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Sample records for air mercury rule

  1. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Stakeholder perspectives on the Clean Air Interstate and the Clean Air Mercury Rules

    SciTech Connect

    C.V. Mathai; Jeffrey Holmstead; Michael Shore; Skiles Boyd; Vicky Sullivan; Dan Weiss; John Kinsman; Steve Lomax; Michael Rossler; David Steele; Greg Schaefer; Felice Stadler; David Foerter; William Becker

    2005-08-01

    In a follow-up to last month's detailed overviews of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), this month EM presents perspectives on the two rules from representatives of a range of stakeholders, including EPA, the states, the regulated community, and the environmental community. Titles of the perspectives are: A Multipollutant Approach to Emissions Reductions; Clean Air Lessons from the Myth of Sisyphus; Reactions to EPA's Clean Air Interstate and Clean Air Mercury Rules; The Case for Coal Rank Subcategorization to Regulate Mercury Emissions; EPA's Mercury Rule: The Latest Delay Tactic; EPA's Mercury Rule: With Technology Today, We Can Do Better; STAPPA/ALAPCO's Perspectives on CAMR and CAIR. 16 refs.

  3. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  4. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  5. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Isotope effect of mercury diffusion in air

    PubMed Central

    Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Esser, Bradley K.; Williams, Ross W.; Hunt, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and reducing impacts from mercury sources in the environment remains a considerable challenge and requires process based models to quantify mercury stocks and flows. The stable isotope composition of mercury in environmental samples can help address this challenge by serving as a tracer of specific sources and processes. Mercury isotope variations are small and result only from isotope fractionation during transport, equilibrium, and transformation processes. Because these processes occur in both industrial and environmental settings, knowledge of their associated isotope effects is required to interpret mercury isotope data. To improve the mechanistic modeling of mercury isotope effects during gas phase diffusion, an experimental program tested the applicability of kinetic gas theory. Gas-phase elemental mercury diffusion through small bore needles from finite sources demonstrated mass dependent diffusivities leading to isotope fractionation described by a Rayleigh distillation model. The measured relative atomic diffusivities among mercury isotopes in air are large and in agreement with kinetic gas theory. Mercury diffusion in air offers a reasonable explanation of recent field results reported in the literature. PMID:24364380

  7. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  8. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... button batteries. Mercury salts may be used in skin creams and ointments. It's also used in many industries. Mercury in the air settles into water. It can pass through the food chain and build up in ...

  9. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, ... colorless, odorless gas. It also combines with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in ...

  10. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-06-14

    ... hearing on the proposed rule on indoor air quality which was published on April 5, 1994 (59 FR 15968). The... published a notice of proposed rulemaking on indoor air quality (59 FR 15968 et seq.). The proposal covered a broad range of issues falling into two major categories: (1) General indoor air quality...

  11. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  12. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    PubMed

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur. PMID:7302525

  13. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  14. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  15. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  16. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  17. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  18. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  19. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE PARTNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although evasion of elemental mercury from aquatic systems can significantly deplete net mercury accumulation resulting from atmospheric deposition, the current ability to model elemental mercury air/water exchange is limited by uncertainties in our understanding of all gaseous a...

  20. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  1. The fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant, originates from the coal that is burned, and leaves through the output streams that include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent fmdings on the fa...

  2. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  3. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  4. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  5. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  6. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  7. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19... § 129.19 Air traffic rules and procedures. (a) Each pilot must be familiar with the applicable rules, the navigational and communications facilities, and the air traffic control and other procedures,...

  8. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  9. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  10. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  11. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  12. Fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constance L. Senior; Susan Thorneloe; Bernine Khan; David Goss

    2009-07-15

    Mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant originates from the coal that is burned and leaves through the output streams, which include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent findings on the fate and environmental stability of mercury in coal combustion residues (CCRs) such as fly ash and solid products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers when either disposed or reused in agricultural, commercial, or engineering applications. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Aas, Wenche; Cinnirella, Sergio; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Pacyna, Jozef; Sprovieri, Francesca; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-12-01

    understanding the link between the magnitude of mercury emissions and the concentrations found in the fish that we consume. For air quality monitoring, priorities include expanding the existing data collection network and widening the scope of atmospheric mercury measurements (elemental, oxidised, and particulate species as well as mercury in precipitation). Presently, the only accurate indicators of mercury impacts on human and biological health are methylmercury concentrations in biota. However, recent advances in analytical techniques (stable mercury isotopes) and integrated modelling tools are allowing greater understanding of the relationship between atmospheric deposition, concentrations in water, methylation and uptake by biota. This article recommends an expansion of the current atmospheric monitoring network and the establishment of new coordinated measurements of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in seawater and concurrent concentrations and trends in marine fish.

  14. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  15. MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions in the U.S. This rule makes the U.S. the first country in the world to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The first p...

  16. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these...

  17. An environmental study of mercury speciation in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, T.; Koenig, M.; Koprivcia, V.; Lover, A.; Stephens, O.

    1996-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere primarily from power plants and is then deposited to the earth as a water soluble species in rain and snow. One of the important unanswered questions in the atmospheric chemistry of mercury is whether gas-phase ionic Hg{sup 2+} species exist and under what conditions they are formed. This paper will describe a novel technique for measuring atmospheric Hg{sup 2+} using a high-flow refluxing mist chamber to trap water-soluble Hg(II) from ambient air, coupled with an ultra-sensitive atomic fluorescence method for mercury quantitation. Various tests and refinement of the technique will be described, along with representative measurements in ambient air. The data show a strong diurnal trend in Hg(II) concentrations. Evidence suggests that some Hg(II) is formed within the mist chamber, most probably by aqueous-phase reaction of ozone with the Hg{sup O} present in ambient air.

  18. Air Plasma Formation in MHD Slipstream Accelerator for Mercury Lightcraft

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L.N.; Raizer, Y.P.; Surzhikov, S.

    2004-03-30

    This paper investigates the physics of air plasma formation at the entrance of the MHD slipstream accelerator for the 'tractor-beam' Mercury Lightcraft. Two scenarios are analyzed. The first addresses the needs of the minimum power airspike assuming that all the power required for air plasma formation must come from the remote laser beam. The second case considers the constant-focus airspike and assumes that the breakdown criteria is satisfied by an on-board auxiliary source (e.g., electric discharge, RF source, microwave source, or E-beam)

  19. Air Plasma Formation in MHD Slipstream Accelerator for Mercury Lightcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Raizer, Y. P.; Surzhikov, S.

    2004-03-01

    This paper investigates the physics of air plasma formation at the entrance of the MHD slipstream accelerator for the `tractor-beam' Mercury Lightcraft. Two scenarios are analyzed. The first addresses the needs of the minimum power airspike assuming that all the power required for air plasma formation must come from the remote laser beam. The second case considers the constant-focus airspike and assumes that the breakdown criteria is satisfied by an on-board auxiliary source (e.g., electric discharge, RF source, microwave source, or E-beam).

  20. A passive integrative sampler for mercury vapor in air and neutral mercury species in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; May, T.W.; Huckins, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    A passive integrative mercury sampler (PIMS) based on a sealed polymeric membrane was effective for the collection and preconcentration of Hg0. Because the Hg is both oxidized and stabilized in the PIMS, sampling intervals of weeks to months are possible. The effective air sampling rate for a 15 x 2.5 cm device was about 21-equivalents/day (0.002 m3/day) and the detection limit for 4-week sampling was about 2 ng/m3 for conventional ICP-MS determination without clean-room preparation. Sampling precision was ??? 5% RSD for laboratory exposures, and 5-10% RSD for field exposures. These results suggest that the PIMS could be useful for screening assessments of Hg contamination and exposure in the environment, the laboratory, and the workplace. The PIMS approach may be particularly useful for applications requiring unattended sampling for extended periods at remote locations. Preliminary results indicate that sampling for dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and potentially other neutral mercury species from water is also feasible. Rigorous validation of the sampler performance is currently in progress. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.A passive integrative mercury sampler (PIMS) based on a sealed polymeric membrane was effective for the collection and preconcentration of Hg0. Because the Hg is both oxidized and stabilized in the PIMS, sampling intervals of weeks to months are possible. The effective air sampling rate for a 15??2.5 cm device was about 21-equivalents/day (0.002 m3/day) and the detection limit for 4-week sampling was about 2 ng/m3 for conventional ICP-MS determination without clean-room preparation. Sampling precision was ???5% RSD for laboratory exposures, and 5-10% RSD for field exposures. These results suggest that the PIMS could be useful for screening assessments of Hg contamination and exposure in the environment, the laboratory, and the workplace. The PIMS approach may be particularly useful for applications requiring unattended sampling for extended

  1. Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a 190 MW boiler.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengli; Cao, Yan; Dong, Zhongbing; Cheng, Chinmin; Li, Hanxu; Pan, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08. PMID:20397418

  2. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  3. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  4. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, D. S.; Mazur, M. E. E.; Mitchell, C. P. J.; Wania, F.

    2015-12-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterisation through finely-resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieves levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nano-structured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  5. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S. L.; Wang, S. F.; Fu, X. W.; Qiu, G. L.; Shang, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m-2 h-1) at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m-2 h-1). Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  6. Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W.W.; Learned, R.E.; Meuschke, J.L.

    1969-01-01

    The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

  7. Distributional Benefit Analysis of a National Air Quality Rule

    PubMed Central

    Post, Ellen S.; Belova, Anna; Huang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must perform environmental justice (EJ) reviews of its rules and regulations. EJ analyses address the hypothesis that environmental disamenities are experienced disproportionately by poor and/or minority subgroups. Such analyses typically use communities as the unit of analysis. While community-based approaches make sense when considering where polluting sources locate, they are less appropriate for national air quality rules affecting many sources and pollutants that can travel thousands of miles. We compare exposures and health risks of EJ-identified individuals rather than communities to analyze EPA’s Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) rule as an example national air quality rule. Air pollutant exposures are estimated within grid cells by air quality models; all individuals in the same grid cell are assigned the same exposure. Using an inequality index, we find that inequality within racial/ethnic subgroups far outweighs inequality between them. We find, moreover, that the HDD rule leaves between-subgroup inequality essentially unchanged. Changes in health risks depend also on subgroups’ baseline incidence rates, which differ across subgroups. Thus, health risk reductions may not follow the same pattern as reductions in exposure. These results are likely representative of other national air quality rules as well. PMID:21776207

  8. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air... June 29, 2009, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The... Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), for which EPA granted limited approval as an abbreviated SIP...

  9. MERCURY MAPS: A QUANTITATIVE SPATIAL LINK BETWEEN AIR DEPOSITION AND FISH TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury Maps is a geographic information system (GIS) that relates percent changes in air deposition to percent changes in fish tissue concentration, on a national scale. Mercury Maps documentation derives a simple model, incorporated in the GIS, from recent detailed kinetics-b...

  10. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  11. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  12. Continuous atomic spectrometric measurement of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in air by mercury displacement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1982-08-01

    The analytical atomic spectrometric technique of mercury displacement detection has been adapted so that sulfur dioxide can be determined at natural background levels in ambient air on a continuous basis with a 90% response time of 1-2 min. Sample air is drawn into the reaction vessel containing mercury (I) ion reagent and any sulfur dioxide present reacts to form elemental mercury which is measured, after being swept out of the solution by the same flow of sample air, by a mercury vapor detector. Reagent is continuously pumped through the analyzer and the instrument is calibrated with a permeation tube calibrator. The apparatus has a linear concentration range up to 100 ppB sulfur dioxide; this is much lower than can be obtained with existing commerical instruments. The apparatus is very precise and 6, 11, and 20 ppB sulfur dioxide can be measured with coefficients of variation of 1-2%.

  13. Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mercury poisoning dentistry: high-level indoor air mercury contamination at selected dental sites.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Abbasi, Maryam Shabbir

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), also known as quick silver, is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported. The present report briefly describes and discusses our recent investigations carried out at 34 dental sites (teaching institutions, hospitals and private clinics) in Pakistan. It is evident from the data that at many sites the indoor mercury vapor levels exceed far above the permissible limit recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public in general and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. To minimize such risk, some of the recommendations are, best in-house environmental practices for occupational health and safety, mercury contaminated waste reduction at source, mercury specific legislation and ratification of Minamata convention on mercury by Pakistan and other world governments at the earliest time possible. PMID:24552960

  15. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  16. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  17. Mercury isotopes in a forested ecosystem: Implications for air-surface exchange dynamics and the global mercury cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jason D.; Blum, Joel D.; Zak, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Forests mediate the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems; however, there remain many gaps in our understanding of these processes. Our objectives in this study were to characterize Hg isotopic composition within forests, and use natural abundance stable Hg isotopes to track sources and reveal mechanisms underlying the cycling of Hg. We quantified the stable Hg isotopic composition of foliage, forest floor, mineral soil, precipitation, and total gaseous mercury (THg(g)) in the atmosphere and in evasion from soil, in 10-year-old aspen forests at the Rhinelander FACE experiment in northeastern Wisconsin, USA. The effect of increased atmospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations on Hg isotopic composition was small relative to differences among forest ecosystem components. Precipitation samples had δ202Hg values of -0.74 to 0.06‰ and ∆199Hg values of 0.16 to 0.82‰. Atmospheric THg(g) had δ202Hg values of 0.48 to 0.93‰ and ∆199Hg values of -0.21 to -0.15‰. Uptake of THg(g) by foliage resulted in a large (-2.89‰) shift in δ202Hg values; foliage displayed δ202Hg values of -2.53 to -1.89‰ and ∆199Hg values of -0.37 to -0.23‰. Forest floor samples had δ202Hg values of -1.88 to -1.22‰ and ∆199Hg values of -0.22 to -0.14‰. Mercury isotopes distinguished geogenic sources of Hg and atmospheric derived sources of Hg in soil, and showed that precipitation Hg only accounted for ~16% of atmospheric Hg inputs. The isotopic composition of Hg evasion from the forest floor was similar to atmospheric THg(g); however, there were systematic differences in δ202Hg values and MIF of even isotopes (∆200Hg and ∆204Hg). Mercury evasion from the forest floor may have arisen from air-surface exchange of atmospheric THg(g), but was not the emission of legacy Hg from soils, nor re-emission of wet-deposition. This implies that there was net atmospheric THg(g) deposition to the forest soils. Furthermore, MDF of

  18. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... 19, 2003, EPA promulgated the 2003 Mercury Cell NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart IIIII, 68 FR 70904... proposed in 2008? On June 11, 2008 (73 FR 33257), EPA responded to NRDC's petition for reconsideration. In... supporting them, please see the preamble for the June 11, 2008 proposal (73 FR 33258). The 2008...

  19. Fatigue properties of type 316LN stainless steel in air and mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizak, J. P.; Tian, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Mansur, L. K.

    2005-08-01

    An extensive fatigue testing program on 316LN stainless steel was recently carried out to support the design of the mercury target container for the spallation neutron source (SNS) that is currently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The major objective was to determine the effects of mercury on fatigue behavior. The S- N fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel is characterized by a family of bilinear fatigue curves which are dependent on frequency, environment, mean stress and cold work. Generally, fatigue life increases with decreasing stress and levels off in the high cycle region to an endurance limit below which the material will not fail. For fully reversed loading as well as tensile mean stress loading conditions mercury had no effect on endurance limit. However, at higher stresses a synergistic relationship between mercury and cyclic loading frequency was observed at low frequencies. As expected, fatigue life decreased with decreasing frequency, but the response was more pronounced in mercury compared with air. As a result of liquid metal embrittlement (LME), fracture surfaces of specimens tested in mercury showed widespread brittle intergranular cracking as opposed to typical transgranular cracking for specimens tested in air. For fully reversed loading (zero mean stress) the effect of mercury disappeared as frequency increased to 10 Hz. For mean stress conditions with R-ratios of 0.1 and 0.3, LME was still evident at 10 Hz, but at 700 Hz the effect of mercury had disappeared ( R = 0.1). Further, for higher R-ratios (0.5 and 0.75) fatigue curves for 10 Hz showed no environmental effect. Finally, cold working (20%) increased tensile strength and hardness, and improved fatigue resistance. Fatigue behavior at 10 and 700 Hz was similar and no environmental effect was observed.

  20. Air mercury contamination in the gold mining town of Portovelo, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    González-Carrasco, Víctor; Velasquez-Lopez, Patricio C; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Pájaro-Castro, Nerlis

    2011-09-01

    Portovelo is one of the oldest gold mining towns in Ecuador. Artisanal gold mining still uses mercury in the process of gold recovery. In this study, mercury concentrations in the air of Portovelo were evaluated. High mercury levels in the ambient were found in El Pache sector, where most gold mining processing plants are located. These varied between 2,356.7 ± 1,807.6 and 3,699.5 ± 1,225.3 ng/m(3) during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Lower levels were detected in the urban (central) area of Portovelo, with 214.6 ± 43.7 ng/m(3) in the rainy season and 574.2 ± 72.8 ng/m(3) in the dry season, exceeding the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry minimum risk level of 200 ng/m(3). Average mercury concentrations in exhaled air from miners, measured before and after amalgam burning ranged between 179-1,352 and 2,007-3,389 ng/m(3), respectively. These data suggest Portovelo air is polluted with mercury and humans are being dangerously exposed. Therefore, strong actions must be undertaken to protect human and environmental health, including changing gold recovery systems. PMID:21769613

  1. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Liang, X.-Z.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Tao, Z.

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), reactive mercury (Hg(II)), and particulate mercury (PHg). Emissions of mercury include those from human, land, ocean, biomass burning and volcano related sources. Land emissions are calculated based on surface solar radiation flux and skin temperature. A simplified air-sea mercury exchange scheme is used to calculate emissions from the oceans. The chemistry mechanism includes the oxidation of Hg(0) in gaseous phase by ozone with temperature dependence, OH, H2O2 and chlorine. Aqueous chemistry includes both oxidation and reduction of Hg(0). Transport and deposition of mercury species are calculated through adapting the original formulations in CAM-Chem. The CAM-Chem model with mercury is driven by present meteorology to simulate the present mercury air quality during the 1999-2001 periods. The resulting surface concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) are then compared with the observations from worldwide sites. Simulated wet depositions of mercury over the continental United States are compared to the observations from 26 Mercury Deposition Network stations to test the wet deposition simulations. The evaluations of gaseous concentrations and wet deposition confirm a strong capability for the CAM-Chem mercury mechanism to simulate the atmospheric mercury cycle. The results also indicate that mercury pollution in East Asia and Southern Africa is very significant with TGM concentrations above 3.0 ng m-3. The comparison to wet deposition indicates that wet deposition patterns of mercury are more

  2. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... be found in: Batteries Chemistry labs Some disinfectants Folk remedies Red cinnabar mineral Organic mercury can be ... heart tracing Fluids through a vein (by IV) Medicine to treat symptoms The type of exposure will ...

  3. Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Liang, X.-Z.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Tao, Z.

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric mercury is a toxic air and water pollutant that is of significant concern because of its effects on human health and ecosystems. A mechanistic representation of the atmospheric mercury cycle is developed for the state-of-the-art global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem (Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry). The model simulates the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) in three forms: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), reactive mercury (Hg(II)), and particulate mercury (PHg). Emissions of mercury include those from human, land, ocean, biomass burning and volcano related sources. Land emissions are calculated based on surface solar radiation flux and skin temperature. A simplified air-sea mercury exchange scheme is used to calculate emissions from the oceans. The chemistry mechanism includes the oxidation of Hg(0) in gaseous phase by ozone with temperature dependence, OH, H2O2 and chlorine. Aqueous chemistry includes both oxidation and reduction of Hg(0). Transport and deposition of mercury species are calculated through adapting the original formulations in CAM-Chem. The CAM-Chem model with mercury is driven by present meteorology to simulate the present mercury air quality during the 1999-2001 period. The resulting surface concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) are then compared with the observations from worldwide sites. Simulated wet depositions of mercury over the continental United States are compared to the observations from 26 Mercury Deposition Network stations to test the wet deposition simulations. The evaluations of gaseous concentrations and wet deposition confirm a strong capability for the CAM-Chem mercury mechanism to simulate the atmospheric mercury cycle. The general reproduction of global TGM concentrations and the overestimation on South Africa indicate that model simulations of TGM are seriously affected by emissions. The comparison to wet deposition indicates that wet deposition patterns

  4. Emissions of air-borne mercury from five municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.-G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S.-L.; Wang, S.-F.; Fu, X.-W.; Qiu, G.-L.; Shang, L.-H.

    2010-04-01

    China disposes of bulk Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by landfilling, resulting in a large quantity of mercury that enters landfills through waste. A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from MSW landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior from this source. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in Landfill Gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate increased the magnitude of mercury emissions, with the highest emission rate measured at the working face and in uncovered waste areas, and the lowest measured near soil covers and vegetated areas. Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, Monomethyl Mercury (MMHg) and Dimethyl Mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3300 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  5. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  6. STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

  7. Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mercury is an important part of the solar system puzzle, yet we know less about it than any other planet, except Pluto. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets (0.05 Earth masses) and the closest to the Sun. Its relatively high density (5.4 g cm -3) indicates that it has a large metallic core (˜3/4 of the planet's radius) compared to its silicate mantle and crust. The existence of a magnetic field implies that the metallic core is still partly molten. The surface is heavily cratered like the highlands of the Moon, but some areas are smooth and less cratered, possibly like the lunar maria (but not as dark). Its surface composition, as explained in the next section, appears to be low in FeO (only ˜3 wt.%), which implies that either its crust is anorthositic (Jeanloz et al., 1995) or its mantle is similarly low in FeO ( Robinson and Taylor, 2001).The proximity of Mercury to the Sun is particularly important. In one somewhat outmoded view of how the solar system formed, Mercury was assembled in the hottest region close to the Sun so that virtually all of the iron was in the metallic state, rather than oxidized to FeO (e.g., Lewis, 1972, 1974). If correct, Mercury ought to have relatively a low content of FeO. This hypothesis also predicts that Mercury should have high concentrations of refractory elements, such as calcium, aluminum, and thorium, and low concentrations of volatile elements, such as sodium and potassium, compared to the other terrestrial planets.Alternative hypotheses tell a much more nomadic and dramatic story of Mercury's birth. In one alternative view, wandering planetesimals that might have come from as far away as Mars or the inner asteroid belt accreted to form Mercury (Wetherill, 1994). This model predicts higher FeO and volatile elements than does the high-temperature model, and similar compositions among the terrestrial planets. The accretion process might have been accompanied by a monumental impact that stripped away much of the

  8. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P.; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R.; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ≈1.5 ng m−3 reaching a maximum of ≈3 ng m−3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ≈1.7 ng m−3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels. PMID:19805267

  9. Large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury during the 1970s revealed by polar firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, X.; Ferrari, C. P.; Dommergue, A.; Albert, M. R.; Battle, M. O.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Arnaud, L.; Barnola, J.; Cairns, W.; Barbante, C.; Boutron, C.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). GEM concentrations measured in the interstitial air of the firn (unconsolidated snow) at Summit (central Greenland) enabled reconstruction of the atmospheric history of this species in mid- to high-northern latitudes back to the twentieth century. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ~1.5 ng m-3 reaching a maximum of ~3 ng m-3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ~1.7 ng m-3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. Our results suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels.

  10. A gravimetric approach to providing SI traceability for concentration measurement results of mercury vapor at ambient air levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ent, Hugo; van Andel, Inge; Heemskerk, Maurice; van Otterloo, Peter; Bavius, Wijnand; Baldan, Annarita; Horvat, Milena; Brown, Richard J. C.; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2014-11-01

    Current measurement and calibration capabilities for mercury vapor in air are maintained at levels of 0.2-40 μg Hg m-3. In this work, a mercury vapor generator has been developed to establish metrological traceability to the international system of units (SI) for mercury vapor measurement results ≤15 ng Hg m-3, i.e. closer to realistic ambient air concentrations (1-2 ng Hg m-3) [1]. Innovations developed included a modified type of diffusion cell, a new measurement method to weigh the loss in (mercury) mass of these diffusion cells during use (ca. 6-8 μg mass difference between successive weighings), and a new housing for the diffusion cells to maximize flow characteristics and to minimize temperature variations and adsorption effects. The newly developed mercury vapor generator system was tested by using diffusion cells generating 0.8 and 16 ng Hg min-1. The results also show that the filter system, to produce mercury free air, is working properly. Furthermore, and most importantly, the system is producing a flow with a stable mercury vapor content. Some additional improvements are still required to allow the developed mercury vapor generator to produce SI traceable mercury vapor concentrations, based upon gravimetry, at much lower concentration levels and reduced measurement uncertainties than have been achieved previously. The challenges to be met are especially related to developing more robust diffusion cells and better mass measurement conditions. The developed mercury vapor generator will contribute to more reliable measurement results of mercury vapor at ambient and background air levels, and also to better safety standards and cost reductions in industrial processes, such as the liquefied natural gas field, where aluminum main cryogenic heat exchangers are used which are particularly prone to corrosion caused by mercury.

  11. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION PATTERNS OF MERCURY AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 1997, the U.S. EPA submitted the Mercury Study Report to Congress which included a regional-scale modeling assessment of the transport and deposition of U.S. air emissions of mercury. This modeling was performed with a modified version of the Regional Lagrangian Mode...

  12. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence and associations with air concentrations of lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Aisha S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A; Harrington, Rebecca A; Pettygrove, Sydney; Kirby, Russell S; Durkin, Maureen S; Han, Inkyu; Moyé, Lemuel A; Pearson, Deborah A; Wingate, Martha Slay; Zahorodny, Walter M

    2016-07-01

    Lead, mercury, and arsenic are neurotoxicants with known effects on neurodevelopment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder apparent by early childhood. Using data on 4486 children with ASD residing in 2489 census tracts in five sites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, we used multi-level negative binomial models to investigate if ambient lead, mercury, and arsenic concentrations, as measured by the US Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (EPA-NATA), were associated with ASD prevalence. In unadjusted analyses, ambient metal concentrations were negatively associated with ASD prevalence. After adjusting for confounding factors, tracts with air concentrations of lead in the highest quartile had significantly higher ASD prevalence than tracts with lead concentrations in the lowest quartile (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.36; 95 '% CI: 1.18, 1.57). In addition, tracts with mercury concentrations above the 75th percentile (>1.7 ng/m(3)) and arsenic concentrations below the 75th percentile (≤0.13 ng/m(3)) had a significantly higher ASD prevalence (adjusted RR = 1.20; 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.40) compared to tracts with arsenic, lead, and mercury concentrations below the 75th percentile. Our results suggest a possible association between ambient lead concentrations and ASD prevalence and demonstrate that exposure to multiple metals may have synergistic effects on ASD prevalence. PMID:27301968

  13. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  14. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  15. Measurement of gas-phase ionic mercury(II) species in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.J.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the important questions in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is the speciation of mercury in the atmosphere. Although a large fraction of Hg in ambient air is Hg(O), a small fraction is believed to be gas-phase Hg(II). This fraction is highly water-soluble and thus is important to explaining the high concentration of Hg in precipitation. We have developed a novel technique for measuring gas-phase Hg(II), using a high-flow refluxing mist chamber to trap the water-soluble Hg(II) in an aerosol mist. Measured concentrations of gas-phase Hg(II) in ambient air are generally in the range 0.05-0.1 ng/m{sup 3}, or 2-4% of the total gaseous Hg. In this talk, representative data under different atmospheric and geographic conditions will be presented, along with a summary of some of the experimental difficulties and unanswered questions.

  16. Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979

  17. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs), as a Novel Sorbent for Determination of Mercury in Air

    PubMed Central

    Golbabaei, Farideh; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Koohpaei, Alireza; Faghihi-Zarandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Based on the noticeable toxicity and numerous application of mercury in industries, removal of mercury vapor through sorbent is an important environmental challenge. Purpose of the Study: Due to their highly porous and hollow structure, large specific surface area, light mass density and strong interaction, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) sorbent were selected for this investigation. Methods: In this study, instrumental conditions, method procedure and different effective parameters such as adsorption efficiency, desorption capacity, time, temperature and repeatability as well as retention time of adsorbed mercury were studied and optimized. Also, mercury vapor was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). Obtained data were analyzed by Independent T- test, Multivariate linear regression and one way–ANOVA finally. Results: For 80 mg nanotubes, working range of SWCNT were achieved 0.02-0.7 μg with linear range (R2=0.994). Our data revealed that maximum absorption capacity was 0.5 μg g-1 as well as limit of detection (LOD) for studied sorbent was 0.006 μg. Also, optimum time and temperature were reported, 10 min and 250 °C respectively. Retention time of mercury on CNTs for three weeks was over 90%. Results of repeated trials indicated that the CNTs had long life, so that after 30 cycles of experiments, efficiency was determined without performance loss. Conclusion: Results showed that carbon nanotubes have high potential for efficient extraction of mercury from air and can be used for occupational and environmental purposes. The study of adsorption properties of CNTs is recommended. PMID:26925918

  18. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    limit of mercury in food. Spinach appeared to accumulate more mercury than the other four vegetables, in which the median and mean mercury content were both higher than 20 μg x kg(-1). The mercury concentrations in rape, lettuce and allium tuberosum were lower than the standard. Moreover, test results indicated that the Hg content in leafy vegetables was mainly the gaseous mercury through leaf adsorption but not the Hg particulates. This study clearly manifested that there should be a great concern on the pollution risk of both air-and soil borne mercury when cultivating leafy vegetables in long-term wastewater-irrigated area. PMID:25639114

  19. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  20. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  1. 32 CFR 700.1139 - Rules for preventing collisions, afloat and in the air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., craft and aircraft shall diligently observe the International Rules for Preventing Collisions at Sea (commonly called the COLREGS) (33 CFR chapter I), Inland Navigation Rules (33 CFR chapter I), domestic and international air traffic regulations (14 CFR chapter I), and such other rules and regulations as may...

