PET radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Todde, S; Fazio, F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the data concerning the contamination of the exhausted air from the hot cells dedicated to the large-scale synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals. Two cyclotrons are currently operating in Ospedale San Raffaele for the routine production of C and F. They are linked with four radiochemistry laboratories by means of shielded radioisotope delivery lines. The above labs are dedicated both to the large scale preparation and to the research and development of PET radiopharmaceuticals. The department hosts four CT-PET scanners, which operate with a mean patient workload of 40 per day. Radiosyntheses are performed using automated modules located in 10 hot cells. The air outlets are monitored online by a 2-inch NaI(Tl) counter in a Marinelli geometry counting volume. Contamination values up to 10(5) Bq L(-1) have been measured at the hot cell exit point during the synthesis. The corresponding concentrations at the point of release in atmosphere are largely above the threshold of 1.29 Bq L(-1), defined by national regulations as the limit for free environmental release. A shielded gas storage system controlled by a dedicated, customized software program has thus been installed to prevent the potentially hazardous release of gaseous radioactive contaminants. The system has allowed us to maintain the effective dose to neighboring population groups below the limit of 10 muSv y(-1).

  1. Tsunami Evacuation Plan for the City of Tangier-Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchekroun, Sabah; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Arbi Toto, El

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami evacuation plan is an important tool to mitigate the tsunami impact. It is the most efficient way to save human lives, well before the waves reach the threatened coastal area, by providing evacuation routes and appropriate shelters. In this study, we propose a tsunami evacuation plan for the city of Tangier-Morocco. This plan is designed considering the tsunami threat from the tsunamigenic sources located in the SW Iberia Margin and using the inundation maps of the worst case to define the limit of flooding area. The evacuation plan is elaborated through modelling the required time for the threatened coastal population to reach the shelters. Results of this study will be useful for decision makers and local authorities in preventing the community resiliency for tsunami hazard. This work received funding from collaborative project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe Grant 603839, FP7.

  2. Comprehensive emergency management: Evacuating threatened populations. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of emergency management is outlined and emergency management tasks including mitigation and preparedness activities, are addressed. Four actors in the emergency management system are described: local governments, state governments, Federal government, and private organizations. Man-made and natural disasters are compared and human response to three emergency situations is described: (1) the nuclear reaction incident at Three Mile Island, (2) the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens volcano, and (3) a riverine flood. Citizen response comparisons among these disaster events is focused on: (1) the source and credibility of evacuation warnings; and (2) citizen evacuation decisions. Information is supplied on the way citizens make decisions in emergencies, social-psychological responses to emergencies, the context of evacuation planning in hazard management, and strategies for enhancing citizen compliance with evacuation warnings.

  3. Lessons learned from the 2010 evacuations at Merapi volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Estuning Tyas Wulan; Lavigne, Franck; Picquout, Adrien; de Bélizal, Edouard; Brunstein, Daniel; Grancher, Delphine; Sartohadi, Junun; Cholik, Noer; Vidal, Céline

    2013-07-01

    The rapid onset and large magnitude of the 2010 eruption of Merapi posed significant challenges for evacuations and resulted in a peak number of almost 400,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). A pre-existing hazard map and an evacuation plan based on the relatively small magnitude of previous eruptions of the 20th century were utilized by emergency officials during the initial phase of the eruption (25 October-3 November, 2010). However, when the magnitude of the eruption increased greatly on 3-5 November 2010, the initial evacuation plan had to be abandoned as danger zones were expanded rapidly and the scale and pace of the evacuation increased dramatically. Fortunately, orders to evacuate were communicated quickly through a variety of communication methods and as a result many thousands of lives were saved. However, there were also problems that resulted from this rapid and larger-than-expected evacuation; and there were lessons learned that can improve future mass evacuations at Merapi and other volcanoes. We analyzed the results of 1969 questionnaires and conducted a series of interviews with community leaders and emergency officials. Results were compiled for periods both during and after the 2010 eruption. Our results show that: (1) trust in the Indonesian government and volcanologists was very high after the eruption; (2) multiple modes of communication were used to relay warnings and evacuation orders; (3) 50% to 70% of IDPs returned to the danger zone during the crisis despite evacuation orders; (4) preparation before the eruption was critical to the successes and included improvements to roads and education programs, (5) public education about hazards and evacuation protocols before the eruption was focused in the perceived highest danger zone where it was effective yet, confusion and loss of life in other areas demonstrated that education programs in all hazard zones are needed to prepare for larger-than-normal eruptions, and (6) improvements in

  4. 5 CFR 550.406 - Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Work assignments during evacuation... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.406 Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty. (a) Evacuated employees at safe havens may be assigned to perform...

  5. 5 CFR 550.406 - Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work assignments during evacuation... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.406 Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty. (a) Evacuated employees at safe havens may be assigned to perform...

  6. A Time-Aware Routing Map for Indoor Evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haifeng; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of dynamic environments expires over time. Thus, using static maps of the environment for decision making is problematic, especially in emergency situations, such as evacuations. This paper suggests a fading memory model for mapping dynamic environments: a mechanism to put less trust on older knowledge in decision making. The model has been assessed by simulating indoor evacuations, adopting and comparing various strategies in decision making. Results suggest that fading memory generally improves this decision making. PMID:26797610

  7. A Time-Aware Routing Map for Indoor Evacuation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haifeng; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of dynamic environments expires over time. Thus, using static maps of the environment for decision making is problematic, especially in emergency situations, such as evacuations. This paper suggests a fading memory model for mapping dynamic environments: a mechanism to put less trust on older knowledge in decision making. The model has been assessed by simulating indoor evacuations, adopting and comparing various strategies in decision making. Results suggest that fading memory generally improves this decision making. PMID:26797610

  8. Study of evacuation times based on general accident history

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Smith, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    The RADTRAN 4 computer code, which calculates estimates of accident dose-risk corresponding to specified transportation scenarios, ascribes doses to potentially exposed members of the public. These persons are modeled as not being evacuated from the affected area for 24 hours following a release of radioactive material. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that this value may be unnecessarily conservative; consequently risk estimates are unnecessarily high. An initial survey of recent trucking accidents, reported in newspapers and other periodicals (1988 through 1994), that involved evacuation of the general population in the affected areas was undertaken to establish the actual time required for such evacuations. Accidents involving hazardous materials other than those which are radioactive (e.g., gasoline, insecticides, other chemicals) but also requiring evacuations of nearby residents were included in the survey. However, the resultant set of sufficiently documented trucking incidents yielded rather sparse data [1]. When the probability density distribution of the truck accident data was compared with that resulting from addition of four other (rail and fixed site) incidents, there was no statistically significant difference between them. Therefore, in order to improve the statistical significance of the data set, i.e., maximize the number of pertinent samples, a search for evacuations resulting from all types of accidents was performed. This resulted in many more references; a set of 48 incidents which could be adequately verified was compiled and merged with the original two data sets for a total of 66 evacuation accounts.

  9. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  10. Tsunami evacuation mathematical model for the city of Padang

    SciTech Connect

    Kusdiantara, R.; Hadianti, R.; Badri Kusuma, M. S.; Soewono, E.

    2012-05-22

    Tsunami is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of tsunami decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large tsunamis had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuate people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical model for Tsunami evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the model, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The model is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.

  11. Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bråbäck, Lennart; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Strömgren, Magnus; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Participants The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics. Results The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ∼21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m3. Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected. Conclusion There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others. PMID:27259522

  12. Air pollution and health effects: A study of medical visits among children in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, B D; Eskeland, G S; Sanchez, J M; Feyzioglu, T

    1999-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies conducted in the last several years have reported associations between exposure to airborne particulate matter, measured as PM10 (<10 microm in diameter), and daily morbidity and mortality. However, much of the evidence involves effects on the elderly population; there is less evidence about the effects of particulates on children, especially those under 2 years of age. To examine these issues, we conducted time-series analyses of 2 years of daily visits to primary health care clinics in Santiago, Chile, where counts were computed for either upper or lower respiratory symptoms and for cohorts of children 3-15 years of age and below age 2. Daily PM10 and ozone measurements and meteorological variables were available from instruments located in downtown Santiago. The multiple regression analysis indicates a statistically significant association between PM10 and medical visits for lower respiratory symptoms in children ages 3-15 and in children under age 2. PM10 is also associated with medical visits related to upper respiratory symptoms in the older cohort, while ozone is associated with visits related to both lower and upper respiratory symptoms in the older cohort. For children under age 2, a 50- microg/m3 change in PM10 (the approximate interquartile range) is associated with a 4-12% increase in lower respiratory symptoms. For children 3-15 years of age, the increase in lower respiratory symptoms ranges from 3 to 9% for a 50- microg/m3 change in PM10 and 5% per 50 ppb change in ozone. These magnitudes are similar to results from studies of children undertaken in Western industrial nations. PMID:9872719

  13. The impact of fatigue in air medical and other types of operations: a review of fatigue facts and potential countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J A

    2001-01-01

    Because of its effects on productivity and safety, fatigue is receiving increasing attention in a variety of settings, including aviation. Fatigue-related problems cost America an estimated $18 billion a year in terms of lost productivity, and fatigue-related drowsiness on the highways contributes to more than 1500 fatalities, 100,000 crashes, and 76,000 injuries annually. Furthermore, evidence is mounting that pilot and aircrew fatigue has been a causative factor in several aviation mishaps. Although substantial research has been conducted on the nature of fatigue and the effectiveness of various countermeasures, much of the relevant information may not be reaching those who need it most. The importance of obtaining adequate daily sleep and the efficacy of proper work/rest schedules, strategic napping, rest breaks, circadian-entrainment interventions, and other techniques should be emphasized in air medical training programs along with the more standard courses aimed at maintaining crew skills and improving flight safety. Once the facts are known, the aircrew's ability to control fatigue will enhance the productivity and safety of air ambulance operations.

  14. The impact of fatigue in air medical and other types of operations: a review of fatigue facts and potential countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J A

    2001-01-01

    Because of its effects on productivity and safety, fatigue is receiving increasing attention in a variety of settings, including aviation. Fatigue-related problems cost America an estimated $18 billion a year in terms of lost productivity, and fatigue-related drowsiness on the highways contributes to more than 1500 fatalities, 100,000 crashes, and 76,000 injuries annually. Furthermore, evidence is mounting that pilot and aircrew fatigue has been a causative factor in several aviation mishaps. Although substantial research has been conducted on the nature of fatigue and the effectiveness of various countermeasures, much of the relevant information may not be reaching those who need it most. The importance of obtaining adequate daily sleep and the efficacy of proper work/rest schedules, strategic napping, rest breaks, circadian-entrainment interventions, and other techniques should be emphasized in air medical training programs along with the more standard courses aimed at maintaining crew skills and improving flight safety. Once the facts are known, the aircrew's ability to control fatigue will enhance the productivity and safety of air ambulance operations. PMID:11182702

  15. The National Disaster Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reutershan, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Board developed plans for improved national preparedness in case of major catastrophic domestic disaster or the possibility of an overseas conventional conflict. Within the health and medical arena, the working group on health developed the concept and system design for the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). A description of NDMS is presented including the purpose, key components, medical response, patient evacuation, definitive medical care, NDMS activation and operations, and summary and benefits.

  16. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  17. Minimally invasive evacuation of intraventricular hemorrhage with the Apollo vibration/suction device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Lopes, Demetrius K; Munoz, Lorenzo F; Shah, Yojan; Bhabad, Sudeep; Jhaveri, Miral; Moftakhar, Roham

    2016-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhages (IVH) can occur as a consequence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysm rupture, arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage, trauma, or coagulopathy. IVH is a known risk factor for poor clinical outcome with up to 80% mortality. The current standard treatment strategy for IVH consists of the placement of an external ventricular drain. We report our early experience with using the Apollo suction/vibration aspiration system (Penumbra, Alameda, CA, USA) for minimally invasive evacuation of IVH with a review of the pertinent literature. Medical records of patients with IVH who were admitted to Rush University Medical Center, USA, from July to November 2014 were queried from the electronic database. Patients with Graeb Scores (GS) >6 were selected for minimally invasive IVH evacuation with the Apollo aspiration system. Patient demographics, pre- and post-operative GS, pre- and post-operative modified Graeb Score (mGS), as well procedure related complications were analyzed and recorded. A total of eight patients (five men) were identified during the study period. The average age was 55.5years. The mean GS was 9.6 pre-operatively and decreased to 4.9 post-operatively (p=0.0002). The mean mGS was 22.9 pre-operatively and decreased to 11.4 post-operatively (p=0.0001). Most of the IVH reduction occurred in the frontal horn and atrium of the lateral ventricle, as well the third ventricle. One (1/8) procedure-related complication occurred consisted of a tract hemorrhage. The Apollo system can be used for minimally invasive IVH evacuation to achieve significant blood clot volume reduction with minimal procedure-related complication.

  18. Minimally invasive evacuation of intraventricular hemorrhage with the Apollo vibration/suction device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Lopes, Demetrius K; Munoz, Lorenzo F; Shah, Yojan; Bhabad, Sudeep; Jhaveri, Miral; Moftakhar, Roham

    2016-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhages (IVH) can occur as a consequence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysm rupture, arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage, trauma, or coagulopathy. IVH is a known risk factor for poor clinical outcome with up to 80% mortality. The current standard treatment strategy for IVH consists of the placement of an external ventricular drain. We report our early experience with using the Apollo suction/vibration aspiration system (Penumbra, Alameda, CA, USA) for minimally invasive evacuation of IVH with a review of the pertinent literature. Medical records of patients with IVH who were admitted to Rush University Medical Center, USA, from July to November 2014 were queried from the electronic database. Patients with Graeb Scores (GS) >6 were selected for minimally invasive IVH evacuation with the Apollo aspiration system. Patient demographics, pre- and post-operative GS, pre- and post-operative modified Graeb Score (mGS), as well procedure related complications were analyzed and recorded. A total of eight patients (five men) were identified during the study period. The average age was 55.5years. The mean GS was 9.6 pre-operatively and decreased to 4.9 post-operatively (p=0.0002). The mean mGS was 22.9 pre-operatively and decreased to 11.4 post-operatively (p=0.0001). Most of the IVH reduction occurred in the frontal horn and atrium of the lateral ventricle, as well the third ventricle. One (1/8) procedure-related complication occurred consisted of a tract hemorrhage. The Apollo system can be used for minimally invasive IVH evacuation to achieve significant blood clot volume reduction with minimal procedure-related complication. PMID:26778051

  19. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  20. The Effects of Evacuation on Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Dosa, David M.; Thomas, Kali; Hyer, Kathryn; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the hurricane-related deaths of nursing home residents, there has been a steady increase in the number of facilities that evacuate under storm threat. This study examined the effects of evacuation during Hurricane Gustav on residents who were cognitively impaired. Methods Nursing homes in counties located in the path of Hurricane Gustav were identified. The Minimum Data Set resident assessment files were merged with the Centers for Medicare enrollment file to determine date of death for residents in identified facilities. Difference-in-differences analyses were conducted adjusting for residents’ demographic characteristics and acuity. Results The dataset included 21,255 residents living in 119 at risk nursing homes over three years of observation. Relative to the two years before the storm, there was a 2.8 percent increase in death at 30 days and a 3.9 percent increase in death at 90 days for residents with severe dementia who evacuated for Hurricane Gustav, controlling for resident demographics and acuity. Conclusions The findings of this research reveal the deleterious effects of evacuation on residents with severe dementia. Interventions need to be developed and tested to determine the best methods for protecting this at risk population when there are no other options than to evacuate the facility. PMID:22930698

  1. Information-Based Evacuation Experiment and its Cellular Automaton Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lizhong; Liu, Shaobo; Li, Jian; Zhu, Kongjin; Fang, Tingyong

    The evacuation process under emergency is studied by means of experiments and simulations, focusing on the influence of the environment information. A revised cellular automaton model in which environment information is considered as "static information" (building structure, spatial distance, etc.) and "dynamic information" (sounds of fire alarm, etc.) is introduced. Two scenarios, including evacuation with and without visibility in a classroom, are studied to investigate the different influence of the two kinds of information on human behavior. The experimental and simulation results demonstrate that: (1) to intensify the spatial distance information can reduce the evacuation time; (2) the spatial distance is not the only decisive factor especially in evacuation without visibility because the sound information, which is ignorable in evacuation with visibility, is playing a more important role under this condition; (3) the intensity of static information can reflect evacuees' familiarity of the environment; (4) the model can reproduce the experiments well, and the simulation method is useful for further study of the crowd movement simulation.