  2. 32 CFR 700.1139 - Rules for preventing collisions, afloat and in the air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., craft and aircraft shall diligently observe the International Rules for Preventing Collisions at Sea (commonly called the COLREGS) (33 CFR chapter I), Inland Navigation Rules (33 CFR chapter I), domestic and international air traffic regulations (14 CFR chapter I), and such other rules and regulations as may...

  3. An approach estimating bidirectional air-surface exchange for gaseous elemental mercury at AMNet sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, L. Paige; Zhang, Leiming

    2015-03-01

    The bidirectional air-surface exchange for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and existing measurements of the compensation points over a variety of canopy types are reviewed. Deposition and emission of GEM are dependent on several factors such as the type of canopy, temperature, season, atmospheric GEM concentrations, and meteorological conditions, with compensation points varying between 0.5 and 33 ng m-3. Emissions tend to increase from the spring to summer seasons, as the GEM accumulates in the foliage of the vegetation. A strong dependence on solar radiation has been observed, with higher emissions under light conditions. A bidirectional air-surface exchange flux model is proposed for estimating GEM fluxes at a two-hourly time resolution for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's, Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) sites. Compared to the unidirectional dry deposition model used in Zhang et al. (2012), two additional parameters, stomatal and soil emission potential, were needed in the bidirectional model and were chosen based on knowledge gained in the literature review and model sensitivity test results. Application of this bidirectional model to AMNet sites have produced annual net deposition fluxes comparable to those estimated in Zhang et al. (2012) at the majority of the sites. In this study, the net GEM dry deposition has been estimated separately for each dominant land use type surrounding each site, and this approach is also recommended for future calculations for easy application of the results to assessments of the mercury effects on various ecosystems.

  4. JV Task 94 - Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO3, and Particulate Matter Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2007-01-31

    This final report summarizes the planning, preparation, facilitation and production, and summary of the conference entitled 'Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO{sub 3}, and Particulate Matter,' held September 18-21, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The goal of the conference was to build on the discussions of the first four Air Quality Conferences, providing further opportunity for leading representatives of industry, government, research institutions, academia, and environmental organizations to discuss the key interrelationships between policy and science shaping near-term regulations and controls and to assist in moving forward on emerging issues that will lead to acceptable programs and policies to protect human health, the environment, and economic growth. The conference was extremely timely, as it was the last large conference prior to publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations for mercury control from coal-fired utilities, and provided a forum to realistically assess the status of mercury controls in relation to the new regulations.

  5. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories. PMID:20713298

  6. A Mathematical Analysis of Air Traffic Priority Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes priority rules, such as those in Part 91.113 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. Such rules determine which of two aircraft should maneuver in a given conflict scenario. While the rules in 91.113 are well accepted, other concepts of operation for NextGen, such as self separation, may allow for different priority rules. A mathematical framework is presented that can be used to analyze a general set of priority rules and enables proofs of important properties. Specific properties considered in this paper include safety, effectiveness, and stability. A set of rules is said to be safe if it ensures that it is never the case that both aircraft have priority. They are effective if exactly one aircraft has priority in every situation. Finally, a set of rules is called stable if it produces compatible results even under small changes to input data.

  7. MERCURY AND AIR TOXIC ELEMENT IMPACTS OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    2003-07-01

    On April 3, 2003, a project kickoff meeting was held at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. As a result of this meeting and follow-up communications, a final work plan was developed, and a schedule of laboratory tasks was developed. Work for the remainder of the second quarter of this project focused on sample collection, initiating laboratory tests, and performing literature searchers. The final project partner, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, signed its contract for participation in the project. This effort will focus on the evaluation of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) for their potential to release mercury and other air toxic elements under different controlled laboratory conditions and will investigate the release of these same air toxic elements in select disposal and utilization field settings to understand the impact of various emission control technologies. The information collected will be evaluated and interpreted together with past Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data and similar data from other studies. Results will be used to determine if mercury release from CCBs, both as currently produced and produced with mercury and other emission controls in place, is a realistic environmental issue. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxics on the disposal and/or utilization of CCBs. The project will provide data on the environmental acceptability of CCBs expected to be produced in systems with emission controls for typical disposal and utilization scenarios. The project will develop baseline information on release mechanisms of select elements in both conventional CCBs and modified or experimental CCBs. The modified or experimental CCBs will be selected to represent CCBs from systems that have improved emission controls. Controlling these emissions has high potential to change the chemical characteristics and environmental performance of CCBs. Development of reliable

  8. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  9. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality; Proposed Rule DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-04-05

    ... September 20, 1991, a Request for Information (RFI) (56 FR 47892) on indoor air quality problems, in order... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, 1926, and 1928 Indoor Air Quality..., 1926, 1928 RIN 1218-AB37 Indoor Air Quality AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration...

  10. 78 FR 57527 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...The NTSB finalizes its amendments to portions of its rules of practice for the NTSB's review of certificate actions taken by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), as a result of the enactment of the Pilot's Bill of...

  11. High Mercury Wet Deposition at a "Clean Air" Site in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Shanley, James B; Engle, Mark A; Scholl, Martha; Krabbenhoft, David P; Brunette, Robert; Olson, Mark L; Conroy, Mary E

    2015-10-20

    Atmospheric mercury deposition measurements are rare in tropical latitudes. Here we report on seven years (April 2005 to April 2012, with gaps) of wet Hg deposition measurements at a tropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, U.S. Despite receiving unpolluted air off the Atlantic Ocean from northeasterly trade winds, during two complete years the site averaged 27.9 μg m(-2) yr(-1) wet Hg deposition, or about 30% more than Florida and the Gulf Coast, the highest deposition areas within the U.S. These high Hg deposition rates are driven in part by high rainfall, which averaged 2855 mm yr(-1). The volume-weighted mean Hg concentration was 9.8 ng L(-1), and was highest during summer and lowest during the winter dry season. Rainout of Hg (decreasing concentration with increasing rainfall depth) was minimal. The high Hg deposition was not supported by gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) at ground level, which remained near global background concentrations (<10 pg m(-3)). Rather, a strong positive correlation between Hg concentrations and the maximum height of rain detected within clouds (echo tops) suggests that droplets in high convective cloud tops scavenge GOM from above the mixing layer. The high wet Hg deposition at this "clean air" site suggests that other tropical areas may be hotspots for Hg deposition as well. PMID:26368125

  12. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF CHLORINE ON MERCURY OXIDATION IN A PILOT-SCALE COAL COMBUSTION--THE EFFECT OF COAL BLENDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants are a major source of mercury (Hg) released into the environment and the utility industry is currently investigating options to reduce Hg emissions. The EPA Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) depends heavily on the co-benefit of mercury removal by existing and ...

  13. MODELING PROCESSES CONTROLLING MERCURY FATE IN WATERSHEDS RECEIVING ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION - COMPARISON OF FIELD SCALE GLEAMS AND WATERSHED SCALE WCS-GBMM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term simulations of mercury fate in watersheds are needed to support regulations such as TMDLs and to predict the effectiveness of regulatory proposals, such as the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). Scientific uncertainties in mercury fate process descriptions combined with in...

  14. Air-soil exchange of mercury from background soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, J A; Gustin, M S; Xin, M; Weisberg, P J; Fernandez, G C J

    2006-08-01

    The air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured, using a dynamic polycarbonate flux chamber, for soils with low or "background" Hg concentrations (<0.1 mg/kg) at eleven locations across the contiguous United States. Sampling locations included agricultural, desert, grassland, mixed and pine forest ecosystems (n=1326 soil flux measurements at 46 individual sites). An overall soil Hg flux of 0.9+/-0.2 ng/m2/h for these background soils was obtained by averaging the means for the different locations. Soil Hg fluxes were significantly lower in dark conditions than in the light for all but the grassland sites. Mean inlet air Hg concentrations were 1.0+/-0.1 ng/m3 in the dark and 1.3+/-0.2 ng/m3 in the light. Soil temperature inside and outside of the chamber, air temperature, relative humidity, and irradiance were measured concurrently with soil Hg flux. Soil-air Hg exchange was weakly predicted by environmental variables (R2 from 0.07 to 0.52). For a single location, flux was better correlated with soil moisture than other measured environmental parameters, suggesting that soil moisture might be an important driver for Hg emissions from background soils. In addition, based on data collected we suggest some quality control measures for use of Tekran 2537A analyzers when measuring low mercury fluxes. Using basic scaling procedures, we roughly estimate that natural emissions from soils in the contiguous U.S. release approximately 100 Mg/yr of Hg to the atmosphere. PMID:16181661

  15. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation. 221.61 Section 221.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.61 Rules and...

  16. 76 FR 49391 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Rules Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... disapprove the state's request to remove the Minneapolis/ St. Paul vehicle inspection and maintenance program... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Rules... Minnesota's rules in the SIP. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) submitted the SIP revision...

  17. 78 FR 57602 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... (FR), is available for inspection and copying in the NTSB's public reading room, located at 490 L..., 2012, the NTSB published an interim final rule to implement the new legislation's requirements, 77 FR... proposed amendment will require the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide releasable portions...

  18. 78 FR 63438 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... cases. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published September 19, 2013, at 78 FR 57602, is... Federal Register (FR), is available for inspection and copying in the NTSB's public reading room, located... sections of 49 CFR part 821, as a result of the Pilot's Bill of Rights. 78 FR 57602 (NPRM); 78 FR...

  19. Non discrimination on the basis of disability in air travel. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    The Department of Transportation (DOT or Department) is amending its rules implementing the Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 (ACAA) and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to require airports and air carriers to provide boarding assistance to individuals with disabilities by using ramps, mechanical lifts, or other suitable devices where level-entry boarding by loading bridge or mobile lounge is not available on any aircraft with a seating capacity of 31 or more passengers. This final rule parallels the 1996 final rule for aircraft with a seating capacity of 19 through 30 passengers PMID:11712566

  20. Explorative and innovative dynamic flux bag method development and testing for mercury air-vegetation gas exchange fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong H.; Poissant, Laurier; Xu, Xiaohong; Pilote, Martin

    An intensive field study quantifying total gaseous mercury (TGM) and mercury speciation fluxes in a wetland ecosystem (Bay St. François wetlands, Québec, Canada) was conducted in summer 2003. This study is one of the first attempts to design and develop an innovative approach—dynamic flux bag (DFB) technique to measure in situ mercury air-vegetation exchange with a monoculture of river bulrush (S cirpus fluviatilis). Air-vegetation flux measurements were conducted under dry condition at site 1 and flood condition at site 2. TGM fluxes fluctuated from -0.91 to 0.64 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h with an average value of -0.26±0.28 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h at site 1 and ranged from -0.98 to 0.08 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h with a mean flux of -0.33±0.24 ng/m 2 (leaf area)/h at site 2 (positive sign means volatilization, and negative sign indicates deposition). The data indicated that TGM air-vegetation exchange is bidirectional. However, the net flux is primarily featured by dry deposition of TGM from atmosphere to the vegetation. In mercury speciation study using the DFB approach, particulate mercury (PM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) represented less than 1% of total mercury. Ambient ozone concentrations had significant influences on RGM concentrations ( r=0.54, p<0.05), implicating oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) by ozone to form RGM. A discussion about the similarities and discrepancies between the DFB and other approaches (dynamic flux chamber and modified Bowen ratio) is presented. During the course of this study, some operational effects associated with the bag design, mainly the emergence of condensation within the bag, were encountered. Several improvements relating to the DFB design were recommended. Upon improvement, the DFB method could be one of the most promising techniques to study the role of a single plant in air-vegetation exchange of mercury.

  1. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  2. Atlantic mercury emission determined from continuous analysis of the elemental mercury sea-air concentration difference within transects between 50°N and 50°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, J.; Zülicke, C.; Pohl, C.; Schneider, B.

    2011-09-01

    Mercury in the environment deserves serious concern because of the mobility of volatile elemental mercury (Hg0) in the atmosphere, in combination with the harmful effect of Hg compounds on human health and the ecosystem. A major source of global atmospheric mercury is presumed to be oceanic Hg0 emission. However, available Hg0 surface water data to reliably estimate the ocean's mercury emissions are sparse. In this study, high-resolution surface water and air measurements of Hg0 were carried out between Europe and South Africa in November 2008 and between South America and Europe in April-May 2009. On each cruise a strong enrichment of Hg0 in tropical surface water was determined that apparently followed the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A combination of a high Hg0 production rate constant and the actual low wind speeds, which prevented emission, probably caused the accumulation of Hg0 in surface waters of the ITCZ. Hg0 emissions in the tropics were significant only if wind speed variability on a monthly scale was considered, in which case the observed significant decline of total Hg in tropical surface waters during the northern winter could be explained. In the midlatitudes, increased autumn Hg0 emissions were calculated for November in the Northern Hemisphere and for May in the Southern Hemisphere; conversely, emissions were low during both the northern and the southern spring. Mercury removal from surface waters by Hg0 emission and sinking particles was comparable to its supply through wet and dry deposition.

  3. Sea-air partitioning of mercury in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.P.; Fitzgerald, W.F.

    1986-03-07

    The partitioning of gaseous mercury between the atmosphere and surface waters was determined in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The highest concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury occurred in cooler, nutrient-rich waters that characterize equatorial upwelling and increased biological productivity at the sea surface. The surface waters were supersaturated with respect to elemental mercury; a significant flux of elemental mercury to the atmosphere is predicted for the equatorial Pacific. When normalized to primary production on a global basis, the ocean effluxes of mercury may rival anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere. 23 references, 2 figures.

  4. Thermodynamic study of air-cycle and mercury-vapor-cycle systems for refrigerating cooling air for turbines or other components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtigall, Alfred J; Freche, John C; Esgar, Jack B

    1956-01-01

    An analysis of air refrigeration systems indicated that air cycles are generally less satisfactory than simple heat exchangers unless high component efficiencies and high values of heat-exchanger effectiveness can be obtained. A system employing a mercury-vapor cycle appears to be feasible for refrigerating air that must enter the system at temperature levels of approximately 1500 degrees R, and this cycle is more efficient than the air cycle. Weight of the systems was not considered. The analysis of the systems is presented in a generalized dimensionless form.

  5. Mercury and air toxic element impacts of coal combustion by-product disposal and utilization. Final report (for the period January 23, 2003 - December 31, 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.

    2007-10-15

    The air toxic elements (ATEs) evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with activated carbon (AC) used for mercury emission control and, therefore present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls. Field experiments vapor-phase releases at a CCB disposal site. Results indicated low-level vapor-phase mercury releases, as was generally noted in laboratory experiments for lignite fly ash samples. Laboratory methods were developed to evaluate the potential for mercury releases under several release mechanicals. 48 refs., 21 figs., 76 tabs., 21 apps.

  6. Human - Ecosystem Interactions: The Case of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human and ecosystem exposure studies evaluate exposure of sensitive and vulnerable populations. We will discuss how ecosystem exposure modeling studies completed for input into the US Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to evaluate the response of aquatic ecosystems to changes in mercu...

  7. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjie; Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-05-01

    Two oceanographic cruises were carried out in the East China Sea (ECS) during the summer and fall of 2013. The main objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater, and then to estimate the Hg(0) flux. The GEM concentration was lower in summer (1.61 ± 0.32 ng m(-3)) than in fall (2.20 ± 0.58 ng m(-3)). The back-trajectory analysis revealed that the air masses with high GEM levels during fall largely originated from the land, while the air masses with low GEM levels during summer primarily originated from ocean. The spatial distribution patterns of total Hg (THg), fluorescence, and turbidity were consistent with the pattern of DGM with high levels in the nearshore area and low levels in the open sea. Additionally, the levels of percentage of DGM to THg (%DGM) were higher in the open sea than in the nearshore area, which was consistent with the previous studies. The THg concentration in fall was higher (1.47 ± 0.51 ng l(-1)) than those of other open oceans. The DGM concentration (60.1 ± 17.6 pg l(-1)) and Hg(0) flux (4.6 ± 3.6 ng m(-2) h(-1)) in summer were higher than those in fall (DGM: 49.6 ± 12.5 pg l(-1) and Hg(0) flux: 3.6 ± 2.8 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The emission flux of Hg(0) from the ECS was estimated to be 27.6 tons yr(-1), accounting for ∼0.98% of the global Hg oceanic evasion though the ECS only accounts for ∼0.21% of global ocean area, indicating that the ECS plays an important role in the oceanic Hg cycle. PMID:26975003

  8. 75 FR 72956 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., 2005 (70 FR 25162). In that rule, EPA determined that 28 States and the District of Columbia contribute... interstate transport for ozone and PM 2.5 . On April 25, 2005 (70 FR 21147), EPA made national findings that... for that pollutant. Further, as provided in a rule published by EPA on November 2, 2007 (72 FR...

  9. Mercury emission from terrestrial background surfaces in the eastern USA. Part I: Air/surface exchange of mercury within a southeastern deciduous forest (Tennessee) over one year

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Todd; Zhang, Hong; Gustin, Mae S.; Lindberg, Steven Eric

    2008-03-01

    This study focused on the development of a seasonal data set of the Hg air/surface exchange over soils associated with low Hg containing surfaces in a deciduous forest in the southern USA. Data were collected every month for 11 months in 2004 within Standing Stone State Forest in Tennessee using the dynamic flux chamber method. Mercury air/surface exchange associated with the litter covered forest floor was very low with the annual mean daytime flux being 0.4 0.5 ng m-2 h-1 (n = 301). The daytime Hg air/surface exchange over the year oscillated between emission (81% of samples with positive flux) and deposition (19% of samples with negative flux). A seasonal trend of lower emission in the spring and summer (closed canopy) relative to the fall and winter (open canopy) was observed. Correlations were found between the air/surface exchange and certain environmental factors on specific days sampled but not collectively over the entire year. The very low magnitude of Hg air/surface exchange as observed in this study suggests that an improved methodology for determining and reporting emission fluxes is needed when the values of fluxes and chamber blanks are both very low and comparable. This study raises questions and points to a need for more research regarding how to scale the Hg air/surface exchange for surfaces with very low emissions.

  10. Application of a Rule-Based Model to Estimate Mercury Exchange for Three Background Biomes in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Jelena S.; Weisberg, Peter J; Pillai, Rekha; Ericksen, Joey A.; Gustin, Mae S.; Kuiken, Todd; Zhang, Hong; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Rytuba, J. J.

    2009-07-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impacted by geologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg.

  11. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, J.S.; Weisberg, P.J.; Pillai, R.; Ericksen, J.A.; Kuiken, T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Zhang, H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impactedbygeologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS - Part 2: Mercury and its speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, K.; Dastoor, A. P.; Ryzhkov, A.

    2013-08-01

    allowing the former reaction to occur in the model. Similarly to ozone (reported in the companion paper), GEM is destroyed via bromine radical chemistry more vigorously in the snowpack interstitial air than in the ambient air. However, the impact of such in-snow sink of GEM is found to be often masked by the re-emissions of GEM from the snow following the photo-reduction of Hg(II) deposited from the atmosphere. Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) formed in the ambient air is found to undergo fast "dry deposition" to the snowpack by being trapped on the snow grains in the top ~ 1 mm layer. We hypothesize that liquid-like layers on the surface of snow grains are connected to create a network throughout the snowpack, thereby facilitating the vertical diffusion of trace constituents trapped on the snow grains at much greater rates than one would expect inside solid ice crystals. Nonetheless, on the timescale of a week simulated in this study, the signal of atmospheric deposition does not extend notably below the top few centimeters of the snowpack. We propose and show that particulate-bound mercury (PBM) is produced mainly as HgBr42- by taking up GOM into bromide-enriched aerosols after ozone is significantly depleted in the air mass. In the Arctic, "haze" aerosols may thus retain PBM in ozone-depleted air masses, allowing the airborne transport of oxidized mercury from the area of its production farther than in the form of GOM. Temperature dependence of thermodynamic constants calculated in this study for Henry's law and aqueous-phase halide complex formation of Hg(II) species is a critical factor for this proposition, calling for experimental verification. The proposed mechanism may explain a major part of changes in the GOM-PBM partitioning with seasons, air temperature and the concurrent progress of ozone depletion as observed in the high Arctic. The net deposition of mercury to the surface snow is shown to increase with the thickness of the turbulent ABL and to correspond well

  13. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS - Part 2: Mercury and its speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, K.; Dastoor, A. P.; Ryzhkov, A.

    2014-04-01

    observed during AMDEs/ODEs by including the reaction HgBr + BrO and assuming its rate constant to be the same as for the reaction HgBr + Br, while for other combinations the results are more realistic by neglecting the reaction HgBr + BrO. Speciation of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) changes significantly depending on whether or not BrO is assumed to react with HgBr to form Hg(OBr)Br. Similarly to ozone (reported in Part 1), GEM is depleted via bromine radical chemistry more vigorously in the snowpack interstitial air than in the ambient air. However, the impact of such in-snow sink of GEM is found to be often masked by the re-emissions of GEM from the snow following the photo-reduction of Hg(II) deposited from the atmosphere. GOM formed in the ambient air is found to undergo fast "dry deposition" to the snowpack by being trapped on the snow grains in the top ~1 mm layer. We hypothesize that liquid-like layers on the surface of snow grains are connected to create a network throughout the snowpack, thereby facilitating the vertical diffusion of trace constituents trapped on the snow grains at much greater rates than one would expect inside solid ice crystals. Nonetheless, on the timescale of a week simulated in this study, the signal of atmospheric deposition does not extend notably below the top 1 cm of the snowpack. We propose and show that particulate-bound mercury (PBM) is produced mainly as HgBr42- by taking up GOM into bromide-enriched aerosols after ozone is significantly depleted in the air mass. In the Arctic, "haze" aerosols may thus retain PBM in ozone-depleted air masses, allowing the airborne transport of oxidized mercury from the area of its production farther than in the form of GOM. Temperature dependence of thermodynamic constants calculated in this study for Henry's law and aqueous-phase halide complex formation of Hg(II) species is a critical factor for this proposition, calling for experimental verification. The proposed mechanism may explain observed

  14. Mercury in the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Lyon, W. S.; Shults, W. D.; Wallace, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems in assessing mercury concentrations in environmental materials are discussed. Data for situations involving air, water, rocks, soils, sediments, sludges, fossil fuels, plants, animals, foods, and man are drawn together and briefly evaluated. Details are provided regarding the toxicity of mercury along with tentative standards and guidelines for mercury in air, drinking water, and food.

  15. Respiratory tract retention of inhaled air pollutants: report 1: mercury absorption by inhaling through the nose and expiring through the mouth at various concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuo, O.; Saito, H.; Kifune, I.; Ohshina, T.; Fujii, M.; Takizawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    To study atmospheric mercury absorption in human respiratory passage-ways, mercury in expired air was measured in three different states of breathing: steady breathing, deep breathing and breath held after inspiration. In this study, air containing mercury was inhaled through the nose and expired through the mouth. The concentration of mercury in the exhaled air was determined by the technique of gold-amalgam trapping, heat vaporization, and flameless atomic absorption measurement. The subjects were 13 male adults, aged 25-62 years, and 38 cases were observed. Four different concentrations of mercury, 1-3, 4-6, 10-11, and 20-30 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ were used, and absorption for each was determined, when the concentration was 1-3 ..mu../m/sup 3/, the absorption was 74-92%, the average being 82.5%. At concentrations of 4-6, 10-11, and 20-30 ..mu../m/sup 3/, the absorption was 76.6-100%, 75.5-99.2%, 70.9-95.9% respectively, and the average was 88.8%, 85.2%, and 87.7% respectively. A slightly higher rate of mercury absorption was observed in deep breathing than in steady breathing, and when expiration was suppressed for some time after inspiration, the rate increased remarkably to 97.4-99.7%. Prolonged retention of inhaled air containing mercury in the respiratory tract is believed to have caused the increased absorption.

  16. 76 FR 64010 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... to Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act (76 FR 30782). In... section 307(d). (See 76 FR 30782: ``The Administrator determined that this action is subject to the... for the data. (See 76 FR 30782, 30784, 30815 (May 26, 2011); see also 75 FR 39094, 39098,...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  19. Total gaseous mercury exchange between water and air during cloudy weather conditions over Hongfeng Reservoir, Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinbin; Wang, Shaofeng; Qiu, Guangle; He, Tianrong; Li, Guanghui; Li, Zhonggen; Shang, Lihai

    2008-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) exchange fluxes between air and water surface were measured using a dynamic flux chamber (DFC) coupled with a gaseous mercury analyzer at two sampling sites of Hongfeng reservoir in cloudy and rainy weather conditions. The concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in water were also measured and indicated that DGM was supersaturated at most time during the sampling periods, which implied that the water body acted primarily as a source of mercury to the atmosphere. In general, TGM fluxes displayed a consistent diurnal pattern with peak fluxes at noon and minimum levels at early morning or night. However, this diurnal pattern was not clear when the weather was heavily cloudy and rainy with the maximum solar radiation of less than 140 W m-2. At this specific weather condition, a significantly positive correlation between TGM flux and relative humidity was observed. The behaviors of TGM flux over Hongfeng reservoir observed at cloudy weather conditions were some what different from those observed during mostly sunny weather conditions in Northern America and Europe. The empirical model developed based on the correlation between TGM flux and solar radiation during sunny days in Northern America was not applicable for estimation of TGM flux at cloudy and rainy weather conditions.

  20. PILOT STUDY LINKING AIR AND WATER MODELS FOR MERCURY IN THE EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the Everglades Pilot Study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of linking atmospheric and aquatic system models to calculate an atmospherically-driven total maximum daily load (TMDL) for mercury, given the current state of knowledge of mercury cycling in t...

  1. Mercury in the Air, Water and Biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. Sources of Hg to the lake are the watershed and the atmosphere, and we hypothesized that the chemistry of the air above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg0) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface. We found that atmospheric Hg0 and RGM concentrations were comparable to global ambient background values and those measured in rural areas (respectively). Both Hg0 and RGM exhibited regular diel variability, and no consistent seasonal periods of depleted or elevated values were observed. Based on these findings, local factors are thought to be important in generating elevated RGM concentrations that could be deposited to the lake. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm sec-1, with an estimated 19 kg of Hg deposited annually. Total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters of the lake were consistent throughout the year (3.8 ± 0.8 ng L- 1 and 0.93 ± 0.59 ng L-1, respectively) and not significantly elevated relative to natural waters; however, the percent methyl Hg to total Hg was high (25 to 50%). Brine shrimp Hg concentrations were 384 ppb and had a statistically significant increase from early summer to fall. Based on modeled dry deposition and estimated wet deposition, the

  2. Development of a particle-trap preconcentration-soft ionization mass spectrometric technique for the quantification of mercury halides in air.

    PubMed

    Deeds, Daniel A; Ghoshdastidar, Avik; Raofie, Farhad; Guérette, Élise-Andrée; Tessier, Alain; Ariya, Parisa A

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of oxidized mercury, Hg(II), in the atmosphere poses a significant analytical challenge as Hg(II) is present at ultra-trace concentrations (picograms per cubic meter air). Current technologies are sufficiently sensitive to measure the total Hg present as Hg(II) but cannot determine the chemical speciation of Hg(II). We detail here the development of a soft ionization mass spectrometric technique coupled with preconcentration onto nano- or microparticle-based traps prior to analysis for the measurement of mercury halides in air. The current methodology has comparable detection limits (4-11 pg m(-3)) to previously developed techniques for the measurement of total inorganic mercury in air while allowing for the identification of HgX2 in collected samples. Both mercury chloride and mercury bromide have been sporadically detected in Montreal urban and indoor air using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). We discuss limitations and advantages of the current technique and discuss potential avenues for future research including quantitative trace measurements of a larger range of mercury compounds. PMID:25837315

  3. 3 CFR - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... substantially reducing emissions of pollutants that contribute to neurological damage, cancer, respiratory... Executive Order 13563, this process should be designed to “promote predictability and reduce...

  4. THE ROLE OF AQUEOUS THIN FILM EVAPORATIVE COOLING ON RATES OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR-WATER EXCHANGE UNDER TEMPERATURE DISEQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical conununity has only recently addressed the role of atmospheric temperature variations on rates of air-water vapor phase toxicant exchange. The technical literature has documented that: 1) day time rates of elemental mercury vapor phase air-water exchange can exceed ...