  2. Evacuation of pedestrians from a hall by game strategy update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-Nan; Chen, Dong; Pan, Wei; Xue, Yu; He, Hong-Di

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model considering game strategy update is proposed to study the pedestrian evacuation in a hall. Pedestrians are classified into two categories, i.e., cooperators and defectors, and they walk to an exit according to their own strategy change. The conflicts that two or three pedestrians try to occupy the same site at the same time are investigated in the Game theory model. Based on it, the relationship between the pedestrian flow rate and the evacuation time as well as the variation of cooperative proportion against evacuation time is investigated from the different initial cooperative proportions under the influence of noise. The critical value of the noise is found when there is a small number of defectors in the initial time. Moreover, the influences of the initial cooperative proportion and strength of noise on evacuation are discussed. The results show that the lower the initial cooperative proportion as well as the bigger the strength of noise, the longer the time it takes for evacuation.

  3. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  4. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  5. Multiobjective Optimization of Evacuation Routes in Stadium Using Superposed Potential Field Network Based ACO

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shengwu; Zong, Xinlu

    2013-01-01

    Multiobjective evacuation routes optimization problem is defined to find out optimal evacuation routes for a group of evacuees under multiple evacuation objectives. For improving the evacuation efficiency, we abstracted the evacuation zone as a superposed potential field network (SPFN), and we presented SPFN-based ACO algorithm (SPFN-ACO) to solve this problem based on the proposed model. In Wuhan Sports Center case, we compared SPFN-ACO algorithm with HMERP-ACO algorithm and traditional ACO algorithm under three evacuation objectives, namely, total evacuation time, total evacuation route length, and cumulative congestion degree. The experimental results show that SPFN-ACO algorithm has a better performance while comparing with HMERP-ACO algorithm and traditional ACO algorithm for solving multi-objective evacuation routes optimization problem. PMID:23861678

  6. Pre-Trauma Center Red Blood Cell Transfusion Is Associated with Improved Early Outcomes in Air Medical Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B; Sperry, Jason L; Fombona, Anisleidy; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Guyette, Francis X

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemorrhage is the leading cause of survivable death in trauma. Resuscitation strategies including early red blood cell (RBC) transfusion have reduced this. Pre-trauma center (PTC) RBC transfusion is growing and preliminary evidence suggests improved outcomes. The study objective was to evaluate the association of PTC RBC transfusion with outcomes in air medical trauma patients. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of trauma patients transported by helicopter to a level-I trauma center, 2007—2012. Patients receiving PTC RBC transfusion were matched to control patients (receiving no PTC RBC transfusion during transport) in a 1:2 ratio using a propensity-score based on prehospital variables. Conditional logistic regression and mixed-effects linear regression were used to determine the association of PTC RBC transfusion with outcomes. Subgroup analysis was performed for scene transport patients. Results Two-hundred forty treatment patients were matched to 480 control patients receiving no PTC RBC transfusion. PTC RBC transfusion was associated with increased odds of 24-hour survival (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.92; 95%CI 1.51, 16.04, p=0.01), lower odds of shock (AOR 0.28; 95%CI 0.09, 0.85, p=0.03), and lower 24-hour RBC requirement (Coef −3.6 RBC units; 95%CI −7.0, −0.2, p=0.04). Among matched scene patients, PTC RBC was also associated with increased odds of 24-hour survival (AOR 6.31; 95%CI 1.88, 21.14, p<0.01), lower odds of shock (AOR 0.24; 95%CI 0.07, 0.80, p=0.02), and lower 24-hour RBC requirement (Coef −4.5 RBC units; 95%CI −8.3, −0.7, p=0.02). Conclusions PTC RBC was associated with an increased probability of 24-hour survival, decreased risk of shock, and lower 24-hour RBC requirement. PTC RBC appears beneficial in severely injured air medical trauma patients and prospective study is warranted as PTC RBC transfusion becomes more readily available. PMID:25840537

  7. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  8. Medical support of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Bochniak, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The system of medical support in the territory of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan is based on four levels of medical treatment. Level 4 is organized outside the war theatre, in the territories of the countries that are a part of the stabilization forces of international organizations (NATO). Both the tasks and the structure of medical support are adjusted to fit the requirements of the U.S. Forces. The same tasks and structure are also recognized by medical services of other NATO countries participating in military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Each subsequent level of medical support is progressively more highly specialized and capable of providing more advanced medical treatment in comparison to the preceding level. Medical evacuation is executed either by air or overland depending on the type of illness or injury as well as the tactical situation prevailing in the combat zone. The aim of this paper is to present the planning, challenges, and problems of medical assistance in the contemporary battlefield. PMID:21534227

  9. Evacuated FM08 Fuses Carry a Sustained Arc in a Bus over 75 VDC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Slonaker, J.

    1999-01-01

    The FM08 style fuse is specified to interrupt an overcurrent of up to 300 A in a bus of up to 125 VDC, but this applies only when its barrel is filled with air. When placed into a space-grade vacuum, the FM08 style fuse exhausts its air within a year. Then, the probability of an enduring arc is high for all ratings when the bus is above 75 VDC, and the overcurrent is large. The arc endures until something else interrupts the current. The fuse can violently eject metal vapor or other material during the sustained arcing. The evacuated FM08 does not develop a sustained arc when interrupted in a bus of 38 VDC or less, at least when there is little inductance in the circuit. This is consistent with its successful use in many spacecraft having buses in the range 24 to 36 volts.

  10. Uniting multi-adult households during emergency evacuation planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sirui; Murray-Tuite, Pamela M; Schweitzer, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    When a no-notice emergency prompts an evacuation, family members in different locations throughout a city may unite so that they can evacuate as a group. This paper draws on data from more than 300 interviews conducted in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. The study uses discrete choice models to analyse the expectations of respondents regarding whether their likely plans for evacuation involve gathering spouses, parents, adult-age children, and/or non-family members. In addition, it addresses the matter of whether respondents plan to reunite with family members at home. Individuals' access to a personal car is the dominating factor in predicting whether respondents plan to gather a spouse. Being the parent of a child under the age of 18 years increases the tendency to report planning to reunite with family members at home. Both commute mode and car availability are not significantly associated with plans to reunite at home.

  11. Constructal design for pedestrian movement in living spaces: Evacuation configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, C. H.; Fong, N. K.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.; Chow, W. K.

    2012-03-01

    Here we show that the configuration of an inhabited area controls the time required by all the pedestrians to vacate the space. From the minimization of the global evacuation time emerges the optimal configuration of the area. This is a fundamental principle for designing living spaces with efficient evacuation quality, and it is demonstrated here with several simple building blocks that can be used as components of more complex living structures: single walkway, corner, and T-shaped walkway. We show analytically and numerically that the ratio of the widths of the stem and branches of the T-shaped walkway has an optimal value that facilitates the evacuation of all the inhabitants. This result is fundamental, and is the crowd-dynamics equivalent of the Hess-Murray rule for the ratio of diameters in bifurcated ducts with fluid flow.

  12. An evacuation model accounting for elementary students' individual properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Guo, Ren-Yong; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a cellular automata model for pedestrian flow to investigate the effects of elementary students' individual properties on the evacuation process in a classroom with two exits. In this model, each student's route choice behavior is determined by the capacity of his current route to each exit, the distance between his current position and the corresponding exit, the repulsive interactions between his adjacent students and him, and the congestion degree near each exit; the elementary students are sorted into rational and irrational students. The simulation results show that the irrational students' proportion has significant impacts on the evacuation process and efficiency, and that all students simultaneously evacuating may be inefficient.

  13. A cellular automaton model for evacuation flow using game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Fangyue

    2016-11-01

    Game theory serves as a good tool to explore crowd dynamic conflicts during evacuation processes. The purpose of this study is to simulate the complicated interaction behavior among the conflicting pedestrians in an evacuation flow. Two types of pedestrians, namely, defectors and cooperators, are considered, and two important factors including fear index and cost coefficient are taken into account. By combining the snowdrift game theory with a cellular automaton (CA) model, it is shown that the increase of fear index and cost coefficient will lengthen the evacuation time, which is more apparent for large values of cost coefficient. Meanwhile, it is found that the defectors to cooperators ratio could always tend to consistent states despite different values of parameters, largely owing to self-organization effects.

  14. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. PMID:27170110

  15. Quantitative comparison between crowd models for evacuation planning and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Vaisagh; Lee, Chong Eu; Lees, Michael Harold; Cheong, Siew Ann; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Crowd simulation is rapidly becoming a standard tool for evacuation planning and evaluation. However, the many crowd models in the literature are structurally different, and few have been rigorously calibrated against real-world egress data, especially in emergency situations. In this paper we describe a procedure to quantitatively compare different crowd models or between models and real-world data. We simulated three models: (1) the lattice gas model, (2) the social force model, and (3) the RVO2 model, and obtained the distributions of six observables: (1) evacuation time, (2) zoned evacuation time, (3) passage density, (4) total distance traveled, (5) inconvenience, and (6) flow rate. We then used the DISTATIS procedure to compute the compromise matrix of statistical distances between the three models. Projecting the three models onto the first two principal components of the compromise matrix, we find the lattice gas and RVO2 models are similar in terms of the evacuation time, passage density, and flow rates, whereas the social force and RVO2 models are similar in terms of the total distance traveled. Most importantly, we find that the zoned evacuation times of the three models to be very different from each other. Thus we propose to use this variable, if it can be measured, as the key test between different models, and also between models and the real world. Finally, we compared the model flow rates against the flow rate of an emergency evacuation during the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and found the social force model agrees best with this real data.

  16. Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Ignacio; Yu, Shuxin; Díaz, Paloma; Acuña, Pablo; Onorati, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes, and iNeres as the interface to receive and visualize these routes on smartphones. The usability and understandability of proposed interface has been assessed through a user study performed in a fire simulation in an indoor environment. This evaluation demonstrated that users considered iNeres easy to understand, to learn and to use, and they also found very innovative the idea to use smartphones as a support for escaping instead of static signals on walls and doors. PMID:22969373

  17. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik, Rajasekar; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban

  18. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  19. Method and means for producing solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  20. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m (2000 ft) is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments was obtained from reports or tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  1. Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma in a cohort of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; O'Toole, Brian I; Leeder, Stephen R

    2004-05-01

    We enrolled a cohort of primary school children with a history of wheeze (n=148) in an 11-month longitudinal study to examine the relationship between ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidity. We obtained daily air pollution (ozone, particulate matter less than 10 microm, and nitrogen dioxide), meteorological, and pollen data. One hundred twenty-five children remained in the final analysis. We used logistic regression models to determine associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There were no associations between ambient ozone concentrations and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There was, however, an association between PM(10) concentrations and doctor visits for asthma (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04-1.19) and between NO(2) concentration and wet cough (RR=1.05, 95% CI=1.003-1.10) in single-pollutant models. The associations remained significant in multipollutant models. There was no consistent evidence that children with wheeze, positive histamine challenge, and doctor diagnosis of asthma reacted differently to air pollution from children with wheeze and doctor diagnosis of asthma and children with wheeze only. There were significant associations between PM(10) levels and doctor visits for asthma and an association between NO(2) levels and the prevalence of wet cough. We were, however, unable to demonstrate that current levels of ambient air pollution in western Sydney have a coherent range of adverse health effects on children with a history of wheezing.

  2. A microcomputer based traffic evacuation modeling system for emergency planning application

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.

    1994-12-01

    Vehicular evacuation is one of the major and often preferred protective action options available for emergency management in a real or anticipated disaster. Computer simulation models of evacuation traffic flow are used to estimate the time required for the affected populations to evacuate to safer areas, to evaluate effectiveness of vehicular evacuations as a protective action option. and to develop comprehensive evacuation plans when required. Following a review of the past efforts to simulate traffic flow during emergency evacuations, an overview of the key features in Version 2.0 of the Oak Ridge Evacuation Modeling System (OREMS) are presented in this paper. OREMS is a microcomputer-based model developed to simulate traffic flow during regional emergency evacuations. OREMS integrates a state-of-the-art dynamic traffic flow and simulation model with advanced data editing and output display programs operating under a MS-Windows environment.

  3. 14 CFR 121.291 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures. 121.291 Section 121.291 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... appendix D to this part are complied with if each life raft is removed from stowage, one life raft...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency Evacuation J Appendix J to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... for descent from the wing to the ground. Safety equipment such as mats or inverted life rafts may...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator...

  10. 46 CFR 116.520 - Emergency evacuation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... person may be permitted for each 0.28 square meters (3 square feet) of deck area; and (2) Identify at least two means of escape complying with § 114.400 from the space being evacuated; and (c) Include... passengers and the vessel's route. The abandon ship plan must identify at least one escape route from...

  11. Disaster warning and evacuation responses by private business employees.

    PubMed

    Drabek, T E

    2001-03-01

    When people are advised that their place of employment is threatened with disaster, how do they respond? Interviews with employees (n = 406) of 118 businesses affected by one of seven recent disasters provide the first answers to this question. Multivariate analyses document the key variables that best predict variation are: 1) emergent perceptions of risk; 2) time of evacuation from work; 3) time of evacuation from home; 4) multiple evacuations; and 5) tension between work and family commitments. When warned of impending disaster, most employees initially responded with denial. Gradually, however, emergent perceptions of risk intensified especially among those living in communities in which the least amount of disaster planning had occurred or who resided in a mobile home or apartment. Highest levels of work and family tensions during these evacuations were reported by racial minority employees who had children living at home. Policy implications for these and other findings are discussed so as to pin-point changes business managers should make that will enable them to provide the leadership and compassion expected by employees. PMID:11244647

  12. Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation.

    PubMed

    Elzie, Terra; Frydenlund, Erika; Collins, Andrew J; Robinson, R Michael

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual/group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes.

  13. Modeling crowd and trained leader behavior during building evacuation.

    PubMed

    Pelechano, Nuria; Badler, Norman I

    2006-01-01

    This article considers animating evacuation in complex buildings by crowds who might not know the structure's connectivity, or who find routes accidentally blocked. It takes into account simulated crowd behavior under two conditions: where agents communicate building route knowledge, and where agents take different roles such as trained personnel, leaders, and followers.

  14. Combining building and behavior models for evacuation planning.

    PubMed

    Yanhui Wang; Liqiang Zhang; Jingtao Ma; Liu Liu; Dongqin You; Lixin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    To help users find optimal rescue and evacuation routes, this approach uses the extended hierarchical node relation model (EHI-NRM) to represent a building's internal structure. The approach also employs the improved cellular-automata model (ICA) to consider route-choice behavior, such as spatial reasoning and communication among evacuees.

  15. Pathways toward a low cost evacuated collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.; Ogallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    The goal of widespread use of solar thermal collectors will only be achieved when they are proven to be economically superior to competing energy sources. Evacuated tubular collectors appear to have the potential to achieve this goal. An advanced evacuated collector using nonimaging concentration under development at the University of Chicago and Argonne can achieve a 50% seasonal efficiency at heat delivery temperatures in excess of 170C. The same collector has an optical efficiency so that low temperature performance is also excellent. In this advanced collector design all of the critical components are enclosed in the vacuum, and the collector has an inherently long lifetime. The current cost of evacuated systems is too high, mainly because the volume of production has been too low to realize economies of mass production. It appears that certain design features of evacuated collectors can be changed (e.g., use of heat pipe absorbers) so as to introduce new system design and market strategy options that can reduce the balance of system cost.

  16. A heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiwei; Chen, Jianqiao; Zheng, Yaochen; Wei, Junhong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the cellular automata method (CA model) and the mobile lattice gas model (MLG model), we have developed a heterogeneous lattice gas model for simulating pedestrian evacuation processes in an emergency. A local population density concept is introduced first. The update rule in the new model depends on the local population density and the exit crowded degree factor. The drift D, which is one of the key parameters influencing the evacuation process, is allowed to change according to the local population density of the pedestrians. Interactions including attraction, repulsion, and friction between every two pedestrians and those between a pedestrian and the building wall are described by a nonlinear function of the corresponding distance, and the repulsion forces increase sharply as the distances get small. A critical force of injury is introduced into the model, and its effects on the evacuation process are investigated. The model proposed has heterogeneous features as compared to the MLG model or the basic CA model. Numerical examples show that the model proposed can capture the basic features of pedestrian evacuation, such as clogging and arching phenomena.

  17. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  18. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  19. Digestive tract evacuation in northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, J.M.; Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.

    1988-01-01

    Digestive tract evacuation in northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) (170–1900 g) was studied in fish allowed to feed voluntarily on salmon (4–70 g) at three water temperatures (10, 15, and 20 °C). Squawfish were sacrificed at 1- or 2-h intervals until evacuation approximated 90%. Amount of food evacuated for a given time interval increased approximately three times as the temperature was increased and as the prey weight was increased and two times as the predator weight was increased. The 90% emptying time (ET90) decreased by about two thirds as the temperature doubled and by about one half as the predator weight increased 10 times, but approximately doubled when the prey weight increased 4 times. Two-fish meals (17–20 g each, 35–39 g total) were evacuated more slowly than meals of one fish weighing 17–20 g, but at the same rate as meals of one fish weighing 35–40 g. Equations derived are easily applied to a wide range of water temperatures, prey weights, and predator weights.

  20. Development of Cladding Materials for Evacuated Panel Superinsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.; Weaver, F.J.; Cumberbatch, G.M.; Begnoche, B.; Brodie, V.; Lamb, W.; Reitz, R.; Caldwell, P.; Meyer, C.

    1999-11-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was among E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, VacuPanel, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. Evacuated panel superinsulations have thermal resistivities (R) substantially above that of conventional existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as foam insulations blown with Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

  1. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 57.4363 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... and evacuation plans and procedures and fire warning signals in effect at the mine. (b) Whenever...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 57.4363 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... and evacuation plans and procedures and fire warning signals in effect at the mine. (b) Whenever...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency Evacuation J Appendix J to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... passengers to simulate live infants 2 years old or younger. (5) Crewmembers, mechanics, and...

  4. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  5. Considering culture in evacuation planning and consequence management.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Wayne P

    2015-01-01

    Because culture profoundly affects human behavior, it is important that emergency management decision makers from both government and the private sector who will be involved in the management of evacuation operations build cultural considerations into their planning, preparations, education, and training from the very beginning. Preparation in this regard ensures that when the crisis hits, the response efforts undertaken will at a minimum not disregard culture or make situations worse because of a lack of cultural understanding and optimally will use the consideration of culture to frame the most effective response possible to ultimately save lives and relieve suffering. Whether it is recognizing that in some cultures the decision to comply with evacuation advice and orders will be made by a matriarch or patriarch of the family, or that the ability of an entire extended family unit to remain together in the evacuation process will be the key to compliance, culture may be the pivotal factor in a successful outcome. It is these (and many more) small cultural considerations and an overall understanding of the effect that culture has on behavior that can enhance the overall effectiveness of a culturally aware organization involved in the management of evacuation operations and emergency response. Hopefully, this initial work begins a deeper discussion and evaluation of cultural aspects both concerning the populations and cultures impacted by events, but just as importantly, the cultures and cultural understanding of the responding organizations.

  6. Social contagion process in informal warning networks to understand evacuation timing behavior.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Samiul; Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    Individual evacuation decisions are often characterized by the influence of one's social network, referred to as informal warning network. In this article, a threshold model of social contagion, originally introduced in the network science literature, is proposed to characterize this social influence in the evacuation decision-making process, in particular the timing of evacuation decision. Simulation models are developed to investigate the effects of community mixing patterns and the strength of ties on timing of evacuation decision.

  7. Aeromedical evacuation of biological warfare casualties: a treatise on infectious diseases on aircraft.

    PubMed

    Withers, M R; Christopher, G W

    2000-11-01

    A basic understanding of the transmission and isolation of infections would be essential to the safe and effective aeromedical evacuation (AE) of biological warfare (BW) casualties. First, the airframe as microbial environment is considered, and relevant preventive and disinfecting measures are discussed. A survey of past infectious disease transmission on civilian aircraft (including tuberculosis, influenza, measles, smallpox, and viral hemorrhagic fevers) is presented, and the communicability and stability of likely BW agents is described. A brief history of U.S. military aeromedical evacuation (as it relates to contagious diseases and U.S. Air Force BW doctrine) is also outlined. Special containment procedures (especially as used by the U.S. Army Aeromedical Isolation Team) are described. Finally, international legal and regulatory aspects of the AE of BW casualties are considered, and some unanswered questions and suggestions for future research are offered. It is concluded that, given adequate foresight, expertise, and resources, the AE of even contagious BW casualties could be safely and effectively accomplished.

  8. Debulking from within: a robotic steerable cannula for intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation.

    PubMed

    Burgner, Jessica; Swaney, Philip J; Lathrop, Ray A; Weaver, Kyle D; Webster, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    New approaches to intracerebral hemorrhage management are motivated by its high incidence and 40% mortality rate. Surgery is sometimes attempted to decompress the brain, although patient outcomes are similar regardless of whether surgery occurs. We hypothesize that surgical decompression is not more effective because current open surgical techniques disrupt healthy brain tissue to access the clot formed by the hemorrhage, offsetting the benefits of surgery. To address this, we propose a less invasive needle-based approach in which the clot is debulked from within using a superelastic, precurved aspiration cannula that is deployed from a needle. The tip of this aspiration cannula is controlled by coordinated insertion and retraction of the cannula and needle, as well as axial rotation of the cannula. We describe the design of a sterilizable and biocompatible robot that can control the three degrees of freedom of the needle and cannula. Image guidance is achieved by adapting an approach originally developed for brain biopsy. We provide an optimization method for the selection of the precurvatures of one or more sequentially used aspiration cannulas to maximize hemorrhage evacuation, based on preoperative medical image data. In vitro experiments demonstrate the feasibility of evacuating 83-92% of hemorrhage volume, depending on the number of tubes and deployment method used.

  9. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. PMID:26876459

  10. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation.

  11. Tranexamic Acid for Recurring Subdural Hematomas Following Surgical Evacuation: A Clinical Case Series.

    PubMed

    Stary, Joel M; Hutchins, Leslie; Vega, Rafael A

    2016-09-01

    Background Chronic subdural hematomas (SDHs) are commonly encountered in neurosurgery. Optimal management of SDHs remains a significant challenge. Current treatment options generally include supportive care or surgical intervention. A significant proportion of patients have surgery; however, the reoperation rate is considered high. There are also cases in which additional surgical procedures would carry significant morbidity, and as a result, there is a need for nonsurgical medical therapies. We describe the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) as a nonsurgical option for the treatment of recurrent SDHs following surgery. Methods Patients were identified as candidates for potential TXA therapy and followed prospectively. The decision to administer TXA was made on the basis of history, presentation, and prognosis after further surgical intervention. Data collected included patient imaging, treatment administered, and both radiologic and clinical outcomes. Results Three patients underwent surgical evacuation of a chronic SDH (two via burr hole washout and one via craniotomy). All patients had recurrence identified on subsequent imaging. Two patients had poorer predicted outcomes if additional surgical intervention was necessary, and one refused additional surgical intervention. TXA was administered, in the same dosing and scheduled course, to all patients. Complete resolution was observed on imaging, and in the case of the patient who was symptomatic, clinical improvement was also noted. Conclusion TXA may be considered for the treatment of recurrent SDHs following surgical evacuation in patients for whom additional surgery would add significant morbidity. PMID:27300772

  12. Understanding and managing disaster evacuation on a transportation network.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Parlak, Ayse I; Zhou, Qian; Miller, John S; Fontaine, Michael D; Guterbock, Thomas M; Clements, Janet L; Thekdi, Shital A

    2013-01-01

    Uncertain population behaviors in a regional emergency could potentially harm the performance of the region's transportation system and subsequent evacuation effort. The integration of behavioral survey data with travel demand modeling enables an assessment of transportation system performance and the identification of operational and public health countermeasures. This paper analyzes transportation system demand and system performance for emergency management in three disaster scenarios. A two-step methodology first estimates the number of trips evacuating the region, thereby capturing behavioral aspects in a scientifically defensible manner based on survey results, and second, assigns these trips to a regional highway network, using geographic information systems software, thereby making the methodology transferable to other locations. Performance measures are generated for each scenario including maps of volume-to-capacity ratios, geographic contours of evacuation time from the center of the region, and link-specific metrics such as weighted average speed and traffic volume. The methods are demonstrated on a 600 segment transportation network in Washington, DC (USA) and are applied to three scenarios involving attacks from radiological dispersion devices (e.g., dirty bombs). The results suggests that: (1) a single detonation would degrade transportation system performance two to three times more than that which occurs during a typical weekday afternoon peak hour, (2) volume on several critical arterials within the network would exceed capacity in the represented scenarios, and (3) resulting travel times to reach intended destinations imply that un-aided evacuation is impractical. These results assist decisions made by two categories of emergency responders: (1) transportation managers who provide traveler information and who make operational adjustments to improve the network (e.g., signal retiming) and (2) public health officials who maintain shelters, food and

  13. Understanding and managing disaster evacuation on a transportation network.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Parlak, Ayse I; Zhou, Qian; Miller, John S; Fontaine, Michael D; Guterbock, Thomas M; Clements, Janet L; Thekdi, Shital A

    2013-01-01

    Uncertain population behaviors in a regional emergency could potentially harm the performance of the region's transportation system and subsequent evacuation effort. The integration of behavioral survey data with travel demand modeling enables an assessment of transportation system performance and the identification of operational and public health countermeasures. This paper analyzes transportation system demand and system performance for emergency management in three disaster scenarios. A two-step methodology first estimates the number of trips evacuating the region, thereby capturing behavioral aspects in a scientifically defensible manner based on survey results, and second, assigns these trips to a regional highway network, using geographic information systems software, thereby making the methodology transferable to other locations. Performance measures are generated for each scenario including maps of volume-to-capacity ratios, geographic contours of evacuation time from the center of the region, and link-specific metrics such as weighted average speed and traffic volume. The methods are demonstrated on a 600 segment transportation network in Washington, DC (USA) and are applied to three scenarios involving attacks from radiological dispersion devices (e.g., dirty bombs). The results suggests that: (1) a single detonation would degrade transportation system performance two to three times more than that which occurs during a typical weekday afternoon peak hour, (2) volume on several critical arterials within the network would exceed capacity in the represented scenarios, and (3) resulting travel times to reach intended destinations imply that un-aided evacuation is impractical. These results assist decisions made by two categories of emergency responders: (1) transportation managers who provide traveler information and who make operational adjustments to improve the network (e.g., signal retiming) and (2) public health officials who maintain shelters, food and

  14. 76 FR 34845 - Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Wireless Air-Conduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 874 Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of... established by this final rule create ``requirements'' for specific medical devices under 21 U.S.C. 360k, even..., 1976 (the date of enactment of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976), generally referred to...

  15. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evacuation payments; time periods. 550.404 Section 550.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.404 Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the...

  16. 33 CFR 149.309 - What are the requirements for marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... marine evacuation systems? All marine evacuation systems must be approved under approval series 160.175 and comply with the launching arrangement requirements for mobile offshore drilling units in 46 CFR... marine evacuation systems? 149.309 Section 149.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  17. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evacuation payments; time periods. 550.404 Section 550.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.404 Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the...

  18. 5 CFR 550.403 - Advance payments; evacuation payments; special allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance payments; evacuation payments... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.403 Advance payments; evacuation payments; special allowances. (a) An advance payment of pay, allowances, and differentials may...

  19. 5 CFR 550.403 - Advance payments; evacuation payments; special allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance payments; evacuation payments... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.403 Advance payments; evacuation payments; special allowances. (a) An advance payment of pay, allowances, and differentials may...

  20. 33 CFR 149.309 - What are the requirements for marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... marine evacuation systems? All marine evacuation systems must be approved under approval series 160.175 and comply with the launching arrangement requirements for mobile offshore drilling units in 46 CFR... marine evacuation systems? 149.309 Section 149.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting... Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1504 - Mine emergency evacuation training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation training and drills....1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a)...

  7. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, S. A.; Wood, N. J.; Johnston, D. M.; Leonard, G. S.; Greening, P. D.; Rossetto, T.

    2014-11-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate departure or a common evacuation departure time for all exposed population. Here, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The method is demonstrated for hypothetical local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios. However, it requires detailed exposure data, which may preclude its use in many situations.

  8. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, S. A.; Wood, N. J.; Johnston, D. M.; Leonard, G. S.; Greening, P. D.; Rossetto, T.

    2014-06-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate evacuation departure time or assumed a common departure time for all exposed population. In this paper, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The model is demonstrated for a case study of local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb-level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds can approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios.