  5. Made in the U.S.A. Power plants and mercury pollution across the country

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    2005-09-15

    The report analyzes the most recent EPA data on mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants in the USA. Key findings include: Power plants in the US collectively emitted 90,108 pounds of mercury into the air in 2003. Texas, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Alabama were the states with the most mercury air emissions from power plants in 2003. Counties with the highest mercury air emissions from power plants were concentrated in states in the Gulf Coast, Midwest, and Mid-Atlantic regions. More than half of the top 50 counties with the highest mercury air emissions were located in just seven states: Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. In the top county, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, power plant mercury emissions totalled 1,527 pounds in 2003. The author advocates that, rather than let many of the nation's power plants continue to emit or even increase their mercury emissions, the Bush administration should protect public health by rewriting its mercury rules to ensure the maximum, timely reductions in power plant mercury pollution that the law requires. 112 refs., 5 tabs., 4 apps.

  6. Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, Jody; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2006-07-01

    Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg (0.013 mg/kg) amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing -10% coal ash (0.070 mg/kg Hg), a mixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes (0.075 mg/kg Hg), a subbituminous coal ash containing -10% petroleum coke ash (1.2 mg/kg Hg), and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, -0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, -20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O3 concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m2 day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m2 day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m2 day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m2 day. Simple analytical tests (i.e., total Hg content, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, heating, and indoor gas-exchange experiments) were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from (intact and disturbed) substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. PMID:16878589

  7. Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin

    2006-07-15

    Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  9. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  10. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions. (a... maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the Indian... part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established under section...

  11. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  12. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  13. Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Mercury in China: New Evidence for Sources and Transformation Processes in Air and in Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ben; Fu, Xuewu; Yin, Runsheng; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Wu, Chuansheng; Zhang, Yiping; He, Nannan; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Shang, Lihai; Sommar, Jonas; Sonke, Jeroen E; Maurice, Laurence; Guinot, Benjamin; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) and mercury (Hg) in litterfall samples have been determined at urban/industrialized and rural sites distributed over mainland China for identifying Hg sources and transformation processes. TGM and PBM near anthropogenic emission sources display negative δ(202)Hg and near-zero Δ(199)Hg in contrast to relatively positive δ(202)Hg and negative Δ(199)Hg observed in remote regions, suggesting that different sources and atmospheric processes force the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) in the air samples. Both MDF and MIF occur during the uptake of atmospheric Hg by plants, resulting in negative δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg observed in litter-bound Hg. The linear regression resulting from the scatter plot relating the δ(202)Hg to Δ(199)Hg data in the TGM samples indicates distinct anthropogenic or natural influences at the three study sites. A similar trend was also observed for Hg accumulated in broadleaved deciduous forest foliage grown in areas influenced by anthropogenic emissions. The relatively negative MIF in litter-bound Hg compared to TGM is likely a result of the photochemical reactions of Hg(2+) in foliage. This study demonstrates the diagnostic stable Hg isotopic composition characteristics for separating atmospheric Hg of different source origins in China and provides the isotopic fractionation clues for the study of Hg bioaccumulation. PMID:27485289

  14. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  15. EPA/ORD WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY. OPENING & CLOSING REMARKS AND OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mercury Monitoring Workshop was developed because mercury contamination, both nationally and internationally, has long been recognized as a growing problem for both humans and ecosystems. Mercury is released to the environment from a variety of human (anthropogenic) sources i...

  16. Multi-scale Air-Watershed Assessment of Mercury Transport and Fate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, L.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-spatial scale assessment of the atmospheric transport and fate of environmental mercury was carried out for a regional-scale watershed in the American southwest. The assessment evaluated changes in anthropogenic emissions from local, regional, and global sources over a 90-year period and the consequent changes in fish tissue mercury in the river system of the watershed. Alternate future scenarios of growth in Asian emissions, as well as chages in their speciation, were simulated in a "tagged-source" atmospheric model. Contributions to the watershed loading of mercury included local discharge sources as well as the more dominant atmospheric deposition. Intra-regional differences in deposition patterns tracked elevation-driven differences in precipitation more closely than proximity to such local sources as coal-fired power plants. Simulations were initiated for model year 1986 to allow watershed accumulation of mercury during a "spin-up" period to the present. Future emissions scenarios incorporated published data on trend ranges for non-U.S.source areas and step changes in local and regional emissions due to regulatory deadlines or operational changes planned. Results indicate that the influence of local sources on fish-tissue mercury trends is secondary to that of distant sources of greater magnitude.

  17. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  18. HUMAN-ECOSYSTEM INTERACTIONS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human and ecosystem exposure studies evaluate exposure of sensitive and vulnerable populations. We will discuss how ecosystem exposure modeling studies completed for input into the US Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to evaluate the response of aquatic ecosystems to changes in mercu...

  19. Circumpolar transport and air-surface exchange of atmospheric mercury at Ny-Ålesund (79° N), Svalbard, spring 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommar, J.; Wängberg, I.; Berg, T.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Munthe, J.; Richter, A.; Urba, A.; Wittrock, F.; Schroeder, W. H.

    2004-03-01

    Mercury in different environmental compartments has been measured at Ny-Ålesund (78°54' N, 11°53' E) during an intensive campaign, 17 April to 14 May 2002. Time-resolved speciated determination of mercury in the atmosphere and snow was conducted at the Norwegian research station at the Zeppelin mountain, 474 m above the sea level, and at the Italian research facility Dirigibile Italia, 12 m above the sea level. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) was present in the range <0.1 to 2.2 ng m-3 during the campaign. Three mercury depletion events, identified as periods with decreased TGM concentrations, were observed. At the lower altitude, TGM concentrations following such events were found to exhibit both higher magnitude and larger variability in comparison to results from the Zeppelin station. Oxidised mercury species in air and fall-out with snow as well as mercury attached to particles were also measured and their concentrations were found to be anti-correlated with TGM in air. The strongest modulation was observed for total mercury concentration (Hg-tot) in snow (range 1.5-76.5 ng L-1). Solid evidence for photo-stimulated emissions of Hg0(g) from the snow pack in conjunction to depletion events were obtained from gradient measurements as well as from flux chamber measurements. Steep diurnal concentration variations of Hg0(aq) in surface seawater were also found to concur with changing solar radiation. The concentration of Hg0(aq) in seawater was found to be in the range 12.2-70.4 pg L-1, which corresponds to supersaturation. Hence, the seawater surface constituted a source emitting elemental mercury. The concentrations of the transient mercury forms RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury) and PM (Particulate Mercury) respectively and BrO column densities detected using a zenith and off-axis sky viewing DOAS instrument were very low except for a few individual samples during the major depletion event. An evaluation of trajectories for selected events and comparisons with Br

  20. Processes and sources controlling total gaseous mercury and uraban air quality in Syracuse, NY and Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Casey B.

    Investigations of air quality were performed in Nanjing, China during 2011 and Syracuse, NY during 2013. The regional background of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) was estimated at 2.2 ng m-3. Global heterogeneity of free tropospheric TGM was hypothesized from background episodes. Emissions of TGM were underestimated up to 80% in the region. Additionally, high levels of TGM were attributed to local sources, transport, and the monsoon. An air quality station measuring CO, CO2, TGM, and O 3 was built on the campus of SUNY ESF. The one hour peak mixing ratios of CO were estimated to have declined by 59% over 2000- 2013, more than EPA estimated 53%. Regional transport of O3 increased peak mixing ratios. TGM was influenced by local sources. Finally, Lake Ontario is hypothesized to facilitate transport of trace gas species based on the diel cycles of TGM, CO, and H2O.

  1. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    DOEpatents

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  2. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME METALS AS AIR POLLUTANTS. PART II. MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was undertaken in order to elucidate the association between low atmospheric mercury levels and changes in some biological parameters likely to react to such exposures. The study covered four populations believed to be exposed to four different levels of atmospheric mer...

  3. New methodology to determine air quality in urban areas based on runs rules for functional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, J.; Martínez, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Taboada, J.; Piñeiro, J. I.; García-Nieto, P. J.

    2014-02-01

    Functional data appear in a multitude of industrial applications and processes. However, in many cases at present, such data continue to be studied from the conventional standpoint based on Statistical Process Control (SPC), losing the capacity of analysing different aspects over the time. In this study, the well-known runs rules for Shewhart Type Control Charts are adapted to the case of functional data. Also, in the application of this functional approach, a number of advantages over the classical one are described. Furthermore, the results of applying this new methodology are analysed to determine the air quality of urban areas from the gas emissions at different weather stations.

  4. Circumpolar transport and air-surface exchange of atmospheric mercury at Ny-Ålesund (79° N), Svalbard, spring 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommar, J.; Wängberg, I.; Berg, T.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Munthe, J.; Richter, A.; Urba, A.; Wittrock, F.; Schroeder, W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury in different environmental compartments has been measured at Ny-Ålesund (78°54' N, 11°53' E) during an intensive campaign, 17 April to 14 May 2002. Time-resolved speciated determination of mercury in the atmosphere and snow was conducted at the Norwegian research station at the Zeppelin mountain, 474 m above the sea level, and at the Italian research facility Dirigibile Italia, 12 m above the sea level. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) was present in the range <0.1 to 2.2 ng m-3 during the campaign. Three mercury depletion events, identified as periods with decreased TGM concentrations, were observed. At the lower altitude, TGM concentrations following such events were found to exhibit both higher magnitude and larger variability in comparison to results from the Zeppelin station. Oxidised mercury species in air and fall-out with snow as well as mercury attached to particles were also measured and their concentrations were found to be anti-correlated with TGM in air. concentrations of total Hg in snow (Hg-tot) showed a large (~15×) increase in response to Gaseous Elemental Mercury Depletion Events (GEMDEs, range 1.5-76.5 ng L-1). Solid evidence for photo-stimulated emissions of Hg0(g) from the snow pack in conjunction to depletion events were obtained from gradient measurements as well as from flux chamber measurements. Steep diurnal concentration variations of Hg0(aq) in surface seawater were also found to concur with changing solar radiation. The concentration of Hg0(aq) in seawater was found to be in the range 12.2-70.4 pg L-1, which corresponds to supersaturation. Hence, the seawater surface constituted a source emitting elemental mercury. The concentrations of RGM (reactive gaseous mercury), Hg-p (particulate mercury), and BrO column densities (detected by DOAS) were very low except for a few individual samples during the major Hg0 depletion event. BrO vertical column densities obtained by the remote satellite ESR-2 and trajectory analysis indicate

  5. 77 FR 6760 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings; Rules Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... concerning the NTSB procedural rules codified at 49 CFR parts 821 and 826. 75 FR 80452. The NTSB specifically... (published on July 11, 2000 (64 FR 42637), initially implementing section 716 of the Act) resulting in the adoption, in the Final Rule (published on April 29, 2003 (68 FR 22623)), of the standard of review found...

  6. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  7. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmüller, H.; Faïn, X.; Moore, C.

    2013-06-01

    We describe further development of a previous laboratory prototype pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) sensor into a field-deployable system for high-time-resolution, continuous, and automated measurement of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations in ambient air. We employed an external, isotopically enriched Hg cell for automated locking and stabilization of the laser wavelength on the GEM peak absorption during measurements. Further, we describe implementation of differential absorption measurements via a piezoelectric tuning element for pulse-by-pulse tuning of the laser wavelength onto and off of the GEM absorption line. This allowed us to continuously correct (at 25 Hz) for system baseline extinction losses unrelated to GEM absorption. Extensive measurement and calibration data obtained with the system were based on spike addition in both GEM-free air and ambient air. Challenges and interferences that occurred during measurements (particularly in ambient air) are discussed including temperature and ozone (O3) concentration fluctuations, and steps taken to reduce these. CRDS data were highly linear (r2 ≥ 0.98) with data from a commercial Tekran 2537 Hg analyzer across a wide range of GEM concentrations (0 to 127 ng m-3) in Hg-free and ambient air. Measurements during periods of stable background GEM concentrations provided a conservative instrument sensitivity estimate of 0.35 ng m-3 for the CRDS system when time averaged for 5 min. This sensitivity, along with concentration patterns observed in ambient air (with the CRDS system and verified with the Tekran analyzer), showed that the sensor was capable of characterizing GEM fluctuations in ambient air. The value of fast-response GEM measurements was shown by a series of GEM spike additions - highlighting that high-temporal-resolution measurement allowed for detailed characterization of fast concentration fluctuations not possible with traditional analyzers.

  8. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690–82,000 ng/m3) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2–77 ng/m3). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9–64 ng/m3) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air

  9. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; Theodorakos, Peter M; Fey, David L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2015-02-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8-11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03-0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9-14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05-3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1-9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63-9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690-82,000 ng/m(3)) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2-77 ng/m(3)). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9-64 ng/m(3)) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the

  10. Effects of frequency on fatigue behavior of type 316 low-carbon, nitrogen-added stainless steel in air and mercury for the spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Fielden, D. E.; Brooks, C. R.; Brotherton, M. D.; Jiang, L.; Yang, B.; Wang, H.; Strizak, J. P.; Mansur, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    The high-cycle fatigue behavior of type 316 low-carbon, nitrogen-added (LN) stainless steel (SS), the prime-candidate target-container material for the spallation neutron source (SNS), was investigated in air and mercury. Test frequencies ranged from 0.2 to 10 Hz with an R ratio of -1, and 10 to 700 Hz with an R ratio of 0.1. During tension-compression fatigue studies, a significant increase in the specimen temperature was observed at 10 Hz in air, which decreased the fatigue life of the 316 LN SS relative to that at 0.2 Hz. Companion tests in air were carried out, while cooling the specimen with nitrogen gas at 10 Hz in air. In these experiments, fatigue lives were comparable at 10 Hz in air with nitrogen cooling and at 0.2 Hz in air. During tension-tension fatigue studies, a higher specimen temperature was observed at 700 than at 10 Hz. After cooling the specimen, comparable fatigue lives were found at 10 and at 700 Hz. The frequency effect on the fatigue life in mercury was found to be much less than that in air, due to the fact that mercury acts as an effective coolant during the fatigue experiment. Striation spacing on the fracture surface at different test frequencies was closely examined, relative to calculated Δ K values, during fatigue of the 316 LN SS. Specimen self-heating has to be considered in understanding fatigue characteristics of 316 LN SS in air and mercury.

  11. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  12. Regional Air Quality Model Application of the Aqueous-Phase Photo Reduction of Atmospheric Oxidized Mercury by Dicarboxylic Acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    In most ecosystems, atmospheric deposition is the primary input of mercury. The total wet deposition of mercury in atmospheric chemistry models is sensitive to parameterization of the aqueous-phase reduction of divalent oxidized mercury (Hg2+). However, most atmospheric chemistry...

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANNULAR DENUDER METHODOLOGY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF DIVALENT INORGANIC REACTIVE GASEOUS MERCURY IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric mercury is predominantly present in the gaseous elemental form (Hg0). However, anthropogenic emissions (e.g. incineration, fossil fuel combustion) emit and natural processes create particulate-phase mercury (Hg(p)) and divalent reactive gas-phase mercury (RGM). RG...

  14. Description and Initial Simulation of a Dynamic Bidirectional Air-Surface Exchange Model for Mercury in Community Multiscale Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of elemental mercury (Hg0) from natural processes are believed to be as large as anthropogenic mercury emissions and are a critical source required to model the transport and fate of mercury. Recent ecosystem scale measurements indicate that a fraction of rec...

  15. [Study on the solid sorbent tube for capturing mercury in the workplace air and determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Nong; Sun, Yi; Ruan, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Bang-Hua; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Huang, Jun-Yi; Huang, Yan-Ling; Huang, Han-Lin

    2014-05-01

    A new KMnO4-MnO2 solid multisorbent tube for capturing mercury in workplace air was developed. Experimental conditions for solid multisorbent tube, efficiency of sampling, desorption efficiency and stability were studied. Mercury and its compounds in air were captured by solid KMnO4-MnO2 sorbent filled tube and desorbed with 0. 90 mol L-1 sulfuric acid solution. Mercury and its compounds were quantitatively analyzed according to the method of GBZ/T 160. 14-2004 cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The linear range of the proposed method was 0. 000 2-0. 015 0 mg L-1 with r=0. 999 1, the average efficiency of sampling was 99. 9%-100. 0% in the concentration range of 0. 001-2. 820 mg m-3 , and the breakthrough capacity was more than 505.4 microg for 300 mg KMnO4-MnO2 solid multisorbent, the average recovery rate was 96. 4% approximately103. 8%, the intra-day and inter-day precision was 3. 0% approximately 3. 3% and 3. 5% approximately 5. 2% respectively, the limit of detection was 0. 0013 mg m-3 (7. 5 L of air ) and 0. 000 6 mg m-3 (96 L of air), after sampling, and the solid multisorbent tube could be kept at least 30 d at room temperature without significant loss. The present method was simple and suitable for capturing mercury and its compounds in the workplace air and ambient air. The solid multisorbent tube was useful for personal sampling and time weighted average sampling. PMID:25095449

  16. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  17. Occupational Exposure to Mercury: Air Exposure Assessment and Biological Monitoring based on Dispersive Ionic Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

    PubMed Central

    SHIRKHANLOO, Hamid; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; HASSANI, Hamid; EFTEKHAR, Farrokh; KIAN, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to mercury (Hg) as a heavy metal can cause health effects. The objective of this study was to assess occupational exposure to Hg in a chlor-alkali petrochemical industry in Iran by determining of Hg concentrations in air, blood and urine samples. Methods The study was performed on 50 exposed subjects and 50 unexposed controls. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of exposed subjects, using hopcalite sorbents. Analysis was performed using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) according to NIOSH analytical method 6009. For all participants, blood and urine samples were collected and then transferred into sterile glass tubes. After micro-extraction with ionic liquid and back extraction with nitric acid, Hg concentrations in blood and urine samples were determined by CV-AAS. Results The mean concentration of air Hg was 0.042± 0.003 mg/m3. The mean concentrations of Hg in blood and urine samples of exposed subjects were significantly higher than unexposed controls (22.41± 12.58 versus 1.19± 0.95 μg/l and 30.61± 10.86 versus 1.99± 1.34 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Correlation of air Hg with blood Hg, urine Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio were significant statistically (P< 0.05). Conclusions The values of Hg in blood and urine samples of chlor-alkali workers were considerably high. Correlation coefficients showed that blood Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio are better indicators than urine Hg for assessing occupationally exposed workers in terms of current exposure assessment. PMID:26110150

  18. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables.

    PubMed

    Eckley, Chris S; Tate, Mike T; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Lutz, Michelle A; Wickland, Kimberly P; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E; Edwards, Grant C; Krabbenhoft, Dave P; Smith, David B

    2016-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux+vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. PMID:26936663

  19. Task 2.8 - Mercury Speciation and Capture in Scubber Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sumitra R. Ness

    1997-08-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation into health risks associated with mercury emissions from utility steam generators, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources was mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. In anticipation of mercury emission regulation, attention has been focused on quantification of mercury emissions, which require verifiable sampling and analytical techniques. Several sampling and analytical methods are currently under the final stages of development as well as a variety of emission control methods. In particular, wet scrubber systems designed for S2 control in coal-fired utilities have been targeted for mercury control. Conventional wet-scrubbers remove mercury in a variety of soluble oxidized forms. Oxidized mercury is highly water-soluble and can be removed by scrubber slurry, theoretically limited only by gas-film mass transfer. However, since some oxidized mercury forms such as HgClz are borh soluble and volatile, the final fate of mercury trapped in scrubber solutions is unclear. Elemental mercury is not water-soluble, remaining in the vapor state at temperatures through pollution control devices and exiting the stack into the environment. However, notable exceptions to this rule exist. Depending on the type of mercury-sampling method used, an increase ofs 10% in elemental mercury concentrations across wet scrubbers has been metiured but is yet unconllrmed. Also, significant amounts of elemental mercury (metallic form) have been removed during wet scrubber maintenance. In addition, questions concerning 1) the initial speciation between oxidized and elemental forms of mercury in flue gas from coal- fired boilers and 2) the effects of scrubber slurry composition and pH on the mercury species have been raised.

  20. Use of the mercury record in Red Tarn sediments to reveal air pollution history and the implications of catchment erosion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Handong; Smyntek, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Red Tarn is a cirque lake with a small ratio of terrestrial area to lake area, surrounded by glacial edges with little soil in the catchment. A sediment core taken from the deepest area of the lake was (210)Pb dated and validated by (137)Cs and (241)Am stratigraphic records. The core was analysed for mercury (Hg) and other elements. The results show Hg pollution before the mid-19th century, and thereafter, a rapid increase in Hg pollution into modern time, followed by a decline in pollution since 1968-1970. This agrees well with the decline in UK Hg emissions since the Clear Air Act of 1968. The results suggest that the core has recorded Hg air pollution history, and it can be used to benchmark Hg changes in the sediments from other lakes in the region up to the late 1980s. However, increased (210)Pb fluxes after the late 1980s indicate enhanced catchment erosion, which has brought more legacy Hg in the catchment into the lake. As a consequence, since 2000, the Hg in the sediment record no longer reflects the atmospheric Hg deposition. The core shows how dominant Hg sources for the lake changed from atmospheric deposition to the catchment inputs, and demonstrates that contaminated catchment inputs have not only increased Hg fluxes to the lake sediments but have also increased Hg concentrations in the sediments. PMID:25224269

  1. 75 FR 57220 - Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ..., e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers. Questions concerning the August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51960... holding the public hearing was published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51960), and is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air...

  2. 77 FR 43521 - Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AO96 Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: Classification of Areas That Were Initially Classified Under Subpart 1; Revision of the Anti-Backsliding Provisions To Address...

  3. Mercury in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2008-08-06

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  4. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2010-01-08

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  5. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution

  6. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  7. Use predictive techniques to guide your mercury compliance strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Niksa, S.; Bour, D.P.; Burnett, T.A.; Handagama, N.B.

    2007-08-15

    Several states have mandated faster and/or deeper reductions in plant mercury emissions than those called for by the Clean Air Mercury Rule. Unfortunately, differences between plants make accurate evaluation of control options difficult. In most cases, even statistically based Hg emissions models do not account for the dynamic chemical behaviour of Hg species in gas cleaning systems. This article describes one system evaluation tool that has been validated using Hg field test data from 50 full-scale flue gas cleaning systems. It is already being used by TVA and other utilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SIMULATION USING THE CMAQ MODEL: FORMULATION DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF WET DEPOSITION RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has recently been adapted to simulate the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury in three distinct forms; elemental mercury gas, reactive gaseous mercury, and particulate mercury. Emis...

  9. 32 CFR 700.1139 - Rules for preventing collisions, afloat and in the air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules for preventing collisions, afloat and in... OFFICIAL RECORDS General Regulations Duties of Individuals § 700.1139 Rules for preventing collisions..., craft and aircraft shall diligently observe the International Rules for Preventing Collisions at...

  10. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON RATES OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA laboratory in Athens, Georgia i spursuing the goal of developing a model for describing toxicant vapor phase air/water exchange under all relevant environmental conditions. To date, the two-layer exchange model (suitable for low wind speed conditions) has been modif...

  11. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: a pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, R; Higueras, P; Esbrí, J M; Pizarro, J

    2007-11-15

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl(2) at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 microg g(-1), whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 microg g(-1). The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m(-3) (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m(-3) (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m(-3)). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m(-3). The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m(-3). While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl(2) treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria. PMID:17590416

  12. Measurement and scaling of air-surface mercury exchange from substrates in the vicinity of two Nevada gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S; Eckley, Chris S

    2011-09-01

    The state of Nevada has extensive mineral resources, and is the largest producer of gold in the USA as well as fourth in world gold production. Mercury (Hg) is often present in the hydrothermal systems that produce gold deposits, and can be found in elevated concentrations in gold ore. As a result, mining of gold ore in Nevada has been shown to release Hg to the atmosphere from point and non-point sources. This project focused on measurement of air-soil Hg exchange associated with undisturbed soils and bedrock outcrops in the vicinity of two large gold mines. Field and laboratory data collected were used to identify the important variables controlling Hg flux from these surfaces, and to estimate a net flux from the areas adjacent to the active mines as well as that occurring from the mined area pre-disturbance. Mean daily flux by substrate type ranged from 9 ng m(-2) day(-1) to 140 ng m(-2) day(-1). Periods of net deposition of elemental Hg were observed when air masses originating from a mine site moved over sampling locations. Based on these observations and measured soil Hg concentrations we suggest that emissions from point and non-point sources at the mines are a source of Hg to the surrounding substrates with the amount deposited not being of an environmental concern but of interest mainly with respect to the cycling of atmospheric elemental Hg. Observations indicate that while some component of the deposited Hg is sequestered in the soil, this Hg is gradually released back to the atmosphere over time. Estimated pre-disturbance emissions from the current mine footprints based on field data were 0.1 and 1.7 kg yr(-1), compared to that estimated for the current non-point mining sources of 19 and 109 kg yr(-1), respectively. PMID:21741677

  13. Potential Impact of Rainfall on the Air-Surface Exchange of Total Gaseous Mercury from Two Common Urban Ground Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces tha...

  14. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory


    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury
    (Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996
    IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseous
    mercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  15. A cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for measurements of gaseous elemental mercury - Part 1: Development for high time resolution measurements in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmüller, H.; Faïn, X.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to make high time resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations in air is imperative for the understanding of mercury cycling. Here we describe further development and field implementation of a laboratory prototype pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for high time resolution, continuous and automated measurement of GEM concentrations in ambient air. In particular, we present use of an external, isotopically enriched Hg cell for automated wavelength locking and wavelength stabilization to maintain laser wavelength on the peak of GEM absorption line in ambient air. We further describe implementation of differential absorption measurements using a piezoelectric tuning element that allows for continuous accounting of system baseline extinction losses needed to calculate GEM absorption coefficients. Data acquisition systems and software programs were modified to acquire high-speed ring-down data at 50 Hz repetition rate as well as process and analyze data in real time. The system was installed in a mobile trailer, and inlet systems and temperature controls were designed to minimize effects of changes in ambient air temperature and ozone (O3) concentration. Data that identify technical challenges and interferences that occurred during measurements, including temperature fluctuations, interferences by ambient O3 and drifts in frequency conversion efficiencies are discussed. Successful development of a CRDS system capable of measuring ambient air GEM concentrations with high time resolution is based on minimizing these interferences.

  16. Mercury vapor air-surface exchange measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part I: Data comparability and method characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micrometeorological (MM) and dynamic flux chamber (DFC) measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and correlation with environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much more gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (R>0.8, p<0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM fluxes were from weak to moderate (R=0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (<10% difference). This suggests that incorporating an atmospheric turbulence property such as friction velocity for correcting the DFC-measured flux effectively bridged the gap between the Hg0 fluxes measured by enclosure and MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA

  17. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  18. What's all the Fuss about Mercury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Mercury tends to vaporize when exposed to air. The warmer the air, the more quickly it vaporizes. Although swallowing mercury can be a problem, the greater risk results from inhalation and skin absorption. Symptoms and health-related problems can result within hours of exposure. Spilled mercury settles in cracks and absorbent material such as…

  19. Global change and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

  20. Who should take responsibility for decisions on internationally recommended datasets? The case of the mass concentration of mercury in air at saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J. C.; Brewer, Paul J.; Ent, Hugo; Fisicaro, Paola; Horvat, Milena; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2015-10-01

    This paper considers how decisions on internationally recommended datasets are made and implemented and, further, how the ownership of these decisions comes about. Examples are given of conventionally agreed data and values where the responsibility is clear and comes about through official designation or by common usage and practice over long time periods. The example of the dataset describing the mass concentration of mercury in air at saturation is discussed in detail. This is a case where there are now several competing datasets that are in disagreement with each other, some with historical authority and some more recent but, arguably, with more robust metrological traceability to the SI. Further, it is elaborated that there is no body charged with the responsibility to make a decision on an international recommendation for such a dataset. This has led to the situation where several competing datasets are in use simultaneously. Close parallels are drawn with the current debate over changes to the ozone absorption cross section, which has equal importance to the measurement of ozone amount fraction in air and to subsequent compliance with air quality legislation. It is noted that in the case of the ozone cross section there is already a committee appointed to deliberate over any change. We make the proposal that a similar committee, under the auspices of IUPAC or the CIPM’s CCQM (if it adopted a reference data function) could be formed to perform a similar role for the mass concentration of mercury in air at saturation.

  1. 78 FR 28547 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Permit Exemption Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ..., as approved into the SIP at 73 FR 76560 (December 17, 2008), as a result of the project. While the... approved rules. The August 21, 2006, (71 FR 48696) proposed ``Review of New Sources and Modifications in... FR 48700). This rule also states that, `` . . . a number of State programs have established...