  9. Variable population exposure and distributed travel speeds in least-cost tsunami evacuation modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, Stuart A.; Wood, Nathan J.; Johnston, David A.; Leonard, Graham S.; Greening, Paul D.; Rossetto, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Evacuation of the population from a tsunami hazard zone is vital to reduce life-loss due to inundation. Geospatial least-cost distance modelling provides one approach to assessing tsunami evacuation potential. Previous models have generally used two static exposure scenarios and fixed travel speeds to represent population movement. Some analyses have assumed immediate departure or a common evacuation departure time for all exposed population. Here, a method is proposed to incorporate time-variable exposure, distributed travel speeds, and uncertain evacuation departure time into an existing anisotropic least-cost path distance framework. The method is demonstrated for hypothetical local-source tsunami evacuation in Napier City, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. There is significant diurnal variation in pedestrian evacuation potential at the suburb level, although the total number of people unable to evacuate is stable across all scenarios. Whilst some fixed travel speeds approximate a distributed speed approach, others may overestimate evacuation potential. The impact of evacuation departure time is a significant contributor to total evacuation time. This method improves least-cost modelling of evacuation dynamics for evacuation planning, casualty modelling, and development of emergency response training scenarios. However, it requires detailed exposure data, which may preclude its use in many situations.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fire, explosion, or gas or water inundation; (ii) Evacuating all miners not required for a mine... evacuation under each of the various mine emergencies (fires, explosions, or gas or water inundations). These... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fire, explosion, or gas or water inundation; (ii) Evacuating all miners not required for a mine... evacuation under each of the various mine emergencies (fires, explosions, or gas or water inundations). These... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and...

  12. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A Generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.

  13. Optical trapping and control of nanoparticles inside evacuated hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grass, David; Fesel, Julian; Hofer, Sebastian G.; Kiesel, Nikolai; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate an optical conveyor belt for levitated nanoparticles over several centimeters inside both air-filled and evacuated hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCF). Detection of the transmitted light field allows three-dimensional read-out of the particle center-of-mass motion. An additional laser enables axial radiation pressure based feedback cooling over the full fiber length. We show that the particle dynamics is a sensitive local probe for characterizing the optical intensity profile inside the fiber as well as the pressure distribution along the fiber axis. In contrast to some theoretical predictions, we find a linear pressure dependence inside the HCPCF, extending over three orders of magnitude from 0.2 mbar to 100 mbar. A targeted application is the controlled delivery of nanoparticles from ambient pressure into medium vacuum.

  14. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  15. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual

  16. A multi-grid model for pedestrian evacuation in a room without visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuchao; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Fang, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The evacuation process from a room without visibility is investigated by both experiment and modeling. Some typical characteristics of blind evacuation, including the preference of choosing left-hand side direction and following behavior, are found from the experiment. Meanwhile, different strategies of conflict resolution are observed in the experiment. Based on the experimental observation, a multi-grid model for evacuation without visibility is built in this paper. Simulation results of the model agree well with the experiments. Furthermore, the effect of exit width, number of exits and initial density on evacuation are studied, and results show that exit width has little impact on evacuation time and increasing number of exits is an effective way to decrease evacuation time. Finally, simulations of evacuation under normal and no visibility are compared, and the differences for two conditions are predicted. The comparison results also demonstrate that the blind evacuation is much slower than evacuation under normal visibility, which is match with the practical experience. A similar point is that the distributions of time interval in both situations satisfy power-law relation approximately. The study may be useful for understanding the egress behaviors and developing efficient evacuation strategy and plan to guide pedestrian evacuation without visibility.

  17. Agent-based modeling of a multi-room multi-floor building emergency evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Vi; Lykotrafitis, George

    2012-04-01

    Panic during emergency building evacuation can cause crowd stampede, resulting in serious injuries and casualties. Agent-based methods have been successfully employed to investigate the collective human behavior during emergency evacuation in cases where the configurational space is extremely simple-usually one rectangular room-but not in evacuations of multi-room or multi-floor buildings. This implies that the effect of the complexity of building architecture on the collective behavior of the agents during evacuation has not been fully investigated. Here, we employ a system of self-moving particles whose motion is governed by the social-force model to investigate the effect of complex building architecture on the uncoordinated crowd motion during urgent evacuation. In particular, we study how the room door size, the size of the main exit, the desired speed and the friction coefficient affect the evacuation time and under what circumstances the evacuation efficiency improves.

  18. Optimization-based decision support to assist in logistics planning for hospital evacuations.

    PubMed

    Glick, Roger; Bish, Douglas R; Agca, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The evacuation of the hospital is a very complex process and evacuation planning is an important part of a hospital's emergency management plan. There are numerous factors that affect the evacuation plan including the nature of threat, availability of resources and staff the characteristics of the evacuee population, and risk to patients and staff. The safety and health of patients is of fundamental importance, but safely moving patients to alternative care facilities while under threat is a very challenging task. This article describes the logistical issues and complexities involved in planning and execution of hospital evacuations. Furthermore, this article provides examples of how optimization-based decision support tools can help evacuation planners to better plan for complex evacuations by providing real-world solutions to various evacuation scenarios.

  19. Development of the Japanese National Disaster Medical System and Experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Masato

    2015-01-01

    After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day. Staging care units were installed at Hanamaki Airport, Fukushima Airport, and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Kasuminome, and 69, 14 and 24 DMAT teams were placed at those locations, respectively. In total, 19 patients were evacuated using JASDF fixed-wing aircraft. Important issues requiring attention became clear through the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26306054

  20. Development of the Japanese National Disaster Medical System and Experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Homma, Masato

    2015-06-01

    After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day. Staging care units were installed at Hanamaki Airport, Fukushima Airport, and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Kasuminome, and 69, 14 and 24 DMAT teams were placed at those locations, respectively. In total, 19 patients were evacuated using JASDF fixed-wing aircraft. Important issues requiring attention became clear through the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26306054

  1. Variable Message Signs for road tunnel emergency evacuations.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel; Modig, Henric; Walter, Anders Lindgren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of Variable Message Signs (VMS) as a way-finding aid for road tunnel emergency evacuations. The use of the Theory of Affordances is suggested to provide recommendations on the design of VMS. A preliminary evaluation of 11 selected VMS systems was performed and 6 of them were further evaluated using an affordance-based within subject stated-preference questionnaire administered to a sample of 62 participants. Results are used to provide recommendations on the characteristics of the VMS systems, such as (1) size of the sign (large or small); (2) use of flashing lights; (3) colour scheme; (4) message coding (i.e., text, pictograms or a combination of them). The best performing VMS features for road tunnel emergency evacuation included the use of larger signs, flashing lights, the combination of emergency exit pictorial symbol in green in one panel and text in amber in the other panel. PMID:26360217

  2. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  3. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  4. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  5. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  6. Variable Message Signs for road tunnel emergency evacuations.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel; Modig, Henric; Walter, Anders Lindgren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of Variable Message Signs (VMS) as a way-finding aid for road tunnel emergency evacuations. The use of the Theory of Affordances is suggested to provide recommendations on the design of VMS. A preliminary evaluation of 11 selected VMS systems was performed and 6 of them were further evaluated using an affordance-based within subject stated-preference questionnaire administered to a sample of 62 participants. Results are used to provide recommendations on the characteristics of the VMS systems, such as (1) size of the sign (large or small); (2) use of flashing lights; (3) colour scheme; (4) message coding (i.e., text, pictograms or a combination of them). The best performing VMS features for road tunnel emergency evacuation included the use of larger signs, flashing lights, the combination of emergency exit pictorial symbol in green in one panel and text in amber in the other panel.

  7. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  8. A spatiotemporal optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maizia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by floods, requires the development of effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to traffic network, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper: (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the developed evacuation model is applied are the Tours valley (Fr, 37), which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation), and the Gien valley (Fr, 45), which benefits from a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan, i.e., computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) according to a priority list established for this purpose. The evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a spatiotemporal optimization model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  9. [The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC].

    PubMed

    Heroux, M E; Braubach, M; Korol, N; Krzyzanowski, M; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2013-01-01

    For the time present the World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating two major international projects aimed to provide the European Union (EU) with science-based information on health aspects of air pollution for a comprehensive analysis of EU policy in the field of air quality, scheduled for 2013. The information provided is structured in the form of answers to 26 policy-forming key questions, defined by the European Commission (EC). The questions cover the both general aspects that are important for air quality management, and also specific topics related to the health effects of certain air pollutants. Texts of the answers to the questions were provided on requests of large group of invited experts from leading specialized institutions around the world. First stages of the overview of existing data have shown that in recent years there has been published a significant amount of information proving adverse health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in an amount, which typically occurs in the air in Europe. These new data confirm the findings reported in renewed in 2005 WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (GAQ), and show that the negative health effects in some cases may take place at concentrations of aeropollutants in the air below mentioned in the GAQ in 2005. In the review there are presented the scientific arguments in favor of adoption of strong measures to improvement air quality and reduction of the burden of diseases associated with air pollution in Europe. The conclusions formulated within a framework of these projects, are equally referred to all Member States and can become a basis for the development and implementation of effective strategies to reduce air pollution and reduction of its negative impact on the health of the population. PMID:24624813

  10. [The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC].

    PubMed

    Heroux, M E; Braubach, M; Korol, N; Krzyzanowski, M; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2013-01-01

    For the time present the World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating two major international projects aimed to provide the European Union (EU) with science-based information on health aspects of air pollution for a comprehensive analysis of EU policy in the field of air quality, scheduled for 2013. The information provided is structured in the form of answers to 26 policy-forming key questions, defined by the European Commission (EC). The questions cover the both general aspects that are important for air quality management, and also specific topics related to the health effects of certain air pollutants. Texts of the answers to the questions were provided on requests of large group of invited experts from leading specialized institutions around the world. First stages of the overview of existing data have shown that in recent years there has been published a significant amount of information proving adverse health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in an amount, which typically occurs in the air in Europe. These new data confirm the findings reported in renewed in 2005 WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (GAQ), and show that the negative health effects in some cases may take place at concentrations of aeropollutants in the air below mentioned in the GAQ in 2005. In the review there are presented the scientific arguments in favor of adoption of strong measures to improvement air quality and reduction of the burden of diseases associated with air pollution in Europe. The conclusions formulated within a framework of these projects, are equally referred to all Member States and can become a basis for the development and implementation of effective strategies to reduce air pollution and reduction of its negative impact on the health of the population.

  11. [Segregation and evacuation of victims caused by biological pathogens].

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, Piotr; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2012-11-01

    Threat of the use of biological pathogens is still real. The degree of preparation assistance at various stages directly affects the efficiency of operations in the event of mass cases. The need for and scope of assistance given in relation to current recommendations, and our own experience with patients with severe infections. Principle of segregation and evacuation steps included in the basic hospital procedures. PMID:23394044

  12. Life threatening hyponatraemia following evacuation of spontaneous chronic subdural haematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, T

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who developed life threatening hyponatraemia 4 days following burr hole drainage of a spontaneous chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH). Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone was confirmed. This is the first report of delayed life threatening hyponatraemia developing postoperatively in CSDH. The mechanism remains unclear but may involve brain shift on the pituitary stalk following subdural evacuation. PMID:25198967

  13. Qualitative and Political Issues Impacting Academic Medical Center Strategic Planning--A Methodological Approach. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; And Others

    A simulation model of an academic medical center that was developed to aid in strategic planning and policy analysis is described. The model, designated MCM for Medical Center Model, was implemented at the School of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and the private practices of the faculty in the clinical departments at University…

  14. Intelligent Exit-Selection Behaviors during a Room Evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarita, Zainuddin; Lim Eng, Aik

    2012-01-01

    A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles. Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions, it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models. To resolve these issues, we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians, and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation. Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model. From the simulation results, it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low, but if the density is high they will go to an alternative exit so as to avoid a long wait. This reflects the fact that occupants may not fully utilize multiple exits during evacuation. The improvement in our proposed model is valuable for further study and for upgrading the safety aspects of building designs.

  15. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes. PMID:27455872

  16. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System.

    PubMed

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation.

  17. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jean M; Alderson, David L; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Guiterrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  18. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation on Emergency Evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chuanjun; Yang, Chenghui; Jin, Shiyao

    Crowd stampedes and evacuation induced by panic caused by emergences often lead to fatalities as people are crushed, injured, trampled or even dead. Such phenomena may be triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires, explosions in crowded buildings. Emergency evacuation simulation has recently attracted the interest of a rapidly increasing number of scientists. This paper presents an Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation using Repast software to construct crowd evacuations for emergency response from an area under a fire. Various types of agents and different attributes of agents are designed in contrast to traditional modeling. The attributes that govern the characteristics of the people are studied and tested by iterative simulations. Simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the effect of various parameters of agents. Some interesting results were observed such as "faster is slower" and the ignorance of available exits. At last, simulation results suggest practical ways of minimizing the harmful consequences of such events and the existence of an optimal escape strategy.

  19. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jean M.; Alderson, David L.; Stromberg, Sean P.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Craparo, Emily M.; Guiterrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies. PMID:24520331

  20. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes. PMID:27455872

  1. Controlled evacuation using the biocompatible and energy efficient microfluidic ejector.

    PubMed

    Lad, V N; Ralekar, Swati

    2016-10-01

    Development of controlled vacuum is having many applications in the realm of biotechnology, cell transfer, gene therapy, biomedical engineering and other engineering activities involving separation or chemical reactions. Here we show the controlled vacuum generation through a biocompatible, energy efficient, low-cost and flexible miniature device. We have designed and fabricated microfluidic devices from polydimethylsiloxane which are capable of producing vacuum at a highly controlled rate by using water as a motive fluid. Scrupulous removal of infected fluid/body fluid from the internal hemorrhage affected parts during surgical operations, gene manipulation, cell sorting, and other biomedical activities require complete isolation of the delicate cells or tissues adjacent to the targeted location. We demonstrate the potential of the miniature device to obtain controlled evacuation without the use of highly pressurized motive fluids. Water has been used as a motive liquid to eject vapor and liquid at ambient conditions through the microfluidic devices prepared using a low-cost fabrication method. The proposed miniature device may find applications in vacuum generation especially where the controlled rate of evacuation, and limited vacuum generation are of utmost importance in order to precisely protect the cells in the nearby region of the targeted evacuated area. PMID:27647149

  2. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System.

    PubMed

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5∼10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation. PMID:27055024

  3. Extreme argon purity in a large, non-evacuated cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Tope, Terry; Adamowski, Mark; Carls, B.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Skup, E.; Stancari, M.; Yang, T.

    2014-01-29

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) show promise as scalable devices for the large detectors needed for long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics. Over the last several years at Fermilab a staged approach to developing the technology for large detectors has been developed. The TPC detectors require ultra-pure liquid argon with respect to electronegative contaminants such as oxygen and water. The tolerable electronegative contamination level may be as pure as 60 parts per trillion of oxygen. Three liquid argon cryostats operated at Fermilab have achieved the extreme purity required by TPCs. These three cryostats used evacuation to remove atmospheric contaminants as the first purification step prior to filling with liquid argon. Future physics experiments may require very large detectors with tens of kilotonnes of liquid argon mass. The capability to evacuate such large cryostats adds significant cost to the cryostat itself in addition to the cost of a large scale vacuum pumping system. This paper describes a 30 ton liquid argon cryostat at Fermilab which uses purging to remove atmospheric contaminants instead of evacuation as the first purification step. This cryostat has achieved electronegative contamination levels better than 60 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent. The results of this liquid argon purity demonstration will strongly influence the design of future TPC cryostats.

  4. Coastal evacuations by fish during extreme weather events.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Secor, David H

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events is predicted to occur as a result of climate change. In coastal ecosystems, hurricanes and flooding can cause dramatic changes in water quality resulting in large mortality events in estuarine fauna. Facultative migration behaviors represent a key adaptation by which animals can evacuate ecological catastrophes, but remain poorly studied in marine systems. Here we identify coastal evacuations by otherwise resident riverine striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary, New York, USA, caused by an intense period of tropical storms in autumn 2011. These storms produced record rainfall and high water discharges into the Hudson River Estuary that increased the water level and reduced the water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. Striped bass moved out of the estuary, exhibiting novel migration behaviours, that may have been in response to the strong flow and unsuitable conditions. In the months following the storms, some fish demonstrated exploratory trips back to the estuary, which may have been to assess the conditions before returning for the remainder of the winter. Behavioural adaptions to weather events by striped bass and other coastal fishes will depend on maintenance of key population segments and unimpeded evacuation routes.

  5. Evacuation of Pedestrians with Two Motion Modes for Panic System

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Xie, Jiarong; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have captured an underlying mechanism of emergence of collective panic in pedestrian evacuations by using a modification of the lattice-gas model. We classify the motion of pedestrians into two modes according to their moods. One is gentle (mode I), the other is flustered (mode II). First, to research the cause for crowd, we fix the motion modes of pedestrians and increase the proportion of pedestrians with motion mode II (ρII). The simulation results show that the pedestrians with motion mode II are lack of evacuation efficiency and cause more casualties. Further, we use the SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model to describe the spreading of the panic mood. The system can be in the high-mix state when the infection probability λ is greater than a fuzzy threshold. In addition, the distances S from wounded people to the exit are researched, the number of wounded people gets maximum at the internal S = 5 ∼ 10, which is independent of ρII and λ. This research can help us to understand and prevent the emergence of collective panic and reduce wounds in the real evacuation. PMID:27055024

  6. Cryocooler for Air Liquefaction Onboard Large Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedlove, J. J.; Magari, P. J.; Miller, G. W.

    2008-03-01

    Creare has developed a turbo-Brayton cryocooler for the Air Force that is designed to produce approximately 1 kW of refrigeration at 95 K. The cryocooler is intended to provide cryogenic cooling for an air separation system being developed to produce and store liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen onboard large aircraft. The oxygen will be used for high-altitude breathing and medical evacuation operations, while the nitrogen will be used to inert the ullage space inside the fuel tanks. The cryocooler utilizes gas bearings in the turbomachines for long life without maintenance, which is a critical requirement for this application. The mass of a flight version of this cryocooler is expected to be around 270 kg, while the input power is expected to be 21 to 25 kW. This paper describes the design and testing of the technology demonstration cryocooler that was constructed to establish the feasibility of the approach. In the future, the cryocooler will be integrated and tested with a distillation column subsystem. Subsequent testing may also be performed in-flight on an Air Force transport aircraft.

  7. Why Don't People Evacuate When Nature Threatens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.; Broad, K.; Meyer, R.; Orlove, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Why do so many Southern Californians fail to evacuate when warned that winter storms have critically raised the risk of a debris flow in their neighborhoods? Have they perhaps not seen or heeded news coverage of past debris flow events? Are they unaware that recent fires made the hillsides above them more prone to gravity-driven processes? Do they think they can wait to start their cars until they can actually see the flow coming? Or have they merely experienced too many "false alarms" in past years, and no longer put much stock in the judgment of public officials or the ability of scientists to judge debris flow risk? In preparation for a simulation study that will place decision makers in a virtual house in the California foothills during a winter storm event, we explore the reasons that people do and do not evacuate in the face of potential debris flows. Working in collaboration with the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project for Southern California, we are surveying hundreds of local residents, from debris-flow prone areas and from elsewhere in the state, to establish their baseline knowledge (and misconceptions) about, attitudes toward, information use regarding, and experience with debris flows. Initial interviews with residents of recently hit neighborhoods give qualitative data suggesting that false-alarm effects and underestimation of risk are driving factors; these surveys will provide quantitative evidence to extend those findings. We will discuss the results of this survey in the context of a comprehensive body of psychology research that seeks to explain why people frequently appear to ignore or discount hazard warnings: neglecting to insure their homes and crops (Kunreuther, 1984), failing to evacuate in the face of storms and fires (Baker, 1991; Packham, 1995), and (barring a recent, vivid event) showing little support for measures that would manage or mitigate future hazards (Kunreuther, 2006a, 2006b; Weber, 2006). We will also consider the

  8. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  9. Simulation of traffic flow during emergency evacuations: A microcomputer based modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.; Solanki, R.S.

    1993-09-01

    Evacuation is one of the major and often preferred protective action options available for emergency management in times of threat to the general public. One of the key factors used in evaluating the effectiveness of evacuation as a protective action option is the estimate of time required for evacuation. The time required for evacuation is the time associated with clearing an area at risk to areas far enough away to be considered safe. Computer simulation models of traffic flow are used to estimate the time it takes to evacuate or ``clear`` an at-risk region by means of vehicular evacuation. This paper provides a brief description of the Oak Ridge Evacuation Modeling System (OREMS), a prototype under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. OREMS consists of a set of computer programs and models which can be used to simulate traffic flow during regional population evacuations and to develop evacuation plans for different events and scenarios (e.g. good vs. bad weather and nighttime vs. daytime evacuations) for user-defined spatial boundaries.

  10. Evaluation of the rationale for concurrent use of N95 filtering facepiece respirators with loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators during aerosol-generating medical procedures.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J

    2008-03-01

    The concurrent use of N95 filtering facepiece respirators with powered air-purifying respirators during aerosol-generating medical procedures in patients with severe respiratory pathogens has been promoted as offering additional protection against infectious agents. The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of this additional respiratory equipment upon protection and personal performance. The presumed additive protective effect of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator used concurrently with a powered air-purifying respirator has not been subjected to rigorous scientific investigation. The burden imposed by additional respiratory protective equipment should not be discounted, and the potentially minor contribution to protection may be offset by the negative impact on personal performance. Novel uses of protective equipment occasionally are spawned during crisis situations, but their generalized applicability to healthcare workers should ultimately be evidence-based. PMID:18313516

  11. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  12. [The frontiers of medicalization: tensions surrounding the identification and appreciation of child malnutrition in a primary healthcare center of the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Damián

    2012-09-01

    The medicalization of life and its implications for the production of subjectivities are phenomena that have been highlighted by the human sciences in the study of health and disease. Nevertheless, the analysis of its local expressions has been insufficiently covered. The scope of this paper is to explore this field by an ethnographical study of the medicalization process of child malnutrition in a primary healthcare center of the city of Buenos Aires. We will describe analytically the singularities involved in the body perception and the alimentary context by health professionals and their patients. We emphasize that the criteria of perception and moral values that encourage social positions of health professionals and recipients of their actions precluded the institutionalization of a medical vision. We conclude that the process analyzed highlights the need to exceed the medicalization approaches dealing exclusively from the angle of imposition. The social history of the groups involved and ways of establishing relationships in local settings, are essential to understand the peculiarities of these processes.

  13. Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations.

    PubMed

    Wojtalewicz, Cliff; Kirby, Adam; Dietz, J Eric

    2014-01-01

    When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quickresponse mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care

  14. Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations.

    PubMed

    Wojtalewicz, Cliff; Kirby, Adam; Dietz, J Eric

    2014-01-01

    When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quickresponse mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care

  15. Estimates of radioxenon released from Southern Hemisphere medical isotope production facilities using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Lowrey, Justin D; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Schrom, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and (133)Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of (133)Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 × 10(14) Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 × 10(16) to 2.4 × 10(16) Bq, estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 × 10(13) to 3.7 × 10(14) Bq and estimates for the facility in Argentina range from 4.5 × 10(12) to 9.5 × 10(12) Bq. PMID:24811887

  16. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  17. Traveller's thrombosis: a review of deep vein thrombosis associated with travel. The Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, M

    2001-09-01

    There is an increasing suspicion among the travelling public and the international media of an association between the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and air travel. It was noted by the UK House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology that up to 20% of the total population may have some degree of increased clotting tendency. It follows that some air travellers are at risk of developing DVT when, or soon after, travelling. There have been no epidemiological studies published which show a statistically significant increase in cases of DVT when travelling in the absence of pre-existing risk factors. The literature was reviewed. Current evidence indicates that any association between symptomatic DVT and travel by air is weak, and the incidence is less than the impression given by recent media publicity.

  18. Comprehensive Optimization of Emergency Evacuation Route and Departure Time under Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Liu, Mengqi

    2014-01-01

    With the frequent occurrence of major emergencies, emergency management gets high attention from all around the world. This paper investigates the comprehensive optimization of major emergency evacuation route and departure time, in which case the evacuation propagation mechanism is considered under traffic control. Given the practical assumptions, we first establish a comprehensive optimization model based on the simulation of evacuation route and departure time. Furthermore, we explore the reasonable description method of evacuation traffic flow propagation under traffic control, including the establishment of traffic flow propagation model and the design of the simulation mudule that can simulate the evacuation traffic flow. Finally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of this comprehensive model. In case analysis, we take some areas in Beijing as the evaluation sources to verify the reliability of our model. A series of constructive suggestions for Beijing's emergency evacuation are proposed, which can be applied to the actual situation under traffic control. PMID:24977232

  19. Comprehensive optimization of emergency evacuation route and departure time under traffic control.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Mengqi

    2014-01-01

    With the frequent occurrence of major emergencies, emergency management gets high attention from all around the world. This paper investigates the comprehensive optimization of major emergency evacuation route and departure time, in which case the evacuation propagation mechanism is considered under traffic control. Given the practical assumptions, we first establish a comprehensive optimization model based on the simulation of evacuation route and departure time. Furthermore, we explore the reasonable description method of evacuation traffic flow propagation under traffic control, including the establishment of traffic flow propagation model and the design of the simulation module that can simulate the evacuation traffic flow. Finally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of this comprehensive model. In case analysis, we take some areas in Beijing as the evaluation sources to verify the reliability of our model. A series of constructive suggestions for Beijing's emergency evacuation are proposed, which can be applied to the actual situation under traffic control.

  20. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Augusto; Alcarria, Ramon; Martin, Diego; Robles, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating. PMID:24961212

  1. Enhancing evacuation plans with a situation awareness system based on end-user knowledge provision.

    PubMed

    Morales, Augusto; Alcarria, Ramon; Martin, Diego; Robles, Tomas

    2014-06-24

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  2. Source emission testing of the medical waste incinerator, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. Final report, 8-9 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    Source emission testing for particulate matter and hydrogen chloride was conducted on the medical waste incinerator located at Bldg 1055, Andrews AFB MD. Compliance standards are found in Temporary Operating Permit No. 16-0655-2-0116N, issued by the State of Maryland on 20 October 1991. Test results indicate incinerator emissions are above the state standard for particulate matter and below the state standard for hydrogen chloride. Recommendations are made to reduce particulate emissions and to retest.... Particulate matter, Hydrogen chloride, Andrews AFB, Medical waste incinerator, Source emission testing.

  3. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  4. Citizen evacuation in response to nuclear and nonnuclear threats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study describes the results of a comparative analysis of data on citizen evacuation behavior in response to nuclear and nonnuclear threats. Two issues in particular are examined: citizen warning source and perceived credibility of warnings, and evacuation decision-making processes. Three types of hazard are examined: the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, three riverine floods, and a volcanic eruption. The implications of the research findings for evacuation planning and operations are also assessed.

  5. Disaster evacuation: an exploratory study of older men and women in Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Bunting, Sheila; Cobb, Brenda K; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    This article describes an exploratory study designed to compare the characteristics, evacuation beliefs, risk factors, and health problems of older adults living in two Georgia counties and three North Carolina counties regarding willingness to evacuate in the event of a natural disaster. More than 75% of men and women in this study listened to news about Hurricane Katrina, yet one third of the men said that they may or would not evacuate. In this study, being influenced by the outcomes of Hurricane Katrina and belief in following the advice of county officials were the only two statistically significant predictors of evacuation tendency. PMID:18183747

  6. Numerical Simulation of Evacuation Process in Malaysia By Using Distinct-Element-Method Based Multi-Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abustan, M. S.; Rahman, N. A.; Gotoh, H.; Harada, E.; Talib, S. H. A.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, not many researches on crowd evacuation simulation had been reported. Hence, the development of numerical crowd evacuation process by taking into account people behavioral patterns and psychological characteristics is crucial in Malaysia. On the other hand, tsunami disaster began to gain attention of Malaysian citizens after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that need quick evacuation process. In relation to the above circumstances, we have conducted simulations of tsunami evacuation process at the Miami Beach of Penang Island by using Distinct Element Method (DEM)-based crowd behavior simulator. The main objectives are to investigate and reproduce current conditions of evacuation process at the said locations under different hypothetical scenarios for the efficiency study of the evacuation. The sim-1 is initial condition of evacuation planning while sim-2 as improvement of evacuation planning by adding new evacuation area. From the simulation result, sim-2 have a shorter time of evacuation process compared to the sim-1. The evacuation time recuded 53 second. The effect of the additional evacuation place is confirmed from decreasing of the evacuation completion time. Simultaneously, the numerical simulation may be promoted as an effective tool in studying crowd evacuation process.

  7. Prevalence of Colonic Motor or Evacuation Disorders in Patients Presenting with Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Evaluated by a Single Gastroenterologist in a Tertiary Referral Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Gururaj J.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Nadeau, Ashley; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are thought to result from upper gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Our clinical observations led to the hypothesis that colonic motor dysfunction is associated with nausea and vomiting. Methods We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 149 patients presenting with complaints of nausea and/or vomiting in a tertiary gastroenterology practice to investigate the association with disorders of colonic motor or evacuation disorders. We extracted demographics, gastric emptying (GE in 149) and colonic transit (CT in 138) of solids, ascending colon emptying half time (AC t1/2), rectal evacuation by anorectal manometry (ARM) in 91 and balloon expulsion test (BE) in 55 patients. We estimated the proportions with delayed GE or CT, based on the 5th percentile of GE (in 319) and CT in 220 healthy volunteers using same method. Key Results Among 11 patients with nausea and/or vomiting with only GE measured, 5 had delayed and 6 normal GE. Among the 149 patients, 77 (52%) patients had evacuation disorders, confirmed by objective tests in 68 patients, and clinical examination in 9 patients. In the 138 patients with both GE and CT measured, 106 (76%) had both normal GE and CT, 11 (8%) only delayed GE, 16 (11%) normal GE with delayed CT, and 5 (3%) delayed GE and CT. Among 21 patients (15%) with delayed CT, 9 had slow AC t1/2 and 12 evacuation disorder. Conclusions & Inferences In patients with chronic nausea and/or vomiting in gastroenterology practice, evaluation of colonic motility and rectal evacuation should be considered, since about half the patients have abnormal functions that conceivably contribute to the presenting nausea and/or vomiting. PMID:24118658

  8. Some properties of the floor field cellular automata evacuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwizdałła, Tomasz M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the process of evacuation of pedestrians from the room with the given arrangement of doors and obstacles by using the cellular automata technique. The technique which became quite popular is characterized by the discretization of time as well as space. For such a discretized space we use so-called floor field model which generally corresponds to the description of every cell by some monotonic function of distance between this cell and the closest exit. We study several types of effects. We start from some general features of model like the kind of a neighborhood or the factors disrupting the motion. Then we analyze the influence of asymmetry and size on the evacuation time. Finally we show characteristics concerning different arrangements of exits and include a particular approach to the proxemics effects. The scaling analyses help us to distinguish these cases which just reflect the geometry of the system and those which depend also on the simulation properties. All calculations are performed for a wide range of initial densities corresponding to different occupation rates as described by the typical crowd counting techniques.