  2. The Clean Air Act`s enforcement ace: An overview of EPA`s credible evidence rule

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) amendments included numerous provisions directing EPA to require owners or operators to conduct enhanced monitoring and to make compliance certifications. These provisions contained in both those Title V (Operating Permits) and Title VII (Enforcement) of those amendments. Section 503(b)(2) of the amended CAA requires at least annual certifications of compliance with permit requirements and prompt reporting of any deviations from such requirements. Section 114(a)(3) of the CAA requires EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications. On October 23, 1993, EPA proposed its {open_quotes}enhanced monitoring{close_quotes} rule. The enhanced monitoring proposal also included the Conceptual approach of using {open_quotes}presumptively credible evidence{close_quotes} in enforcement actions. Further, this proposal also would have allowed the use of {open_quotes}credible evidence,{close_quotes} other than reference or compliance test data to establish noncompliance in an enforcement action. In approximately three weeks, EPA is scheduled to republish as a final rule, the credible evidence provisions of the original enhanced monitoring rule with apparently minor revisions. This paper briefly summarizes the history, status, and likely impact EPA`s {open_quotes}any credible evidence{close_quotes} ({open_quotes}ACE{close_quotes}) rule.

  3. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 114(c) of the Clean Air Act and 5 U.S.C. 553(c) that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  4. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of......

  5. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of......

  6. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of......

  7. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (2)(i) Emission data...

  8. Total gaseous mercury concentrations in ambient air in the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, South-Eastern fringe of the Tibetan plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Wanze; Wang, Shaofeng; Lu, Julia

    During May 2005-June 2006, measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were carried out by using a set of automatic atmospheric mercury vapor analyzer (Tekran 2537A) at Moxi base station (102°07'E, 29°40'N, 1640 m a.s.l.) of the Gongga alpine ecosystem observation and experiment station of Chinese academy of sciences (CAS) which belongs to the Chinese ecosystem research network (CERN). A seasonal distribution pattern of TGM in ambient air was observed on the descending order of winter, fall, spring, and summer. Geometric mean TGM concentration over the sampling periods was 3.98 ng m -3 with a range from 0.52 to 21.03 ng m -3. The measurements showed a noticeable diurnal TGM distribution pattern with high concentration during daytime compared to nighttime; the maximum and the minimum concentration appeared near solar noon and immediately before sunrise, respectively. TGM concentrations were regulated by the wind directions, and wind from the southeastern direction carried more mercury than any other direction suggesting that anthropogenic sources, such as local zinc smelting activities and fuel combustion, played a predominant role in the elevation of TGM concentrations in this area.

  9. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

  10. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  11. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  12. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  13. CFD Modeling for Mercury Control Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, J.I.

    2006-12-01

    Compliance with the Clean Air Mercury Rule will require implementation of dedicated mercury control solutions at a significant portion of the U.S. coal-fired utility fleet. Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) upstream of a particulate control device (ESP or baghouse) remains one of the most promising near-term mercury control technologies. The DOE/NETL field testing program has advanced the understanding of mercury control by ACI, but a persistent need remains to develop predictive models that may improve the understanding and practical implementation of this technology. This presentation describes the development of an advanced model of in-flight mercury capture based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model makes detailed predictions of the induct spatial distribution and residence time of sorbent, as well as predictions of mercury capture efficiency for particular sorbent flow rates and injection grid configurations. Hence, CFD enables cost efficient optimization of sorbent injection systems for mercury control to a degree that would otherwise be impractical both for new and existing plants. In this way, modeling tools may directly address the main cost component of operating an ACI system – the sorbent expense. A typical 300 MW system is expected to require between $1 and $2 million of sorbent per year, and so even modest reductions (say 10-20%) in necessary sorbent feed injection rates will quickly make any optimization effort very worthwhile. There are few existing models of mercury capture, and these typically make gross assumptions of plug gas flow, zero velocity slip between particle and gas phase, and uniform sorbent dispersion. All of these assumptions are overcome with the current model, which is based on first principles and includes mass transfer processes occurring at multiple scales, ranging from the large-scale transport in the duct to transport within the porous structure of a sorbent particle. In principle any single one of these processes

  14. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  15. Potential impact of rainfall on the air-surface exchange of total gaseous mercury from two common urban ground surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Williamson, Derek G.; Brooks, Steve

    2011-03-01

    The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces that concentrate many substances (eroded soil, leaf and vegetation litter, automobile debris, industrial atmospheric fallout) which can contain elevated mercury concentrations. In this study, the primary analyses included (i) observing the time series flux of TGM from pavement and street dirt following surface wetting and (ii) determining if wet deposition provides a fresh source of mercury that is available for release (emission) when applied to these surfaces. Application of de-ionized water (DI) and rainwater both induced an immediate 65% increase in TGM emission from pavement (from 0.5 to 1.4 ng m -2 h -1 [based on averages]). For street dirt, an immediate 70% increase in emission was induced following DI water application (from 3.0 to 9.0 ng m -2 h -1 [based on averages]) and an immediate 30% increase in emission following rainwater application (from 4.5 to 6.5 ng m -2 h -1 [based on averages]). Both surfaces showed continuous elevated release of TGM following the initial water application stage. There was a decrease in emission as the pavement surface dried. Despite the difference in immediate TGM emission from street dirt using both solutions, statistical evaluation indicated there was no prolonged difference. This suggests that mercury in rainwater was not available for re-emission when applied to these surfaces, at least for the time frame studied (2 h after water application). Therefore, it is likely that the elevated TGM emission following water application resulted primarily from pre-existing mercury. Removal of pre-existing mercury by water application followed a zero order process for both surfaces; however, removal rates were much different for each surface ( k = 0.26 ng m -2

  16. 76 FR 64055 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011). B. Paperwork Reduction Act The correction to 40 CFR part 2... relates to existing state programs, please see Section II of the preamble to the final part 98 rule (74...

  17. 77 FR 235 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...)(2)(E)(ii) of the CAA. We previously proposed approval, 76 FR 28707, of this portion as part of our... on July 22, 2011, 76 FR 43906, EPA did not complete approval of the submittal with respect to Section... Colorado's procedural rules for approval into the SIP (76 FR 4268). Due to this error, EPA disapproved...

  18. Regional Scale Photochemical Model Evaluation of Total Mercury Wet Deposition and Speciated Ambient Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methylmercury is a known neurotoxin with deleterious health effects on humans and wildlife. Atmospheric deposition is the largest source of mercury loading to most terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Regional scale air quality models are needed to quantify mercury deposition resu...

  19. ADVANCED SORBENTS FOR CONTROL OF MULTIPLE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR)and Utility MACT rulemaking are focusing on future reductions of NOX, SO2, and mercury emissions from power plants. Multipollutant sorbents could provide a cost-effective approach to control these emissions. This research will develop, charac...

  20. TRANSPORT, AIR-SURFACE EXCHANGE AND LANDSCAPE ACCUMULATION OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS DEPOSITED ONTO RURAL CATCHMENTS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a modeling analysis of airborne mercury fate in rural catchments by coupling components of simulation models developed and published previously by the authors. Results for individual rural catchments are presented and discussed, with a focus on the major mercu...

  1. 78 FR 46520 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Permit Exemption Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...EPA is approving revisions to the Wisconsin State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) on April 23, 2008. WDNR submitted revisions exempting certain sources of air pollution from construction permit requirements. EPA is approving these revisions because they are consistent with Federal regulations governing state permit...

  2. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Rule: Operational and economic impacts at U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) installations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.C.; Durand, G.P.; Senn, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The recently promulgated Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), found in 40 CFR 63 Subpart GG, is expected to significantly impact operations at US Air Force (USAF) bases. At the request of the USAF`s Air Combat Command (ACC), Armstrong Laboratory`s Air Quality Branch performed a compliance assessment for all ACC bases in the summer of 1996 to determine more clearly the rule`s impact on operations at these bases. This assessment included first determining the base`s current major source standing for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), as defined by Title III of the Clean Air Act. In addition, this assessment ascertained the volatile organic compound (VOC) and HAP content levels for both the primers and topcoats currently being used in base aircraft maintenance operations. Finally, the survey determined the type of solvents used in cleaning aerospace parts, as well as the types of control equipment currently in place at each base. The results of the compliance assessment suggest a prohibitive impact on operations at ACC bases, including total potential direct monetary costs of up to $25M. Additional personnel requirements will be incurred as a result of increased monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting. Substitution of low VOC/HAP primers and topcoats and/or redefining maintenance operations to meet touch-up and repair definitions are discussed as possible alternatives, but the results indicate the best solution is to reassess each ACC base`s status as a major source for HAPs, with the intent of having each base defined as a minor source for HAPs. In this manner, the ACC bases can avoid the Aerospace NESHAP compliance requirements altogether, at substantial savings to the US Air Force.

  4. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern. PMID:23943002

  5. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.

    This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.

    Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  6. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments. This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth. Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  7. Nondiscrimination on the basis of disability in air travel; compensation for damage to wheelchairs and other assistive devices. Office of the Secretary, DOT. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    The Department is amending its rules implementing the Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 (ACAA) to lift an existing cap on the amount of compensation airlines have to pay to passengers for loss or damage of their wheelchairs and other assistive devices. The rule is intended to provide additional relief to passengers who use expensive assistive devices that are lost, destroyed or damaged in the course of airline travel. PMID:11010720

  8. Global and regional contributions to total mercury concentrations in Lake Michigan water

    EPA Science Inventory

    A calibrated mercury component mass balance model, LM2-Mercury, was applied to Lake Michigan to predict mercury concentrations in the lake under different mercury loadings, mercury air concentrations, and management scenarios. Although post-audit data are few, model predictions (...

  9. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  10. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  11. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea, the Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2016-06-01

    The air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) in the tropical ocean is an important part of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle, but the related investigations are limited. In this study, we simultaneously measured Hg(0) concentrations in surface waters and overlaying air in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea (SCS), Hainan Island, China, for 13 days on January-February 2015. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal variation of Hg(0) concentrations in air and surface waters, estimate the air-sea Hg(0) flux, and reveal their influencing factors in the tropical coastal environment. The mean concentrations (±SD) of Hg(0) in air and total Hg (THg) in waters were 2.34 ± 0.26 ng m(-3) and 1.40 ± 0.48 ng L(-1), respectively. Both Hg(0) concentrations in waters (53.7 ± 18.8 pg L(-1)) and Hg(0)/THg ratios (3.8 %) in this study were significantly higher than those of the open water of the SCS in winter. Hg(0) in waters usually exhibited a clear diurnal variation with increased concentrations in daytime and decreased concentrations in nighttime, especially in cloudless days with low wind speed. Linear regression analysis suggested that Hg(0) concentrations in waters were positively and significantly correlated to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (R (2) = 0.42, p < 0.001). Surface waters were always supersaturated with Hg(0) compared to air (the degree of saturation, 2.46 to 13.87), indicating that the surface water was one of the atmospheric Hg(0) sources. The air-sea Hg(0) fluxes were estimated to be 1.73 ± 1.25 ng m(-2) h(-1) with a large range between 0.01 and 6.06 ng m(-2) h(-1). The high variation of Hg(0) fluxes was mainly attributed to the greatly temporal variation of wind speed. PMID:26931659

  12. Occupational exposure to mercury. What is a safe level?

    PubMed Central

    Moienafshari, R.; Bar-Oz, B.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my pregnant patients, a dental hygienist, uses mercury in her workplace, but appears to have no symptoms of mercury toxicity. She has heard that mercury might affect her fetus. What should I recommend to her? What is a safe level of mercury in the air for pregnant women? ANSWER: Testing for levels of mercury in whole blood and, preferably, urine is useful for confirming exposure. Currently, mercury vapour concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 are considered unsafe. Also, women of childbearing age should avoid contact with mercury salts in the workplace. PMID:10889853

  13. Mercury capture by aerosol transformation in combustion environments. Appendix 5

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Aerosol transformation of elemental mercury by oxidizing mercury in the air is investigated in this study by varying temperature and residence time. The experimental results show that mercury oxidation is not important at the temperature range and time scale studied. The rate of mercury oxidation is too slow that the capture of mercury vapor by transforming it into mercury oxide in aerosol phase is not practical in real systems. Studies are needed for alternative approaches to capture mercury vapor such as the use of sorbent materials.

  14. Mercury capture from flue gas using palladium nanoparticle-decorated substrates as injected sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin J. Lineberry; Yan Cao; Yi Lin; Sayata Ghose; John W. Connell; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-03-15

    Although the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was recently vacated by the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, efficient mercury (Hg) capture is still an important topic for the coal-fired power plant industry. Several states have Hg emission regulations that are even more stringent than CAMR guidelines. All coals contain Hg, which is released during combustion. Significant research efforts have been made to capture this toxic element before it is released to the atmosphere where it can stay suspended and travel for great distances. A variety of approaches have been examined, among which the injection of sorbent materials such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) is the current method of choice. The work presented here examined the mercury capture capability of various carbon substrates decorated with metal nanoparticles when injected as sorbents. Sorbent injections were carried out in a Hg in air mixture for laboratory-scale screening and in a real flue gas at a coal-fired power plant. It was found that palladium-decorated carbon substrates showed excellent mercury capture capabilities, with total efficiencies greater than 90% in laboratory-scale tests. In the real flue gas, the total efficiency was on the order of 60%, comparable to the benchmark commercial sorbent Darco Hg-LH, a brominated PAC, although the tested adsorbents had much lower surface areas. The results of this study are presented herein. Novel mercury capture from a coal-fired flue gas was achieved using carbon substrates decorated with palladium nanoparticles. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes. PMID:19875156

  16. Use of radiation sources with mercury isotopes for real-time highly sensitive and selective benzene determination in air and natural gas by differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Gita; Sholupov, Sergey; Ganeev, Alexander; Pogarev, Sergey; Ryzhov, Vladimir; Skudra, Atis

    2015-08-01

    A new analytical portable system is proposed for the direct determination of benzene vapor in the ambient air and natural gas, using differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect and innovative radiation sources: capillary mercury lamps with different isotopic compositions ((196)Hg, (198)Hg, (202)Hg, (204)Hg, and natural isotopic mixture). Resonance emission of mercury at a wavelength of 254 nm is used as probing radiation. The differential cross section of benzene absorption in dependence on wavelength is determined by scanning of magnetic field. It is found that the sensitivity of benzene detection is enhanced three times using lamp with the mercury isotope (204)Hg in comparison with lamp, filled with the natural isotopic mixture. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when benzene content is measured at the Occupational Exposure Limit (3.2 mg/m(3) for benzene) level, the interference from SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and toluene can be neglected if concentration of these gases does not exceed corresponding Occupational Exposure Limits. To exclude the mercury effect, filters that absorb mercury and let benzene pass in the gas duct are proposed. Basing on the results of our study, a portable spectrometer is designed with a multipath cell of 960 cm total path length and detection limit 0.5 mg/m(3) at 1 s averaging and 0.1 mg/m(3) at 30 s averaging. The applications of the designed spectrometer to measuring the benzene concentration in the atmospheric air from a moving vehicle and in natural gas are exemplified. PMID:26320799

  17. Evaluation of Regenerated Catalyst for Mercury Speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Laudal

    2007-06-01

    In March of 2005, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). Mercury from coal-fired power plants was to be reduced from the current 48 to 38 tons/yr by 2010 and then 15 tons/yr by 2018. It is expected that the first phase reduction of {approx}21% will be achieved by cobenefits that will occur as a result of installing additional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to meet the new Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). Detroit Edison (DTE) is installing SCR at all four units at its Monroe Station and will eventually install wet-FGD systems. As such, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and DTE have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the extent of mercury oxidation that occurs at Monroe Station. The EERC originally did mercury speciation sampling at Monroe Station in 2004 and then went back in 2005 to determine if any changes occurred as a result of catalyst aging. During the second test, in addition to measuring the mercury speciation at the inlet and outlet of the SCR, the EERC also completed sampling at a location between the catalyst layers. The results are shown in Table 1. In Table 1, the results show that {approx}40% of the Hg was in oxidized form (Hg{sup 2+}) at the inlet and nearly 100% Hg{sup 2+} at the outlet. The results at the midpoint were between 40% and 100%. As part of their overall strategy to reduce SCR costs, utilities and SCR vendors are attempting to regenerate catalyst layers that have degenerated over time. If these regenerated catalysts are used, the question remains as to the effect this process will have on the ability of these catalysts to oxidize mercury as well as reduce NO{sub x}. The current project is designed to measure the Hg speciation across an SCR using a regenerated catalyst. The results were compared to previous results to determine what, if any, changes

  18. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L. Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-02-15

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  19. Organizational climate in air traffic control Innovative preparedness for implementation of new technology and organizational development in a rule governed organization.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2006-03-01

    A positive and innovative organizational climate is of great importance in order to manage and adapt to change. Such a climate seldom evolves in organizations closely governed by rules and regulations. Because of ongoing organizational and technical changes within the Swedish Air Navigation Services Provider, a study concerning the organizational climate for changes and innovations was conducted to investigate the organization's capacity to cope with changes. Study locations were the two Swedish main air traffic control centers and parts of the civil aviation administration headquarters. In the study 390 subjects took part and the CCQ questionnaire was used to measure the organizational climate. The results show that the organizational climate is quite positive despite the rule-governed work. The results also show that administrative personnel assess the organizational climate as more positive than operative personnel. Comparisons between management positions did not result in any differences. PMID:16109382

  20. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  1. Cases of mercury exposure, bioavailability, and absorption.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Mercury is a unique element that, unlike many metals, has no essential biological function. It is liquid at room temperature and is 13.6 times heavier than water. Its unique physical properties have been exploited for a variety of uses such as in mercury switches, thermostats, thermometers, and other instruments. Its ability to amalgamate with gold and silver are used in mining these precious metals and as a dental restorative. Its toxic properties have been exploited for medications, preservatives, antiseptics, and pesticides. For these reasons there have been many industrial uses of mercury, and occupational exposures of workers and industrial emissions and effluents contaminating air, water, soil, and ultimately food chains have long been a matter of great public health concern. This paper examines briefly six cases representing various forms of exposure to different species of mercury, and indicates the methodological issues in estimating exposure, bioavailability and absorption; these cases include Minamata disease in Japan, organic mercury poisoning in Iraq, methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in the Amazon, dimethylmercury (PMM) in the laboratory, an elemental mercury spill in Cajamarca, Peru, and a mercury-contaminated building in Hoboken, NJ, USA. Other scenarios that are not described include occupational exposure to mercury salts, mercurial preservatives in vaccines, cultural and ritualistic uses of mercury, and mercury in dental amalgams. PMID:12915150

  2. MERCURY STABILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish

    1999-07-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury and 188 other trace substances, referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk (1). The EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in two reports: Mercury Study Report to Congress and Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units-Final Report to Congress. The first congressional report addressed both human health and the environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second report addressed the risk to public health posed by emissions of HAPs from steam electricity-generating units. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is also required by the CAAAs to investigate mercury and determine a safe threshold level of exposure. Recently the National Academy of Sciences has also been commissioned by Congress to complete a report, based the available scientific evidence, regarding safe threshold levels of mercury exposure. Although the EPA reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations should be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. It is likely that major sources of mercury emissions, including fossil-fired combustion systems, will be controlled at some point. In fact, municipal waste combustion units are already regulated. In anticipation of additional control measures, much research has been done (and continues) regarding the development of control technologies for mercury emitted from stationary sources to the atmosphere. Most approaches taken to date involve sorbent injection technologies or improve upon removal of mercury using existing technologies such as flue gas desulfurization

  3. USEPA ORD TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACTIVITIES ON MERCURY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic releases of mercury to air, water and land have adversely impacted human health and the environment for many years. In fact, according to the 1997 Mercury Study Report to Congress, mercury levels have increased significantly (by more than a factor of two) over pre-i...

  4. MODELING REGIONAL-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY USING RELMAP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Lagrangian Model of Air Pollution (RELMAP) is used to simulate the emission, transport and diffusion, chemical transformation, and wet and dry deposition of elemental mercury gas, divalent mercury gas and particulate mercury. ased on recent modeling advances in Europ...

  5. Transpressional Structures on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massironi, M.; Di Achille, G.; Ferrari, S.; Giacomini, L.; Popa, C.; Pozzobon, R.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is classically dominated by contractional features at a global scale (e.g. Watters et al.2009, EPSL]). Nonetheless, numerous evidences of strike-slip kinematics have been found on Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) camera images mainly derived from the three MESSENGER flybys and acquired near the terminator. This proves that several lobate scarps and high-relief ridges may be interpreted as transpressional structures more than thrust and back-thrusts systems. This finding may support either tidal despinning or residual mantle convection on ruling the nucleation and development of lobate scarps, although within the general framework of planetary contraction and cooling. In addition, the presence of faults with a clear strike-slip kinematic component may possibly affect future estimates of the hermean radius shortening.

  6. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  7. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air. PMID:27155436

  8. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  10. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  11. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  12. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  13. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  14. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  15. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  16. SENSITIVITY OF THE CMAQ MERCURY MODEL TO GAS-PHASE OXIDATION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulations of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for mercury have shown the vast majority of the mercury deposited in the United States to be in the form of oxidized mercury. However, most of this simulated oxidized mercury was the result of atmospheric oxidatio...

  17. Mercury vapor air-surface exchange measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part II: Bias and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) and micrometeorological (MM) methods are extensively deployed for gauging air-surface Hg0 gas exchange. However, a systematic evaluation of the precision of the contemporary Hg0 flux quantification methods is not available. In this study, the uncertainty in Hg0 flux measured by the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method, the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM), the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method, as well as DFC of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs, are assessed using a robust data set from two field intercomparison campaigns. The absolute precision in Hg0 concentration difference (ΔC) measurements is estimated at 0.064 ng m-3 for the gradient-based MBR and AGM systems. For the REA system, the parameter is Hg0 concentration (C) dependent at 0.069 + 0.022C. During the campaigns, 57 and 62 % of the individual vertical gradient measurements are found to be significantly different from 0, while for the REA technique, the percentage of significant observations is lower. For the chambers, non-significant fluxes are confined to a few night-time periods with varying ambient Hg0 concentrations. Relative bias for DFC-derived fluxes is estimated to be ~ ±10, and ~ 85% of the flux bias is within ±2 ng m-2 h-1 in absolute terms. The DFC flux bias follows a diurnal cycle, which is largely affected by the forced temperature and irradiation bias in the chambers. Due to contrasting prevailing micrometeorological conditions, the relative uncertainty (median) in turbulent exchange parameters differs by nearly a factor of 2 between the campaigns, while that in ΔC measurement is fairly consistent. The estimated flux uncertainties for the triad of MM techniques are 16-27, 12-23 and 19-31% (interquartile range) for the AGM, MBR and REA methods, respectively. This study indicates that flux-gradient-based techniques (MBR and AGM) are preferable to REA in quantifying Hg0 flux over ecosystems with low vegetation height. A limitation of all Hg0 flux

  18. Mercury vapor air-surface exchange measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part II: Bias and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2015-02-01

    Dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) and micrometeorological (MM) methods are extensively deployed for gauging air-surface Hg0 gas exchange. However, a systematic evaluation of the precision of the contemporary Hg0 flux quantification methods is not available. In this study, the uncertainty in Hg0 flux measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method, aerodynamic gradient method (AGM), modified Bowen-ratio (MBR) method, as well as DFC of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs is assessed using a robust data-set from two field intercomparison campaigns. The absolute precision in Hg0 concentration difference (Δ C) measurements is estimated at 0.064 ng m-3 for the gradient-based MBR and AGM system. For the REA system, the parameter is Hg0 concentration (C) dependent at 0.069+0.022C. 57 and 62% of the individual vertical gradient measurements were found to be significantly different from zero during the campaigns, while for the REA-technique the percentage of significant observations was lower. For the chambers, non-significant fluxes are confined to a few nighttime periods with varying ambient Hg0 concentration. Relative bias for DFC-derived fluxes is estimated to be ~ ±10%, and ~ 85% of the flux bias are within ±2 ng m-2 h-1 in absolute term. The DFC flux bias follows a diurnal cycle, which is largely dictated by temperature controls on the enclosed volume. Due to contrasting prevailing micrometeorological conditions, the relative uncertainty (median) in turbulent exchange parameters differs by nearly a factor of two between the campaigns, while that in Δ C measurements is fairly stable. The estimated flux uncertainties for the triad of MM-techniques are 16-27, 12-23 and 19-31% (interquartile range) for the AGM, MBR and REA method, respectively. This study indicates that flux-gradient based techniques (MBR and AGM) are preferable to REA in quantifying Hg0 flux over ecosystems with low vegetation height. A limitation of all Hg0 flux measurement systems investigated

  19. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  20. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  1. Mercury Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella R.

    2013-01-01

    IN BRIEF A residential elemental mercury contamination incident in Rhode Island resulted in the evacuation of an entire apartment complex. To develop recommendations for improved response, all response-related documents were examined; personnel involved in the response were interviewed; policies and procedures were reviewed; and environmental monitoring data were compiled from specific phases of the response for analysis of effect. A significant challenge of responding to residential elemental mercury contamination lies in communicating risk to residents affected py a HazMat spill. An ongoing, open and honest dialogue is emphasized where concerns of the public are heard and addressed, particularly when establishing and/or modifying policies and procedures for responding to residential elemental mercury contamination. PMID:23436951

  2. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  3. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following

  4. 75 FR 51960 - Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... (69 FR 23951, April 30, 2004). The rule further provides that an area remains subject to these... National Association of Manufacturers; and (3) the American Petroleum Institute, American Chemistry Council.... \\4\\ 70 FR 30592 (May 26, 2005). In the second reconsideration rulemaking, we proposed and...

  5. 75 FR 80452 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings and Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980 AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB or Board). ACTION... concerning applications for fees and expenses under the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA). The NTSB is... with a request for comments. 65 FR 42637. This Interim Rule amended 49 CFR part 821 by providing...

  6. 23. View of Jwing left, at Mercury Avenue, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of J-wing left, at Mercury Avenue, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 17. View of Mercury Avenue from Apollo Drive, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of Mercury Avenue from Apollo Drive, looking north at E-wing - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. America's top fifty power plant mercury pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The fifty most-polluting coal-burning power plants in the United States emitted twenty tons of mercury into the air in 2007. Of the ten highest-emitting plants, all but one reported an increase as compared to 2006. Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury air pollution in the U.S., accounting for roughly 40 per cent of all mercury emissions. This report rates the power plants both in terms of sheer mercury pollution and mercury pollution adjusted per kilowatt hour. It also outlines the ways in which mercury removal is achievable with existing technology. Activated carbon injection, which is commercially available and has been tested, can achieve mercury reductions of 90 per cent (and better when coupled with a fabric filter for particulate control) on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. In addition, mercury can be significantly reduced as a 'co-benefit' of controls for other pollutants, such as fabric filters, flue gas desulphurization, and selective catalytic reduction. 3 tabs.

  9. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  11. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  12. Oxidation of mercury by bromine in the subtropical Pacific free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Shah, V.; Jaeglé, L.; Stutz, J.; Festa, J.; Spolaor, M.; Tsai, C.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Zhou, X.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F. M.; Campos, T. L.; Apel, E.; Hornbrook, R.; Blake, N. J.; Hall, S.; Tyndall, G. S.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury is a global toxin that can be introduced to ecosystems through atmospheric deposition. Mercury oxidation is thought to occur in the free troposphere by bromine radicals, but direct observational evidence for this process is currently unavailable. During the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks campaign, we measured enhanced oxidized mercury and bromine monoxide in a free tropospheric air mass over Texas. We use trace gas measurements, air mass back trajectories, and a chemical box model to confirm the origin and chemical history of the sampled air mass. We find the presence of elevated oxidized mercury to be consistent with oxidation of elemental mercury by bromine atoms in this subsiding upper tropospheric air mass within the subtropical Pacific High, where dry atmospheric conditions are conducive to oxidized mercury accumulation. Our results support the role of bromine as the dominant oxidant of mercury in the upper troposphere.

  13. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  14. MERCURY IN TREE RINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination caused by release of mercury into the environment is a growing concern. This release occurs due to a variety of anthropogenic activities and natural sources. After release, mercury undergoes complicated chemical transformations. The inorganic forms of mercury releas...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  17. Regional scale photochemical model evaluation of total mercury wet deposition and speciated ambient mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kirk R.; Bash, Jesse O.

    2012-03-01

    Methylmercury is a known neurotoxin with deleterious health effects on humans and wildlife. Atmospheric deposition is the largest source of mercury loading to most terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Regional scale air quality models are needed to quantify mercury deposition resulting from complex emissions sources and physical and chemical processes that govern the fate of mercury in the atmosphere. Total mercury wet deposition estimates from multiple regional photochemical transport models applied at 12 km grid resolution over the continental United States compare well with observations (CAMx fractional error = 45%, CMAQ fractional error = 33%) despite uncertainties in global mercury emissions inventories and certain chemical transformation pathways. In addition, both CMAQ and CAMx well represent observed diel and seasonal patterns of Hg(0) and tend to exaggerate the diel patter of Hg(II) at AMNet monitor locations. The observed fraction of particulate mercury to total oxidized mercury (sum of particulate mercury and Hg(II)) is generally greater in colder months and during overnight hours. The modeling systems tend to capture these patterns but have a systematically lower fraction of particulate mercury to total oxidized mercury, especially in winter months.Annual total mercury deposition from wet and dry processes is 65% greater in CMAQ compared to CAMx over the entire modeling domain. This is largely due to higher wet deposition in CMAQ and higher dry deposition of Hg(0), which is treated as equilibrium with mercury re-emissions and not modeled in CAMx. A sensitivity using CAMx with Hg(0) dry deposition treated similar to CMAQ resulted in more comparable total mercury deposition estimates. Modeled dry deposition velocities for Hg(II) compare well with the limited experimental data, while Hg(0) dry deposition velocities are lower than published experimental data. A mercury bi-directional flux sensitivity application in CMAQ had the overall effect of reducing

  18. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  19. Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding

  20. Mercury emission from a cement factory and its influence on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzaki, Norio; Tamura, Ryozo; Hirano, Yuzuru; Mizushima, Yoshio

    Mercury balance was investigated in a cement factory, measuring the mercury concentration in ingredients, fuels, cement and exhaust gases, etc. Daily mercury emission quantity from the factory was estimated to be 1.5 kg, originating mostly from limestone. Gaseous and particulate mercury concentrations in ambient air were 4.1-8.7 ng m -3 and 0.15-0.68 ng m -3, respectively. Particulate mercury concentrations are remarkably higher than the background ones. The influence of mercury emission estimated from the determined mercury levels in the leaves of indicator plants reaches up to 5 km at least from the source. The sum of the mercury quantity deposited from the atmosphere and that taken by leaves of plants in the area within a 5-km radius from the factory was calculated to be about 4% of the entire mercury emitted. The mercury residue was recognized in humus and surface soil in the forest near the factory.

  1. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  2. Anthropogenic Mercury Accumulation in Watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Drohan, P. J.; Lawler, D.; Grimm, J.; Grant, C.; Eklof, K. J.; Bennett, J.; Naber, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is a critical environmental stress that affects ecosystems and human health. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited over large geographic areas to downwind landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. The northern Appalachian Mountains are downwind of major atmospheric mercury emissions sources. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the region. Here, we explored mercury accumulation in forested landscapes - in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at 10 forested locations, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. To quantify mercury accumulation in terrestrial environments, we measured soil mercury concentrations within and surrounding 12 vernal pools spanning various physiographic settings in the region. Given that vernal pools have large inputs of water via precipitation yet do not have any stream discharge outflow, they are likely spots within the forested landscape to accumulate pollutants that enter via wet atmospheric deposition. To quantify mercury accumulation in aquatic environments, we sampled mercury concentrations in streams draining 35 forested watersheds, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains.

  3. Antarctic springtime depletion of atmospheric mercury.

    PubMed

    Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H; Temme, Christian; Einax, Jürgen W; Lowe, Astrid G; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P; Schroeder, William H

    2002-03-15

    Unlike other heavy metals that are inherently associated with atmospheric aerosols, mercury in ambient air exists predominantly in the gaseous elemental form. Because of its prolonged atmospheric residence time, elemental mercury vapor is distributed on a global scale. Recently, Canadian researchers have discovered that total gaseous mercury levels in the lower tropospheric boundary layer in the Canadian Arctic are often significantly depleted during the months after polar sunrise. A possible explanation may involve oxidation of elemental mercury, followed by adsorption and deposition of the oxidized form, leading to an increased input of atmospheric mercury into the Arctic ecosystem. Here we present the first continuous high-time-resolution measurements of total gaseous mercury in the Antarctic covering a 12-month period between January 2000 and January 2001 at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer (70 degrees 39' S, 8 degrees 15' W). We report that mercury depletion events also occur in the Antarctic after polar sunrise and compare our measurements with a data setfrom Alert, Nunavut, Canada. We also present indications that BrO radicals and ozone play a key role in the boundary-layer chemistry during springtime mercury depletion events in the Antarctic troposphere. PMID:11944675

  4. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  5. Passivation of carbon steel through mercury implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment, in which carbon steel samples were implanted with mercury ions from a broad beam ion source and their corrosion characteristics in air were evaluated, is described. Mercury doses of a few mA min/square cm at energies of a few hundred electron volts are shown to effect significant improvements in the corrosion resistance of the treated surfaces. In a warm moist environment the onset of rusting was extended from 15 min. for an untreated sample to approximately 30 hrs. for one implanted at a dose of 33 mA min/square cm with 1000 eV mercury ions.

  6. A review of the sources of uncertainties in atmospheric mercury modeling II. Mercury surface and heterogeneous chemistry - A missing link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subir, Mahamud; Ariya, Parisa A.; Dastoor, Ashu P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite direct and indirect evidence suggesting that heterogeneous surfaces potentially play a key role in mercury chemistry, there is little known about mercury reactions and equilibrium processes that take place at atmospherically relevant surfaces. The lack of knowledge of mercury surface chemistry is a major gap for adequate modeling of mercury cycling. In part I of this review, we assessed the sources of uncertainty associated with existing kinetic parameters. In this part, we present evidence that supports surface-mercury interactions in the ecosystem elucidating the importance of heterogeneous and interfacial chemistry from a fundamental viewpoint. Consequently, we draw attention to the chemical processes that are missing and/or are inadequately incorporated in the atmospheric mercury models and highlight some of the recent advances in this field. We reveal that adsorption equilibrium of mercury species, most of which are not well characterized, to natural surfaces such as atmospheric particles and air/water interface are not known. Gas-liquid partitioning of mercury and its compounds are not adequately implemented. Equilibrium constants for aqueous phase complex formation with dissolved organic matters and formation of possible solid mercury clusters and nanoparticles are not considered in the global models. Potential heterogeneous mercury reduction reactions that can be important in mercury cycling require further evaluation which includes characterizing the influence of surfaces on mercury chemistry. The implementation of chemical processes for which information is available but not currently included in the models bears the potential of greatly reducing the uncertainties that are currently present in the models.

  7. 77 FR 31728 - Elemental Mercury Used in Barometers, Manometers, Hygrometers, and Psychrometers; Significant New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ...EPA is promulgating a significant new use rule (SNUR) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for elemental mercury use in barometers, manometers, hygrometers, and psychrometers. This action will require persons who intend to manufacture (including import) or process elemental mercury for an activity that is designated as a significant new use by this final rule to notify EPA at least 90......

  8. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations--EPA. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Today's action suspends the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization and Fumigation Operations (EO NESHAP) requirements for chamber exhaust and aeration room vents. The suspension allows affected sources subject to the EO NESHAP to defer compliance with the NESHAP requirements for chamber exhaust and aeration room vents for one year until December 6, 1999. This suspension does not affect the requirement for sources subject to the EO NESHAP to comply with provisions for sterilizer vents by December 6, 1998. This action does not change the level of the standards or the intent of the NESHAP promulgated in 1994. PMID:10338881

  9. Protocol for estimating historic atmospheric mercury deposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The varied chemical phases and forms of mercury promote its transport and cycling in the environment between water, soil, and air. Many sources--both natural and anthropogenic--contribute to the atmospheric mercury cycle, while several factors modify its deposition and subsequent transformation, distribution, and bioaccumulation. This report introduces a protocol for quantifying spatial and temporal mercury deposition and improving site-to-site comparability of mercury accumulation measurements in natural archives. The report describes the selection of appropriate coring sites to measure mercury accumulation, field methods for lake sediment coring, analysis of sediments, and interpretation of the results from stratigraphic mercury analyses. The new EPRI protocol is expected not only to spur research methods but also to facilitate the global picture of historic mercury deposition needed by policymakers in public organizations, industry, and government.

  10. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  11. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  12. Medical devices; ear, nose, and throat devices; classification of the transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system (TACHAS) into class II (special controls). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance document that will serve as the special control for the device. The agency is taking this action in response to a petition submitted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The agency is classifying this device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:12422884

  13. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-07-01

    , such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, Chinese brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 parts-per-million (ppm) and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, or Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. We have observed mercury translocation from roots to shoot for Chinese fern and two Indian mustard varieties. (authors)

  14. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  15. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-01-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users. PMID:11564612

  16. MERCURY SPECIATION SAMPLING AT NEW CENTURY ENERGY'S VALMONT STATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2000-04-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the ''Mercury Study Report to Congress'' and ''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units''. The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam electric generating units. Although these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that the EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. Therefore, it was concluded that mercury controls at some point may be necessary. EPA also indicated that additional research/information was necessary before any definitive statement could be made. In an effort to determine the amount and types of mercury being emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power plants, EPA in late 1998 issued an information collection request (ICR) that required all coal-fired power plants to analyze their coal and submit the results to EPA on a quarterly basis. In addition, about 85 power stations were required to measure the speciated mercury concentration in the flue gas. These plants were selected on the basis of plant configuration and coal type. The Valmont Station owned and operated by New Century Energy in Boulder, Colorado, was selected for detailed mercury speciation of the flue gas as part of the ICR process. New Century Energy, in a tailored collaboration with EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy, contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to do a study evaluating

  17. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  18. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Farhana; Rizwi, Shamim J; Haq, Soghra K; Khan, Rizwan H

    2005-09-01

    Post Minamata incident there has been awareness about mercury toxicity even among the general public. Previous researches contributed a vast amount of data regarding acute mercury exposure, but gradually information about the low dose [Ninomiya, T., Ohmori, H., Hashimoto, K., Tsuruta, K., Ekino, S., 1995. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoninig outside of Minamata. Environ. Res. 70 (1) 47-50; Lebel, J., Mergler, D., Lucotte, M., Amorim, M., Dolbec, J., Miranda, D., Arantes, G., Rheault, I., Pichet, P., 1996. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-levels of methylmercury. Neurotoxicology 17 (1) 157-167] of mercury toxicity has been trickling in. With mercury contaminating rain-, ground- and sea-water no one is safe. Polluted water leads to mercury laced fish, meat and vegetable. In aquatic environments, inorganic mercury is microbiologically transformed into lipophilic organic compound 'methylmercury'. This transformation makes mercury more prone to biomagnification in food chains. Consequently, populations with traditionally high dietary intake of food originating from fresh or marine environment have highest dietary exposure to mercury. Extensive research done on locals across the globe have already established this, persons who routinely consume fish or a particular species of fish are at an increased risk of methylmercury poisoning. The easy access of the toxicant to man through multiple pathways air, water, food, cosmetic products and even vaccines increase the exposure. Foetus and children are more susceptible towards mercury toxicity. Mothers consuming diet containing mercury pass the toxicant to foetus and to infants through breast milk. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported among children exposed to presumably safe mercury levels. Similarly, disruption of attention, fine motor function and verbal

  19. GASEOUS ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID REMOVAL IN ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...

  20. SOURCES OF MERCURY WET DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the fall of 2002, an enhanced air monitoring site was established in Steubenville, Ohio as part of a multi-year comprehensive mercury monitoring and source apportionment study to investigate the impact of local and regional coal combustion sources on atmospheric mercury deposi...

  1. Is mercury from Hawaiian volcanoes a natural source of pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, A.; Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis shows that 98% of mercury from Hawaiian fumaroles is gaseous or solid particles less than 0.3 micron in diameter. It is suggested that both natural and industrial sources may be contributors to mercury pollution of the air in Hawaii.

  2. EFFECTS OF FLUE GAS CONSTITUENTS ON MERCURY SPECIATION. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, there has been considerable interest in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued both the Mercury Study Report to Congress and the Study of Hazardous ...

  3. Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-09-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

  4. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  5. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, Mae S.; Coolbaugh, M. F.; Engle, M. A.; Fitzgerald, B. C.; Keislar, R. E.; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Nacht, D. M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J. J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, Hong; Zehner, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 {micro}g Hg g{sup -1}). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) to tens of thousands of ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid western United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  6. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski

    2007-11-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Detection of concealed mercury with thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.

    1994-08-18

    In the United States today, governments at all levels and the citizenry are paying increasing attention to the effects, both real and hypothetical, of industrial activity on the environment. Responsible modem industries, reflecting this heightened public and regulatory awareness, are either substituting benign materials for hazardous ones, or using hazardous materials only under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, present-day environmental consciousness dictates that we deal responsibly with legacy wastes. The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities at which mercury was used or processed presents a variety of challenges. Elemental mercury is a liquid at room temperature and readily evaporates in air. In large mercury-laden buildings, droplets may evaporate from one area only to recondense in other cooler areas. The rate of evaporation is a function of humidity and temperature; consequently, different parts of a building may be sources or sinks of mercury at different times of the day or even the year. Additionally, although mercury oxidizes in air, the oxides decompose upon heating. Hence, oxides contained within pipes or equipment, may be decomposed when those pipes and equipment are cut with saws or torches. Furthermore, mercury seeps through the pores and cracks in concrete blocks and pads, and collects as puddles and blobs in void spaces within and under them.

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  12. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  13. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  14. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  15. Antarctic winter mercury and ozone depletion events over sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Jourdain, B.; Abrahamsson, K.; Granfors, A.; Ahnoff, M.; Dommergue, A.; Méjean, G.; Jacobi, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    During atmospheric mercury and ozone depletion events in the springtime in polar regions gaseous elemental mercury and ozone undergo rapid declines. Mercury is quickly transformed into oxidation products, which are subsequently removed by deposition. Here we show that such events also occur during Antarctic winter over sea ice areas, leading to additional deposition of mercury. Over four months in the Weddell Sea we measured gaseous elemental, oxidized, and particulate-bound mercury, as well as ozone in the troposphere and total and elemental mercury concentrations in snow, demonstrating a series of depletion and deposition events between July and September. The winter depletions in July were characterized by stronger correlations between mercury and ozone and larger formation of particulate-bound mercury in air compared to later spring events. It appears that light at large solar zenith angles is sufficient to initiate the photolytic formation of halogen radicals. We also propose a dark mechanism that could explain observed events in air masses coming from dark regions. Br2 that could be the main actor in dark conditions was possibly formed in high concentrations in the marine boundary layer in the dark. These high concentrations may also have caused the formation of high concentrations of CHBr3 and CH2I2 in the top layers of the Antarctic sea ice observed during winter. These new findings show that the extent of depletion events is larger than previously believed and that winter depletions result in additional deposition of mercury that could be transferred to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. Release flux of mercury from different environmental surfaces in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingyong; He, Lei; Shi, Xiaojun; Wei, Shiqiang; Feng, Xinbin

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was conducted to estimate mercury emission to the atmosphere from different environmental surfaces and to assess its contribution to the local mercury budget in Chongqing, China. Mercury flux was measured using dynamic flux chamber (DFC) at six soil sites of three different areas (mercury polluted area, farmland and woodland) and four water surfaces from August 2003 to April 2004. The mercury emission fluxes were 3.5+/-1.2-8.4+/-2.5 ng m(-2) h(-1) for three shaded forest sites, 85.8+/-32.4 ng m(-2) h(-1) for farming field, 12.3+/-9.8-733.8+/-255 ng m(-2) h(-1) for grassland sites, and 5.9+/-12.6-618.6+/-339 ng m(-2) h(-1) for water surfaces. Mercury exchange fluxes were generally higher from air/water surfaces than from air/soil surfaces. The mercury negative fluxes were found in tow soil sites at overcast days (mean=-6.4+/-1.5 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The diurnal and seasonal variations of mercury flux were observed in all sites. The mercury emission responded positively to the solar radiation, but negatively to the relative humidity. The mercury flux from air/soil surfaces was significantly correlated with soil temperature, which was well described by an Arrhenius-type expression with activation energy of 31.1 kcal mol(-1). The annual mercury emission to the atmosphere from land surface is about 1.787 t of mercury in Chongqing. PMID:16524615

  17. Born Rule(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Urbasi

    2011-09-01

    This paper is based on work published in [1]. It describes a triple slit experiment using single photons that has been used to provide a bound on one of the most fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics i.e. Born's rule for probabilities [2]. In spite of being one of the most successful theories which describes various natural phenomena, quantum mechanics has enough intricacies and "weirdness" associated with it which makes many physicists believe that it may not be the final theory and hints towards the possibility of more generalized versions. Quantum interference as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment only occurs from pairs of paths. Even in multi-slit versions, interference can only occur between pairs of possibilities and increasing the number of slits does not increase the complexity of the theory that still remains second-order. However, more generalized versions of quantum mechanics may allow for multi-path i.e. higher than second order interference. This experiment also provides a bound on the magnitude of such higher order interference. We have been able to bound the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule.

  18. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  19. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  20. MERCURY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury is released from a variety of sources and exhibits a complicated chemistry. According to the Mercury Study Report to Congress, mercury fluxes and budgets in water, soil, and other media have increased by a factor of two to five over pre-industrial levels. The primary expo...

  1. Formation of Mercury Sulfide from Hg(II)-Thiolate Complexes in Natural Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Manceau, Alain; Lemouchi, Cyprien; Enescu, Mironel; Gaillot, Anne-Claire; Lanson, Martine; Magnin, Valérie; Glatzel, Pieter; Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R; Gautier-Luneau, Isabelle; Nagy, Kathryn L

    2015-08-18

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury-sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury-sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments. PMID:26168020

  2. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Palladium Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Kisor, Adam; Homer, Margie; Jewell, April; Manatt, Kenneth; Torres, Julia; Soler, Jessica; Taylor, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Palladium chloride films have been found to be useful as alternatives to the gold films heretofore used to detect airborne elemental mercury at concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb). Somewhat more specifically, when suitably prepared palladium chloride films are exposed to parts-per-billion or larger concentrations of airborne mercury, their electrical resistances change by amounts large enough to be easily measurable. Because airborne mercury adversely affects health, it is desirable to be able to detect it with high sensitivity, especially in enclosed environments in which there is a risk of leakage of mercury from lamps or other equipment. The detection of mercury by use of gold films involves the formation of gold/mercury amalgam. Gold films offer adequate sensitivity for detection of airborne mercury and could easily be integrated into an electronic-nose system designed to operate in the temperature range of 23 to 28 C. Unfortunately, in order to regenerate a gold-film mercury sensor, one must heat it to a temperature of 200 C for several minutes in clean flowing air. In preparation for an experiment to demonstrate the present sensor concept, palladium chloride was deposited from an aqueous solution onto sets of gold electrodes and sintered in air to form a film. Then while using the gold electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of the films, the films were exposed, at a temperature of 25 C, to humidified air containing mercury at various concentrations from 0 to 35 ppb (see figure). The results of this and other experiments have been interpreted as signifying that sensors of this type can detect mercury in room-temperature air at concentrations of at least 2.5 ppb and can readily be regenerated at temperatures <40 C.

  3. MERCURY CONTROL: PERFORMANCE AND COST STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA is required to propose MACT standards for controlling mercury emissions from electric utility boilers by December 2003. Under this requirement, costs of compliance using viable control options would need to be examine...

  4. Assessment of mercury presence and exposure in a lighthouse with a mercury drive system

    SciTech Connect

    van Netten, C.; Teschke, K.E.

    1988-02-01

    It is common practice for lighthouses with large Fresnel lenses to use mercury baths as a low-friction rotation mechanism. Some recent acute mercury poisonings and incidents of abnormal behavior in lighthouse keepers have drawn attention to the potential for chronic mercury poisoning in these workplaces. This study evaluated the distribution of mercury in a lighthouse on the Canadian west coast, and the exposure of its keepers and their spouses under two weather conditions. The urine mercury levels found in the lighthouse personnel were all less than would be expected in an occupationally exposed group (<4 ..mu..g/24 hr urine). Air concentrations in the lighthouse ranged from 4.4 to 26.3 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Swabbing showed considerable accumulation of mercury on surfaces in the area of the light rotation mechanism, as well as transport throughout the lighthouse. The mercury levels in this lighthouse appeared to be under control through effective convective ventilation and employee awareness. The study signals potential problems where precautions have not been taken, especially in situations where the keepers an their families live in the lighthouse.

  5. Where does that mercury come from? Assessing mercury speciation and bioaccumulation in terrestrial and aquatic amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury deposition and contamination in the United States, and elsewhere, is widespread and well-documented and continues to be a public-health issue of concern for certain sectors of the global human population. Documentation of the pervasiveness of this contaminant is a first step toward understanding the potential environmental health and ecological implications of mercury pollution. Identifying broad scale distribution patterns of mercury bioaccumulation can convey to regulators that certain ecosystems may be degraded and require development of policies and regulations that may reduce mercury emissions, and ultimately, improve air and water quality. A more synthesized, holistic, perspective on the mechanisms related to aquatic and terrestrial biogeochemistry linkages of fate, transport, and bioavailability of mercury in aquatic ecosystems will result from long term, multi-ecosystem monitoring programs coupled with process-oriented research questions. Here I present total and monomethylmercury field data from experimental (NSF-LTER) and reference (NPS, USFS) ecosystems in the conterminous United States. Using these measurements I evaluate the use of stable isotope and uncertainty analysis techniques for comparative modeling purposes in aquatic and terrestrial amphibian species. Additionally, I present a synthesis of mercury speciation, bioaccumulation, distribution, and ecotoxicity in terrestrial and aquatic species and ecosystems across a broad gradient of physical, climatic, and biotic settings. The role of scale, disturbance mechanisms, geography, and abiotic and biotic factors governing mercury distribution and bioaccumulation in the different ecosystem types will also be discussed.

  6. Mercury in the National Parks: Current Status and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, C.; Blett, T. F.; Morris, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed contaminant that can harm human and wildlife health, and threaten resources the National Park Service (NPS) is charged with protecting. Due in part to emissions and long-range transport from coal burning power plants, even remote national park environments receive mercury deposition from the atmosphere. Given the concern regarding mercury, there are and have been many mercury monitoring initiatives in national parks to determine the risk from mercury contamination. This includes the study of litter fall at Acadia National Park (Maine), snow at Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), heron eggs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana), bat hair at Mammoth Cave National Park (Kentucky), and panthers at Everglades National Park (Florida). Wet deposition is also measured at 16 national parks as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Network / Mercury Deposition Network. Results from these studies indicate that mercury deposition is increasing or is elevated in many national parks, and fish and other biota have been found to contain levels of mercury above toxicity thresholds for impacts to both humans and wildlife. Current research coordinated by the NPS Air Resources Division (ARD) in Denver, Colorado, on the effects of mercury includes broad-scale assessments of mercury in fish, dragonfly larvae, and songbirds across 30+ national parks. Fish provide the trophic link to human and wildlife health, dragonfly larvae can describe fine-scale differences in mercury levels, and songbirds shed light on the risk to terrestrial ecosystems. External project partners include the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Maine, and the Biodiversity Research Institute. In addition, the dragonfly project engages citizen scientists in the collection of dragonfly larvae, supporting the NPS Centennial Initiative by connecting people to parks and advancing the educational mission, and increasing public awareness about mercury impacts. Much of

  7. Mercury enrichment and its effects on atmospheric emissions in cement plants of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2014-08-01

    The cement industry is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study of three typical Chinese cement plants, mercury in kiln flue gas was sampled using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), and solid samples were analyzed. Particulate matter recycling, preheating of raw materials, and the use of coal and flue gas desulfurization derived gypsum contributed to emissions of Hg in the air and to accumulation in cement. Over 90% of the mercury input was emitted into the atmosphere. Mercury emission factors were 0.044-0.072 g/t clinker for the test plants. The major species emitted into the atmosphere from cement plants is oxidized mercury, accounting for 61%-91% of the total mercury in flue gas. The results of this study help improve the accuracy of the mercury emission inventory in China and provide useful information for developing mercury controls.

  8. Reaching Part Per Trillion Clean-Up Criteria for Mercury in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K. T.; Kosny, K.; Drescher, S. R.; Southworth, G. R.; Hensley, J. F.

    2003-02-24

    In the last couple of years, emphasis on environmental mercury contamination and elimination of mercury use has increased. The U.S. Department of Energy has for many decades maintained a stockpile of elemental mercury for operations and, as a consequence of its routine use, spills have occurred. These historical spills have resulted in some contamination of water streams and soils. In this work we examine a newly developed technique for removal of mercury from contaminated groundwater. In this application the mercury concentration was approximately 2.3 parts per billion and the treatment criterion was 200 parts per trillion. Several forms of mercury species contributed to the contamination. The treatment technique developed for this water was to convert all forms of mercury, through a series of fast chemical reactions, to elemental mercury, which was air-stripped from the water. This paper presents preliminary laboratory work on the method.

  9. Modeling dynamic exchange of gaseous elemental mercury at polar sunrise.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Ashu P; Davignon, Didier; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Steffen, Alexandra; Ariya, Parisa A

    2008-07-15

    At polar sunrise, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) undergoes an exceptional dynamic exchange in the air and at the snow surface during which GEM can be rapidly removed from the atmosphere (the so-called atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs)) as well as re-emitted from the snow within a few hours to days in the Polar Regions. Although high concentrations of total mercury in snow following AMDEs is well documented, there is very little data available on the redox transformation processes of mercury in the snow and the fluxes of mercury at the air/snow interface. Therefore, the net gain of mercury in the Polar Regions as a result of AMDEs is still an open question. We developed a new version of the global mercury model, GRAHM, which includes for the first time bidirectional surface exchange of GEM in Polar Regions in spring and summer by developing schemes for mercury halogen oxidation, deposition, and re-emission. Also for the first time, GOME satellite data-derived boundary layer concentrations of BrO have been used in a global mercury model for representation of halogen mercury chemistry. Comparison of model simulated and measured atmospheric concentrations of GEM at Alert, Canada, for 3 years (2002-2004) shows the model's capability in simulating the rapid cycling of mercury during and after AMDEs. Brooks et al. (1) measured mercury deposition, reemission, and net surface gain fluxes of mercury at Barrow, AK, during an intensive measurement campaign for a 2 week period in spring (March 25 to April 7, 2003). They reported 1.7, 1.0 +/- 0.2, and 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg m(-2) deposition, re-emission, and net surface gain, respectively. Using the optimal configuration of the model, we estimated 1.8 microg m(-2) deposition, 1.0 microg m(-2) re-emission, and 0.8 microg m(-2) net surface gain of mercury for the same time period at Barrow. The estimated net annual accumulation of mercury within the Arctic Circle north of 66.5 degrees is approximately 174 t with +/-7 t of

  10. Developing Isotope Tools for Identifying Mercury Mining Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster van Groos, P. G.; Esser, B. K.; Williams, R. W.; Hunt, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Mining operations in California during the past two centuries have resulted in widespread mercury contamination. Source control strategies are difficult and expensive to implement, in part because links between specific mercury sources and exposures are often uncertain. Examination of mercury’s stable isotopes can help resolve this issue. Sources with distinct isotope compositions may be traced through the environment. Mercury mining operations are predicted to have led to waste tailings, mercury metal products, and air emissions with different isotope compositions as a result of inefficient mercury extraction and recovery from ores. The predicted differences in isotope composition, based on estimated kinetic and diffusion isotope effects, are greater than the precision of current analytical methods using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometers (MC-ICP-MS). As such, mercury isotope measurements may help identify mercury originating from different mining operations. To support a mechanistic approach to mercury isotope fractionation, the isotope effects of diffusion through solids and gases are being investigated experimentally. Besides demonstrating the utility of mercury isotope analysis for source identification, this work is providing a mechanistic basis for differences in isotope compositions.

  11. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  12. Development of mercury control technology for coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, D.C.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1995-08-01

    The emission of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) from various industrial processes has emerged as a major environmental issue that was singled out for particular attention in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In particular, mercury emissions are the subject of several current EPA studies because of concerns over possible serious effects on human health. Some of those emissions originate in the combustion of coal, which contains trace amounts of mercury, and are likely to be the subject of control requirements in the relatively near future. Data collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at operating electric-power plants have shown that conventional flue-gas cleanup (FGC) technologies are not very effective in controlling emissions of mercury in general, and are particularly poor at controlling emissions of elemental mercury. This paper gives an overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on improving the capture of mercury in flue gas through the use of dry sorbents and/or wet scrubbers. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing elemental mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon; chemically treated mineral substrates have the potential to be developed into effective and economical mercury sorbents; sorbents treated with different chemicals respond in significantly different ways to changes in flue-gas temperature.

  13. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF - 781KB] En Español [PDF - 6.6MB] What did ATSDR find? For children, most elemental mercury exposures ... that exposed children to elemental mercury. The report did not include a review of mercury exposures from ...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII...; cracks or spalling in cell room floors, pillars, or beams; caustic leaks; liquid mercury accumulations or... through a detection cell where ultraviolet light at 253.7 nanometers (nm) is directed...

  15. Diminished mercury emission from waters with duckweed cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-06-01

    Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and limits gas exchange at the water-air interface by decreasing the area of open water surface. Experiments were conducted to determine whether duckweed decreases mercury emission by limiting gas diffusion across the water-air interface and attenuating light, or, conversely, enhances emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. Microcosm flux chamber experiments indicate that duckweed decreases mercury emission from the water surface compared to open water controls. Fluxes under duckweed were 17-67% lower than in controls, with lower fluxes occurring at higher percent cover. The decrease in mercury emission suggests that duckweed may limit emission through one of several mechanisms, including limited gas transport across the air-water interface, decreased photoreactions due to light attenuation, and plant-mercury interactions. The results of this experiment were applied to a model lake system to illustrate the magnitude of potential effects on mercury cycling. The mercury retained in the lake as a result of hindered emission may increase bioaccumulation potential in lakes with duckweed cover.

  16. Mercury binding sites in thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica.

    PubMed

    Billinge, Simon J L; McKimmy, Emily J; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2005-06-15

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO(2))(1)(-)(x)()(LSiO(1.5))(x)(), where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S < or = 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu(t))(2). At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands. PMID:15941284

  17. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  18. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. For these data, diffusion from the upper surface of the drop is a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  19. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  20. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  1. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  2. 76 FR 56127 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... of the Mercury Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this...

  3. Mercury regulation, fate, transport, transformation, and abatement within cement manufacturing facilities: review.

    PubMed

    Sikkema, Joel K; Alleman, James E; Ong, Say Kee; Wheelock, Thomas D

    2011-09-15

    The USEPA's 2010 mercury rule, which would reduce emissions from non-hazardous waste burning cement manufacturing facilities by an estimated 94%, represents a substantial regulatory challenge for the industry. These regulations, based on the performance of facilities that benefit from low concentrations of mercury in their feedstock and fuel inputs (e.g., limestone concentration was less than 25 ppb at each facility), will require non-compliant facilities to develop innovative controls. Control development is difficult because each facility's emissions must be assessed and simple correlation to mercury concentrations in limestone or an assumption of 'typically observed' mercury concentrations in inputs are unsupported by available data. Furthermore, atmospheric emissions are highly variable due to an internal control mechanism that captures and loops mercury between the high-temperature kiln and low-temperature raw materials mill. Two models have been reported to predict emissions; however, they have not been benchmarked against data from the internal components that capture mercury and do not distinguish between mercury species, which have different sorption and desorption properties. Control strategies include technologies applied from other industries and technologies developed specifically for cement facilities. Reported technologies, listed from highest to lowest anticipated mercury removal, include purge of collected dust or raw meal, changes in feedstocks and fuels, wet scrubbing, cleaning of mercury enriched dust, dry sorbent injection, and dry and semi-dry scrubbing. The effectiveness of these technologies is limited by an inadequate understanding of sorption, desorption, and mercury species involved in internal loop mercury control. To comply with the mercury rule and to improve current mercury control technologies and practices, research is needed to advance fundamental knowledge regarding mercury species sorption and desorption dynamics on materials

  4. Substorms on Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Ness, N. F.; Yeates, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative similarities between some of the variations in the Mercury encounter data and variations in the corresponding regions of the earth's magnetosphere during substorms are pointed out. The Mariner 10 data on Mercury show a strong interaction between the solar wind and the plant similar to a scaled down version of that for the earth's magnetosphere. Some of the features observed in the night side Mercury magnetosphere suggest time dependent processes occurring there.

  5. Strategies for the Engineered Phytoremediation of Mercury and Arsenic Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Dhankher, Om Parkash; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-03-26

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, transport, detoxify and/or sequester pollutants of the land, water or air. Mercury and arsenic are among the worst environmental pollutants, adversely affecting the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. We have demonstrated that plants can be engineered to take up and tolerate several times the levels of mercury and arsenic that would kill most plant species. Starting with methylmercury and/or ionic mercury contamination, mercury is detoxified, stored below or above ground, and even volatilized as part of the transpiration process and keeping it out of the food chain. Initial efforts with arsenate demonstrate that it can be taken up, transported aboveground, electrochemically reduced to arsenite in leaves and sequestered in thiol-rich peptide complexes. The transgenic mercury remediation strategies also worked in cultivated and wild plant species like canola, rice and cottonwood.

  6. Mercury species measured atop the Moody Tower TRAMP site, Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Steven; Luke, Winston; Cohen, Mark; Kelly, Paul; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury speciation was monitored within Houston, Texas, USA, August 6-October 14, 2006 as part of the TexAQS Radical and Aerosol Measurement Program (TRAMP). On average, all mercury levels were significantly elevated compared to a rural Gulf of Mexico coastal site. Concentrations varied from very clean to very dirty. Multi-day periods of stagnant or low-wind conditions brought elevated concentrations of all mercury species, whereas multi-day periods of strong winds, particularly southerly winds off the Gulf of Mexico, brought very low values of mercury species. Over the entire mercury measurement period, the daily averages of mercury species showed distinct and consistent relationships with the average planetary boundary layer dynamics, with gaseous elemental and particulate-bound mercury near-surface concentrations enhanced by a shallow nocturnal boundary layer, and reactive gaseous mercury concentration enhanced by midday convective boundary layer air entrainment transporting air aloft to the surface. Mercury concentrations were not significantly correlated with known products of combustion, likely indicating non-combustion mercury sources from the Houston area petrochemical complexes. On the morning of August 31, 2006 an observed emission event at a refinery complex on the Houston Ship Channel resulted in extremely high concentrations of aerosol mass and particulate-bound mercury at the TRAMP measurement site 20 km downwind.

  7. Screening Test Results of Fatigue Properties of type 316LN Stainless Steel in Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.

    1999-05-20

    Fully reversed, load-controlled uniaxial push-pull fatigue tests at room temperature have been performed in air and in mercury on specimens of type 316LN stainless steel. The results indicate a significant influence of mercury on fatigue properties. Compared to specimens tested in air, specimens tested in mercury had reproducibly shorter fatigue lives (by a factor of 2-3), and fracture faces exhibiting intergranular cracking. Preliminary indications are that crack initiation in each environment is similar, but mercury significantly accelerates crack propagation.

  8. Evaluation of an offline method for the analysis of atmospheric reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutter, A.P.; Hanford, K.L.; Zwers, J.T.; Perillo-Nicholas, A. L.; Schauer, J.J.; Olson, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg) were collected in Milwaukee, WI, between April 2004 and May 2005, and in Riverside, CA, between July 25 and August 7, 2005 using sorbent and filter substrates. The substrates were analyzed for mercury by thermal desorption analysis (TDA) using a purpose-built instrument. Results from this offline-TDA method were compared with measurements using a real-time atmospheric mercury analyzer. RGM measurements made with the offline-TDA agreed well with a commercial real-time method. However, the offline TDA reported PHg concentrations 2.7 times higher than the real-time method, indicating evaporative losses might be occurring from the real-time instrument during sample collection. TDA combined with reactive mercury collection on filter and absorbent substrates was cheap, relatively easy to use, did not introduce biases due to a semicontinuous sample collection strategy, and had a dynamic range appropriate for use in rural and urban locations. The results of this study demonstrate that offline-TDA is a feasible method for collecting reactive mercury concentrations in a large network of filter-based samplers. Copyright 2008 Air & Waste Management Association.

  9. Assessing the contribution of natural sources to regional atmospheric mercury budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, M.S.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Contributions to the global atmospheric mercury budget originate from natural and anthropogenic sources. Constraining inputs from anthropogenic point sources has been the emphasis of past research leaving the contribution from diffuse natural and anthropogenic mercury enriched landscapes poorly constrained and underestimated. From September 1--4, 1997 mercury researchers convened in Reno, NV, US to intercompare methods used to determine in situ mercury flux from a naturally enriched landscape. Data collected indicate that naturally mercury-enriched areas constitute a significant atmospheric Hg source term. Mercury fluxes of 30 to 2,000 ng/m{sup 2} h were measured at the Steamboat springs Geothermal Area. These values are one to three orders of magnitude greater than that applied for natural sources in global mercury budgets. Air concentrations measured in the area indicate that natural sources can increase ambient levels above background concentrations. Assessment of these and other data indicate that natural sources constitute a significant source of atmospheric mercury that is available to the global mercury budget, and that the strength of the source is influenced significantly by environmental factors. Determining the contribution of mercury to the atmosphere from diffuse terrestrial sources is necessary to develop local and regional baselines for environmental regulations and risk assessments, and valid emission inventories. A scaling up mercury fluxes measured for diffuse terrestrial surfaces suggests that the natural atmospheric mercury source term in the US is comparable to the anthropogenic source term.

  10. Determination of Mercury Exposure among Dental Health Workers in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri; Phethuayluk, Piriyaluk; Maneelok, Supandee; Thepaksorn, Phayong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the mercury exposure levels in dental health workers that work in dental clinics. The study evaluated the airborne and urinary mercury levels, the type of work done in the clinic, and the effect of mercury exposure on health of dental health workers. Material and Methods. A case-control study was conducted with 124 exposed and 124 matched nonexposed subjects. Personal and area samplings were conducted to quantify mercury concentrations by solid sorbent tube. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results and Discussion. 17.6% (n = 32/182) of the air samples were higher than the occupational exposure limit (OEL). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary mercury levels included dietary consumption (fish or seafood), duration of work (yrs), work position, personal protection equipment used (PPE), and personal hygiene behaviors. Significant correlations were observed between mercury levels in urine and mercury in storage areas (r = 0.499, P < 0.05) and between mercury levels in urine and airborne mercury in personal samplings (r = 0.878, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce mercury exposure. PMID:25349606

  11. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  12. PATHWAYS OF MERCURY EVASION FROM CONTAMINATED WETLANDS: A GLOBALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally occurring pollutant that bioaccumulates and persists in the environment. The global Hg cycle is highly dependant on air/water exchange, as it is one of the primary pathways to deliver Hg to the atmosphere. Although open water systems appear to be net...

  13. Modeling Mercury in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Parks, J M; Smith, J C

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively nontoxic, other forms such as Hg(2+) and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg(2+) can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg(2+) to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed molecular picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here, we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intraprotein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand-binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confer mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multiscale model of environmental mercury cycling. PMID:27497164

  14. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  15. Assessing and Managing Methylmercury Risks Associated With Power Plant Mercury Emissions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or “hot spots.” The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little

  16. Mercury sensitisation: review, relevance and a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bains, V K; Loomba, K; Loomba, A; Bains, R

    2008-10-11

    Eczematous eruptions may be produced through topical contact with mercury and by systemic absorption in mercury sensitive individuals. Mercury is considered a weak sensitiser and contact with mercury salts such as chloride or ammonium chloride may cause hypersensitivity leading to contact dermatitis or Coomb's Type IV hypersensitivity reactions. The typical manifestation is an urticarial or erythematous rash, and pruritus on the face and flexural aspects of limbs, followed by progression to dermatitis. True allergy to mercury is rare but is more common in females. Exposure to mercury vapour produced in operating rooms is the main concern for dentists. Every effort should be made to avoid contact with mercury vapour if possible by using barrier techniques, reducing the temperature of the operating room and of the amalgam restoration. Air conditioning and proper ventilation of the operating room, the use of coolant sprays, good suction and proper handling of amalgam waste is recommended. Various reports show the use of MELISA (memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay) and patch tests in determining mercury sensitivity. Topical application of glucocorticoids and dimethisone is helpful. PMID:18849934

  17. Estimating contribution of precipitation scavenging of atmospheric particulate mercury to mercury wet deposition in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Asakura, Kazuo

    Mercury wet deposition is dependent on both the scavenging of divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and atmospheric particulate mercury (Hg(p)) by precipitation. Estimating the contribution of precipitation scavenging of RGM and Hg(p) is important for better understanding the causes of the regional and seasonal variations in mercury wet deposition. In this study, the contribution of Hg(p) scavenging was estimated on the basis of the scavenging ratios of other trace elements (i.e., Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and V) existing entirely in particulate form. Their wet deposition fluxes and concentrations in air, which were measured concurrently from April 2004 to March 2005 at 10 sites in Japan, were used in this estimation. The monthly wet deposition flux of mercury at each site correlated with the amount of monthly precipitation, whereas the Hg(p) concentrations in air tended to decrease during summer. There was a significant correlation ( P<0.001) among the calculated monthly average scavenging ratios of trace elements, and the values in each month at each site were similar. Therefore, it is assumed the monthly scavenging ratio of Hg(p) is equivalent to the mean value of other trace elements. Using this scavenging ratio ( W), the wet deposition flux ( F) due to Hg(p) scavenging in each month was calculated by F= WKP, where K and P are the Hg(p) concentration and amount of precipitation, respectively. Relatively large fluxes due to Hg(p) scavenging were observed at a highly industrial site and at sites on the Japan Sea coast, which are strongly affected by the local sources and the long-range transport from the Asian continent, respectively. However, on average, at the 10 sites, the contribution of Hg(p) scavenging to the annual mercury deposition flux was 26%, suggesting that mercury wet deposition in Japan is dominated by RGM scavenging. This RGM should originate mainly from the in situ oxidation of Hg 0 in the atmosphere.

  18. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  19. Regional and global aspects of the mercury cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Porcella, D.B.; Levin, L.; Allan, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Source-exposure-effect paradigms for risk assessment of pollutants has worked well in most cases. How well does it work for mercury, an atmophilic element with sizable natural as well as anthropogenic sources and complex chemistry, found throughout the globe at extremely low concentrations (picomolar) in air and water and somewhat higher concentrations (nanomolar) in soil and biota? The paradigm seems to operate quite well with mercury, but the complexity of mercury cycling can overwhelm simple interpretations, requiring development of additional theory and substantial field studies and intercomparisons.

  20. Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

    2009-02-28

    In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

  1. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  2. Blood Mercury Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of mercury in the blood of segments of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2008. Mercury can cause developmental and neurological problems, especially in children. This indicator shows how exposure to this environmental contaminant has change...

  3. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD) is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001 2005 time frame. ORD will use it to ...

  4. Mercury On Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge spell out the words 'Mercury 9' on the ship's flight deck while on the way to the recovery area where astronaut Gordon Cooper is expected to splash down in his 'Faith 7' Mercury space capsule.

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  6. Gaseous mercury release during steam curing of aerated concretes that contain fly ash and activated carbon sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Ping Sun; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; Panuwat Taerakul; William E. Wolfe

    2008-09-15

    Gaseous mercury released from aerated concrete during both presteam curing at 25{sup o}C and steam curing at 80{sup o}C was measured in controlled laboratory experiments. Mercury release originated from two major components in the concrete mixture: (1) class F coal fly ash and (2) a mixture of the fly ash and powdered activated carbon onto which elemental mercury was adsorbed. Mercury emitted during each curing cycle was collected on iodated carbon traps in a purge-and-trap arrangement and subsequently measured by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Through 3 h of presteam curing, the release of mercury from the freshly prepared mixture was less than 0.03 ng/kg of concrete. Releases of total mercury over the 21 h steam curing process ranged from 0.4 to 5.8 ng of mercury/kg of concrete and depended upon mercury concentrations in the concrete. The steam-cured concrete had a higher mercury release rate (ng kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}) compared to air-cured concrete containing fly ash, but the shorter curing interval resulted in less total release of mercury from the steam-cured concrete. The mercury flux from exposed concrete surfaces to mercury-free air ranged from 0.77 to 11.1 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, which was similar to mercury fluxes for natural soils to ambient air of 4.2 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} reported by others. Less than 0.022% of the total quantity of mercury present from all mercury sources in the concrete was released during the curing process, and therefore, nearly all of the mercury was retained in the concrete. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Icelandic geothermal activity and the mercury of the Greenland icecap.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Thorarinsson, F.

    1973-01-01

    Aerometric studies concerning the level of atmospheric mercury were conducted at a number of sites in Iceland during June and July 1972. Samples from widely separated locations yielded Hg concentrations well above the range commonly cited for unpolluted air. Atmospheric mercury may be introduced in part by degassing fluid magmas. However, the release from fine ash could also serve as a vehicle. It is pointed out that from the mid-17th century to the present, Iceland has recorded nearly 50 volcanic eruptions.

  8. Seasonality of mercury in the Atlantic marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soerensen, Anne L.; Sunderland, Elsie; Skov, Henrik; Holmes, Christopher; Jacob, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Around one third of the mercury emissions today are from primary anthropogenic sources, with the remaining two-thirds from secondary reemissions of earlier deposition and natural sources (AMAP/UNEP 2008). Mercury exchange at the air-sea interface is important for the global distribution of atmospheric mercury as parts of deposited mercury will reenter the atmosphere through evasion. The exchange at the air-sea interface also affects the amount of inorganic mercury in the ocean and thereby the conversion to the neuro-toxic methylmercury. Here we combine new cruise measurements in the atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Atlantic Ocean (Northern Hemisphere) from the fall of 2006 and the spring of 2007 with existing data from cruises in the Atlantic Ocean since 1978. We observe from these data a seasonal cycle in Hg(0) concentrations in the Atlantic marine boundary later (MBL) that exhibits minimum concentrations during summer and high concentrations during fall to spring. These observations suggest a local, seasonally dependent Hg(0) source in the MBL that causes variability in concentrations above the open ocean. To further investigate controls on Hg(0) concentrations in the MBL, we developed an improved representation of oceanic air-sea exchange processes within the GEOS-Chem global 3-D biogeochemical mercury model. Specifically, we used new data on mercury redox reactions in the surface ocean as a function of biological and photochemical processes, and implemented new algorithms for mercury dynamics associated with suspended particles. Our coupled atmospheric-oceanic modeling results support the premise that oceanic evasion is a main driver controlling Hg(0) concentrations in the MBL. We also use the model to investigate what drivers the evasion across the air-sea interface on shorter timescales. This is done by tracking evasion rates and other model components on an hourly basis for chosen locations in the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  10. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for the capture of mercury in flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Wu, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research program on air toxics (mercury) control can be summarized as follows: (1) Mercury emissions from coal-fired combustors are generally in the range of 10--70 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and are highly variable. (2) Existing FGC technologies are only partially effective in controlling mercury emissions. (3) Lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing mercury. (4) Mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon. (5) Mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas. (6) Chemical pretreatment (with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon.

  11. Phyto extraction and accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soil contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.; Han, F.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.

    2007-07-01

    /kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species, such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 ppm and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contaminated HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in Oak Ridge flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. (authors)

  12. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  13. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS - Part 1: In-snow bromine activation and its impact on ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Staebler, R. M.; Dastoor, A. P.

    2013-08-01

    To provide a theoretical framework towards better understanding of ozone depletion events (ODEs) and atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) in the polar boundary layer, we have developed a one-dimensional model that simulates multiphase chemistry and transport of trace constituents from porous snowpack and through the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) as a unified system. In this paper, we describe a general configuration of the model and the results of simulations related to reactive bromine release from the snowpack and ODEs during the Arctic spring. The model employs a chemical mechanism adapted from the one previously used for the simulation of multiphase halogen chemistry involving deliquesced sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer. A common set of aqueous-phase reactions describe chemistry both in the liquid-like (or brine) layer on the grain surface of the snowpack and in "haze" aerosols mainly composed of sulfate in the atmosphere. The process of highly soluble/reactive trace gases, whether entering the snowpack from the atmosphere or formed via gas-phase chemistry in the snowpack interstitial air (SIA), is simulated by the uptake on brine-covered snow grains and subsequent reactions in the aqueous phase while being traveled vertically within the SIA. A "bromine explosion", by which, in a conventional definition, HOBr formed in the ambient air is deposited and then converted heterogeneously to Br2, is a dominant process of reactive bromine formation in the top 1 mm (or less) layer of the snowpack. Deeper in the snowpack, HOBr formed within the SIA leads to an in-snow bromine explosion, but a significant fraction of Br2 is also produced via aqueous radical chemistry in the brine on the surface of the snow grains. These top- and deeper-layer productions of Br2 both contribute to the Br2 release into the atmosphere, but the deeper-layer production is found to be more important for the net outflux of reactive bromine. Although ozone is removed via

  14. Predicted fate and transport of mercury emitted from utility boilers in the local atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.E.; Lyon, B.F.; Keating, M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1990 it was estimated that utility boilers accounted for approximately 21% of anthropogenic mercury emitted to the atmosphere in the US. To characterize the utility industry a series of model plants were developed. Using a modified version of the COMPDEP air model, the fate of the mercury emissions from the model plant developed to represent large coal-burning boilers was predicted. Estimated annual air concentrations at a hypothetical site 2.5 Km downwind from the model plant were 0.001 ng/m{sup 3} and the estimated annual mercury deposition rate was less than 10 ug/m{sup 2}/yr. Of the mercury emitted from this model plant, less than 5% percent is predicted to deposit within 50 Km of the emission source. The mercury remaining in the atmosphere is thought to become part of a regional and eventually global mass of atmospheric mercury.

  15. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  16. MERCURY MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1997 EPA Mercury Study Report to Congress discussed the magnitude of mercury emissions in the United States, and concluded that a plausible link exists between human activities that release mercury from industrial and combustion sources in the United States and methyl mercury c...

  17. Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in air and surface waters of the Yellow Sea during late spring and late fall 2012: concentration, spatial-temporal distribution and air/sea flux.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Sea in East Asia receives great Hg input from regional emissions. However, Hg cycling in this marine system is poorly investigated. In late spring and late fall 2012, we determined gaseous elemental Hg (GEM or Hg(0)) in air and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM, mainly Hg(0)) in surface waters to explore the spatial-temporal variations of Hg(0) and further to estimate the air/sea Hg(0) flux in the Yellow Sea. The results showed that the GEM concentrations in the two cruises were similar (spring: 1.86±0.40 ng m(-3); fall: 1.84±0.50 ng m(-3)) and presented similar spatial variation pattern with elevated concentrations along the coast of China and lower concentrations in the open ocean. The DGM concentrations of the two cruises were also similar with 27.0±6.8 pg L(-1) in the spring cruise and 28.2±9.0 pg L(-1) in the fall cruise and showed substantial spatial variation. The air/sea Hg(0) fluxes in the spring cruise and fall cruise were estimated to be 1.06±0.86 ng m(-2) h(-1) and 2.53±2.12 ng m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The combination of this study and our previous summer cruise showed that the summer cruise presented enhanced values of GEM, DGM and air/sea Hg(0) flux. The possible reason for this trend was that high solar radiation in summer promoted Hg(0) formation in seawater, and the high wind speed during the summer cruise significantly increased Hg(0) emission from sea surface to atmosphere and subsequently enhanced the GEM levels. PMID:24999267

  18. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills. PMID:17568369

  19. Mercury vapour exposure during dental student training in amalgam removal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amalgam that is used for dental fillings contains approximately 50% elemental mercury. During dental student training, amalgam is often removed by drilling without the use of water spray and suction, which are protective measures in preventing mercury aerosol. In this study we measured mercury vapor levels in ambient air during amalgam removal as is typically performed in dental training. Methods Mercury vapor levels in ambient air were measured in a dental school laboratory during removal of amalgam fillings from artificial teeth set into a dental jaw simulator. Mercury vapor was measured under three conditions (25 measurements each): with the simultaneous use of water spray and suction, with the use of suction only, and with the use of neither suction nor water spray. These three conditions are all used during dental student training. Results were compared to Alberta occupational exposure limits for mercury vapor in order to assess potential occupational risk to students. Analysis of variance testing was used to compare data obtained under the three conditions. Results When water spray and suction were used, mercury vapor levels ranged from 4.0 to 19.0 μg/m3 (arithmetic mean = 8.0 μg/m3); when suction only was used, mercury vapor levels ranged from 14.0 to 999.0 (999.0 μg/m3 represents the high limit detection of the Jerome analyzer) (arithmetic mean = 141.0 μg/m3); when neither suction nor water was used, the vapor levels ranged from 34.0 to 796.0 μg/m3 (arithmetic mean = 214.0 μg/m3). Conclusions The Alberta Occupational Health and Safety threshold limit value for mercury vapor over an eight-hour time-weighted period is 25.0 μg/m3. The absolute ceiling for mercury vapor, not to be exceeded at any time, is 125.0 μg/m3. When both water spray and suction were used, mercury vapor levels were consistently below this threshold. When suction without water spray was used, mercury vapor levels exceeded the safety threshold 8% of

  20. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in Silesia, analysis using geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasina, Damian; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Data provided by the UNEP's report on mercury [1] shows that solid fuel combustion in significant source of mercury emission to air. Silesia, located in southwestern Poland, is notably affected by mercury emission due to being one of the most industrialized Polish regions: the place of coal mining, production of metals, stone mining, mineral quarrying and chemical industry. Moreover, Silesia is the region with high population density. People are exposed to severe risk of mercury emitted from both: industrial and domestic sources (i.e. small household furnaces). Small sources have significant contribution to total emission of mercury. Official and statistical analysis, including prepared for international purposes [2] did not provide data about spatial distribution of the mercury emitted to air, however number of analysis on Polish public power and energy sector had been prepared so far [3; 4]. The distribution of locations exposed for mercury emission from small domestic sources is interesting matter merging information from various sources: statistical, economical and environmental. This paper presents geostatistical approach to distibution of mercury emission from coal combustion. Analysed data organized in 2 independent levels: individual, bottom-up approach derived from national emission reporting system [5; 6] and top down - regional data calculated basing on official statistics [7]. Analysis, that will be presented, will include comparison of spatial distributions of mercury emission using data derived from sources mentioned above. Investigation will include three voivodeships of Poland: Lower Silesian, Opole (voivodeship) and Silesian using selected geostatistical methodologies including ordinary kriging [8]. References [1] UNEP. Global Mercury Assessment 2013: Sources, Emissions, Releases and Environmental Transport. UNEP Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [2] NCEM. Poland's Informative Inventory Report 2014. NCEM at the IEP-NRI, 2014. http

  1. Nevada STORMS project: Measurement of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Lindberg, S.; Marsik, F.; Casimir, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Edwards, G.; Hubble-Fitzgerald, C.; Kemp, R.; Kock, H.; Leonard, T.; London, J.; Majewski, M.; Montecinos, C.; Owens, J.; Pilote, M.; Poissant, L.; Rasmussen, P.; Schaedlich, F.; Schneeberger, D.; Schroeder, W.; Sommar, J.; Turner, R.; Vette, A.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Xiao, Z.; Zhang, H.

    1999-01-01

    Diffuse anthropogenic and naturally mercury-enriched areas represent long-lived sources of elemental mercury to the atmosphere. The Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS) project focused on the measurement of mercury emissions from a naturally enriched area. During the project, concurrent measurements of mercury fluxes from naturally mercury-enriched substrate were made September 1-4, 1997, using four micrometeorological methods and seven field flux chambers. Ambient air mercury concentrations ranged from 2 to nearly 200 ng m-3 indicating that the field site is a source of atmospheric mercury. The mean daytime mercury fluxes, during conditions of no precipitation, measured with field chambers were 50 to 360 ng m-2 h-1, and with the micrometeorological methods were 230 to 600 ng m-2 h-1. This wide range in mercury emission rates reflects differences in method experimental designs and local source strengths. Mercury fluxes measured by many field chambers were significantly different (p < 0.05) but linearly correlated. This indicates that field chambers responded similarly to environmental conditions, but differences in experimental design and site heterogeneity had a significant influence on the magnitude of mercury fluxes. Data developed during the field study demonstrated that field flux chambers are ideal for assessment of the physicochemical processes driving mercury flux and development of an understanding of the magnitude of the influence of individual factors on flux. In general, mean mercury fluxes measured with micrometeorological methods during daytime periods were nearly 3 times higher than mean fluxes measured with field flux chambers. Micrometeorological methods allow for derivation of a representative mercury flux occurring from an unconstrained system and provide an assessment of the actual magnitude and variability of fluxes occurring from an area. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  3. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  4. Mercury in the ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

  5. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additionalmore » metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  6. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  8. Poultry manure as raw material for mercury adsorbents in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L.

    2009-09-30

    The quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large, and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. At the same time, increased emphasis on the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may, in the future, require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream, where they could adsorb the mercury. The sorbents (now containing mercury) would be removed via filtration or other means from the flue gas. Our preliminary work has demonstrated that activated carbon made from poultry manure can adsorb mercury from air with good efficiency. In laboratory experiments, an activated carbon made from turkey cake manure removed the majority of elemental mercury from a hot air stream. Other activated carbons made from chicken and turkey litter manure were also efficient. In general, unwashed activated carbons made from poultry manure were more efficient in removing mercury than their acid-washed counterparts. The results suggest that the adsorption of mercury was mainly due to chemisorption on the surface of the carbon. Other potential uses for the activated carbons are the removal of mercury from air and natural gas.

  9. Detection and quantification of gas-phase oxidized mercury compounds by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Colleen P.; Lyman, Seth N.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Allen, Tanner; O'Neil, Trevor L.

    2016-05-01

    Most mercury pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, and the location and bioavailability of deposited mercury largely depends on poorly understood atmospheric chemical reactions that convert elemental mercury into oxidized mercury compounds. Current measurement methods do not speciate oxidized mercury, leading to uncertainty about which mercury compounds exist in the atmosphere and how oxidized mercury is formed. We have developed a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based system for identification and quantification of atmospheric oxidized mercury compounds. The system consists of an ambient air collection device, a thermal desorption module, a cryofocusing system, a gas chromatograph, and an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer. It was able to separate and identify mercury halides with detection limits low enough for ambient air collection (90 pg), but an improved ambient air collection device is needed. The GC/MS system was unable to quantify HgO or Hg(NO3)2, and data collected cast doubt upon the existence of HgO in the gas phase.

  10. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    PubMed

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials. PMID:18044248

  11. Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. R.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Song, J. X.; Yang, H.; Meng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    China is the largest anthropogenic mercury emitter in the world, where primary nonferrous metal smelting process is regarded as one of the most significant emission sources. In this study, atmospheric mercury emissions from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters in China during 2000-2010 were estimated using a technology-based methodology with comprehensive consideration of mercury concentration in concentrates, smelting process, mercury removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and installation rate of a certain type of APCD combination. Our study indicated that atmospheric mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelters in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 was 67.6, 100.1 86.7 80.6 and 72.5 t, respectively. In 2010, the mercury in metal concentrates consumed by primary zinc, lead and copper smelters were 543 t. The mercury emitted into atmosphere, fly ash, other solids, waste water and acid was 72.5, 61.5, 2.0, 3774 and 27.2 t, respectively. Mercury retrieved directly from flue gas as byproduct of nonferrous metal smelting was about 2.4 t. The amounts of mercury emitted into atmosphere were 39.4, 30.6 and 2.5 t from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, respectively. The largest amount of mercury was emitted from Gansu province, followed by Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi provinces. The average mercury removal efficiency was 90.5%, 71.2% and 91.8% in zinc, lead, and copper smelters, respectively.

  12. High Throughput Determination of Mercury in Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke from Little Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H.; Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed that utilizes a platinum trap for mercury from mainstream tobacco smoke which represents an improvement over traditional approaches that require impingers and long sample preparation procedures. In this approach, the trapped mercury is directly released for analysis by heating the trap in a direct mercury analyzer. The method was applied to the analysis of mercury in the mainstream smoke of little cigars. The mercury levels in little cigar smoke obtained under Health Canada Intense smoking machine conditions ranged from 7.1 × 10−3 mg/m3 to 1.2 × 10−2 mg/m3. These air mercury levels exceed the chronic inhalation Minimal Risk Level corrected for intermittent exposure to metallic mercury (e.g., 1 or 2 hours per day, 5 days per week) determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess associations between mercury levels and little cigar physical design properties. Filter ventilation was identified as the principal physical parameter influencing mercury concentrations in mainstream little cigar smoke generated under ISO machine smoking conditions. With filter ventilation blocked under Health Canada Intense smoking conditions, mercury concentrations in tobacco and puff number (smoke volume) were the primary physical parameters that influenced mainstream smoke mercury concentrations. PMID:26051388

  13. Missions to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grard, Réjean; Laakso, Harry; Svedhem, Håkan

    2002-10-01

    Mercury is a poorly known planet. It is difficult to observe from Earth and to explore with spacecraft, due to its proximity to the Sun. Only the NASA probe Mariner 10 caught a few glimpses of Mercury during three flybys, more than 27 years ago. Still, this planet is an interesting and important object because it belongs, like our own Earth, to the family of the terrestrial planets. After reviewing what we know about Mercury and recapitulating the major findings of Mariner 10, we present the two missions, Messenger and BepiColombo, which will perform the first systematic exploration of this forgotten planet in 2009 and 2014, respectively.

  14. 49 CFR 821.5 - Procedural rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD RULES OF PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS General Rules Applicable to Petitions for Review, Appeals to... rules. In proceedings under subparts C, D, F, and I, for situations not covered by a specific Board...

  15. 49 CFR 821.5 - Procedural rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD RULES OF PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS General Rules Applicable to Petitions for Review, Appeals to... rules. In proceedings under subparts C, D, F, and I, for situations not covered by a specific Board...

  16. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  17. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  18. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  19. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  20. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  1. COLLECTION EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF MERCURY-TRAPPING MEDIA FOR THE SASS TRAIN IMPINGER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the collection efficiencies of the popularly used media in the SASS train impinger assembly. A simple mercury-vapor generator system, based on saturation of air with mercury vapor at a fixed temperature, was assembled. Performance e...

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Total Atmospheric Mercury. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, D. L.; And Others

    Total mercury in ambient air can be collected in iodine monochloride, but the subsequent analysis is relatively complex and tedious, and contamination from reagents and containers is a problem. A sliver wool collector, preceded by a catalytic pyrolysis furnace, gives good recovery of mercury and simplifies the analytical step. An instrumental…

  3. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  4. THE MONITORING AND MODELING OF MERCURY SPECIES IN SUPPORT OF LOCAL, REGIONAL, AND GLOBAL MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyrill Brosset, as early as 1979, recognized through research on the chemical forms of mercury in rain and in the air in Sweden and the Baltic States that (i) coal fired utility boilers in Eastern Europe were sources of mercury contaminating lakes in Sweden, and (ii) that both ...

  5. MODELING THE ATMOSPHERE FORMATION OF REACTIVE MERCURY IN FLORIDA AND THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive mercury in the troposphere is affected by a complex mix of local emissions, global-scale transport, and gas and aqueous-phase chemistry. Here, we describe a modified version of the EPA model for urban/regional air quality (CMAQ) to include the chemistry of mercury, and m...

  6. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  7. STANDARDIZED AUTOMATED AND MANUAL METHODS TO SPECIATE MERCURY: FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The urban atmosphere contains a large number of air pollutants including mercury. Atmospheric mercury is predominantly present in the elemental form (Hg0). However emissions from industrial activities (e.g. incinerators, fossil fuel combustion sources and others) emit other f...

  8. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  9. Use of NOMADSS Observations to Improve Our Understanding of the Land and Ocean Fluxes of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Selin, N. E.; Jaffe, D. A.; Jaegle, L.; Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Shah, V.; Giang, A.

    2014-12-01

    We use measurements during the 2013 Nitrogen Oxidants Mercury and Aerosol Distributions Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) campaign to constrain the land and ocean emissions of mercury, using a combination of forward and inverse modeling. Mercury emissions from land and ocean drive the global cycling of mercury. A recent bottom-up assessment of global mercury emissions estimated that the land and ocean sources release about 1500 and 2700 Mg yr-1 of mercury into the atmosphere, respectively. Thus, the average emission per unit area from the land is thought to exceed the ocean (Pirrone et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5951-5964, 2010). Considering that there are additional mercury sources from the land (e.g., anthropogenic emission and biomass burning), this emission difference should lead to higher observed mercury levels over the land compared to over the ocean. However, several very recent measurement and modeling studies challenge such understanding. The NOMADSS campaign provided a first opportunity to measure speciated mercury concentrations over both land and ocean surfaces. As shown in Table 1, the median Total Mercury (TM) concentration in 0-1 km (within the planetary boundary layer) for over-ocean flights is 0.11 ng m-3 higher (p < 0.05) than for over-land flights, whereas the over-ocean flights have lower TM concentrations in > 1 km than the over-land flights. We combine analysis of NOMADDS mercury measurements with the GEOS-Chem model, to better constrain land and ocean mercury sources. The standard GEOS-Chem model cannot reproduce the mercury concentration differences between over the land and the ocean. We improve the GEOS-Chem model's ability to reproduce these observations by implementing updated air-sea and air-land exchange mechanisms. We find that increased ocean emissions are necessary to explain this discrepancy. These results are consistent with the inverse analysis of global GEM concentrations.

  10. ULF Waves at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.

  11. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  12. Evaluation of mercury speciation by EPA (Draft) Method 29

    SciTech Connect

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K.; Nott, B.

    1995-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with mercury emissions. Also, the law requires a separate assessment of health risks posed by the emission of 189 tract chemicals (including mercury) for electric utility steam-generating units. In order to conduct a meaningful assessment of health and environmental effects, we must have, among other things, a reliable and accurate method to measure mercury emissions. In addition, the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend upon the type of mercury emitted (i.e., whether it is in the oxidized or elemental form). It has been speculated that EPA (Draft) Method 29 can speciate mercury by selective absorption; however, this claim has yet to be proven. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at University of North Dakota to evaluate EPA (Draft) Method 29 at the pilot-scale level. The objective of the work is to determine whether EPA (Draft) Method 29 can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers.

  13. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature. PMID:26694893

  14. Effect of oxy-combustion flue gas on mercury oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-06-17

    This study evaluates the effect of the gases present in a typical oxy-coal combustion atmosphere on mercury speciation and compares it with the mercury speciation produced in conventional air combustion atmospheres. The work was performed at laboratory scale at 150 °C. It was found that the minor constituents (SO2, NOx, and HCl) significantly modify the percentages of Hg(2+) in the gas. The influence of these species on mercury oxidation was demostrated when they were tested individually and also when they were blended in different gas compositions, although the effect was different to the sum of their individual effects. Of the minor constituents, NOx were the main species involved in oxidation of mercury. Moreover, it was found that a large concentration of H2O vapor also plays an important role in mercury oxidation. Around 50% of the total mercury was oxidized in atmospheres with H2O vapor concentrations typical of oxy-combustion conditions. When the atmospheres have similar concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, HCl, and H2O, the proportion of Hg(0)/Hg(2+) is similar regardless of whether CO2 (oxy-fuel combustion) or N2 (air combustion) are the main components of the gas. PMID:24877895

  15. Mercury iodide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadoret, R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Mercury Iodide Crystal Growth (MICG) experiment is the growth of near-perfect single crystals of mercury Iodide (HgI2) in a microgravity environment which will decrease the convection effects on crystal growth. Evaporation and condensation are the only transformations involved in this experiment. To accomplish these objectives, a two-zone furnace will be used in which two sensors collect the temperature data (one in each zone).

  16. To Mercury dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    Present significance of the study of rotation of Mercury considered as a core-mantle system arises from planned Mercury missions. New high accurate data on Mercury's structure and its physical fields are expected from BepiColombo mission (Anselmi et al., 2001). Investigation of resonant rotation of Mercury, begun by Colombo G. (1966), will play here main part. New approaches to the study of Mercury dynamics and the construction of analytical theory of its resonant rotation are suggested. Within these approaches Mercury is considered as a system of two non-spherical interacting bodies: a core and a mantle. The mantle of Mercury is considered as non-spherical, rigid (or elastic) layer. Inner shell is a liquid core, which occupies a large ellipsoidal cavity of Mercury. This Mercury system moves in the gravitational field of the Sun in resonant traslatory-rotary regime of the resonance 3:2. We take into account only the second harmonic of the force function of the Sun and Mercury. For the study of Mercury rotation we have been used specially designed canonical equations of motion in Andoyer and Poincare variables (Barkin, Ferrandiz, 2001), more convenient for the application of mentioned methods. Approximate observational and some theoretical evaluations of the two main coefficients of Mercury gravitational field J_2 and C22 are known. From observational data of Mariner-10 mission were obtained some first evaluations of these coefficients: J_2 =(8± 6)\\cdot 10-5(Esposito et al., 1977); J_2 =(6± 2)\\cdot 10-5and C22 =(1.0± 0.5)\\cdot 10-5(Anderson et al., 1987). Some theoretical evaluation of ratio of these coefficients has been obtained on the base of study of periodic motions of the system of two non-spherical gravitating bodies (Barkin, 1976). Corresponding values of coefficients consist: J_2 =8\\cdot 10-5and C22 =0.33\\cdot 10-5. We have no data about non-sphericity of inner core of Mercury. Planned missions to Mercury (BepiColombo and Messenger) promise to

  17. Controlling mechanisms that determine mercury sorbent effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.; Dunham, G.E.; Olson, E.S.; Brown, T.D.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is now the primary source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the US, accounting for 46%, or 72 tons/year, of the total US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated 158 tons/year. However, on a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current US coal consumption of 1 billion tons/year. Development of cost-effective mercury control for coal-fired boilers is a primary research need identified in the EPA Mercury Study Report to Congress. A promising approach for mercury control is the injection of an effective sorbent upstream of the particulate control device. Since the amount of mercury in the gas stream from coal combustion is usually in the range of 5 to 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (about 1 ppbv), only very small amounts of a sorbent may be necessary. A requirement is that the mercury be tightly bound in the sorbent, not desorbing upon exposure to ambient air or leaching under wet disposal conditions. Many of the attempts at using sorbents to control mercury from coal combustion have met with limited success for unexplained reasons. Recent results at the EERC identified a major interaction between SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} that may be responsible for the poor sorbent performance observed in many tests. Results indicate that a combination of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} will lead to rapid breakthrough of oxidized mercury species. These results also suggest that bench-scale sorbent data collected without CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} are likely to be misleading if they are generalized to combustion systems where these gases are almost always present. Understanding this mechanism will be critical to the development of better sorbents. This paper presents possible mechanisms that may explain the observed SO{sub 2}-NO{sub 2} effects on sorbent performance and lead to a more effective control approach.

  18. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  19. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  20. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, B.

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  1. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, M.H.; Mahaffey, K.R.; Schoeny, R.; Rice, G.E.; Bullock, O.R.

    1997-12-01

    This volume summarizes findings of the Mercury Study Report to Congress required of U.S. EPA under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The Report assesses anthropogenic sources contributing to mercury emissions from electric utility stream generating units, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources, including area sources. The summary volume provides an overview of the Report`s findings on properties and industrial uses of mercury; analysis of atmospheric releases, process, fate and transport of mercury; and analysis of potential exposure pathways of wildlife and humans. This summary volume focuses on potential adverse health effects of methylmercury exposure to humans and wildlife from consumption of fish and shellfish. Management alternatives including the following possible control strategies were reviewed. Costs of various control measures and research needs were presented.

  2. Mercury study report to Congress. Book 2 of 2. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to submit a study on atmospheric mercury emissions to Congress. The sources of emissions studied include electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources, to include area sources. The draft report includes sections on the following: an inventory of anthropogenic emissions, health effects of mercury and mercury compounds, an ecological assessment for anthropogenic emissions, characterization of human health and wildlife risks from anthropogenic emissions, and an evaluation of mercury control technologies, costs, and regulatory issues.

  3. Final disposal options for mercury/uranium mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorin, A.H.; Leckey, J.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1994-08-29

    Laboratory testing was completed on chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation methods that are applicable (to comply with federal and state regulations) to the final disposal of both hazardous and mixed hazardous elemental mercury waste that is in either of the following categories: (1) waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on mercury-contaminated buildings, such as Building 9201-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, or (2) waste stored and regulated under either the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement or the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Methods were used that produced copper-mercury, zinc-mercury, and sulfur-mercury materials at room temperature by dry mixing techniques. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results for mercury on batches of both the copper-mercury and the sulfur-mercury amalgams consistently produced leachates with less than the 0.2-mg/L Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory limit for mercury. The results clearly showed that the reaction of mercury with sulfur at room temperature produces black mercuric sulfide, a material that is well suited for land disposal. The results also showed that the copper-mercury and zinc-mercury amalgams had major adverse properties that make them undesirable for land disposal. In particular, they reacted readily in air to form oxides and liberate elemental mercury. Another major finding of this study is that sulfur polymer cement is potentially useful as a physical encapsulating agent for mercuric sulfide. This material provides a barrier in addition to the chemical stabilization that further prevents mercury, in the form of mercuric sulfide, from migrating into the environment.

  4. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair.

  5. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  6. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-06-30

    Previous work on the detection of mercury using the cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has concentrated on the detection and characterization of the desired mercury transition. Interferent species present in flue gas emissions have been tested as well as a simulated flue gas stream. Additionally, work has been done on different mercury species such as the elemental and oxidized forms. The next phase of the effort deals with the actual sampling system. This sampling system will be responsible for acquiring a sample stream from the flue gas stack, taking it to the CRD cavity where it will be analyzed and returning the gas stream to the stack. In the process of transporting the sample gas stream every effort must be taken to minimize any losses of mercury to the walls of the sampling system as well as maintaining the mercury in its specific state (i.e. elemental, oxidized, or other mercury compounds). SRD first evaluated a number of commercially available sampling systems. These systems ranged from a complete sampling system to a number of individual components for specific tasks. SRD engineers used some commercially available components and designed a sampling system suited to the needs of the CRD instrument. This included components such as a pyrolysis oven to convert all forms of mercury to elemental mercury, a calibration air source to ensure mirror alignment and quality of the mirror surfaces, and a pumping system to maintain the CRD cavity pressure from atmospheric pressure (760 torr) down to about 50 torr. SRD also began evaluating methods for the CRD instrument to automatically find the center of a mercury transition. This procedure is necessary as the instrument must periodically measure the baseline losses of the cavity off of the mercury resonance and then return to the center of the transition to accurately measure the mercury concentration. This procedure is somewhat complicated due to the isotopic structure of the 254 nm mercury transition. As a result of

  7. Isotopic Fractionation of Mercury in Great Lakes Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous bioaccumulative neurotoxin, and atmospheric deposition is a primary way in which mercury enters terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the chemical processes and transport regimes that mercury undergoes from emission to deposition are not well understood. Thus the use of mercury isotopes to characterize the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is a rapidly growing area of study. Precipitation samples were collected in Chicago, IL, Holland, MI, and Dexter, MI from April 2007 - October 2007 to begin examining the isotopic fractionation of atmospheric mercury in the Great Lakes region. Results show that mass-dependent fractionation relative to NIST-3133 (MDF - δ202Hg) ranged from -0.8‰ to 0.2‰ (±0.2‰) in precipitation samples, while mass-independent fractionation (MIF - Δ199Hg) varied from 0.1‰ to 0.6‰ (±0.1‰). Although clear urban-rural differences were not observed, this may be due to the weekly collection of precipitation samples rather than collection of individual events, making it difficult to truly characterize the meteorology and source influences associated with each sample and suggesting that event-based collection is necessary during future sampling campaigns. Additionally, total vapor phase mercury samples were collected in Dexter, MI in 2009 to examine isotopic fractionation of mercury in ambient air. In ambient samples δ202Hg ranged from 0.3‰ to 0.5‰ (±0.1‰), however Δ199Hg was not significant. Because mercury in precipitation is predominantly Hg2+, while ambient vapor phase mercury is primarily Hg0, these results may suggest the occurrence of MIF during the oxidation of Hg0 to Hg2+ prior to deposition. Furthermore, although it has not been previously reported or predicted, MIF of 200Hg was also detected. Δ200Hg ranged from 0.0‰ to 0.2‰ in precipitation and from -0.1‰ to 0.0‰ in ambient samples. This work resulted in methodological developments in the collection and processing of

  8. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  9. 75 FR 79079 - Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at New Century AirCenter, New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... be mailed or delivered to R.E. Metcalfe, A.A.E., Executive Director, Johnson County Airport... that the request to release property at New Century AirCenter, submitted by the Johnson County Airport... overview of the request. The Johnson County Airport Commission requests the release of approximately...

  10. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  11. Reel danger: power plant mercury pollution and the fish we eat

    SciTech Connect

    Figdor, E.

    2004-08-15

    This study is based on the first available data from US EPA's ongoing National Study of Chemical Residues in Lake Fish Tissue. From 1999-2001, EPA collected approximately two composite samples of one predator fish species and one bottom-dwelling fish species at 260 lakes, for a total of 520 composite samples, or 2,547 fish. It was found that every fish tested was contaminated with mercury. 55% of the fish tested contained mercury levels that exceed EPA's 'safe' limit for women of childbearing age, and 76% exceeded the safe limit for children under age three. Predator fish, including smallmouth bass, walleye, largemouth bass, lake trout, and Northern pike, had the highest average mercury concentrations. Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury emissions, contributing 41% of US mercury emissions. They released 90,370 pounds of mercury into the air in 2002, the most recent year for which EPA data are available. In January 2004, the Bush administration issued a proposal for regulating mercury from power plants. In the author's opinion, the EPA's proposal would delay even modest reductions in mercury emissions from power plants until after 2025. In contrast, the Clean Air Act calls for the maximum achievable reductions by 2008. It is recommended that the Bush administration reverse course and require coal-fired power plants to reduce mercury emissions by at least 90% by 2008. 79 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs., 3 apps.

  12. Source attribution for mercury deposition in the contiguous United States: regional difference and seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Shetty, Suraj K; Pan, Li; Pongprueksa, Pruek; Jang, Carey; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the contribution of emission sources responsible for mercury deposition in specific receptor regions helps develop emission control strategies that alleviate the impact on ecosystem and human health. In light of the maximum available control technology (MACT) rules proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the ongoing intergovernmental negotiation coordinated by United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) for mercury, the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ-Hg) was applied to estimate the source contribution in six subregions of the contiguous United States (CONUS). The considered source categories include electric generating units (EGU), iron and steel industry (IRST), other industrial point sources excluding EGU and IRST (OIPM), the remaining anthropogenic sources (RA), natural processes (NAT), and out-of-boundary transport (BC). It is found that, on an annual basis, dry deposition accounts for two-thirds of total annual deposition in CONUS (474 Mg yr(-1)), mainly contributed by reactive gaseous mercury (about 60% of total deposition). The contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near the emission sources (< 100 km), indicating that emission reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Out-of-boundary transport contributes from 68% (Northeast) to 91% (West Central) of total deposition. Excluding the contribution from out-of boundary transport, EGU contributes to about 50% of deposition in the Northeast, Southeast, and East Central regions, whereas emissions from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). This suggests that the implementation of the new EPA MACT standards will significantly benefit only these three regions. Emission speciation is a key factor for local deposition. The source contribution exhibits strong seasonal variation. Deposition is greater in warm seasons due to

  13. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Koehn, Patrick L.; Korth, Haje; Levi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet s miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury s magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed drift paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts. The characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short and kinetic and fluid modes may be coupled. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to impact directly the regolith. Inductive currents in Mercury s interior may act to modify the solar wind interaction by resisting changes due to solar wind pressure variations. Indeed, observations of these induction effects may be an important source of information on the state of Mercury s interior. In addition, Mercury s magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionospheric layer. This lack of an ionosphere is probably the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short-lived, - 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 during its first traversal of Mercury s magnetic tail. Because of Mercury s proximity to the sun, 0.3 - 0.5 AU, this magnetosphere experiences the most extreme driving forces in the solar system. All of these factors are expected to produce complicated interactions involving the exchange and re-cycling of neutrals and ions between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and regolith. The electrodynamics of Mercury s magnetosphere are expected to be equally complex, with strong forcing by the solar wind, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the tail, and the pick-up of planetary ions all

  14. Long-term continuous monitoring of mercury in the Russian arctic: winter increase of atmospheric mercury depletion events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Fidel; Mahura, Alexander; Popov, Valentin; Katz, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    Among pollutants mercury is a major environmental concern due to its ecological hazard. The mercury can reside in the atmosphere for a long time high, and it is a reason of its global propagation in the Northern Hemisphere and elevated mercury concentrations are reported in the Arctic environment. First time, in 1995, the effect of atmospheric mercury depletion in the troposphere was found at the Canadian station Alert. This phenomenon (called the Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Event - AMDE) is observed during April-June, when the Polar sunrise starts till the end of the snowmelt. The same effect was reported for other polar stations situated to the north of 60° N. Long-term continuous monitoring of gaseous elemental mercury in the surface air at the polar station Amderma (69,720N; 61,620E) using the analyzer Tekran 2537A has been conducted from Jun 2001 to date. Individual measurements were collected every thirty minutes. It has been shown, that during eleven years of observations the AMDEs were observed every year, from the end of March till early June. For the winter period (Dec-Feb) these events of the atmospheric mercury depletion were registered from 2010 to 2013, which had not been observed before. A large number of hours during the day, when the concentration of mercury was recorded at level of below 1 ng/m3, was registered during Dec-Feb. The sun declination above the horizon is negative, and solar activity is still not enough to trigger the photochemical reactions. The these last 3 years confirmed a tendency to displacement of AMDEs to the winter season, which leads to an additional factor entry of mercury in various biological objects, due to the additional deposition of various forms of mercury on the snowpack. At the same time, especially during the winter seasons, there is a substantial increase (up to 8 times) of AMDEs, compared with the previous years. In particular, in winter 2013 the maximum number of AMDs reached 31 cases. The explanation can be

  15. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury

  16. Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahey, J.J.

    1937-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

  17. INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELS: 1. COMPARISON OF MODELS WITH SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five regional scale models with a horizontal domain covering the European continent and its surrounding seas, one hemispheric and one global scale model participated in an atmospheric mercury modelling intercomparison study. Model-predicted concentrations in ambient air were comp...

  18. Mercury depletion events over Antarctic and Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M. G.; Gardfeldt, K.; Wangberg, I.; Jourdain, B.; Dommergue, A.; Kuronen, P.; Pirrone, N.; Jacobi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and in its elemental form it is spread by air to remote areas far away from point sources. In Antarctic and Arctic regions the airborne mercury may be oxidized, followed by deposition of the metal on land and sea surfaces. It is previously known that during early spring in these regions, processes involving halogen radical photochemistry induce an oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air. This phenomenon is known as an atmospheric mercury depletion event (AMDE) and is characterized by sudden and remarkable decreases in GEM that occurs within hours or days. All or most part of the GEM in air is transformed into gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate mercury (HgP). Equivalent ozone depletion events (ODE) do also occur in Antarctic and Arctic regions and the halogen radical photolytic processes involved for AMDEs and ODEs are interrelated. During two oceanographic campaigns at the Weddell Sea onboard RV Polarstern, ANTXXIX/6 (130608-130812) and ANTXXIX/7 (130814-131016), continuous measurements of GEM, GOM and HgP in air were performed using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. This is the first time such long time series of GEM-, GOM- and HgP data has been achieved over water in the Antarctic during winter and spring. Several mercury depletion events were detected as early as in the middle of July and are correlated and verified with ozone measurements onboard the ship. The observed depletion events were characterised by sudden major decreases in both GEM and ozone concentrations and highly elevated values of HgP. A depletion event is a local phenomenon but evidences show that traces of such events can be detected far away from its origin. During a spring campaign at the Pallas-Matorova station in northern Finland (68o00'N, 24o14'E), GEM, GOM and HgP were measured during three weeks in April 2012 using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. Traces of remote AMDEs were observed by sudden decreases of GEM

  19. Biogeochemistry: Better living through mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Jeffra K.

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic element with no known biological function. Laboratory studies demonstrate that mercury can be beneficial to microbial growth by acting as an electron acceptor during photosynthesis.

  20. Removal of mercury contamination on primary mass standards by hydrogen plasma and thermal desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, P.; Marti, K.; Russi, S.

    2013-02-01

    The removal of a high mercury contamination on a Pt reference mass by thermal desorption was studied directly by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently the contamination mechanism was investigated. Samples of PtIr and AuPt exposed to vapour of mercury in air were studied using XPS and gravimetric mass determination. We find an extremely rapid mercury contamination which takes place within minutes and reaches an initial equilibrium state after 2 h to 4 h. Roughly 1 to 2 monolayers of mercury adsorbs directly on the metal surface. A natural contamination of carbon and oxygen compounds is at the top. Due to the accumulation of mercury, we find a gain in mass which corresponds to 20 µg to 26 µg for a PtIr standard. XPS data from a historical Pt standard give strong evidence for further average mercury accumulation of (1.3 ± 0.1) µg/year during a period of more than a century. This can be explained by a two-step mechanism presented in this study. The speed of contamination depends on the initial surface conditions. Polishing activates the surface and results in an enhanced accumulation of mercury. Natural contamination by C and O can delay but not prevent contamination. We further demonstrate that the mercury contamination can be removed by both hydrogen plasma and thermal desorption. The removal of mercury by hydrogen plasma can directly be attributed to the synthesis of gaseous mercury dihydrides at low pressures.

  1. The materials flow of mercury in the economies of the United States and the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sznopek, John L.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Although natural sources of mercury exist in the environment, measured data and modeling results indicate that the amount of mercury released into the biosphere has increased since the beginning of the industrial age. Mercury is naturally distributed in the air, water, and soil in minute amounts, and can be mobile within and between these media. Because of these properties and the subsequent impacts on human health, mercury was selected for an initial materials flow study, focusing on the United States in 1990. This study was initiated to provide a current domestic and international analysis. As part of an increased emphasis on materials flow, this report researched changes and identified the associated trends in mercury flows; it also updates statistics through 1996. In addition to domestic flows, the report includes an international section, because all primary mercury-producing mines are currently foreign, 86 percent of the mercury cell sector of the worldwide chlor-alkali industry is outside the United States, there is a large international mercury trade (1,395 t 1 in 1996), and environmental regulations are not uniform or similarly enforced from country to country. Environmental concerns have brought about numerous regulations that have dramatically decreased both the use and the production of mercury since the late 1980?s. Our study indicates that this trend is likely to continue into the future, as the world eliminates the large mercury inventories that have been stockpiled to support prior industrial processes and products.

  2. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wu, Q. R.; Wang, F. Y.; Lin, C.-J.; Zhang, L. M.; Hui, M. L.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non

  3. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an

  5. Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joyce

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

  6. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current state of our scientific understanding the mercury cycle tells us that most of the mercury getting into fish comes from atmospheric deposition, but methylation of that mercury in aquatic systems is required for the concentrations in fish to reach harmful levels. We st...

  7. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  8. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  9. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Selid, Paul D.; Xu, Hanying; Collins, E. Michael; Face-Collins, Marla Striped; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wide array of sensors for monitoring mercury is described, including biosensors and chemical sensors, while piezoelectric and microcantilever sensors are also described. Additionally, newly developed nanomaterials offer great potential for fabricating novel mercury sensors. Some of the functional fluorescent nanosensors for the determination of mercury are covered. Afterwards, the in vivo determination of mercury and the characterization of different forms of mercury are discussed. Finally, the future direction for mercury detection is outlined, suggesting that nanomaterials may provide revolutionary tools in biomedical and environmental monitoring of mercury. PMID:22346707

  10. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disapproved rules and regulations. 52... Clean Air Act. (1) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (i) Rule 1623, Credits for Lawn and Garden Equipment, submitted on August 28, 1996 and adopted on May 10, 1996. (ii) Rule 118,...

  11. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAP by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Richardson, C. F.; Skarupa, R. C.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-07-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl{sub 2}). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO{sub 2} control. If a low-cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury.

  12. NOMADSS Aircraft Observations Suggest Rapid Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in the Subtropical Free Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, V.; Jaegle, L.; Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaffe, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Oxidized mercury species constitute a small fraction of the total atmospheric burden of mercury, but play an important role in the cycling of mercury in the environment. They dominate the deposition flux of mercury from the atmosphere to the Earth's surfaces, because of their high solubility and low vapor pressure. Their primary source is in-situ oxidation of elemental mercury, but our understanding of these oxidation mechanisms is limited. The Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distribution, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment was designed with the aim of addressing these limitations, using aircraft-based speicated measurements of mercury in the troposphere over the eastern US in the summer of 2013. We observed high concentrations of oxidized mercury in clean, dry pockets of air originating in the upper troposphere. We analyze these observations with the GEOS-Chem model, which simulates oxidation of mercury by bromine radicals. The modeled concentrations of oxidized mercury are found to be low, by up to a factor of ten, compared to the observations. This indicates that the oxidation rate of mercury is much faster than that calculated in the model. We perform two simulations to test the sensitivity of the modeled oxidation: (i) by increasing bromine radical concentrations by a factor of three in the 45°S-45°N latitude band, and (ii) by using an oxidation rate constant that is higher by a factor of five. We find that the model performance improves considerably in both these simulations. Here, we present a comparison of the standard and the sensitivity simulations to the NOMADSS and the surface-based Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) observations. We further discuss the potential implications of the faster oxidation on the global transport, distribution, and burden of oxidized mercury.

  13. Mercury Binding Sites in Thiol-Functionalized Mesostructured Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, Simon J.L.; McKimmey, Emily J.; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.

    2010-07-13

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(LSiO{sub 1.5}){sub x}, where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S {le} 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu{sup t}){sub 2}. At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1422 - Compliance dates and relationship of this rule to existing applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance dates and relationship of this rule to existing applicable rules. 63.1422 Section 63.1422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  15. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  16. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  17. Mercury radar speckle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holin, Igor V.

    2010-06-01

    Current data reveal that Mercury is a dynamic system with a core which has not yet solidified completely and is at least partially decoupled from the mantle. Radar speckle displacement experiments have demonstrated that the accuracy in spin-dynamics determination for Earth-like planets can approach 10 -5. The extended analysis of space-time correlation properties of radar echoes shows that the behavior of speckles does not prevent estimation of Mercury's instantaneous spin-vector components to accuracy of a few parts in 10 7. This limit can be reached with more powerful radar facilities and leads to constraining the interior in more detail from effects of spin dynamics, e.g., from observation of the core-mantle interplay through high precision monitoring of the 88-day spin-variation of Mercury's crust.

  18. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  19. The magnetosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data on Mercury's magnetosphere and on the plasma, planetomagnetic, and energetic particle environment of the planet obtained in three encounters (Mariner 10 flybys) are compared, and tasks for future research are outlined. The Mercury bow shock and magnetopause are much closer to the planet than the earth counterparts are to the earth. The magnetotail with embedded plasma sheet-field reversal region, global deflection of the solar wind by an intrinsic dipolar magnetic field, variations in solar wind momentum flux, and absence of such features as ionosphere, plasmasphere, and radiation belts, are described. Energetic electrons are accelerated in the magnetotail, however, and the interplanetary magnetic field variations distort Mercury's magnetosphere to produce a southward field associated with substorm-like disturbances.

  20. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution. PMID:1549

  1. Mosaic Postcards from Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K. G.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hirshon, B.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach Team

    2010-12-01

    On its journey to become the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury, NASA’s MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has followed a trajectory that included three flybys of the innermost planet. During the flybys, images captured by the Mercury Dual Imaging System revealed parts of the planet’s surface never before seen at close range, as well as high-resolution views of craters, crater rays, scarps, faults, and volcanic vents and flows. To help students and teachers better understand this revealing new look at Mercury, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach team will share these high-resolution images of Mercury's surface throughout the upcoming Year of the Solar System. By means of an intriguing format that mimics methods used by the MESSENGER team, a series of images printed at large postcard size will each highlight a small "slice" of Mercury, such as a crater or fault. The individual cards can then be pieced together, puzzle-style, on a poster-sized grid to reveal a larger mosaic view of the planet. Each card contains engaging text, the URL for an accompanying website, and coordinates for that region of the planet, helping students understand scientific concepts related to and revealed by MESSENGER's journey. The first set of cards will feature scarps, volcanic plains, the topography of a crater and the composition of its interior units, rayed craters, nested craters, and a deposit produced by explosive volcanic eruptions. Cards will be available for free on the accompanying website, distributed by MESSENGER Educator Fellows, or handed out at meetings, conferences, and workshops.

  2. Mercury binding on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bihter Padak; Michael Brunetti; Amanda Lewis; Jennifer Wilcox

    2006-11-15

    Density functional theory has been employed for the modeling of activated carbon (AC) using a fused-benzene ring cluster approach. Oxygen functional groups have been investigated for their promotion of effective elemental mercury binding on AC surface sites. Lactone and carbonyl functional groups yield the highest mercury binding energies. Further, the addition of halogen atoms has been considered to the modeled surface, and has been found to increase the AC's mercury adsorption capacity. The mercury binding energies increase with the addition of the following halogen atoms, F {gt} Cl {gt} Br {gt} I, with the fluorine addition being the most promising halogen for increasing mercury adsorption.

  3. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  4. Preparation of mercury emissions inventory for eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Walcek, Chris; De Santis, Steven; Gentile, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Point and area inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions documented by US and Canadian environmental agencies have been aggregated into a single archive for analysis and air pollution modeling work. For 5341 point sources and 1634 aggregated area sources, mercury emissions are apportioned among elemental gaseous [Hg(0)], reactive gaseous[Hg(II)], and particulate [Hg(p)] emissions using speciation factors derived from available monitoring measurements. According to this inventory, 4.82 x 10(5) mol of mercury were emitted in calendar year 1996 in the latitude range 24-51 degrees north, and longitude range 64-91 degrees west, which covers most of North America east of the Mississippi River. Using speciation factors consistent with past emission source studies, we find the relative emission proportions among Hg(0):Hg(II):Hg(p) species are 47:35:18. Maps of the various mercury species' emissions patterns are presented. Gridded emission patterns show local mercury emission extremes associated with individual cement production and municipal incineration facilities, and in contrast to past inventories, population centers do not stand out. Considerable uncertainties are still present in estimating emissions from large point sources, as are methods of apportioning emissions among various mercury species. PMID:12667765

  5. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 91.515 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.515 Flight altitude rules....

  7. Static and Transient Cavitation Threshold Measurements for Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Moraga, F.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1999-11-14

    Transient and static cavitation thresholds for mercury as a function of the cover gas (helium or air), and pressure are reported. Both static and transient cavitation onset pressure thresholds increase linearly with cover gas pressure. Additionally, the cavitation thresholds as a function of dissolved gases were also measured and are reported.

  8. MODIFIED VALVE SEAT FOR THE STATIC MERCURY DROP ELECTRODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modification in the design of the valve seat of the static mercury drop electrode is presented. The creation of a 'four-point' seal within the modified valve seat prevents the capillary 'O' ring seal from becoming flattened and distorted. The design has eliminated air leakage i...

  9. Radio-interferometric imaging of the subsurface emissions from the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. O.; Zeilik, M.; Gisler, G. R.; Borovsky, J. E.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of total and polarized intensities from Mercury's subsurface layers have been mapped using VLA observations. The first detection of a hot pole along the Hermean equator is reported and modeled as black-body reradiation from preferential diurnal heating. These observations appear to rule out any internal sources of heat within Mercury. Polarized emission from the limb of the planet is also found, and is understood in terms of the dielectric properties of the Hermean surface.

  10. Compressibility of Mercury's dayside magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, J.; Wan, W. X.; Wei, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Rong, Z. J.; Chai, L. H.; Han, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Mercury is experiencing significant variations of solar wind forcing along its large eccentric orbit. With 12 Mercury years of data from Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging, we demonstrate that Mercury's distance from the Sun has a great effect on the size of the dayside magnetosphere that is much larger than the temporal variations. The mean solar wind standoff distance was found to be about 0.27 Mercury radii (RM) closer to the Mercury at perihelion than at aphelion. At perihelion the subsolar magnetopause can be compressed below 1.2 RM of ~2.5% of the time. The relationship between the average magnetopause standoff distance and heliocentric distance suggests that on average the effects of the erosion process appears to counter balance those of induction in Mercury's interior at perihelion. However, at aphelion, where solar wind pressure is lower and Alfvénic Mach number is higher, the effects of induction appear dominant.

  11. Mercury and mercury compounds toxicology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of mercury and mercury compounds on biological systems. Mercury metal, mercury vapors, organic mercury compounds, mercury halides, and other inorganic mercury compounds are discussed. Citations include acute, chronic, environmental, metabolic, and pathological effects; and clinical biochemistry of mercury exposure. Heavy metal pollution and bioaccumulation are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Mercury and mercury compounds toxicology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of mercury and mercury compounds on biological systems. Mercury metal, mercury vapors, organic mercury compounds, mercury halides, and other inorganic mercury compounds are discussed. Citations include acute, chronic, environmental, metabolic, and pathological effects; and clinical biochemistry of mercury exposure. Heavy metal pollution and bioaccumulation are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  14. Plane Mercury librations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction. In 1988 I. Kholin [1] has developed a precision method of determination of parameters of rotation of planets on complex radar-tracking observations on two radio telescopes making base and definitely carried on surface of the Earth. His American colleagues for the period approximately in 4 with small year have executed a series of radar-tracking measurements on a method and I. Kholin's program [2] and have obtained for the specified period 21 values of angular velocity of rotation of this planet [3]. With the help of numerical integration of the equations of rotary motion on the found values they managed to determine with high accuracy the basic dynamic parameter in the theory of Mercury librations (B - A)•Cm = (2.03± 0.12) × 10-4 and the corresponding to it the value of amplitude of the basic librations35"8 ± 2"1. These results have served as convincing arguments for the benefit of the Peale's assumption, that a core of Mercury is liquid, or in partially molten [4]. Authors also managed to obtain for the first time parameters of resonant librations in a longitude which opening from radar observations was predicted earlier [5]. Its amplitude makes about 300", the period is equal approximately to 12 years. In the paper [6] parameters of the perturbed rotational motion have been determined with the help of the analytical theory and with formal using of results of mentioned work [3] on determination of 21 values of angular velocity of Mercury. In result the estimations of amplitudes of forced librations of first five harmonics with the periods: 87.97 d, 43.99 d, 29.33 d, 21.99 d and 17.59 d have been obtained. The appropriate amplitudes make values:34"05 ± 1"27, 3"59 ± 0"13, 0"354 ± 0"013, 0"072 ± 0"003 and 0"016 ± 0"001. The amplitude and the period of free librations of Mercury in a longitude are determined: 290"9 ± 67"0 and 12.37 ± 0.23 yr, consequently. The phase of this variation has made28401 ± 1402. In the paper we construct the similar

  15. EPA rule could cut pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a rule on November 14 that it claims could nearly eliminate dioxin discharges into waterways and reduce other toxic pollutants into the air and water from 155 pulp and paper mills.EPA estimates that results will include a 96% reduction in dioxin and a nearly 60% reduction in toxic air pollutants. Also, volatile organic compounds and sulfur emissions could be cut in half, with particulate matter cut by 37%.

  16. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).

  17. Removal of mercury from stack gases by activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Vidic, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    On combustion, the trace elements in the incinerator feed stream are partitioned between the bottom ash (slag) stream, and a flue gas stream containing suspended fly ash and vapors of volatile elements or compounds. A further partitioning of the flue gas stream takes place in the particulate emission control devices that efficiently remove larger fly ash particles but are less efficient for vapors and finer particles. Environmental control agencies, researchers, and general public have become increasingly concerned with the mobilization of trace elements to the environment from solid and hazardous waste incinerators. Mercury is the trace element of particular concern since, during combustion, most of the mercury present in the influent stream is transferred into the vapor phase due to its high volatility. There is a considerable evidence in the literature that currently used pollution abatement technologies (flue gas clean-up and particulate control devices) are not capable of controlling gas phase mercury emissions. Activated carbon adsorption is a unit process that offers great promise for achieving high quality air emissions with respect to mercury and other trace elements that might be present in gases emitted from solid and hazardous waste incinerators. This study is designed to evaluate the rate of vapor-phase mercury removal by virgin and sulfur impregnated activated carbons under various process conditions. The specific process conditions that will be evaluated for their effect on the rate and mechanism of mercury uptake include temperature, moisture content, oxygen partial pressure, and presence of other compounds and trace elements in the vapor-phase. Accurate description of the kinetics of mercury removal by activated carbon is an essential component in establishing design procedures that would ensure successful application of this efficient technology for mercury control.

  18. Predicting mercury in mallard ducklings from mercury in chorioallantoic membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury has been suspected as a cause of impaired reproduction in wild birds, but the confounding effects of other environmental stressors has made it difficult to determine how much mercury in the eggs of these wild species is harmful. Even when a sample egg can be collected from the nest of a wild bird and the mercury concentration in that egg compared to the laboratory-derived thresholds for reproductive impairment, additional information on the mercury levels in other eggs from that nest would be helpful in determining whether harmful levels of mercury were present in the clutch. The measurement of mercury levels in chorioallantoic membranes offers a possible way to estimate how much mercury was in a chick that hatched from an egg, and also in the whole fresh egg itself. While an embryo is developing, wastes are collected in a sac called the chorioallantoic membranes, which often remain inside the eggshell and can be collected for contaminant analysis. We fed methylmercury to captive mallards to generate a broad range of mercury levels in eggs, allowed the eggs to hatch normally, and then compared mercury concentrations in the hatchling versus the chorioallantoic membranes left behind in the eggshell. When the data from eggs laid by mercury- treated females were expressed as common logarithms, a linear equation was created by which the concentration of mercury in a duckling could be predicted from the concentration of mercury in the chorioallantoic membranes from the same egg. Therefore, if it were not possible to collect a sample egg from a clutch of wild bird eggs, the collection of the chorioallantoic membranes could be substituted, and the mercury predicted to be in the chick or whole egg could be compared to the thresholds of mercury that have been shown to cause harm in controlled feeding studies with pheasants, chickens, and mallards.

  19. Global Mercury Observatory System (GMOS): measurements of atmospheric mercury in Celestun, Yucatan, Mexico during 2012.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Oceguera-Vargas, Ismael; Ramírez, Martha; Ortinez, Abraham; Umlauf, Gunther; Sena, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, long-term continuous measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were carried out by a monitoring station located at Celestun, Yucatan, Mexico, a coastal site along the Gulf of Mexico. The measurements covered the period from January 28th to October 17th, 2012. TGM data, at the Celestun site, were obtained using a high-resolution mercury vapor analyzer. TGM data show values from 0.50 to 2.82 ng/m(3) with an annual average concentration of 1.047 ± 0.271 ng/m(3). Multivariate analyses of TGM and meteorological variables suggest that TGM is correlated with the vertical air mass distribution in the atmosphere, which is influenced by diurnal variations in temperature and relative humidity. Diurnal variation is characterized by higher nighttime mercury concentrations, which might be influenced by convection currents between sea and land. The back trajectory analysis confirmed that local sources do not significantly influence TGM variations. This study shows that TGM monitoring at the Celestun site fulfills GMOS goals for a background site. PMID:27230151

  20. MERCURY CYCLING AND BIOMAGNIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury cycling and biomagnification was studied in man-made ponds designed for watering livestock on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. Multiple Hg species were quantified through multiple seasons for 2 years in total atmospheric deposition samples, surface wa...

  1. Magnetosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1975-01-01

    A model magnetosphere of Mercury using Mariner 10 data is presented. Diagrams of the bow shock wave and magnetopause are shown. The analysis of Mariner 10 data indicates that the magnetic field of the planet is intrinsic. The magnetic tail and secondary magnetic fields, and the influence of the solar wind are also discussed.

  2. MERCURY CEMS: TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the technologies involved with continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for mercury (Hg) which are receiving incresed attention and focus. Their potential use as a compliance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMs are currently used in Europe for com...

  3. Hazards of Mercury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  4. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contamination from mercury has been recognized for decades as a growing problem to humans and wildlife. It is released from a variety of sources, exhibits a complicated chemistry, and proceeds via several different pathways to humans and wildlife. According to the...

  5. Tidal Dissipation in Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial pattern and total inventory of tidal dissipation within Mercury depends sensitively on internal structure and on orbital eccentricity. Surface heat flow from this source may exceed 3 mW/sq m, and will vary with time as the orbital eccentricity fluctuates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. MERCURY SPECIATION AND CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements are to be proposed by December 2003 and finali...

  7. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  8. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Opacity of Emissions submitted on May 26, 2000. Rule 401 submitted on June 9, 1987, is retained. (4) San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 4101, Visible Emissions, submitted...

  9. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Opacity of Emissions submitted on May 26, 2000. Rule 401 submitted on June 9, 1987, is retained. (4) San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 4101, Visible Emissions, submitted...

  10. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Opacity of Emissions submitted on May 26, 2000. Rule 401 submitted on June 9, 1987, is retained. (4) San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 4101, Visible Emissions, submitted...

  11. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Opacity of Emissions submitted on May 26, 2000. Rule 401 submitted on June 9, 1987, is retained. (4) San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 4101, Visible Emissions, submitted...

  12. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  13. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mercury poisoning cases have been reported in many parts of the world, resulting in many deaths every year. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Long term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources e.g. water, food, soil and air lead to toxic effects on cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, neurological systems and skin. Mercury level can be measured in plasma, urine, feces and hair samples. Urinary concentration is a good indicator of poisoning of elemental and inorganic mercury, but organic mercury (e.g. methyl mercury) can be detected easily in feces. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a rapid, cheap and sensitive method for detection of thymine bound mercuric ions. Silver nanoparticles are used as a sensitive detector of low concentration Hg2+ ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions. Besides supportive therapy, British anti lewisite, dimercaprol (BAL), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. succimer) and dimercaptopropanesulfoxid acid (DMPS) are currently used as chelating agents in mercury poisoning. Natural biologic scavengers such as algae, azolla and other aquatic plants possess the ability to uptake mercury traces from the environment. PMID:24888360

  14. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.

    PubMed

    Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehravar; Kazemi, Sohrab; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Mercury poisoning cases have been reported in many parts of the world, resulting in many deaths every year. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Long term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources e.g. water, food, soil and air lead to toxic effects on cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, neurological systems and skin. Mercury level can be measured in plasma, urine, feces and hair samples. Urinary concentration is a good indicator of poisoning of elemental and inorganic mercury, but organic mercury (e.g. methyl mercury) can be detected easily in feces. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a rapid, cheap and sensitive method for detection of thymine bound mercuric ions. Silver nanoparticles are used as a sensitive detector of low concentration Hg2+ ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions. Besides supportive therapy, British anti lewisite, dimercaprol (BAL), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. succimer) and dimercaptopropanesulfoxid acid (DMPS) are currently used as chelating agents in mercury poisoning. Natural biologic scavengers such as algae, azolla and other aquatic plants possess the ability to uptake mercury traces from the environment. PMID:24888360

  15. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  16. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, H.L.

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Modelling of the atmospheric dispersion of mercury emitted from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Roustan, Y.; Wyrwa, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poland belongs to the group of EU countries with the highest levels of mercury emissions, with a large portion of these emissions being related to coal combustion. This paper presents a modelling analysis of the impact that the Polish power sector has on the atmospheric concentrations of mercury. A detailed mercury emission inventory is used to analyse the concentration and deposition of mercury. For this study, a chemical scheme devoted to mercury transformations in the atmosphere was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The system was then used to perform simulations for 2008 in two domains i.e. over Europe and over Poland. The impact of various parameters on concentration and wet scavenging of mercury has been analysed. The results of the mercury ambient concentrations and depositions, are presented. Additionally, the contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources to mercury deposition in Poland is shown. The performed works showed that the national sources have low impact to overall deposition, however local contribution in wet deposition of big emitters may reach 50%. Sensitive analysis showed a significant impact of reaction with bromine compound and scavenging coefficient on modelled results of mercury concentration and deposition.

  18. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. PMID:19350920

  19. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY... the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality... Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) Rule 130--Definitions. In ] the Rules...

  20. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-10-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period.

  1. Exposure to mercury in the mine of Almadén

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Klink, José Diego Caballero; Boffetta, Paolo; Español, Santiago; Sällsten, Gerd; Quintana, Javier Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe the process for obtaining mercury and the historical exposure of Almadén miners to mercury. Methods Information on every workplace and historical data on production, technological changes in the productive process and biological and environmental values of mercury was collected. A job‐exposure matrix was built with these values and the exposure to inorganic mercury was estimated quantitatively as μg/l of urine mercury. A cumulative exposure index was calculated for every worker by adding the estimates for every year in the different workplaces. Results In the mine, the highest exposures occurred during drilling, with values up to 2.26 mg/m3 in air, 2194 μg/l in urine and 374 μg/l in blood. Furnace operation and cleaning were the tasks with the highest values in metallurgy, peaking up to 3.37 mg/m3. The filling of bottles with mercury by free fall gave values within a range of 1.13–2.43 mg/m3 in air; these values dropped to 0.32–0.83 mg/m3 after introducing a new ventilation system. The toxicity effects of high doses of inorganic mercury on the central nervous and urinary systems have been known for decades. Conclusions The exposure of the workers in Almadén mines to mercury has been very high. The extremely high content cinnabar ore of the mine explains the increased concentrations of mercury in air at the work places. This, together with inadequate working conditions, explains the high mercury levels found in blood and urine during the study period. PMID:17227836

  2. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.

    In this dissertation I examine the properties and origins of the most energetic component of Mercury's atmosphere and how it couples to the planet's magnetosphere and space environment. Mercury' s atmosphere consists of particles liberated from its surface that follow ballistic, collisionless trajectories under the influence of gravity and solar radiation pressure. This tenuous atmosphere can be classified as an exosphere where the exobase boundary is the planet's surface. To explain how this exosphere is sustained, a number of theories have been presented: (1) thermal evaporation from the hot surface; (2) photo-desorption of surface materials by UV solar radiation; (3) sputtering by plasma surface interactions; and (4) vaporization of the surface by micro-meteorite impacts. Using a 3-dimensional numerical model, I determine the role each source has in populating the exosphere. New observations of Mercury's escaping atmosphere are presented using novel imaging techniques in which sodium acts as a tracer to identify atmospheric sources. I discuss the implications of these measurements for our understanding of the physical processes at work in the exosphere, and provide a foundation for modeling such processes. For the first time, this work quantifies the variability in the loss of Mercury's sodium as a seasonal effect. My observations show that atmospheric escape can, at times, exceed 1024 Na atoms/s, nearly twice the highest rate previously reported. By forward modeling Mercury' s atmospheric escape, I place new constraints on the source properties and eliminate the prevailing theory that the escaping tail is sputtered from the surface by solar wind ions. The MESSENGER spacecraft has recently discovered that sodium is distributed unevenly over the surface and that the magnetosphere is offset from the planet's center. Using the first model to include these effects, I demonstrate the magnetosphere's influence upon exospheric sources by simulating asymmetries observed

  3. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  4. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  5. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies. PMID

  6. Gastrointestinal absorption of metallic mercury.

    PubMed

    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; Einarsson, Curt; Sandström, Magnus; Ekstrand, Jan

    2004-09-01

    The absorption of mercury from the gastrointestinal systems of 7 subjects, of whom none had any amalgam fillings, was examined in this study. The authors obtained quantitative information about mercury concentration in plasma and duodenal fluid after the gastrointestinal systems of the subjects were exposed to liquid elemental mercury enclosed in rubber balloons (i.e., approximately 20 g of mercury), using a standard procedure followed for the sampling of bile. Plasma samples were collected prior to exposure, as well as up to 10 d following exposure, and duodenal fluid was collected 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h during the intubation process. The authors studied the kinetics of dissolution in vitro by leaching elemental liquid mercury and mercuric chloride. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that metallic mercury is oxidized in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the authors determined that duodenal intubation, while using liquid metallic mercury in rubber bags, resulted in the diffusion of minor amounts of atomic elemental mercury through the rubber walls. The absorbed amount of mercury that reached the central circulation was comparable to a daily dose of mercury from dental amalgam in the amalgam-bearing population. PMID:16381485

  7. USEPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM ON REMEDIATION AND CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY IN SOILS, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. and around the world, mercury and arsenic contaminated soils, industrial wastes, and groundwater are difficult to effectively and cheaply remediate and contain. Mercury is a serious health concern and has been identified as a contaminant in the air, soil, sediment, su...

  8. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... its concentration in the air stream. c. Portable mercury vapor analyzer—gold film amalgamation detector A sample of gas is drawn through a detection cell containing a gold film detector. Elemental mercury amalgamates with the gold film, changing the resistance of the detector in proportion to...

  9. INVENTORY OF COMMON LOON, GAVIA IMMER, AND MERCURY DATA COLLECTED IN NEW ENGLAND: A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common loon, Gavia immer. suffers adverse health effects following exposure to mercury. This contaminant enters the environment from industrial air emissions, travels through the atmosphere and is deposited into water and sediment. From here, mercury enters fish which are the...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... its concentration in the air stream. c. Portable mercury vapor analyzer—gold film amalgamation detector A sample of gas is drawn through a detection cell containing a gold film detector. Elemental mercury amalgamates with the gold film, changing the resistance of the detector in proportion to...

  11. THE ROLE OF COAL PROPERTIES AND COMBUSTION CONDITIONS IN THE CAPTURE OF MERCURY BY FLY ASH AND SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. fleet of coal-fired power plants, with generating capacity of just over 300 GW, is known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury (Hg) emissions. As such, in March 2005, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the Clean Air Mercury R...

  12. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  13. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  14. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

  15. HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

  16. Mercury-selenium interactions in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Saroff, L.; Lipfert, W.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-02-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to consider the need to control emissions of trace elements and compounds emitted from coal combustion, including coal-fired power plants. Concern has been expressed about emissions of mercury and arsenic, for example, since health effects may be associated with exposure to some of these compounds. By and large, effects of trace element emissions have been considered individually, without regard for possible interactions. To the extent that the relevant environmental pathways and health endpoints differ, this mode of analysis is appropriate. For example, arsenic is considered a carcinogen and mercury affects the brain. However, there may be compelling reasons to consider emissions of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) together: (1) Both Se and Hg are emitted from power plants primarily as vapors. (2) Hg and Se are both found in fish, which is the primary pathway for Hg health effects. (3) Se has been shown to suppress Hg methylation in aqueous systems, which is a necessary step for Hg health effects at current environmental concentrations. (4) Se is a trace element that is essential for health but that can also be toxic at high concentrations; it can thus have both beneficial and adverse health effects, depending on the dosage. This paper reviews some of the salient characteristics and interactions of the Hg-Se system, to consider the hypothesis that the effects of emissions of these compounds should be considered jointly.

  17. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implication of mercury emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L.; Hao, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74 ng m-3, 10.1 ± 18.8 pg m-3 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m-3, respectively, about 2-20 times of the background concentration of Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in North China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m-3) and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m-3). In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed with peak levels in late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the atmospheric stratification during nighttime against laminar fluxes during daytime. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from east and southwest to the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicate that the atmospheric transport predominantly from the northwest

  18. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L.; Hao, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m-3, respectively, about 2-20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m-3) and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m-3). In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicate that the atmospheric transport predominantly from the northwest

  19. Environmental impact of mercury and other heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Oliver

    The environmental impact of heavy metals is reviewed. One significant source of emissions of heavy metals to air is waste incineration. Consumer batteries contributes significantly to this problem, as well as to heavy metal leakage to groundwater from landfill deposits. The situation in Sweden is used as an example to describe how the deposition from the atmosphere still is increasing the load of heavy metals, like mercury, cadmium and lead, in top soils and aquatic sediments. Critical factors and effect levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and As are discussed. Specific questions like mercury contents in present battery waste and heavy metal contents in new and future secondary batteries are addressed.

  20. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-01

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby. PMID:18599778