  9. Probabilistic eruption forecasting and the call for an evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Woo, Gordon

    2007-11-01

    One of the most critical practical actions to reduce volcanic risk is the evacuation of people from threatened areas during volcanic unrest. Despite its importance, this decision is usually arrived at subjectively by a few individuals, with little quantitative decision support. Here, we propose a possible strategy to integrate a probabilistic scheme for eruption forecasting and cost-benefit analysis, with an application to the call for an evacuation of one of the highest risk volcanoes: Vesuvius. This approach has the following merits. First, it incorporates a decision-analysis framework, expressed in terms of event probability, accounting for all modes of available hazard knowledge. Secondly, it is a scientific tool, based on quantitative and transparent rules that can be tested. Finally, since the quantitative rules are defined during a period of quiescence, it allows prior scrutiny of any scientific input into the model, so minimizing the external stress on scientists during an actual emergency phase. Whilst we specifically report the case of Vesuvius during the MESIMEX exercise, the approach can be generalized to other types of natural catastrophe.

  10. Evaporative micro-particle self assembly influenced by capillary evacuation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fenfen; Ng, Tuck Wah; Efthimiadis, Jim; Somers, Anthony; Schwalb, Willem

    2012-07-01

    As evaporation does not incur energy introduction, the droplet coffee-stain patterning approach is attractive for biochemical tests conducted in the field or in third world environments. A practical strategy uses chemically functionalized microbeads for the coffee stain deposition process. From an application perspective, it will be necessary to minimize the coffee stain deposition time, as evaporation, depending on the volume of the droplet, can be a slow process. The introduction of a porous media will generate a capillary flow (or wicking) that removes any remnant liquid in the droplet, thus permitting it to be done inexpensively and in the field. Using optical profilometry, we were able to establish that polystyrene microspheres developed more copious and defined single ring coffee depositions than silica of the same size and concentration in a suspension. In analyzing the droplet capillary evacuation process with a porous media, we found the liquid bridge formed during the later stages to rupture and leave behind some liquid material for a second stage evaporation process. This was responsible for a two ring structure that was more visible with silica microspheres. A high degree of hysteresis of the contact angle was found to develop at the contact line in which values below 5° could be achieved. Dynamic observations showed the copious and dense packing of polystyrene particles to be more resistant to ring break up from the evacuation flow. Nevertheless, erosion of the back array portions of the ring was evident notwithstanding either type of microsphere used. PMID:22520707

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation in the Optimization of a Free-Air Ionization Chamber for Dosimetric Control in Medical Digital Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, A.; Piñera, I.; Montaño, L. M.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.

    2008-08-01

    During the earliest tests of a free-air ionization chamber a poor response to the X-rays emitted by several sources was observed. Then, the Monte Carlo simulation of X-rays transport in matter was employed in order to evaluate chamber behavior as X-rays detector. The photons energy deposition dependence with depth and its integral value in all active volume were calculated. The obtained results reveal that the designed device geometry is feasible to be optimized.

  12. The Use of the Integrated Medical Model for Forecasting and Mitigating Medical Risks for a Near-Earth Asteroid Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Saile, Lynn; Freire de Carvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Lopez, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to space flight mission managers and medical system designers in assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM employs an evidence-based, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach within the operational constraints of space flight. Methods Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of medical events, crew health metrics, medical resource utilization, and probability estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM can also optimize medical kits within the constraints of mass and volume for specified missions. The IMM was used to forecast medical evacuation and loss of crew life probabilities, as well as crew health metrics for a near-earth asteroid (NEA) mission. An optimized medical kit for this mission was proposed based on the IMM simulation. Discussion The IMM can provide information to the space program regarding medical risks, including crew medical impairment, medical evacuation and loss of crew life. This information is valuable to mission managers and the space medicine community in assessing risk and developing mitigation strategies. Exploration missions such as NEA missions will have significant mass and volume constraints applied to the medical system. Appropriate allocation of medical resources will be critical to mission success. The IMM capability of optimizing medical systems based on specific crew and mission profiles will be advantageous to medical system designers. Conclusion The IMM is a decision support tool that can provide estimates of the impact of medical events on human space flight missions, such as crew impairment, evacuation, and loss of crew life. It can be used to support the development of mitigation strategies and to propose optimized medical systems for specified space flight missions. Learning Objectives The audience will learn how an evidence-based decision support tool can be

  13. Using a GIS to Model Tsunami Evacuation Times for the Community of Fairhaven, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graehl, N.; Dengler, L.

    2008-12-01

    The community of Fairhaven (pop. 200) is located at the southern end of the Samoa Peninsula in Humboldt County, California. Fairhaven experienced minor flooding from the 1964 Alaska teletsunami and lies within the inundation zone of numerical models for tsunamis generated by the Cascadia s¬ubduction zone. The highest elevations in the community are about 8 meters which potentially exposes the community to high velocity waves and tsunami inundation. This study modeled the evacuation times to reach the nearest designated evacuation area in the adjacent community of Samoa by foot, to determine if this time frame is realistic in the event of a tsunami evacuation. We used a GIS to generate a Cost Weighted Surface that takes into account distance, physical objects such as buildings, lakes, rivers and other obstructions, and elevation. The Spatial Analyst extension in ArcGIS along with 1 meter resolution NAIP imagery was used to construct a land-use polygon shapefile for the Samoa Peninsula. Slope values were imported into the Cost Weighted Surface with 5 meter resolution DEM's of the Humboldt Bay area. Land-use and slope were reclassified to contain speed values based on the type of surface or slope a pedestrian would walk over. Land-use was reclassified based on walking speed values attained in the field while slope values were reclassified based on Laghi and Cavalletti's criteria. Land-use and slope were then combined to create the final Cost Weighted Surface. Two evacuation time maps were created: one modeled pedestrian evacuation time to Samoa's official evacuation site and the other to a proposed evacuation site located within Fairhaven. The generated evacuation time maps show that evacuation times generally increase radially as the distance from the evacuation sites increases. However, this is untrue where slope and land use characteristics have more of an influence on evacuation time than distance. Maximum pedestrian evacuation times decreased from nearly two

  14. An Evaluation of Infrastructure for Tsunami Evacuation in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedillos, V.; Canney, N.; Deierlein, G.; Diposaptono, S.; Geist, E. L.; Henderson, S.; Ismail, F.; Jachowski, N.; McAdoo, B. G.; Muhari, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.; Toth, J.; Tucker, B. E.; Wood, K.

    2009-12-01

    Padang has one of the world’s highest tsunami risks due to its high hazard, vulnerable terrain and population density. The current strategy to prepare for tsunamis in Padang is focused on developing early warning systems, planning evacuation routes, conducting evacuation drills, and raising local awareness. Although these are all necessary, they are insufficient. Padang’s proximity to the Sunda Trench and flat terrain make reaching safe ground impossible for much of the population. The natural warning in Padang - a strong earthquake that lasts over a minute - will be the first indicator of a potential tsunami. People will have about 30 minutes after the earthquake to reach safe ground. It is estimated that roughly 50,000 people in Padang will be unable to evacuate in that time. Given these conditions, other means to prepare for the expected tsunami must be developed. With this motivation, GeoHazards International and Stanford University’s Chapter of Engineers for a Sustainable World partnered with Indonesian organizations - Andalas University and Tsunami Alert Community in Padang, Laboratory for Earth Hazards, and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries - in an effort to evaluate the need for and feasibility of tsunami evacuation infrastructure in Padang. Tsunami evacuation infrastructure can include earthquake-resistant bridges and evacuation structures that rise above the maximum tsunami water level, and can withstand the expected earthquake and tsunami forces. The choices for evacuation structures vary widely - new and existing buildings, evacuation towers, soil berms, elevated highways and pedestrian overpasses. This interdisciplinary project conducted a course at Stanford University, undertook several field investigations, and concluded that: (1) tsunami evacuation structures and bridges are essential to protect the people in Padang, (2) there is a need for a more thorough engineering-based evaluation than conducted to-date of the suitability of

  15. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. Conducting adequate tsunami risk assessments is essential, as the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment results allow the identification of adequate, site-specific and vulnerability-oriented risk management options, with the formulation of a tsunami evacuation plan being one of the main expected results. An evacuation plan requires the analysis of the territory and an evaluation of the relevant elements (hazard, population, evacuation routes, and shelters), the modelling of the evacuation, and the proposal of alternatives for those communities located in areas with limited opportunities for evacuation. Evacuation plans, which are developed by the responsible authorities and decision makers, would benefit from a clear and straightforward connection between the scientific and technical information from tsunami risk assessments and the subsequent risk reduction options. Scientifically-based evacuation plans would translate into benefits for the society in terms of mortality reduction. This work presents a comprehensive framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process, such as the potential location for vertical evacuation shelters and alternative routes. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge the gap between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as

  16. International Conference on Remote Emergency Medical Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An emergency medical system is characterized. Applications of NASA technology in biomedical telecommunication and bioinstrumentation are explored. The training and effectiveness of paramedics, technicians, nurses, and physicians are evaluated as applied to emergency situations and the operations of trauma centers. Civilian and military aeromedical evacuation is discussed.

  17. The Communication of Information Such as Evacuation Orders at the Time of a Nuclear Power Station Accident

    PubMed Central

    HATANAKA, Takashi; YOSHIDA, Sumito; OJINO, Mayo; ISHII, Masami

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out from the perspective that the damage to the people of Fukushima and others from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident was an “information disaster.” It evaluated the critical problems raised by and actual condition analysis on the process of events in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS disaster and responses of the governments and others, notification of the occurrence of the accident and evacuation order by the national and local governments and the evacuation of residents, and guidance for distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. The research aimed to provide a basis for the implementation of effective distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets and responses to the “information disaster” in the nuclear power disaster. On March 15 at the time that the most radioactive substances were dispersed, even when the average wind speed at the site area was 1.6 m/s, the radioactive substances had reached the outer boundary of Urgent Protective action planning Zone (UPZ, the region with a radius of 30 km) within about five hours. Because of this, every second counted in the provision of information about the accident and the issuance of evacuation orders. This study evaluated the actual condition of information provision by the national government and others from the perspective of this awareness of the importance of time. On the basis of the results of this kind of consideration, we come to the following recommendations: The Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines and the system for communication of information to medical providers should be revised. The national government should make preparations for the effective advance distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. PMID:26557446

  18. 46 CFR 6.04 - Vessels requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and published in 33 CFR chapter I or in this chapter, to the extent necessary to permit the operation... evacuation. 6.04 Section 6.04 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO... requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation. Pursuant to the request of the Acting Secretary...

  19. 46 CFR 6.04 - Vessels requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and published in 33 CFR chapter I or in this chapter, to the extent necessary to permit the operation... evacuation. 6.04 Section 6.04 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO... requisitioned by the United States for emergency evacuation. Pursuant to the request of the Acting Secretary...

  20. Simulation of pedestrian crowds’ evacuation in a huge transit terminal subway station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Hao, Xinpeng; Deng, Baoshun

    2012-11-01

    As modernized urban rail transportation, subways are playing an important role in transiting large passenger flows. Passengers are in high density within the subway during rush hours. The casualty and injury will be tremendous if an accident occurs, such as a fire. Hence, enough attention should be paid on pedestrian crowds’ evacuation in a subway. In this paper, simulation of the process of pedestrian crowds’ evacuation from a huge transit terminal subway station is conducted. The evacuation process in different cases is conducted by using an agent-based model. Effects of occupant density, exit width and automatic fare gates on evacuation time are studied in detail. It is found that, with the increase of the occupant density, the evacuation efficiency would decline. There is a linear relationship between occupant density and evacuation time. Different occupant densities correspond to different critical exit widths. However, the existence of the automatic fare gates has little effect on evacuation time and tendency. The current results of this study will be helpful in guiding evacuation designs of huge underground spaces.

  1. The visualization of surgical smoke produced by energy delivery devices: significance and effectiveness of evacuation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Devices delivering energy to biological tissues (eg lasers, RF and ultrasound) can induce surgical smoke consisting of particles, vapor, gasses and aerosols. Besides interfering with the view of the surgeon, the smoke is a risk for the health of both the users and patients. In literature, it has been shown that surgical smoke can contain carcinogenic and harmful biological agents. However, the impact on health of the users and patients is widely debated. The use of smoke evacuation systems in the OR is usually governed by economical reason instead of safety issues. A special image enhancement technique is used to study the behavior of smoke and aerosols and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. A back scatter illumination technique using 1 μs light flashes at video rate was applied to image the smoke production of various surgical devices without and with smoke evacuation while ablating biological tissues. The effectiveness of various smoke evacuation devices and strategies were compared. The ablative thermal devices produced smoke but also aerosols. If the thermal energy was delivered in high peak pulses, the presence of aerosols was more significant. Ultrasound based devices produce mainly aerosols. The distance to the target, the opening of the evacuation nozzle and the dimension of aerosols were leading for the effectiveness of the smoke evacuation. The smoke visualization technique has proven an effective tool for study the effectiveness of smoke and aerosols evacuation. The results can contribute to the necessity to use evacuation systems in the OR.

  2. A floor field cellular automaton for crowd evacuation considering different walking abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zhuang, Yifan; Hu, Yuqi; Yang, Lizhong; Chen, Changkun; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    It has been hard to model a crowd evacuation process considering different walking abilities using a synchronous cellular automaton. That is because the cross and the overlaps of routes have to be taken into consideration and the conflicts resolution between pedestrians is more complex. However, the desired velocities of evacuees might be quite different due to the discrepancies of the physiological function, including age, gender, physical state, and the psychological behavior, such as the perception and reflection to the dangers. Additionally, an evacuee might change his desired velocity constantly to adapt to the changing evacuation environment. Thus, a multi-velocities floor field cellular automaton model was established in this paper. Using little CPU time, a dense crowd evacuation simulation with tiny varied velocity can be conducted very well. Significant discrepancies between the single-velocity evacuation and the multi-velocities evacuation were observed. The plateaus, where the exit flow rate is rather low, can be well predicted by a dimensionless parameter describing the congestion level of the evacuation system. The crowd evacuation time almost depends on the low desired velocity evacuees, though the proportion is not high. We also observed that faster evacuees make the evacuation system easily approaching to the jam.

  3. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  7. An accessibility graph-based model to optimize tsunami evacuation sites and routes in Martinique, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péroche, M.; Leone, F.; Gutton, R.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of tsunami threatens the whole Caribbean coastline especially the Lesser Antilles. The first available models of tsunami propagation estimate that the travel time from the closest seismic sources would only take few minutes to impact the Martinique Island. Considering this threat, the most effective measure is a planned and organized evacuation of the coastal population. This requires an efficient regional warning system, estimation of the maximum expected tsunami flood height, preparation of the population to evacuate, and drawing up of local and regional emergency plans. In order to produce an efficient evacuation plan, we have to assess the number of people at risk, the potential evacuation routes, the safe areas and the available time to evacuate. However, this essential information is still lacking in the French West Indies emergency plans. This paper proposes a model of tsunami evacuation sites accessibility for Martinique directly addressed to decision makers. It is based on a population database at a local scale, the development of connected graphs of roads, the identification of potential safe areas and the velocity setting for pedestrians. Evacuation routes are calculated using the Dijkstra's algorithm which gives the shortest path between areas at risk and designated evacuation sites. The first results allow us to map the theoretical times and routes to keep the exposed population safe and to compare these results with a tsunami travel time scenario.

  8. ALFIL: A Crowd Simulation Serious Game for Massive Evacuation Training and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-García, César; Fernández-Robles, José Luis; Larios-Rosillo, Victor; Luga, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the current development of a serious game for the simulation of massive evacuations. The purpose of this project is to promote self-protection through awareness of the procedures and different possible scenarios during the evacuation of a massive event. Sophisticated behaviors require massive computational power and it has…

  9. A microcomputer based traffic evacuation modeling system for emergency planning application

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    The US Army stockpiles unitary chemical weapons, both as bulk chemicals and as munitions, at eight major sites in the United States. The continued storage and disposal of the chemical stockpile has the potential for accidental releases of toxic gases that could escape the installation boundaries and pose a threat to the civilian population in the vicinity. Vehicular evacuation is one of the major and often preferred protective action options available for emergency management in a real or anticipated disaster. Computer simulation models of evacuation traffic flow are used to estimate the time required for the affected populations to evacuate to safer areas, to evaluate effectiveness of vehicular evacuations as a protective action option, and to develop comprehensive evacuation plans when required. Following a review of the past efforts to simulate traffic flow during emergency evacuations, an overview of the key features in Version 2.0 of the Oak Ridge Evacuation Modeling System (OREMS) are presented in this paper. OREMS is a microcomputer-based model developed to simulate traffic flow during regional emergency evacuations. OREMS integrates a state-of-the-art dynamic traffic flow and simulation model with advanced data editing and output display programs operating under a MS-Windows environment.

  10. Post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Arai, Kazuaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Gu, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe 2 post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza A in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. Although containment of the outbreak was challenging in the evacuation settings, prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures was important to control the influenza outbreaks.

  11. Modeling and assessment of civil aircraft evacuation based on finer-grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Studying civil aircraft emergency evacuation process by using computer model is an effective way. In this study, the evacuation of Airbus A380 is simulated using a Finer-Grid Civil Aircraft Evacuation (FGCAE) model. In this model, the effect of seat area and others on escape process and pedestrian's "hesitation" before leaving exits are considered, and an optimized rule of exit choice is defined. Simulations reproduce typical characteristics of aircraft evacuation, such as the movement synchronization between adjacent pedestrians, route choice and so on, and indicate that evacuation efficiency will be determined by pedestrian's "preference" and "hesitation". Based on the model, an assessment procedure of aircraft evacuation safety is presented. The assessment and comparison with the actual evacuation test demonstrate that the available exit setting of "one exit from each exit pair" used by practical demonstration test is not the worst scenario. The half exits of one end of the cabin are all unavailable is the worst one, that should be paid more attention to, and even be adopted in the certification test. The model and method presented in this study could be useful for assessing, validating and improving the evacuation performance of aircraft.

  12. Simulating the effects of social networks on a population's hurricane evacuation participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widener, Michael J.; Horner, Mark W.; Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists have noted that recent shifts in the earth's climate have resulted in more extreme weather events, like stronger hurricanes. Such powerful storms disrupt societal function and result in a tremendous number of casualties, as demonstrated by recent hurricane experience in the US Planning for and facilitating evacuations of populations forecast to be impacted by hurricanes is perhaps the most effective strategy for reducing risk. A potentially important yet relatively unexplored facet of people's evacuation decision-making involves the interpersonal communication processes that affect whether at-risk residents decide to evacuate. While previous research has suggested that word-of-mouth effects are limited, data supporting these assertions were collected prior to the widespread adoption of digital social media technologies. This paper argues that the influence of social network effects on evacuation decisions should be revisited given the potential of new social media for impacting and augmenting information dispersion through real-time interpersonal communication. Using geographic data within an agent-based model of hurricane evacuation in Bay County, Florida, we examine how various types of social networks influence participation in evacuation. It is found that strategies for encouraging evacuation should consider the social networks influencing individuals during extreme events, as it can be used to increase the number of evacuating residents.

  13. 33 CFR 165.1413 - Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii. 165.1413 Section 165.1413 Navigation and Navigable... Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1413 Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation... staging area is intended for use by all commercial vessels intended to remain in the RNA during a...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fire, explosion, or gas or water inundation; (ii) Evacuating all miners not required for a mine... alternatives. (4) Scenarios requiring a discussion of options and a decision as to the best option for evacuation under each of the various mine emergencies (fires, explosions, or gas or water inundations)....

  15. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fire, explosion, or gas or water inundation; (ii) Evacuating all miners not required for a mine... alternatives. (4) Scenarios requiring a discussion of options and a decision as to the best option for evacuation under each of the various mine emergencies (fires, explosions, or gas or water inundations)....

  16. The simulation and analysis of small group effect in crowd evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Lei; Hu, Jun; Gu, Musong; Fan, Wenjie; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    A crowd usually tends to move in small groups during evacuation. Small group has a large proportion in crowd evacuation, and small group effect affects crowd evacuation significantly. In this work, we propose a novel methodology for calculating movement profit based on cellular automaton model. Specifically, this methodology calculates the movement profit for a target at the next moment by comprehensively combining distance profit, density profit, and average velocity profit. In particular, this paper defines three types of small-group formation with totally six different forms of small group in terms of the size, and sets the corresponding movement velocity. At last, we simulate the evacuation process of small groups, and discuss the relationship among evacuation time, average movement velocity, and pedestrian density, and analyze the efficiency of small group evacuation in terms of evacuation strategies. As the simulation results demonstrated, the evacuation efficiency of different types of small groups is greatly different, and the same type of small groups with different forms is also different.

  17. Evacuation dynamic and exit optimization of a supermarket based on particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Yu, Zhonghai; Chen, Yang

    2014-12-01

    A modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to investigate the dynamic of pedestrian evacuation from a fire in a public building-a supermarket with multiple exits and configurations of counters. Two distinctive evacuation behaviours featured by the shortest-path strategy and the following-up strategy are simulated in the model, accounting for different categories of age and sex of the pedestrians along with the impact of the fire, including gases, heat and smoke. To examine the relationship among the progress of the overall evacuation and the layout and configuration of the site, a series of simulations are conducted in various settings: without a fire and with a fire at different locations. Those experiments reveal a general pattern of two-phase evacuation, i.e., a steep section and a flat section, in addition to the impact of the presence of multiple exits on the evacuation along with the geographic locations of the exits. For the study site, our simulations indicated the deficiency of the configuration and the current layout of this site in the process of evacuation and verified the availability of proposed solutions to resolve the deficiency. More specifically, for improvement of the effectiveness of the evacuation from the site, adding an exit between Exit 6 and Exit 7 and expanding the corridor at the right side of Exit 7 would significantly reduce the evacuation time.

  18. 78 FR 13325 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Research on Evacuating Persons With Mobility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... on Evacuating Persons With Mobility Impairments AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and... mobility impairments currently evacuate multi-story buildings in the United States during fire emergencies, and (2) to learn about the concerns of persons with mobility impairments on using elevators...

  19. Post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Arai, Kazuaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Gu, Yoshiaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe 2 post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza A in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. Although containment of the outbreak was challenging in the evacuation settings, prompt implementation of a systemic approach with a bundle of control measures was important to control the influenza outbreaks. PMID:21976468

  20. Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

  1. 76 FR 43265 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Movement and Behavior Questionnaire AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION... consist of questionnaires that will be handed out to occupants who have evacuated previously- identified high-rise buildings as a part of a scheduled evacuation drill. The purpose of these questionnaires...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface..., evacuation, and rescue procedures for the surface portions of their operations. These procedures shall...

  3. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of advance payments and... Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the rate... others, when applicable, shall be made before advance payments or evacuation payments are made....

  4. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of advance payments and... Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the rate... others, when applicable, shall be made before advance payments or evacuation payments are made....

  5. Occupants’ behavior of going with the crowd based on cellular automata occupant evacuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Daoliang; Yang, Lizhong; Li, Jian

    2008-06-01

    Occupant behavior which is very complex affects evacuation efficiency and route choice a lot. The psychology and behavior of going with the crowd is very common in daily life and also in occupant evacuation. In this paper, a two-dimensional Cellular Automata model is applied to simulate the process of evacuation considering the psychology of going with the crowd with different room structure or occupant density. The psychology of going with the crowd (the abbreviation is GWC) is classified into directional GWC ( DGWC) and spatial GWC ( SGWC). The influence of two such kinds of psychology on occupant evacuation is discussed in order to provide some useful guidance on the emergency management of evacuation.

  6. Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

  7. Hazard warnings and responses to evacuation orders: the case of Bangladesh's cyclone Sidr.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bimal K; Dutt, Sohini

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November 2007 Cyclone Sidr, a category 4 storm, struck the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Despite early cyclone warnings and evacuation orders for coastal residents, thousands of individuals stayed in their homes. This study examines dissemination of the warning, assesses the warning responses, and explores the reasons why many residents did not evacuate. Field data collected from 257 Sidr survivors in four severely affected coastal districts revealed that more than three-fourths of all respondents were aware of the cyclone warnings and evacuation orders. Despite the sincere efforts of the Bangladesh government, however, lapses in cyclone warnings and evacuation procedures occurred. Field data also revealed several reasons why evacuation orders were not followed. The reasons fell into three broad groups: those involving shelter characteristics; the attributes of the warning message itself; and the respondents' characteristics. Based on our findings, we recommend improved cyclone warnings and utilization of public shelters for similar events in the future. PMID:21061500

  8. Household evacuation characteristics in American Samoa during the 2009 Samoa Islands tsunami.

    PubMed

    Apatu, Emma J I; Gregg, Chris E; Wood, Nathan J; Wang, Liang

    2016-10-01

    Tsunamis represent significant threats to human life and development in coastal communities. This quantitative study examines the influence of household characteristics on evacuation actions taken by 211 respondents in American Samoa who were at their homes during the 29 September 2009 Mw 8.1 Samoa Islands earthquake and tsunami disaster. Multiple logistic regression analysis of survey data was used to examine the association between evacuation and various household factors. Findings show that increases in distance to shoreline were associated with a slightly decreased likelihood of evacuation, whereas households reporting higher income had an increased probability of evacuation. The response in American Samoa was an effective one, with only 34 fatalities in a tsunami that reached shore in as little as 15 minutes. Consequently, future research should implement more qualitative study designs to identify event and cultural specific determinants of household evacuation behaviour to local tsunamis.

  9. Household evacuation characteristics in American Samoa during the 2009 Samoa Islands tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apatu, Emma J. I.; Gregg, Chris E.; Wood, Nathan J.; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tsunamis represent significant threats to human life and development in coastal communities. This quantitative study examines the influence of household characteristics on evacuation actions taken by 211 respondents in American Samoa who were at their homes during the 29 September 2009 Mw 8.1 Samoa Islands earthquake and tsunami disaster. Multiple logistic regression analysis of survey data was used to examine the association between evacuation and various household factors. Findings show that increases in distance to shoreline were associated with a slightly decreased likelihood of evacuation, whereas households reporting higher income had an increased probability of evacuation. The response in American Samoa was an effective one, with only 34 fatalities in a tsunami that reached shore in as little as 15 minutes. Consequently, future research should implement more qualitative study designs to identify event and cultural specific determinants of household evacuation behaviour to local tsunamis.

  10. Hazard warnings and responses to evacuation orders: the case of Bangladesh's cyclone Sidr.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bimal K; Dutt, Sohini

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November 2007 Cyclone Sidr, a category 4 storm, struck the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Despite early cyclone warnings and evacuation orders for coastal residents, thousands of individuals stayed in their homes. This study examines dissemination of the warning, assesses the warning responses, and explores the reasons why many residents did not evacuate. Field data collected from 257 Sidr survivors in four severely affected coastal districts revealed that more than three-fourths of all respondents were aware of the cyclone warnings and evacuation orders. Despite the sincere efforts of the Bangladesh government, however, lapses in cyclone warnings and evacuation procedures occurred. Field data also revealed several reasons why evacuation orders were not followed. The reasons fell into three broad groups: those involving shelter characteristics; the attributes of the warning message itself; and the respondents' characteristics. Based on our findings, we recommend improved cyclone warnings and utilization of public shelters for similar events in the future.

  11. Household evacuation characteristics in American Samoa during the 2009 Samoa Islands tsunami.

    PubMed

    Apatu, Emma J I; Gregg, Chris E; Wood, Nathan J; Wang, Liang

    2016-10-01

    Tsunamis represent significant threats to human life and development in coastal communities. This quantitative study examines the influence of household characteristics on evacuation actions taken by 211 respondents in American Samoa who were at their homes during the 29 September 2009 Mw 8.1 Samoa Islands earthquake and tsunami disaster. Multiple logistic regression analysis of survey data was used to examine the association between evacuation and various household factors. Findings show that increases in distance to shoreline were associated with a slightly decreased likelihood of evacuation, whereas households reporting higher income had an increased probability of evacuation. The response in American Samoa was an effective one, with only 34 fatalities in a tsunami that reached shore in as little as 15 minutes. Consequently, future research should implement more qualitative study designs to identify event and cultural specific determinants of household evacuation behaviour to local tsunamis. PMID:26728799

  12. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  13. Beat-the-wave evacuation mapping for tsunami hazards in Seaside, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, George R.; Stimely, Laura; Wood, Nathan J.; Madin, Ian; Watzig, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    Previous pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunamis has not considered variable wave arrival times or critical junctures (e.g., bridges), nor does it effectively communicate multiple evacuee travel speeds. We summarize an approach that identifies evacuation corridors, recognizes variable wave arrival times, and produces a map of minimum pedestrian travel speeds to reach safety, termed a “beat-the-wave” (BTW) evacuation analysis. We demonstrate the improved approach by evaluating difficulty of pedestrian evacuation of Seaside, Oregon, for a local tsunami generated by a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. We establish evacuation paths by calculating the least cost distance (LCD) to safety for every grid cell in a tsunami-hazard zone using geospatial, anisotropic path distance algorithms. Minimum BTW speed to safety on LCD paths is calculated for every grid cell by dividing surface distance from that cell to safety by the tsunami arrival time at safety. We evaluated three scenarios of evacuation difficulty: (1) all bridges are intact with a 5-minute evacuation delay from the start of earthquake, (2) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 5-minute delay, and (3) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 10-minute delay. BTW maps also take into account critical evacuation points along complex shorelines (e.g., peninsulas, bridges over shore-parallel estuaries) where evacuees could be caught by tsunami waves. The BTW map is able to communicate multiple pedestrian travel speeds, which are typically visualized by multiple maps with current LCD-based mapping practices. Results demonstrate that evacuation of Seaside is problematic seaward of the shore-parallel waterways for those with any limitations on mobility. Tsunami vertical-evacuation refuges or additional pedestrian bridges may be effective ways of reducing loss of life seaward of these waterways.

  14. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  15. Sensitivity of tsunami evacuation modeling to direction and land cover assumptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Wood, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although anisotropic least-cost-distance (LCD) modeling is becoming a common tool for estimating pedestrian-evacuation travel times out of tsunami hazard zones, there has been insufficient attention paid to understanding model sensitivity behind the estimates. To support tsunami risk-reduction planning, we explore two aspects of LCD modeling as it applies to pedestrian evacuations and use the coastal community of Seward, Alaska, as our case study. First, we explore the sensitivity of modeling to the direction of movement by comparing standard safety-to-hazard evacuation times to hazard-to-safety evacuation times for a sample of 3985 points in Seward's tsunami-hazard zone. Safety-to-hazard evacuation times slightly overestimated hazard-to-safety evacuation times but the strong relationship to the hazard-to-safety evacuation times, slightly conservative bias, and shorter processing times of the safety-to-hazard approach make it the preferred approach. Second, we explore how variations in land cover speed conservation values (SCVs) influence model performance using a Monte Carlo approach with one thousand sets of land cover SCVs. The LCD model was relatively robust to changes in land cover SCVs with the magnitude of local model sensitivity greatest in areas with higher evacuation times or with wetland or shore land cover types, where model results may slightly underestimate travel times. This study demonstrates that emergency managers should be concerned not only with populations in locations with evacuation times greater than wave arrival times, but also with populations with evacuation times lower than but close to expected wave arrival times, particularly if they are required to cross wetlands or beaches.

  16. Evacuated, displacement compression mold. [of tubular bodies from thermosetting plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of molding long thin-wall tubular bodies from thermosetting plastic molding compounds is described wherein the tubular body lengths may be several times the diameters. The process is accomplished by loading a predetermined quantity of molding compound into a female mold cavity closed at one end by a force mandrel. After closing the other end of the female mold with a balance mandrel, the loaded cavity is evacuated by applying a vacuum of from one-to-five mm pressure for a period of fifteen-to-thirty minutes. The mold temperature is raised to the minimum temperature at which the resin constituent of the compound will soften or plasticize and a pressure of 2500 psi is applied.

  17. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  18. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  19. Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

    1981-08-06

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  20. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors. PMID:24730898

  1. New AIRS: The medical imaging software for segmentation and registration of elastic organs in SPECT/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widita, R.; Kurniadi, R.; Darma, Y.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Trianti, N.

    2012-06-01

    We have been successfully improved our software, Automated Image Registration and Segmentation (AIRS), to fuse the CT and SPECT images of elastic organs. Segmentation and registration of elastic organs presents many challenges. Many artifacts can arise in SPECT/CT scans. Also, different organs and tissues have very similar gray levels, which consign thresholding to limited utility. We have been developed a new software to solve different registration and segmentation problems that arises in tomographic data sets. It will be demonstrated that the information obtained by SPECT/CT is more accurate in evaluating patients/objects than that obtained from either SPECT or CT alone. We used multi-modality registration which is amenable for images produced by different modalities and having unclear boundaries between tissues. The segmentation components used in this software is region growing algorithms which have proven to be an effective approach for image segmentation. Our method is designed to perform with clinically acceptable speed, using accelerated techniques (multiresolution).

  2. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  3. Prioritizing Medical Resources for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. V.; Kerstman, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the medical system. Factors such as the inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, limitations in available medical equipment, and the clinical background of the crew will all have an impact on the assessment and treatment of medical conditions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element of NASAs Human Research Program seeks to improve the way the element derives its mitigation strategies for the risk of "Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitation of In-flight Medical Capabilities."

  4. Analyzing the future of army aeromedical evacuation units and equipment: a mixed methods, requirements-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Nathaniel D; Brown, David; Fulton, Lawrence V; Mitchell, Robert; Pollard, Wayne; Robinson, Mark; Wilson, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    We utilize a mixed methods approach to provide three new, separate analyses as part of the development of the next aeromedical evacuation (MEDEVAC) platform of the Future of Vertical Lift (FVL) program. The research questions follow: RQ1) What are the optimal capabilities of a FVL MEDEVAC platform given an Afghanistan-like scenario and parameters associated with the treatment/ground evacuation capabilities in that theater?; RQ2) What are the MEDEVAC trade-off considerations associated with different aircraft engines operating under variable conditions?; RQ3) How does the additional weight of weaponizing the current MEDEVAC fleet affect range, coverage radius, and response time? We address RQ1 using discrete-event simulation based partially on qualitative assessments from the field, while RQ2 and RQ3 are based on deterministic analysis. Our results confirm previous findings that travel speeds in excess of 250 knots and ranges in excess of 300 nautical miles are advisable for the FVL platform design, thereby reducing the medical footprint in stability operations. We recommend a specific course of action regarding a potential engine bridging strategy based on deterministic analysis of endurance and altitude, and we suggest that the weaponization of the FVL MEDEVAC aircraft will have an adverse effect on coverage capability.

  5. 19 CFR 148.77 - Entry of effects on termination of assignment to extended duty, or on evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... extended duty, or on evacuation. 148.77 Section 148.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... of assignment to extended duty, or on evacuation. (a) General procedure. All articles for which free... upon the termination of his assignment; or (iii) The evacuation of a person to the United States...

  6. 19 CFR 148.77 - Entry of effects on termination of assignment to extended duty, or on evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... extended duty, or on evacuation. 148.77 Section 148.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... of assignment to extended duty, or on evacuation. (a) General procedure. All articles for which free... upon the termination of his assignment; or (iii) The evacuation of a person to the United States...

  7. Analysis of Tsunami Evacuation Issues Using Agent Based Modeling. A Case Study of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Yuriage, Natori.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, E.; Takagi, H.; Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami reminded that nature can exceed structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people to find nearby haven. This event, as many others before, confirmed the importance of early evacuation, tsunami awareness and the need for developing much more resilient communities with effective evacuation plans. To support reconstruction activities and efforts on developing resilient communities in areas at risk, tsunami evacuation simulation can be applied to tsunami mitigation and evacuation planning. In this study, using the compiled information related to the evacuation behavior at Yuriage in Natori during the 2011 tsunami, we simulated the evacuation process and explored the reasons for the large number of fatalities in the area. It was found that residents did evacuate to nearby shelter areas, however after the tsunami warning was increased some evacuees decided to conduct a second step evacuation to a far inland shelter. Simulation results show the consequences of such decision and the outcomes when a second evacuation would not have been performed. The actual reported number of fatalities in the event and the results from simulation are compared to verify the model. The case study shows the contribution of tsunami evacuation models as tools to be applied for the analysis of evacuees' decisions and the related outcomes. In addition, future evacuation plans and activities for reconstruction process and urban planning can be supported by the results provided from this kind of tsunami evacuation models.

  8. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    PubMed

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Holl, Stefan; Mehner, Wolfgang; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  9. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Thomas, Neil; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Han, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  10. A Method for Formulizing Disaster Evacuation Demand Curves Based on SI Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yulei; Yan, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of evacuation demand curves is a crucial step in the disaster evacuation plan making, which directly affects the performance of the disaster evacuation. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing individual evacuation decision making (whether and when to leave) and summarize them into four kinds: individual characteristics, social influence, geographic location, and warning degree. In the view of social contagion of decision making, a method based on Susceptible-Infective (SI) model is proposed to formulize the disaster evacuation demand curves to address both social influence and other factors’ effects. The disaster event of the “Tianjin Explosions” is used as a case study to illustrate the modeling results influenced by the four factors and perform the sensitivity analyses of the key parameters of the model. Some interesting phenomena are found and discussed, which is meaningful for authorities to make specific evacuation plans. For example, due to the lower social influence in isolated communities, extra actions might be taken to accelerate evacuation process in those communities. PMID:27735875

  11. Fleeing the storm(s): an examination of evacuation behavior during Florida's 2004 hurricane season.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stanley K; McCarty, Chris

    2009-02-01

    The 2004 hurricane season was the worst in Florida's history, with four hurricanes causing at least 47 deaths and some $45 billion in damages. To collect information on the demographic impact of those hurricanes, we surveyed households throughout the state and in the local areas that sustained the greatest damage. We estimate that one-quarter of Florida's population evacuated prior to at least one hurricane; in some areas, well over one-half of the residents evacuated at least once, and many evacuated several times. Most evacuees stayed with family or friends and were away from home for only a few days. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the strength of the hurricane and the vulnerability of the housing unit had the greatest impact on evacuation behavior; additionally, several demographic variables had significant effects on the probability of evacuating and the choice of evacuation lodging (family/friends, public shelters, or hotels/motels). With continued population growth in coastal areas and the apparent increase in hurricane activity caused by global warming, threats posed by hurricanes are rising in the United States and throughout the world. We believe the present study will help government officials plan more effectively for future hurricane evacuations.

  12. An interval-parameter mixed integer multi-objective programming for environment-oriented evacuation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Z.; Huang, G. H.; Yan, X. P.; Cai, Y. P.; Li, Y. P.

    2010-05-01

    Large crowds are increasingly common at political, social, economic, cultural and sports events in urban areas. This has led to attention on the management of evacuations under such situations. In this study, we optimise an approximation method for vehicle allocation and route planning in case of an evacuation. This method, based on an interval-parameter multi-objective optimisation model, has potential for use in a flexible decision support system for evacuation management. The modeling solutions are obtained by sequentially solving two sub-models corresponding to lower- and upper-bounds for the desired objective function value. The interval solutions are feasible and stable in the given decision space, and this may reduce the negative effects of uncertainty, thereby improving decision makers' estimates under different conditions. The resulting model can be used for a systematic analysis of the complex relationships among evacuation time, cost and environmental considerations. The results of a case study used to validate the proposed model show that the model does generate useful solutions for planning evacuation management and practices. Furthermore, these results are useful for evacuation planners, not only in making vehicle allocation decisions but also for providing insight into the tradeoffs among evacuation time, environmental considerations and economic objectives.

  13. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-08-24

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.

  14. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  15. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jesús M.; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á.; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  16. [Attempt to reduce the formaldehyde concentration by blowing cooled fresh air down in to the breathing zone of medical students from an admission port on the ceiling during gross anatomy class].

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Masaaki; Sakai, Makoto; Ishikawa, Youichi; Murakami, Kunio; Kimura, Akihiko; Kakuta, Sachiko; Sato, Fumi

    2008-09-01

    Cadavers in gross anatomy laboratories at most medical schools are conventionally embalmed in formaldehyde solution, which is carcinogenic to humans. Medical students and instructors are thus exposed to formaldehyde vapors emitted from cadavers during dissection. To reduce high formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone above cadavers being examined by anatomy medical students provisionally, dissection beds were located under existing admission ports on the ceiling to supply cooled fresh air from the admission port blowing downward on to the cadaver. In all cases, compared to normal condition, the downward flow of cooled fresh air from an admission port reduced formaldehyde concentrations by 0.09-0.98 ppm and reduced to 12.6-65.4% in the air above a cadaver in the breathing zone of students. The formaldehyde concentrations above cadavers under admission ports were not more than the formaldehyde concentrations between beds representing the indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Although the application of an existing admission port on the ceiling in this study did not remove formaldehyde, the downflow of cooled fresh air using this system reduced the formaldehyde concentration in the air above cadavers being attended by anatomy students during dissections. These results suggest the need for reducing formaldehyde levels in gross anatomy laboratories using fundamental countermeasures in order to satisfy the guidelines of 0.08 ppm established by the World Health Organization and the Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

  17. Legal Preparedness for Hurricane Sandy: Authority to Order Hospital Evacuation or Shelter-in-Place in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Meghan D; Burke, Thomas A; Resnick, Beth A; Smith, Katherine C; Barnett, Daniel J; Rutkow, Lainie

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals were once thought to be places of refuge during catastrophic hurricanes, but recent disasters such as Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy have demonstrated that some hospitals are unable to ensure the safety of patients and staff and the continuity of medical care at key times. The government has a duty to safeguard public health and a responsibility to ensure that appropriate protective action is taken when disasters threaten or impair the ability of hospitals to sustain essential services. The law can enable the government to fulfill this duty by providing necessary authority to order preventive or reactive responses--such as ordering evacuation of or sheltering-in-place in hospitals--when safety is imperiled. We systematically identified and analyzed state emergency preparedness laws that could have affected evacuation of and sheltering-in-place in hospitals in order to characterize the public health legal preparedness of 4 states (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York) in the mid-Atlantic region during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. At that time, none of these 4 states had enacted statutes or regulations explicitly granting the government the authority to order hospitals to shelter-in-place. Whereas all 4 states had enacted laws explicitly enabling the government to order evacuation, the nature of this authority and the individuals empowered to execute it varied. We present empirical analyses intended to enhance public health legal preparedness and ensure these states and others are better able to respond to future natural disasters, which are predicted to be more severe and frequent as a result of climate change, as well as other hazards. States can further improve their readiness for catastrophic disasters by ensuring explicit statutory authority to order evacuation and to order sheltering-in-place, particularly of hospitals, where it does not currently exist. PMID:27081887

  18. Legal Preparedness for Hurricane Sandy: Authority to Order Hospital Evacuation or Shelter-in-Place in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Meghan D; Burke, Thomas A; Resnick, Beth A; Smith, Katherine C; Barnett, Daniel J; Rutkow, Lainie

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals were once thought to be places of refuge during catastrophic hurricanes, but recent disasters such as Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy have demonstrated that some hospitals are unable to ensure the safety of patients and staff and the continuity of medical care at key times. The government has a duty to safeguard public health and a responsibility to ensure that appropriate protective action is taken when disasters threaten or impair the ability of hospitals to sustain essential services. The law can enable the government to fulfill this duty by providing necessary authority to order preventive or reactive responses--such as ordering evacuation of or sheltering-in-place in hospitals--when safety is imperiled. We systematically identified and analyzed state emergency preparedness laws that could have affected evacuation of and sheltering-in-place in hospitals in order to characterize the public health legal preparedness of 4 states (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York) in the mid-Atlantic region during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. At that time, none of these 4 states had enacted statutes or regulations explicitly granting the government the authority to order hospitals to shelter-in-place. Whereas all 4 states had enacted laws explicitly enabling the government to order evacuation, the nature of this authority and the individuals empowered to execute it varied. We present empirical analyses intended to enhance public health legal preparedness and ensure these states and others are better able to respond to future natural disasters, which are predicted to be more severe and frequent as a result of climate change, as well as other hazards. States can further improve their readiness for catastrophic disasters by ensuring explicit statutory authority to order evacuation and to order sheltering-in-place, particularly of hospitals, where it does not currently exist.

  19. Recent Advances in Agent-Based Tsunami Evacuation Simulations: Case Studies in Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Erick; Koshimura, Shunichi; Imamura, Fumihiko; Suppasri, Anawat; Muhari, Abdul; Adriano, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    As confirmed by the extreme tsunami events over the last decade (the 2004 Indian Ocean, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunami events), mitigation measures and effective evacuation planning are needed to reduce disaster risks. Modeling tsunami evacuations is an alternative means to analyze evacuation plans and possible scenarios of evacuees' behaviors. In this paper, practical applications of an agent-based tsunami evacuation model are presented to demonstrate the contributions that agent-based modeling has added to tsunami evacuation simulations and tsunami mitigation efforts. A brief review of previous agent-based evacuation models in the literature is given to highlight recent progress in agent-based methods. Finally, challenges are noted for bridging gaps between geoscience and social science within the agent-based approach for modeling tsunami evacuations.

  20. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk management: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This methodology considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami risk management situation (time needed by the responsible authorities to warn the local communities), (iv) the time needed for evacuation of the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation. The proposed methodological framework aims to fill the gap between risk assessment and management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan.