Science.gov

Sample records for air mixing ratio

  1. Background NO/sub x/ mixing ratios in air masses over the North Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1981-08-20

    A chemiluminescence analyzer was used to measure NO/sub x/ mixing ratios at the west coast of Ireland. Two measurement modes allowed the determination of NO and NO/sub x/ = NO+NO/sub 2/. In a third mode using a molybdenum converter, higher signals were observed than was in the second mode indicating that nitrogen compounds other than NO+NO/sub 2/ are registered. They are denoted 'excess NO/sub x/'. The average NO/sub 2/ mixing ratio for a week period was 101 +- 87 pptv. In pure marine air masses identified by means of trajectory calculations, the NO/sub 2/ mixing ratios were lower and exhibited in addition a diurnal variation with nighttime values of 37 +- 6 pptv and average values of 87 +- 47 pptv. Possible origins of the diurnal variation are discussed. For such conditions, the NO mixing ratio generally was unmeasurably small, certainly less than 10 pptv. The excess NO/sub x/ is also higher during the day compared with nighttime values of about 70 pptv. Further studies are required to identify the compounds involved.

  2. Water vapour mixing ratio profiles over Hornsund, Arctic. Intercomparison of lidar and AIRS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Magdalena; Karasiński, Grzegorz

    2014-04-01

    Since October 2009, a ground-based Raman lidar system has been deployed to perform a regular, night-time, vertical sounding of a water vapour content in the lower and middle troposphere above Polish Polar Station at Hornsund (77.00°N, 15.55°E, 10 m a.s.l.) in the Arctic. The water vapour mixing ratio profiles were obtained for the atmosphere up to 6 km altitude, based on analysis of inelastic Raman backscattering signals from nitrogen molecules (at 387 nm) and water vapour particles (at 407 nm), calibrated with the data from a local Vaisala's automatic meteorological station. The results obtained for winter seasons in the years 2009-2012 are in a good general agreement with the results obtained from the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite.

  3. Marked long-term decline in ambient CO mixing ratio in SE England, 1997-2014: evidence of policy success in improving air quality.

    PubMed

    Lowry, D; Lanoisellé, M E; Fisher, R E; Martin, M; Fowler, C M R; France, J L; Hernández-Paniagua, I Y; Novelli, P C; Sriskantharajah, S; O'Brien, P; Rata, N D; Holmes, C W; Fleming, Z L; Clemitshaw, K C; Zazzeri, G; Pommier, M; McLinden, C A; Nisbet, E G

    2016-05-23

    Atmospheric CO at Egham in SE England has shown a marked and progressive decline since 1997, following adoption of strict controls on emissions. The Egham site is uniquely positioned to allow both assessment and comparison of 'clean Atlantic background' air and CO-enriched air downwind from the London conurbation. The decline is strongest (approximately 50 ppb per year) in the 1997-2003 period but continues post 2003. A 'local CO increment' can be identified as the residual after subtraction of contemporary background Atlantic CO mixing ratios from measured values at Egham. This increment, which is primarily from regional sources (during anticyclonic or northerly winds) or from the European continent (with easterly air mass origins), has significant seasonality, but overall has declined steadily since 1997. On many days of the year CO measured at Egham is now not far above Atlantic background levels measured at Mace Head (Ireland). The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and 'bottom-up' inventory results. Comparison with urban and regional background CO mixing ratios in Hong Kong demonstrates the importance of regional, as opposed to local reduction of CO emission. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful in the UK.

  4. Marked long-term decline in ambient CO mixing ratio in SE England, 1997–2014: evidence of policy success in improving air quality

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, D.; Lanoisellé, M. E.; Fisher, R. E.; Martin, M.; Fowler, C. M. R.; France, J. L.; Hernández-Paniagua, I. Y.; Novelli, P. C.; Sriskantharajah, S.; O’Brien, P.; Rata, N. D.; Holmes, C. W.; Fleming, Z. L.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Zazzeri, G.; Pommier, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric CO at Egham in SE England has shown a marked and progressive decline since 1997, following adoption of strict controls on emissions. The Egham site is uniquely positioned to allow both assessment and comparison of ‘clean Atlantic background’ air and CO-enriched air downwind from the London conurbation. The decline is strongest (approximately 50 ppb per year) in the 1997–2003 period but continues post 2003. A ‘local CO increment’ can be identified as the residual after subtraction of contemporary background Atlantic CO mixing ratios from measured values at Egham. This increment, which is primarily from regional sources (during anticyclonic or northerly winds) or from the European continent (with easterly air mass origins), has significant seasonality, but overall has declined steadily since 1997. On many days of the year CO measured at Egham is now not far above Atlantic background levels measured at Mace Head (Ireland). The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and ‘bottom-up’ inventory results. Comparison with urban and regional background CO mixing ratios in Hong Kong demonstrates the importance of regional, as opposed to local reduction of CO emission. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful in the UK. PMID:27210416

  5. Marked long-term decline in ambient CO mixing ratio in SE England, 1997–2014: evidence of policy success in improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Lanoisellé, M. E.; Fisher, R. E.; Martin, M.; Fowler, C. M. R.; France, J. L.; Hernández-Paniagua, I. Y.; Novelli, P. C.; Sriskantharajah, S.; O’Brien, P.; Rata, N. D.; Holmes, C. W.; Fleming, Z. L.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Zazzeri, G.; Pommier, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric CO at Egham in SE England has shown a marked and progressive decline since 1997, following adoption of strict controls on emissions. The Egham site is uniquely positioned to allow both assessment and comparison of ‘clean Atlantic background’ air and CO-enriched air downwind from the London conurbation. The decline is strongest (approximately 50 ppb per year) in the 1997–2003 period but continues post 2003. A ‘local CO increment’ can be identified as the residual after subtraction of contemporary background Atlantic CO mixing ratios from measured values at Egham. This increment, which is primarily from regional sources (during anticyclonic or northerly winds) or from the European continent (with easterly air mass origins), has significant seasonality, but overall has declined steadily since 1997. On many days of the year CO measured at Egham is now not far above Atlantic background levels measured at Mace Head (Ireland). The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and ‘bottom-up’ inventory results. Comparison with urban and regional background CO mixing ratios in Hong Kong demonstrates the importance of regional, as opposed to local reduction of CO emission. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful in the UK.

  6. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ¹³C of air CO₂ observed at an urban station Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Guha, Tania; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-02-01

    We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted δ(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in δ(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04 ± 0.02‰) was seen in October, then δ(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31 ± 0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in δ(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average δ(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The δ(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9 ± 3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6 ± 0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based

  7. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  8. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  9. Seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the total CH4 mixing ratios in West Siberia: Results from AIRS/AMSU and chemistry transport models for 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Mordvin, Egor

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. It has much higher global warming potential comparing to carbon dioxide on per mass emitted basis. Atmospheric methane also plays an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry and is the main source of water vapor in the stratosphere. The recent increase of CH4 in 2007-2008, after a nearly stable period of about one decade, is attributed to the increased emissions from tropical and Arctic wetlands. However, many uncertainties regarding natural and anthropogenic methane emissions still exist. For example, the total CH4 emissions from wetlands in West Siberia are estimated to be in the range from 1.6 to 20 Tg/year. The main causes leading to such large uncertainties are significant spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions and the sparseness of ground observational networks. The purpose of this study is to investigate the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the total CH4 mixing ratios (CH4-Tot) in West Siberia for 2003-2013 using the AIRS/AMSU-Aqua measurements and the results from chemistry transport models MOZART4 and ACTM-CCSR/NIES/FRCGC. The key feature of the proposed approach is chemistry transport model-based regression equation linking CH4-Tot with mid-upper tropospheric CH4 (in the layer from 50 to 250 hPa below the tropopause), the tropopause height and the surface temperature. The observational information in our approach comes from the AIRS/AMSU measurements. Comparison of the retrieved CH4-Tot with the measurements of CH4 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) have shown that the model captures observed seasonal cycles and interannual variability at mid-latitude sites. The spatial and temporal distributions of CH4-Tot in West Siberia for 2003-2013 are presented. Analysis of deseasonalized time-series indicates that the total CH4 mixing ratios increases about 4 ppbv/yr from 2007. This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 13

  10. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  11. Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.

    1967-01-01

    Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

  12. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. ); Tans, P.P. )

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyama, Yuji; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

    2007-12-01

    We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4{sigma} below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bimaximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2}{sup '} symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the diagonal of the golden rectangle. Assuming an analogous structure in the quark sector suggests a golden prediction for the Cabibbo angle, {theta}{sub C}={pi}/4-{theta}{sub 12}{approx_equal}13.3 deg., up to the uncertainties comparable to V{sub ub}.

  14. Long-term decline of the CO mixing ratio in SW London from 2000 to 2011: An example of policy success in improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Paniagua, I. Y.; Lowry, D.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric CO have been performed at Royal Holloway University of London (Egham, Surrey) since 2000 to 2011 and standardised using NOAA calibration gases. The CO has shown a marked and progressive decline since 2000 following the strict controls on vehicle emissions. A not linear decline was observed, but if linearised the decline rate was roughly 47 ppb per year in the 2000-2003 period, and 15 ppb per year post 2003. It agrees with the observed increment of 81% in the ratio CO2/CO from 2000 to 2011. There is a greater influence of anthropogenic emissions during weekdays when fossil fuel use and combustion processes are higher that at weekends. The seasonal cycle is driven by the temporal variation in meteorological conditions, changes in the combustion emissions and OH seasonality. The seasonal cycle shows maximum concentrations in winter and minimum in late summer. The largest seasonal amplitude observed, peak to trough, was 303.1 ppb in 2000 whereas the smallest was 128.3 ppb in 2011. The data set has been split into 8 categories (45°) using wind sector analysis. This shows that the greatest concentrations are recorded from the east and northeast sectors. The lowest concentrations were observed for air from the south and southwest sectors. Back trajectory and meteorological analysis of the data confirm that the main sources of CO are anthropogenic emissions from the Greater London area and the dense local road network to the East of the measurement site. Nowadays, compared with Mace Head (West Ireland) data, the CO measured at Egham is not far above Atlantic background levels during large periods of the year when prevailing S-SW winds reach the site. The results are consistent with MOPITT satellite observations and 'bottom-up' inventory results. The Egham record implies that controls on emissions subsequent to legislation have been extremely successful the UK.

  15. Scavenging ratios based on inflow air concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Dana, M.T.; Lee, R.N.; Slinn, W.G.N.; Thorp, J.M.

    1991-07-01

    Scavenging ratios were calculated from field measurements made during April 1985. Event precipitation samples were collected at the surface, but air chemistry measurements in the air mass feeding the precipitation were made from an aircraft. In contrast, ratios calculated in previous studies have used air concentration and precipitation chemistry data from only surface measurements. Average scavenging ratios were calculated for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, total sulfate, total nitrate, and total ammonium for 5 events; the geometric mean of these scavenging ratios were 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, 5.6 {times} 10{sup 6}, 4.3 {times} 10{sup 5}, 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5}, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 9.7 {times} 10{sup 4}, respectively. These means are similar to but less variable than previous ratios formed using only surface data.

  16. Air/fuel ratio visualization in a diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabell, Kevin David

    1993-01-01

    To investigate some features of high pressure diesel spray ignition, we have applied a newly developed planar imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb. The bomb is designed to give flow characteristics similar to those in a direct injection diesel engine yet provide nearly unlimited optical access. A high pressure electronic unit injector system with on-line manually adjustable main and pilot injection features was used. The primary scalar of interest was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly near the spray plumes. To make this measurement quantitative, we have developed a calibration LIF technique. The development of this technique is the key contribution of this dissertation. The air/fuel ratio measurement was made using biacetyl as a seed in the air inlet to the engine. When probed by a tripled Nd:YAG laser the biacetyl fluoresces, with a signal proportional to the local biacetyl concentration. This feature of biacetyl enables the fluorescent signal to be used as as indicator of local fuel vapor concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling estimates of the local concentration of air and the approximate local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. The results indicate that the image quality generated with this method is sufficient for generating air/fuel ratio contours. The processes during the ignition delay have a marked effect on ignition and the subsequent burn. These processes, vaporization and pre-flame kinetics, very much depend on the mixing of the air and fuel. This study has shown that poor mixing and over-mixing of the air and fuel will directly affect the type of ignition. An optimal mixing arrangement exists and depends on the swirl ratio in the engine, the number of holes in the fuel injector and the distribution of fuel into a pilot and main injection. If a short delay and a diffusion burn is desired, the best mixing parameters among those surveyed would be a high swirl ratio, a 4-hole nozzle and a

  17. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  18. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  19. A variable mixing-length ratio for convection theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. L.; Wolff, C. L.; Sofia, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a natural choice for the local mixing length in the mixing-length theory of convection has a value proportional to the local density scale height of the convective bubbles. The resultant variable mixing-length ratio (the ratio between the mixing length and the pressure scale height) of this theory is enhanced in the superadiabatic region and approaches a constant in deeper layers. Numerical tests comparing the new mixing length successfully eliminate most of the density inversion that typically plagues conventional results. The new approach also seems to indicate the existence of granular motion at the top of the convection zone.

  20. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios and Mixing Ratios of Several VOC Including n-Hexane, Benzene, Toluene, p-Xylene, n-Octane, and n-Decane Measured During the Border Air Quality Study Campaign (June-July, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, A.; Moukhtar, S.; Huang, L.; Rudolph, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many important secondary pollutants are formed during the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. These organic compounds can contribute significant mass to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and therefore impact physical properties and composition of aerosols. Despite numerous studies, the formation processes for atmospheric PM are still not well understood. While there have been very extensive laboratory investigations of PM formation, nearly all of these studies have been conducted at VOC concentrations which exceed ambient atmospheric levels by several orders of magnitude. Consequently there is substantial uncertainty in the extrapolation of laboratory results to the atmosphere. Recently it has been demonstrated that stable carbon isotopic composition measurements can be very valuable in providing increased insight into the chemical and transport processes of VOC in the troposphere. Studies showed that isotope ratio measurements could aid in the determination of photochemical processing of individual VOC. It is expected that applying isotope measurements to studies of VOC oxidation products in the atmosphere will allow to establish quantitative relationship between the amount of precursor oxidized and the concentration of secondary pollutants formed during this process. Thus, the yield of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from this reaction can be calculated. A cartridge technique was developed for field sampling of VOC and subsequent laboratory analysis by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. It was first implemented during the BAQS field study (June-July, 2007) parallel to PM sampling. Stable carbon isotopic composition and concentrations of several VOC were determined and compared to those of PM. The results of these measurements will be presented and discussed.

  1. Retrieval of constituent mixing ratios from limb thermal emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, William A.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1988-01-01

    An onion-peeling iterative, least-squares relaxation method to retrieve mixing ratio profiles from limb thermal emission spectra is presented. The method has been tested on synthetic data, containing various amounts of added random noise for O3, HNO3, and N2O. The retrieval method is used to obtain O3 and HNO3 mixing ratio profiles from high-resolution thermal emission spectra. Results of the retrievals compare favorably with those obtained previously.

  2. Seasonal variability and long term trends of chlorofluorocarbon mixing ratios in the unsaturated zone.

    PubMed

    Santella, Nicholas; Schlosser, Peter; Smethie, William M; Ho, David T; Stute, Martin

    2006-07-15

    To investigate processes that might affect chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) mixing ratios at the water table, a time series was obtained of unsaturated zone soil gas CFCs to depths of ca. 4 m at a site near New York City (NYC). Observed CFC 11, 12, and 113 mixing ratios were lower in winter than expected from either a local, high-resolution time series or remote atmospheric mixing ratios. A diffusion model, which includes seasonal changes in soil temperature, moisture, and CFC solubility, reproduces to first order the observed soil gas mixing ratios for CFC 11 and 12. Underestimation by the model of the seasonal cycle of CFC 11 points to changing levels of sorption to soils due to seasonal changes in temperature as an additional cause of the cycle seen in CFC 11 mixing ratios in soil air. In the case of spring recharge, low CFC mixing ratios in soil air caused by increased solubility may result in low CFC 11 concentrations in groundwater and, when dating groundwater recharged before the 1990s with CFCs, older apparent ages by up to 4 years. Attempts to observe average atmospheric CFC levels from soil gas are also significantly hindered by these seasonal fluctuations. Our results indicate the importance of considering seasonal changes in soil temperature when making precise observations of even very moderately soluble gases in the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater.

  3. CFD Assessment of Orifice Aspect Ratio and Mass Flow Ratio on Jet Mixing in Rectangular Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, D. B.; Smith, C. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Isothermal CFD analysis was performed on axially opposed rows of jets mixing with cross flow in a rectangular duct. Laterally, the jets' centerlines were aligned with each other on the top and bottom walls. The focus of this study was to characterize the effects of orifice aspect ratio and jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio on jet penetration and mixing. Orifice aspect ratios (L/W) of 4-to-1, 2-to-1, and 1-to-1, along with circular holes, were parametrically analyzed. Likewise, jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratios (MR) of 2.0, 0.5, and 0.25 were systematically investigated. The jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J) was maintained at 36 for all cases, and the orifice spacing-to-duct height (S/H) was varied until optimum mixing was attained for each configuration. The numerical results showed that orifice aspect ratio (and likewise orifice blockage) had little effect on jet penetration and mixing. Based on mixing characteristics alone, the 4-to-1 slot was comparable to the circular orifice. The 4-to-1 slot has a smaller jet wake which may be advantageous for reducing emissions. However, the axial length of a 4-to-1 slot may be prohibitively long for practical application, especially for MR of 2.0. The jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio had a more significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. For a 4-to-1 aspect ratio orifice, the design correlating parameter for optimum mixing (C = (S/H)(sq. root J)) varied from 2.25 for a mass flow ratio of 2.0 to 1.5 for a mass flow ratio of 0.25.

  4. Mixing properties of coaxial jets with large velocity ratios and large inverse density ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander Schumaker, S.; Driscoll, James F.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental study was conducted to better understand the mixing properties of coaxial jets as several parameters were systematically varied, including the velocity ratio, density ratio, and the Reynolds number. Diameters of the inner and outer jet were also varied. Coaxial jets are commonly used to mix fluids due to the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing that they provide. A measure of the overall mixing efficiency is the stoichiometric mixing length (Ls), which is the distance along the jet centerline where the two fluids have mixed to some desired concentration, which was selected to be the stoichiometric concentration for H2/O2 and CH4/O2 in this case. For 56 cases, the profiles of mean mixture fraction, rms mixture fraction fluctuations (unmixedness), and Ls were measured using acetone planar laser induced fluorescence diagnostics. Results were compared to three mixing models. The entrainment model of Villermaux and Rehab showed good agreement with the data, indicating that the proper non-dimensional scaling parameter is the momentum flux ratio M. The work extends the existing database of coaxial jet scalar mixing properties because it considers the specific regime of large values of both the velocity ratio and the inverse density ratio, which is the regime in which rocket injectors operate. Also the work focuses on the mixing up to Ls where previous work focused on the mixing up to the end of the inner core. The Reynolds numbers achieved for a number of cases were considerably larger than previous gas mixing studies, which insures that the jet exit boundary conditions are fully turbulent.

  5. Thermohaline Mixing and Isotopic Ratios in AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancliffe, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    I investigate the effects of thermohaline mixing on the isotopic ratios of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. While thermohaline mixing has been shown to be an effective means of changing the surface composition of low-mass stars while they ascend the upper part of the giant branch, the effect of this mechanism on the AGB is almost negligible. The carbon isotopic ratio is barely affected during the earliest pulses, and as the 12C content increases due to third dredge-up this effect becomes seriously curtailed. This is because structural changes affect the relative locations of 3He-burning and the CNO cycle. While the isotopic ratios are barely affected by thermohaline mixing on the AGB, there is a substantial increase in the surface lithium abundance due to the action of this mechanism.

  6. Large-scale distribution of surface ozone mixing ratio in southern Mongolia: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, F. X.; Behrendt, T.; Ermel, M.; Hempelmann, N.; Andreae, M. O.; Jöckel, P.

    2012-04-01

    For the first time, measurements of surface ozone mixing ratio have been performed from semi-arid steppe to arid/hyper-arid southern Mongolian Gobi desert. During 12-29 August 2009, ozone mixing ratio was continuously measured from a mobile platform (4x4 Furgon SUV). The survey (3060 km / 229171km2) started at the Mongolian capital Ulaan-Baatar (47.9582° N, 107.0190° E ), heading to south-west (Echin Gol, 43.2586° N, 99.0255° E), eastward to Dalanzadgad (43.6061° N, 104.4445° E), and finally back to Ulaan-Baatar. Ambient air was sampled (approx. 1 l/min) through a 4 m long PTFE-intake line along a forward facing boom mounted on the roof of a 4x4 Furgon SUV. Ozone mixing ratio has been measured by UV-spectroscopy using a mobile dual-cell ozone analyzer (model 205, 2BTechnologies, Boulder, U.S.A.). While ozone signals were measured every 5 seconds, 1 minute averages and standard deviations have been calculated on-line and stored into the data logger. The latter are used to identify and to discriminate against unrealistic low or high ozone mixing ratios which have been due to occasionally passing plumes of vehicle exhaust and/or biomass burning gases, as well as gasoline (at gas filling stations). Even under desert conditions, the temporal behaviour of ozone mixing ratio was characterized by considerable and regular diel variations. Minimum mixing ratios (15-25 ppb) occurred early in the morning (approx. 06:00 local), when surface depletion of ozone (by dry deposition) can not be compensated by supply from the free troposphere due to thermodynamic stability of the nocturnal boundary layer. Late in the afternoon (approx. 17:00 local), under conditions of a turbulently well mixed convective boundary layer, maximum ozone mixing ratios (45-55 ppb) were reached. Daily amplitudes of the diel cycle of ozone mixing ratio were in the order of 30 ppb (steppe), 20 ppb (arid desert), to approx. 5 ppb (hyper-arid Gobi desert (Shargyn Gobi)). Ozone surface measurements were

  7. Occultation determination of Neptune's oblateness and stratospheric methane mixing ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lellouch, E.; Hubbard, W. B.; Sicardy, B.; Vilas, F.; Bouchet, P.

    1986-01-01

    The occultation of a star by Neptune on August 20, 1985 was observed at 2.2 micron wavelength with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The detection of a 'central flash' midway between immersion and emersion has allowed the determination of Neptune's oblateness and the atmospheric extinction at 2.2 microns, which is related to the stratospheric methane mixing ratio. An oblateness of (2.08 +0.19 or -0.18) x 10 to the 2nd is found and, assuming a stratospheric temperature of 120 K, a value of 0.6 percent is inferred (with an uncertainty of a factor of 10) for the methane mixing ratio (CH4/H2) at 0.3 mbar. The latter value may indicate supersaturation of methane in Neptune's stratosphere.

  8. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiaping; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ(13)C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ(13)CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83±14.11% and 86.84±12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17±14.11% and 13.16±12.27%, respectively. The δ(13)C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing.

  9. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.; Barbis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution FIR emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier-transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32 deg N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2 deg were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069/cm were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 x 10 to the -11th, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35 percent. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  10. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H. ); Carli, B. ); Barbis, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution far-infrared emission spectra obtained with a balloon-born Fourier transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32{degree}N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2{degree} were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069 cm{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 {times} 10{sub {minus}11}, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35%. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus, HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  11. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, K.B.; Jordan, C.; Mentis, E.; Cottrell, L.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the ongoing monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ?? 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93 % above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km-2 h -1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km-2 h-1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  12. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Karl B.; Jordan, C.; Mentis, E.; Cottrell, L.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ?? 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93% above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km-2 h -1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km-2 h-1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols.

  13. Multipole mixing ratios and substate populations in Rn-219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. D.

    2016-08-01

    Historical alpha-gamma angular correlation data for the decay of 223Ra into excited states of 219Rn have been analysed, using the correct spins of the states involved, for the first time. The analyses produced multipole mixing ratios (E2/M1) of δ (144)=-0.11\\+/- 0.03, δ (154)=0, δ (158)=-0.205\\+/- 0.018 and δ (269)=-0.149\\+/- 0.004 where the nominal transition energies, in keV, are given in brackets. These values are consistent with published values obtained from internal conversion electron spectroscopy. It is also found that δ (324)=0 and δ (338)=-0.235\\+/- 0.030 (where both values differ from current tabulations) and that the sign of the multipole mixing ratio for the 122 keV transition is negative. The 158, 269 and 338 keV states are found to be aligned with high population of M=+/- 3/2 substates and the 127 keV state is believed to have undergone spin relaxation.

  14. Regional and hemispheric influences on measured spring peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mixing ratios at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malley, Christopher S.; Cape, J. Neil; Jones, Matthew R.; Leeson, Sarah R.; Coyle, Mhairi; Braban, Christine F.; Heal, Mathew R.; Twigg, Marsailidh M.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents 15-min averaged measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) obtained during spring 2014 (24/04/2014 - 06/05/2014) at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite (southeast Scotland). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the conditions producing the distribution of PAN mixing ratios at the supersite in spring 2014. Air mass back trajectories showed the majority of air masses to have spent substantial time over the UK, continental Europe or Scandinavia prior to arrival at Auchencorth. The median and 95th percentile PAN mixing ratios observed were 0.46 ppb and 1.03 ppb, respectively. The median mixing ratio was elevated compared with previous PAN measurements during springtime (April-May) in southeast Scotland (corresponding median mixing ratios April-May 1994-1998: 0.1-0.3 ppb), which is hypothesised to be due to conditions conducive to regional (European) photochemical PAN production. Additionally, PAN mixing ratios during regionally influenced conditions (0.4-1.5 ppb) were substantially more elevated from hemispheric background mixing ratios (0.4-0.6 ppb) than for ozone (O3, regional: 10-45 ppb, hemispheric: 30-40 ppb). PAN and O3 both impact upon vegetation and human health and it is necessary to understand the extent to which hemispheric and regional processes contribute to their abundances in different locations. Regional processes can both increase and decrease PAN and O3 mixing ratios compared to imported hemispheric background mixing ratios. This study concludes that during the measurement period in spring 2014 at the Auchencorth supersite, regional PAN and O3 modifying processes enhanced PAN mixing ratios more than for O3.

  15. Air sparging and bioremediation: The case for in situ mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, W.S.; Brown, R.A.; Bass, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Air sparging has sparked considerable controversy in the remediation industry. Some feel air sparging is a significant advance in remedial technology, whereas others feel that air sparging is a very limited technology. A central question in this debate is the presence (or lack thereof) of groundwater mixing during air sparging. Groundwater mixing is important to overcome the diffusion limitations of sparging caused by air channeling and effectively deliver oxygen for in situ bioremediation. Possible mechanisms of groundwater mixing include physical displacement, capillary interactions of air and water, frictional drag, makeup of evaporative loss, thermal convection, and movement of fines. Physical groundwater displacement and groundwater movement resulting from capillary pressure gradients are the two most likely and most commonly effective mechanisms. An important question is the relative degree of groundwater mixing during nonsteady-state and steady-state sparging. Evidence indicates that mixing occurs primarily during nonsteady-state air sparging. Because groundwater mixing is important to overcome the diffusion limitations of air sparging, it is important to operate sparging systems to maximize mixing. Field data show that pulsed sparging, which emphasizes the nonsteady-state aspects of air sparging, greatly enhances groundwater mixing.

  16. Mixing ratios of trace gases in the austral polar atmosphere during August and September of 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, James F.; Heidt, Leroy E.; Pollock, Walter H.; Henry, Bruce E.; Lueb, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Mixing ratios are presented for a number of long-lived trace gases in the austral polar atmosphere during August and September of 1987. The recent discovery of a 12-year trend of increasing depletion of ozone over the Antarctic Continent in the spring of each year led to numerous theoretical interpretations and several scientific expeditions to the region. The results herein were obtained as part of a major effort involving penetration of the region of ozone depletion by NASA's multi-instrumented aircraft. One of the 14 instruments on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft collected pressurized air samples between latitudes of 53 degrees and 72 degrees south at pressure altitudes up to 21 km in a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas, Chile, over the Palmer Peninsula. The sampling system, located in the nose section of ER-2, has an inlet tube in the free airstream, a metal-bellows air pump, and 14 specially treated 1.6 l stainless-steel canisters for containing the pressurized air at 350 kPa. A typical flight profile consisted of a southbound path on the 428 K potential temperature surface, a descent to a pressure altitude of 13.7 km, a climb to the 460 K surface, and return on this surface. Mixing ratios for the trace gases were obtained from gas chromatographic analyses of the pressurized air samples. Of the species measured, the mixing ratios for CH4, CO, N2O, CF2 Cl2, CFCl3, CH3, CCl3, CCl4, and C2F3Cl3 are reported here.

  17. Passive scalar mixing: Analytic study of time scale ratio, variance, and mix rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Some very reasonable approximations, consistent with numerical and experimental evidence, were applied to the skewness and palinstrophy coefficients in the dissipation equations to produce a simple closed moment model for mixing. Such a model, first suggested on the grounds of a Taylor microscale self-similarity of the scalar field, was studied numerically by Gonzalez and Fall ["The approach to self-preservation of scalar fluctuation decay in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 654 (1998)]. Here, in a somewhat old fashioned and physically meaningful style, analytic solutions to the four coupled nonlinear moment equations for mixing by decaying and forced stationary turbulence, are given. Analytic expressions for the variance ⟨c2⟩, the mixing rate ɛc, and the time scale ratio r(t ) are derived and compared in different mixing situations. The solutions show the sensitive dependence on the initial relative length ratio as studied experimentally by Warhaft and Lumley ["An experimental study of the decay of temperature fluctuations in grid-generated turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 88, 659 (1978)], and simulated by Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)]. The length scale ratio saturation effect predicted by Durbin ["Analysis of the decay of temperature fluctuations in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 25, 1328 (1982)], resolving the apparent contradiction with the results of Sreenivasan, Tavoularis, and Corrsin ["Temperature fluctuations and scales in grid generated turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 100, 597 (1980)] is predicted. For stationary turbulence the solutions indicate, in contradistinction to the power law "stirring" result predicted by a stochastic Lagrangian analysis, that the mixing is asymptotically exponential as shown in the phenomenological analysis of Corrsin ["The isotropic turbulent mixer," AIChE J. 10, 870 (1964)]. That the time scale ratio solution also depends on

  18. Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.; Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Derstroff, B.; Zannoni, N.; Gros, V.; Lanza, M.; Brito, J.; Noe, S. M.; House, E.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Behrendt, T.; Williams, J.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2016-09-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites, a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR Estonia site in a remote hemiboreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia). Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.

  19. Influence of mixed liquor recycle ratio and dissolved oxygen on performance of pre-denitrification submerged membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teck Wee; Ng, How Yong

    2008-02-01

    The conflicting influence of mixed liquor recycle ratio and dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and membrane fouling of a pre-denitrification submerged MBR was investigated in this study. It was found that a high aeration rate of 10 L air/min was able to minimize membrane fouling as compared with lower aeration rates of 5 and 2.5L air/min in this study. Faster fouling at lower aeration rate was due to the decrease in cross-flow velocity across the membrane surface. However, high DO concentration (average of 5.1+/-0.5mg O2/L) present in the recycle mixed liquor at an aeration rate of 10 L air/min deteriorated the TN removal efficiency when operating at a recycle ratio of more than 3. A lower aeration rate of 5L air/min, resulting in an average DO concentration of 3.4+/-0.7 mg O2/L in the recycle mixed liquor, led to an improvement in TN removal efficiency: 63%, 80%, 84% and 89% for mixed liquor recycle ratio of 1, 3, 5 and 10, respectively. Further decrease in aeration rate to 2.5L air/min, resulting in an average DO concentration of 1.9+/-0.8 mg O2/L, did not improve the TN removal efficiency. Using a newly developed simplified nitrification-denitrification model, it was calculated that the COD/NO3(-)-N required for denitrification at 10 L air/min aeration rate was higher than those associated with 5 and 2.5L air/min aeration rates. The model also revealed that denitrification at an aeration rate of 10 L air/min was limited by COD concentration present in the wastewater when operating at a mixed liquor recycle ratio of 3 and higher.

  20. Impact of updated traffic emissions on HONO mixing ratios simulated for urban site in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czader, B. H.; Choi, Y.; Li, X.; Alvarez, S.; Lefer, B.

    2014-08-01

    Recent measurements in Houston show that HONO traffic emissions are 1.7% of NOx emissions which is about twice the previously estimated value of 0.8% based on tunnel measurements in 2001. The 0.8% value is widely used to estimate mobile emissions of HONO for air quality modeling applications. This study applies the newly estimated HONO/NOx ratio in the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system and estimates the impact of higher HONO traffic emissions on its mixing ratios. Since applied emission inventory resulted in overestimates of NOx mixing ratios and because HONO emissions and chemical formation depends on the magnitude of NOx, thus, before proceeding with HONO emission modifications emissions of NOx were adjusted to reflect current emission trends. The modeled mixing ratios of NOx were evaluated against measured data from a number of sites in the Houston area. Overall, the NOx mean value dropped from 11.11 ppbv in the base case to 7.59 ppbv in the NOx adjusted case becoming much closer to the observed mean of 7.76 ppbv. The Index of Agreement (IOA) is improved in the reduced NOx case (0.71 vs. 0.75) and the Absolute Mean Error (AME) is lowered from 6.76 to 4.94. The modeled mixing ratios of HONO were evaluated against the actual observed values attained at the Moody Tower in Houston. The model could not reproduce the morning HONO peaks when the low HONO/NOx ratio of 0.008 was used to estimate HONO emissions. Doubling HONO emissions from mobile sources resulted in higher mixing ratios, the mean value increased from 0.30 to 0.41 ppbv becoming closer to the observed mean concentrations of 0.69 but still low; AME was slightly reduced from 0.46 to 0.43. IOA for simulation that used the 2001 emission values is 0.63 while for simulation with higher HONO emission it increased to 0.70. Increased HONO emissions impacted OH mixing ratio, up to about 6% increase was found during morning and mid-day hours. The impact on ozone is marginal. This study results sheds light on the

  1. Venus cloud properties: Infrared opacity and mass mixing ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. E.; Hanel, R. A.; Herath, L. W.; Kunde, V. G.; Maguire, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    By using the Mariner 5 temperature profile and a homogeneous cloud model, and assuming that CO2 and cloud particles are the only opacity sources, the wavelength dependence of the Venus cloud opacity is inferred from the infrared spectrum of the planet between 450 and 1250/cm. Justification for applying the homogeneous cloud model is found in the fact that numerous polarization and infrared data are mutually consistent within the framework of such a model; on the other hand, dense cloud models are not satisfactory. Volume extinction coefficients varying from 0.000005 to 0.000015/cm depending on the wavelength, are determined at the tropopause level of 6110 km. By using all available data, a cloud mass mixing ratio of approximately 0.000005 and a particle concentration of about 900 particles per cu cm at this level are also inferred. The derived cloud opacity compares favorably with that expected for a haze of droplets of a 75% aqueous solution of sulfuric acid.

  2. Increasing Springtime Ozone Mixing Ratios in the Free Troposphere Over Western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, O. R.; Parrish, D. D.; Stohl, A.; Trainer, M.; Nedelec, P.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J. P.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Tarasick, D.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Jaffe, D.; Gao, R.; Stith, J.; Ryerson, T.; Aikin, K.; Campos, T.; Weinheimer, A.; Avery, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the lowermost layer of the atmosphere - the troposphere - ozone is an important source of the hydroxyl radical, an oxidant that breaks down most pollutants and some greenhouse gases. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are toxic, however, and have a detrimental effect on human health and ecosystem productivity1. Moreover, tropospheric ozone itself acts as an effective greenhouse gas. Much of the present tropospheric ozone burden is a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors resulting in widespread increases in ozone concentrations since the late 1800s. At present, east Asia has the fastest-growing ozone precursor emissions. Much of the springtime east Asian pollution is exported eastwards towards western North America. Despite evidence that the exported Asian pollution produces ozone, no previous study has found a significant increase in free tropospheric ozone concentrations above the western USA since measurements began in the late 1970s. Here we compile springtime ozone measurements from many different platforms across western North America. We show a strong increase in springtime ozone mixing ratios during 1995-2008 and we have some additional evidence that a similar rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio has occurred since 1984. We find that the rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio is greatest when measurements are more heavily influenced by direct transport from Asia. Our result agrees with previous modelling studies, which indicate that global ozone concentrations should be increasing during the early part of the twenty-first century as a result of increasing precursor emissions, especially at northern mid-latitudes, with western North America being particularly sensitive to rising Asian emissions. We suggest that the observed increase in springtime background ozone mixing ratio may hinder the USA s compliance with its ozone air quality standard.

  3. Increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America.

    PubMed

    Cooper, O R; Parrish, D D; Stohl, A; Trainer, M; Nédélec, P; Thouret, V; Cammas, J P; Oltmans, S J; Johnson, B J; Tarasick, D; Leblanc, T; McDermid, I S; Jaffe, D; Gao, R; Stith, J; Ryerson, T; Aikin, K; Campos, T; Weinheimer, A; Avery, M A

    2010-01-21

    In the lowermost layer of the atmosphere-the troposphere-ozone is an important source of the hydroxyl radical, an oxidant that breaks down most pollutants and some greenhouse gases. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are toxic, however, and have a detrimental effect on human health and ecosystem productivity. Moreover, tropospheric ozone itself acts as an effective greenhouse gas. Much of the present tropospheric ozone burden is a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors resulting in widespread increases in ozone concentrations since the late 1800s. At present, east Asia has the fastest-growing ozone precursor emissions. Much of the springtime east Asian pollution is exported eastwards towards western North America. Despite evidence that the exported Asian pollution produces ozone, no previous study has found a significant increase in free tropospheric ozone concentrations above the western USA since measurements began in the late 1970s. Here we compile springtime ozone measurements from many different platforms across western North America. We show a strong increase in springtime ozone mixing ratios during 1995-2008 and we have some additional evidence that a similar rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio has occurred since 1984. We find that the rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio is greatest when measurements are more heavily influenced by direct transport from Asia. Our result agrees with previous modelling studies, which indicate that global ozone concentrations should be increasing during the early part of the twenty-first century as a result of increasing precursor emissions, especially at northern mid-latitudes, with western North America being particularly sensitive to rising Asian emissions. We suggest that the observed increase in springtime background ozone mixing ratio may hinder the USA's compliance with its ozone air quality standard.

  4. Impact of updated traffic emissions on HONO mixing ratios simulated for urban site in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czader, B. H.; Choi, Y.; Li, X.; Alvarez, S.; Lefer, B.

    2015-02-01

    Recent measurements in Houston show that HONO traffic emissions are 1.7% of NOx emissions, which is about twice the previously estimated value of 0.8% based on tunnel measurements in 2001. The 0.8% value is widely used to estimate mobile emissions of HONO for air quality modeling applications. This study applies the newly estimated HONO / NOx ratio in the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system and estimates the impact of higher HONO traffic emissions on its mixing ratios. Since applied emission inventory resulted in overestimates of NOx mixing ratios and because HONO emissions and chemical formation depend on the magnitude of NOx, thus, before proceeding with HONO emission modifications emissions of NOx were adjusted to reflect current emission trends. The modeled mixing ratios of NOx were evaluated against measured data from a number of sites in the Houston area. Overall, the NOx mean value dropped from 11.11 ppbv in the base case to 7.59 ppbv in the NOx-adjusted case becoming much closer to the observed mean of 7.76 ppbv. The index of agreement (IOA) is improved in the reduced NOx case (0.71 vs. 0.75) and the absolute mean error (AME) is lowered from 6.76 to 4.94. The modeled mixing ratios of HONO were evaluated against the actual observed values attained at the Moody Tower in Houston. The model could not reproduce the morning HONO peaks when the low HONO / NOx ratio of 0.008 was used to estimate HONO emissions. Doubling HONO emissions from mobile sources resulted in higher mixing ratios, and the mean value increased from 0.30 to 0.41 ppbv becoming closer to the observed mean concentrations of 0.69 but still low; AME was slightly reduced from 0.46 to 0.43. IOA for simulation that used the 2001 emission values is 0.63 while for simulation with higher HONO emission it increased to 0.70. Increased HONO emissions from mobile sources resulted in a 14% increase in OH during morning time at the location of the Moody Tower and 3% when averaged over an urban area. The increase

  5. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  6. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  7. New Examination of the Traditional Raman Lidar Technique II: Temperature Dependence Aerosol Scattering Ratio and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Abshire, James B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a companion paper, the temperature dependence of Raman scattering and its influence on the Raman water vapor signal and the lidar equations was examined. New forms of the lidar equation were developed to account for this temperature sensitivity. Here we use those results to derive the temperature dependent forms of the equations for the aerosol scattering ratio, aerosol backscatter coefficient, extinction to backscatter ratio and water vapor mixing ratio. Pertinent analysis examples are presented to illustrate each calculation.

  8. The global methane cycle: isotopes and mixing ratios, sources and sinks.

    PubMed

    Bréas, O; Guillou, C; Reniero, F; Wada, E

    2001-01-01

    A review of the global cycle of methane is presented with emphasis on its isotopic composition. The history of methane mixing ratios, reconstructed from measurements of air trapped in ice-cores is described. The methane record now extends back to 420 kyr ago in the case of the Vostok ice cores from Antarctica. The trends in mixing ratios and in delta13C values are reported for the two Hemispheres. The increase of the atmospheric methane concentration over the past 200 years, and by 1% per year since 1978, reaching 1.7 ppmv in 1990 is underlined. The various methane sources are presented. Indeed the authors describe the methane emissions by bacterial activity under anaerobic conditions in wet environments (wetlands, bogs, tundra, rice paddies), in ruminant stomachs and termite guts, and that originating from fossil carbon sources, such as biomass burning, coal mining, industrial losses, automobile exhaust, sea floor vent, and volcanic emissions. Furthermore, the main sinks of methane in the troposphere, soils or waters via oxidation are also reported, and the corresponding kinetic isotope effects.

  9. Nitric acid oxide mixing ratio measurements using a rocket launched chemiluminescent instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Jack J.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 18 rocket launched parachute borne nitric oxide instruments were launched from 1977 to 1985. A very precise instrument for the measurement of the nitric oxide mixing ratio was fabricated. No changes were made in the main body of the instruments, i.e., things associated with the reaction volume. Except for the last 4 launches, however, it did not yield the required absolute values that was hoped for. Two major problems were encountered. First, the wrong choice of the background calibration gas, nitrogen, caused the first 10 data sets to be too low in the absolute mixing ratio by nearly the order of 2 to 5 ppbv. The error was realized, and air was substituted for the bias gas measurement. Second, in the desire to extend the measurement to higher altitudes, the problem of contaminating the inlet flow tube with ozone from the reagent gas was encountered. The ozone valve was opened too early in the flight and this caused the pressure in the reaction volume to exceed the pressure at the flow tube entrance, permitting the ozone to migrate backwards. This problem was restricted to an altitude above 45 km.

  10. Effects of Iron Sand Ratios on the Basic Characteristics of Vanadium Titanium Mixed Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-hui; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Wang, Yao-zu; Xue, Xun; Yan, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Effects of iron sand ratios on the basic characteristics of vanadium titanium mixed ores were investigated using micro-sinter and grey relational analysis methods. The results show that iron sand presents poor assimilability, poor liquid flow capability, and low bonding phase strength. As the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores increases, the mixed ore's assimilation temperature increases, the fluidity index of liquid decreases, and the bonding phase strength first rises and then decreases. The comprehensive index of basic characteristic (CI) improves and then deteriorates with increasing iron sand ratio. The CI of vanadium titanium mixed ores is optimized when the iron sand ratio is 9 wt.%. In order to make full use of low-price iron-bearing materials and improve the sintering characteristics of vanadium titanium magnetite, the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores should be controlled within 9-12 wt.%.

  11. Parametric experimental studies on mixing characteristics within a low area ratio rectangular supersonic gaseous ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, S. K.; Rao, Srisha M. V.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2016-07-01

    We use the rectangular gaseous supersonic ejector as a platform to study the mixing characteristics of a confined supersonic jet. The entrainment ratio (ER) of the ejector, the non-mixed length (LNM), and potential core length (LPC) of the primary supersonic jet are measures to characterize mixing within the supersonic ejector. Experiments are carried out on a low area ratio rectangular supersonic ejector with air as the working fluid in both primary and secondary flows. The design Mach number of the nozzle (MPD = 1.5-3.0) and primary flow stagnation pressure (Pop = 4.89-9.89 bars) are the parameters that are varied during experimentation. Wall static pressure measurements are carried out to understand the performance of the ejector as well as to estimate the LNM (the spatial resolution is limited by the placement of pressure transducers). Well-resolved flow images (with a spatial resolution of 50 μm/pixel and temporal resolution of 1.25 ms) obtained through Planar Laser Mie Scattering (PLMS) show the flow dynamics within the ejector with clarity. The primary flow and secondary flow are seeded separately with acetone that makes the LNM and LPC clearly visible in the flow images. These parameters are extracted from the flow images using in-house image processing routines. A significant development in this work is the definition of new scaling parameters within the ejector. LNM, non-dimensionalized with respect to the fully expanded jet height hJ, is found to be a linear function of the Mach number ratio (Mach number ratio is defined as the ratio of design Mach number (MPD) and fully expanded Mach number (MPJ) of the primary jet). This definition also provides a clear demarcation of under-expanded and over-expanded regimes of operation according to [MPD/MPJ] > 1 and [MPD/MPJ] < 1, respectively. It is observed that the ER increased in over-expanded mode (to 120%) and decreased in under-expanded mode (to 68%). Similarly, LNM decreased (to 21.8%) in over-expanded mode

  12. Application of a mixing-ratios based formulation to model mixing-driven dissolution experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, Alberto; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Bussini, Michele; Berkowitz, Brian

    2009-05-01

    We address the question of how one can combine theoretical and numerical modeling approaches with limited measurements from laboratory flow cell experiments to realistically quantify salient features of complex mixing-driven multicomponent reactive transport problems in porous media. Flow cells are commonly used to examine processes affecting reactive transport through porous media, under controlled conditions. An advantage of flow cells is their suitability for relatively fast and reliable experiments, although measuring spatial distributions of a state variable within the cell is often difficult. In general, fluid is sampled only at the flow cell outlet, and concentration measurements are usually interpreted in terms of integrated reaction rates. In reactive transport problems, however, the spatial distribution of the reaction rates within the cell might be more important than the bulk integrated value. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical modeling of complex reactive transport problems [De Simoni M, Carrera J, Sanchez-Vila X, Guadagnini A. A procedure for the solution of multicomponent reactive transport problems. Water Resour Res 2005;41:W11410. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004056, De Simoni M, Sanchez-Vila X, Carrera J, Saaltink MW. A mixing ratios-based formulation for multicomponent reactive transport. Water Resour Res 2007;43:W07419. doi: 10.1029/2006WR005256] result in a methodology conducive to a simple exact expression for the space-time distribution of reaction rates in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions in chemical equilibrium. The key points of the methodology are that a general reactive transport problem, involving a relatively high number of chemical species, can be formulated in terms of a set of decoupled partial differential equations, and the amount of reactants evolving into products depends on the rate at which solutions mix. The main objective of the current study is to show how this methodology can be used in conjunction

  13. Analysis of fuel vaporization, fuel/air mixing, and combustion in lean premixed/prevaporized combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, J.M.; Penko, P.F.; Cline, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    Requirements to reduce pollutant emissions from gas turbines used in aircraft propulsion and ground-based power generation have led to consideration of lean premixed/prevaporized (LPP) combustion concepts. This paper describes a series of the LPP combustor analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. Modifications to KIVA-II`s boundary condition and chemistry treatments have been made to meet the needs of the present study. The study examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel/air mixing, and combustion in a generic LPP combustor. Parameters considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube configuration (straight versus converging/diverging tubes), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases have been run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel/air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel/air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state.

  14. Mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Karachi, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Barbara; Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Khwaja, Haider A.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

    Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons and alkyl nitrates (a total of 72 species) were determined for 78 whole air samples collected during the winter of 1998-1999 in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first time that volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in Karachi have been extensively characterized. The overall air quality of the urban environment was determined using air samples collected at six locations throughout Karachi. Methane (6.3 ppmv) and ethane (93 ppbv) levels in Karachi were found to be much higher than in other cities that have been studied. The very high CH 4 levels highlight the importance of natural gas leakage in Karachi. The leakage of liquefied petroleum gas contributes to elevated propane and butane levels in Karachi, although the propane and butane burdens were lower than in other cities (e.g., Mexico City, Santiago). High levels of benzene (0.3-19 ppbv) also appear to be of concern in the Karachi urban area. Vehicular emissions were characterized using air samples collected along the busiest thoroughfare of the city (M.A. Jinnah Road). Emissions from vehicular exhaust were found to be the main source of many of the hydrocarbons reported here. Significant levels of isoprene (1.2 ppbv) were detected at the roadside, and vehicular exhaust is estimated to account for about 20% of the isoprene observed in Karachi. 1,2-Dichloroethane, a lead scavenger added to leaded fuel, was also emitted by cars. The photochemical production of ozone (O 3) was calculated for CO and the various VOCs using the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale. Based on the MIR scale, the leading contributors to O 3 production in Karachi are ethene, CO, propene, m-xylene and toluene.

  15. Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, A. D.

    2002-01-01

    Activities in the area of scramjet fuel-air mixing and combustion associated with the Research and Technology Organization Working Group on Technologies for Propelled Hypersonic Flight are described. Work discussed in this paper has centered on the design of two basic experiments for studying the mixing and combustion of fuel and air in a scramjet. Simulations were conducted to aid in the design of these experiments. The experimental models were then constructed, and data were collected in the laboratory. Comparison of the data from a coaxial jet mixing experiment and a supersonic combustor experiment with a combustor code were then made and described. This work was conducted by NATO to validate combustion codes currently employed in scramjet design and to aid in the development of improved turbulence and combustion models employed by the codes.

  16. Analysis of Fuel Vaporization, Fuel-Air Mixing, and Combustion in Integrated Mixer-Flame Holders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Cline, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Requirements to limit pollutant emissions from the gas turbine engines for the future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) have led to consideration of various low-emission combustor concepts. One such concept is the Integrated Mixer-Flame Holder (IMFH). This report describes a series of IMFH analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. To meet the needs of this study, KIVA-II's boundary condition and chemistry treatments are modified. The study itself examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, and combustion. Parameters being considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube geometry (converging-diverging versus straight walls), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases are run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel-air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel-air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state. Results indicate that fuel-air mixing can be enhanced by a variety of means, the best being a combination of air inlet swirl and a converging-diverging mixer tube geometry. With the IMFH configuration utilized in the present study, flashback becomes more common as the mixer tube diameter is increased and is instigated by disturbances associated with the dilution hole flow.

  17. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, El Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The objective of the study outlined in this report is to resolve the issue that the flow rates that are required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space.and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes.

  18. Mixing of Pure Air Jets with a Reacting Fuel-Rich Crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, M. Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    Jets in a crossflow play an integral role in practical combustion systems such as can and annular gas turbine combustors in conventional systems, and the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor utilized in stationary applications and proposed for advanced subsonic and supersonic transports. The success of the RQL combustor rests with the performance of the quick-mixing section that bridges the rich and lean zones. The mixing of jet air with a rich crossflow to bring the reaction to completion in the lean zone must be performed rapidly and thoroughly in order to decrease the extent of near-stoichiometric fluid pocket formation. Fluid pockets at near-stoichiometric equivalence ratios are undesirable because the high temperatures attained accelerate pollutant formation kinetics associated with nitric oxide (NO). The present study develops a model experiment designed to reveal the processes that occur when jet air is introduced into hot effluent emanating from a fuel-rich reaction zone.

  19. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  20. On the graphical extraction of multipole mixing ratios of nuclear transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezynkina, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel graphical method for determining the mixing ratios δ and their associated uncertainties for mixed nuclear transitions. It incorporates the uncertainties on both the measured and the theoretical conversion coefficients. The accuracy of the method has been studied by deriving the corresponding probability density function. The domains of applicability of the method are carefully defined.

  1. Atmospheric carbon diooxide mixing ratios from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.J.; Tans, P.P.; BBoden, T.A.

    1996-02-01

    This data report documents monthly atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and measurements obtained by analyzing individual flask air samples for the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling network. Measurements include land-based sampling sites and shipboard measurements covering 14 latitude bands in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Analysis of the NOAA/CMDL flask CO{sub 2} database shows a long-term increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios since the late 1960s. This report describes how the samples are collected and analyzed and how the data are processed, defines limitations, and restrictions of the data, describes the contents and format of the data files, and provides tabular listings of the monthly carbon dioxide records.

  2. The retrieval of atmospheric constituent mixing-ratio profiles from solar absorption spectra. Ph.D. Thesis. Interim Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods used to determine various atmospheric gas distributions are summarized. The experimentally determined mixing ratio profiles (the mixing ratio of a gas is the ratio of the number of gas molecules to the number of air molecules) of some atmospheric gases are shown. In most in situ experiments stratospheric gas samples are collected at several altitudes by balloon, aircraft, or rocket. These samples are then analyzed by various methods. Mixing ratio profiles of Ci, ClO, and OH were determined by laser induced fluorescence of samples. Others have analyzed gas samples by gas chromatography in order to determine the molecular abundances of CCl2F2, CCl4, CCl3F, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CHClF2, CH3CCl3, CH4, CO, C2Cl3F3, C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C6H6, C7H8, H2, and N2O.

  3. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  4. Effect of velocity ratio on plane mixing layer development - Influence of the splitter plate wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the velocity ratio on the approach of a plane mixing layer to self-similarity was investigated experimentally. In the experiment, plane mixing layers with velocity ratios 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 were generated in a mixing-layer wind tunnel consisting of two individually driven legs, in which the two streams were allowed to merge at the sharp edge of a tappered splitter plate. The leg driven by the bigger blower was operated at a free-stream velocity in the test section of 21 m/s, while the flow speed in the other leg was varied to change the velocity ratio. For each velocity ratio, the mean flow- and turbulence measurements were carried out at eight streamwise locations. Results showed that, for velocity ratios between 0.5 and 0.7, self-similarity of the mixing layer was achieved, with the asymptotic states comparable; mixing layers with higher velocity ratios failed to achieve a self-similar state within the measurement domain.

  5. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The higher the supply flow rates the easier to reach good mixing in the space. In high performance homes, however, the flow rates required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. We used computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply for residential applications in heating and cooling modes. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions, and room dimensions. Laboratory experiments supported the study of thermal mixing in heating mode; we used the results to develop a correlation to predict high sidewall diffuser performance. For cooling mode, numerical analysis is presented. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes. It is proven that these systems can achieve good mixing and provide acceptable comfort levels. Recommendations are given on the operating conditions to guarantee occupant comfort.

  6. Age of stratospheric air and aging by mixing in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Hella; Dietmüller, Simone; Plöger, Felix; Birner, Thomas; Bönisch, Harald; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation is often quantified by the integrated transport measure age of air (AoA). AoA is affected by all transport processes, including transport along the residual mean mass circulation and two-way mixing. A large spread in the simulation of AoA by current global models exists. Using CCMVal-2 and CCMI-1 global model data, we show that this spread can only in small parts be attributed to differences in the simulated residual circulation. Instead, large differences in the "mixing efficiency" strongly contribute to the differences in the simulated AoA. The "mixing efficiency" is defined as the ratio of the two-way mixing mass flux across the subtropical barrier to the net (residual) mass flux, and this mixing efficiency controls the relative increase in AoA by mixing. We derive the mixing efficiency from global model data using the analytical solution of a simplified version of the tropical leaky pipe (TLP) model, in which vertical diffusion is neglected. Thus, it is assumed that only residual mean transport and horizontal two-way mixing across the subtropical barrier controls AoA. However, in global models vertical mixing and numerical diffusion modify AoA, and these processes likely contribute to the differences in the mixing efficiency between models. We explore the contributions of diffusion and mixing on mean AoA by a) using simulations with the tropical leaky pipe model including vertical diffusion and b) explicit calculations of aging by mixing on resolved scales. Using the TLP model, we show that vertical diffusion leads to a decrease in tropical AoA, i.e. counteracts the increase in tropical mean AoA due to horizontal mixing. Thus, neglecting vertical diffusion leads to an underestimation of the mixing efficiency. With explicit calculations of aging by mixing via integration of daily local mixing tendencies along residual circulation trajectories, we explore the contributions of vertical and horizontal mixing for aging by mixing. The

  7. Along-strike magma mixing beneath mid-ocean ridges - Effects on isotopic ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, P. M.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mixing processes on the isotopic variability of midocean ridge basalts are studied. The processes considered are porous flow dispersion and convective mixing in magma chambers. Porous flow dispersion is capable of mixing magmas over distances of only a few tens of meters. Convective mixing, on the other hand, is found to produce continuous magma chambers, where mixing is limited by convective processes, and for discontinuous chambers, where mixing is limited by chamber size. Preliminary comparison of the calculations with observations along the midocean ridges shows that the calculations are consistent with the existence of a correlation between bathymetry and isotopic ratio at long, but not at short, wavelengths. They are also capable of explaining a decrease in isotopic variability with increasing spreading rate.

  8. Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

  9. Children's preference for mixed- versus fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement: A translational study of risky choice.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Michael P; Martens, Brian K; Baxter, Emily L; Steeg, Danica Ver

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory research has shown that when subjects are given a choice between fixed-ratio and bi-valued mixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, preference typically emerges for the mixed-ratio schedule even with a larger ratio requirement. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings to children's math problem completion. Using an ABCBC reversal design, four fourth-grade students were given the choice of completing addition problems reinforced on either a fixed-ratio 5 schedule or one of three mixed-ratio schedules; an equivalent mixed-ratio (1, 9) schedule, a mixed-ratio (1, 11) schedule with a 20% larger ratio requirement, and an equally lean mixed-ratio (5, 7) schedule without the small fixed-ratio 1 component. This was followed by a reversal back to the preceding phase in which preference for the mixed-ratio schedule had been observed, and a final reversal back to the mixed-ratio (5, 7) phase. Findings were consistent with previous research in that all children preferred the mixed-ratio (1, 9) schedule over the equivalent fixed-ratio 5 schedule. Preference persisted for the leaner mixed-ratio (1, 11) schedule for three of the four children. Indifference or preference for the fixed-ratio 5 alternative was observed in phases containing the mixed-ratio (5, 7) schedule. These results extend previous research on risky choice to children's math problem completion and highlight the importance of a small ratio component in the emergence of preference for bi-valued mixed-ratio schedules. Implications of these results for arranging reinforcement to increase children's academic responding are discussed.

  10. Vertical and meridional distributions of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio between northern midlatitudes and southern subtropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, T.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Blake, D.; Kawakami, S.; Inoue, G.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-02-01

    The atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio was measured using a continuous measurement system onboard a Gulfstream-II aircraft between the northern midlatitudes and the southern subtropics during the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase A (BIBLE A) campaign in September-October 1998. The vertical distribution of CO2 over tropical regions was almost constant from the surface to an altitude of 13 km. CO2 enhancements from biomass burning and oceanic release were observed in the tropical boundary layer. Measurements in the upper troposphere indicate interhemispheric exchange was effectively suppressed between 2°N-7°N. Interhemispheric transport of air in the upper troposphere was suppressed effectively in this region. The CO2 mixing ratios in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were almost constant, with an average value of about 365 parts per million (ppm) and 366 ppm, respectively. The correlation between the CO2 and NOy mixing ratios observed north of 7°N was apparently different from that obtained south of 2°N. This fact strongly supports the result that the north-south boundary in the upper troposphere during BIBLE A was located around 2°N-7°N as the boundary is not necessary a permanent feature.

  11. Vertical and meridional distributions of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio between northern midlatitudes and southern subtropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, T.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Blake, D.; Kawakami, S.; Inoue, G.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio was measured using a continuous measurement system onboard a Gulfstream-II aircraft between the northern midlatitudes and the southern subtropics during the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase A (BIBLE A) campaign in September-October 1998. The vertical distribution of CO2 over tropical regions was almost constant from the surface to an altitude of 13 km. CO2 enhancements from biomass burning and oceanic release were observed in the tropical boundary layer. Measurements in the upper troposphere indicate interhemispheric exchange was effectively suppressed between 2°N-7°N. Interhemispheric transport of air in the upper troposphere was suppressed effectively in this region. The CO2 mixing ratios in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were almost constant, with an average value of about 365 parts per million (ppm) and 366 ppm, respectively. The correlation between the CO2 and NOy mixing ratios observed north of 7°N was apparently different from that obtained south of 2°N. This fact strongly supports the result that the north-south boundary in the upper troposphere during BIBLE A was located around 2°N-7°N as the boundary is not necessary a permanent feature.

  12. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from a multiple channel Raman-scatter lidar using an optimal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Sica, R J; Haefele, A

    2016-02-01

    Lidar measurements of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio provide an excellent complement to radiosoundings and passive, ground-based remote sensors. Lidars are now routinely used that can make high spatial-temporal resolution measurements of water vapor from the surface to the stratosphere. Many of these systems can operate during the day and night, with operation only limited by clouds thick enough to significantly attenuate the laser beam. To enhance the value of these measurements for weather and climate studies, this paper presents an optimal estimation method (OEM) to retrieve the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol optical depth profile, Ångstrom exponent, lidar constants, detector dead times, and measurement backgrounds from multichannel vibrational Raman-scatter lidars. The OEM retrieval provides the systematic uncertainties due to the overlap function, calibration factor, air density and Rayleigh-scatter cross sections, in addition to the random uncertainties of the retrieval due to measurement noise. The OEM also gives the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of height, as well as the height to which the contribution of the a priori is small. The OEM is applied to measurements made by the Meteoswiss Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in the day and night for clear and cloudy conditions. The retrieved water vapor mixing ratio is in excellent agreement with both the traditional lidar retrieval method and coincident radiosoundings.

  13. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinreich, R.; Merten, A.; Molina, L.; Volkamer, R.

    2013-06-01

    We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) differential slant column densities (dSCDs) into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006) measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3°) are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP)-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  14. Variations in methane and nitrous oxide mixing ratios at the southern boundary of a Canadian boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Edwards, G. C.; Thurtell, G. W.

    Diurnal and seasonal variations in methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O) mixing ratios were measured above a boreal aspen stand at the southern boundary of the Canadian boreal forest, about 5 km north of agricultural land. The research was conducted between 16 April and 16 September 1994, in the Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, to better understand patterns of CH 4 and N 2O cycling in boreal ecosystems. The research also presents a method for detecting the long-range transport of trace gases using a micrometeorological, laser-based gas monitoring system. Both CH 4 and N 2O featured diurnal cycles consistent with a pattern of net emission for each trace gas. The CH 4 mixing ratio displayed a seasonal variation that was strongly related to soil temperature, with measured values roughly 30 ppb higher in the late summer than in spring. During the latter half of the experiment, the CH 4 mixing ratios varied with wind direction and suggested areas of higher emission to the northeast and east of the measurement tower. The N 2O fluxes also showed favoured directions, although in this case the highest mixing ratios were measured during the springtime in air masses originating south and southwest of the tower. The high springtime values coincided with spring thaw emissions of N 2O from agricultural fields to the south, and the results suggest that the trace gas analysis system detected the long-range transport of N 2O from the agricultural land. Ammonia and ammonium likewise may be transported to the southern boreal forest from agricultural land, and a future investigation at this site could seek to determine the effect of their long-range transport on the southern boreal forest.

  15. Premixer assembly for mixing air and fuel for combustion

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-12-13

    A premixer assembly for mixing air and fuel for combustion includes a plurality of tubes disposed at a head end of a combustor assembly. Also included is a tube of the plurality of tubes, the tube including an inlet end and an outlet end. Further included is at least one non-circular portion of the tube extending along a length of the tube, the at least one non-circular portion having a non-circular cross-section, and the tube having a substantially constant cross-sectional area along its length

  16. Increasing interannual and altitudinal ozone mixing ratios in the Catalan Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Peñuelas, Josep; Ribas, Àngela

    2009-12-01

    Interannual, seasonal, daily and altitudinal patterns of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios, as well as ozone phytotoxicity and the relationship with NO x precursors and meteorological variables were monitored in the Central Catalan Pyrenees (Meranges valley and Forest of Guils) over a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Biweekly measurements using Radiello passive samplers were taken along two altitudinal transects comprised of thirteen stations ranging from 1040 to 2300 m a.s.l. Visual symptoms of ozone damage in Bel-W3 tobacco cultivars were evaluated biweekly for the first three years (2004-2006). High ozone mixing ratios, always above forest and vegetation protection AOT40 thresholds, were monitored every year. In the last 14 years, the AOT40 (Apr-Sept.) has increased significantly by 1047 μg m -3 h per year. Annual means of ozone mixing ratios ranged between 38 and 67 ppb v (38 and 74 ppb v during the warm period) at the highest site (2300 m) and increased at a rate of 5.1 ppb v year -1. The ozone mixing ratios were also on average 35-38% greater during the warm period and had a characteristic daily pattern with minimum values in the early morning, a rise during the morning and a decline overnight, that was less marked the higher the altitude. Whereas ozone mixing ratios increased significantly with altitude from 35 ppb v at 1040 m-56 ppb v at 2300 m (on average for 2004-2007 period), NO 2 mixing ratios decreased with altitude from 5.5 ppb v at 1040 m-1 ppb v at 2300 m. The analysis of meteorological variables and NO x values suggests that the ozone mainly originated from urban areas and was transported to high-mountain sites, remaining aloft in absence of NO. Ozone damage rates increased with altitude in response to increasing O 3 mixing ratios and a possible increase in O 3 uptake due to more favorable microclimatic conditions found at higher altitude, which confirms Bel-W3 as a suitable biomonitor for ozone concentrations during summer time. Compared to the

  17. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    An energy efficiency upgrade reduces a home’s heating and cooling load. If the load reduction is great enough and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system warrants replacement, that system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the load of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with floor supply air diffusers, the ducts often are removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling. In this project, IBACOS performed load calculations for a two-story 1960s house and characterized duct sizes and layouts based on industry “rules of thumb” (Herk et al. 2014). The team performed duct-sizing calculations for unaltered ducts and post-retrofit airflows and examined airflow velocities and pressure changes with respect to various factors. The team then used a mocked-up duct and register setup to measure the characteristics of isothermal air—to reduce the effects of buoyancy from the observations—passing through the duct and leaving the register.

  18. A Tropical Lake Breeze System : The Effect on Surface NO, NO2, O3, and CO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima Moura, M. A.; Eça D'Almeida Rocha, C. H.; Trebs, I.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2003-04-01

    During the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment 2001 (CLAIRE2001, July 2001), we investigated diel variations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), ozone (O_3) and carbon dioxide (CO_2) mixing ratios at Balbina Limnological Station (01^o55'994''S, 59^o28'071''W, Amazonia,Brazil). We applied sensitive and species-specific chemiluminescence (NO, NO_2, O_3) and NDIR (CO_2) analysers to record ambient mixing ratios on 1 min intervals. Simultaneously, we extensively monitored (micro-)meteorological qauntities (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and -direction, thermal stratification, rainfall intensity, soil temperatures and moisture, as well as radiation fluxes (global, net, short wave, NO_2 photolysis, and photosynthetic active)). Balbina Limnological Station is located just a few hundred meters south of a 2.360 km^2 hydroelectric power dam (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina) and about 100m north from the edge of a primary rainforest. Marked differences in surface albedo and heat storage capacity generate a local wind system, the lake breeze, which advects air from the dam (09:00 to 15:00 local) and from the rainforest (18:00 to 06:00 local), respectively. Generally, we observed marked diel variations of NO, NO_2, O_3, and CO_2 (high/low levels during night/day) and O_3 (low/high levels during night/day). Especially in the tropics, this behaviour is usually related to (a) accumulation of soil emissions (NO, CO_2), chemical reactions (NO, from NO_2-O_3 reaction) and surface destruction (O_3) in a shallow and strong nocturnal boundary layer inversion, and (b) to soil emission (NO), photochemical reactions (NO-NO_2-O_3), dry deposition/plant uptake (NO_2, O_3, and CO_2) and strong turbulent vertical mixing in the daytime mixed layer. However, under the specific conditions of the lake breeze soil emission and dry deposition/ plant uptake can be neglected during daytime. Consequently, the investigation of daytime mixing ratios can be confined to

  19. Measurements of CH4 Mixing Ratio and D/H and 13C/12C Isotope Ratios in Atmospheric Samples from Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, S. C.; Ajie, H. O.; Gotoh, A. A.; Rice, A. L.

    2002-12-01

    We report δD and δ13C measurements of atmospheric CH4 from air samples collected bi-weekly from fixed surface sites in the United States. Our fixed surface sites are located at the mid-continental site Niwot Ridge, CO (41°N, 105°W) and a Pacific coastal northern hemispheric site receiving strong westerlies, Montaña de Oro, CA (35°N, 121°W). Data from multiyear bi-weekly sampling provide information relating seasonal cycling of CH4 sources and sinks in background air, provide a record of long term trends in CH4 mixing and isotope ratio related to atmospheric CH4 loading, and may reveal information on regional sources of CH4. Measurements of δD-CH4 average -93+/-3‰ (versus V-SMOW) at Niwot Ridge from 1999 through 2001 and -97+/-4‰ at Montaña de Oro from 2000 through 2001. Annual seasonal cycles observed at both sites are 6-7‰ , exhibiting strong anti-correlation with CH4 mixing ratio seasonality that appears to be largely sink-driven (i.e. through reaction with OH). More extensive time series in δ13C-CH4 average -47.2+/-0.1‰ (versus V-PDB) at Niwot Ridge from 1995 through 2001 and -47.3+/-0.2‰ at Montaña de Oro from 1996 through 2001. In contrast to δD-CH4, seasonality in δ13C-CH4 has a relatively poor anti-correlation with seasonality in CH4 mixing ratio, indicating significant source-driven influence. We discuss the implications of these measurements on the atmospheric CH4 budget and detail the precision and accuracy of our data with respect international reference standards. It is our intention to have these data archived and available for modeling and advanced calculations by other atmospheric researchers in the near future.

  20. Effects of Passive Fuel-Air Mixing Control on Burner Emissions Via Lobed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, O. I.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the effects of differing levels of passive fuel-air premixing on flame structures and their associated NO(x) and CO emissions. Four alternative fuel injector geometries were explored, three of which have lobed shapes. These lobed injectors mix fuel and air and strain species inter-faces to differing extents due to streamwise vorticity generation, thus creating different local or core equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Prior experimental studies of two of these lobed injector flowfields focused on non-reactive mixing characteristics and emissions measurements for the case where air speeds were matched above and below the fuel injector, effectively generating stronger streamwise vorticity than spanwise vorticity. The present studies examine the effects of airstream mismatch (and hence additional spanwise vorticity generation), effects of confinement of the crossflow to reduce the local equivalence ratio, and the effects of altering the geometry and position of the flameholders. NO(x) and CO emissions as well as planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging (PLIF) of seeded acetone are used to characterize injector performance and reactive flow evolution.

  1. Ignition of hydrogen/air mixing layer in turbulent flows

    SciTech Connect

    Im, H.G.; Chen, J.H.; Law, C.K.

    1998-03-01

    Autoignition of a scalar hydrogen/air mixing layer in homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation. An initial counterflow of unmixed nitrogen-diluted hydrogen and heated air is perturbed by two-dimensional homogeneous turbulence. The temperature of the heated air stream is chosen to be 1,100 K which is substantially higher than the crossover temperature at which the rates of the chain branching and termination reactions become equal. Three different turbulence intensities are tested in order to assess the effect of the characteristic flow time on the ignition delay. For each condition, a simulation without heat release is also performed. The ignition delay determined with and without heat release is shown to be almost identical up to the point of ignition for all of the turbulence intensities tested, and the predicted ignition delays agree well within a consistent error band. It is also observed that the ignition kernel always occurs where hydrogen is focused, and the peak concentration of HO{sub 2} is aligned well with the scalar dissipation rate. The dependence of the ignition delay on turbulence intensity is found to be nonmonotonic. For weak to moderate turbulence the ignition is facilitated by turbulence via enhanced mixing, while for stronger turbulence, whose timescale is substantially smaller than the ignition delay, the ignition is retarded due to excessive scalar dissipation, and hence diffusive loss, at the ignition location. However, for the wide range of initial turbulence fields studied, the variation in ignition delay due to the corresponding variation in turbulence intensity appears to be quite small.

  2. Fast-response CO2 mixing-ratio measurement with an open-path gas analyzer for eddy-flux applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, I.

    2014-12-01

    Infra-red gas analyzers operate on the principle of light absorption and measure the density of the gas in the sensing path. To account for density fluctuations caused by barometric pressure, thermal expansion and contraction, and water-vapor dilution, flux calculations using CO2 density measurements need to be corrected for sensible and latent heat transfer (also known as WPL corrections). In contrast, these corrections are not required if the flux calculation involves CO2 mixing ratio relative to dry air. Historically, CO2 mixing ratio measurements have been available only for analyzers with a closed-path where temperature fluctuations in the air sample are attenuated in the intake tubing to a level that they are adequately measured by a contact thermometer. Open-path gas analyzers are not able to make in situ CO2 mixing-ratio measurements because of the unavailability of a reliable, accurate and fast-response air-temperature sensor in the optical path. A newly developed eddy-flux system integrates an aerodynamic open-path gas analyzer with a sonic anemometer where the sensing volumes of the two instruments coincide. Thus the system has the ability to provide temporally and spatially synchronized fast-response measurements of the 3D wind vector, sonically derived air temperature, CO2 and water vapor densities. When these measurements are combined with a fast-response static pressure measurement an instantaneous in-situ CO2 mixing ratio can be calculated on-line, eliminating the need for density corrections in post-processing. In this study fluxes computed from CO2 mixing-ratio are compared to WPL corrected fluxes using CO2 density. Results from a field inter-comparison with an aspirated temperature probe suggest that accurate, fast response air temperature can be derived from humidity-corrected speed of sound measurements. Biases due to heat exchange with the analyzer surface are evaluated by comparing atmospheric sensible heat flux measurements with a

  3. Weekly and Seasonal Trends in the Diurnal Variation of CO2 Mixing Ratio in Pasadena, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Stolper, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Diurnal variations in CO2 mixing ratio ([CO2]) in urban areas reflect changing proportions of biogenic and anthropogenic sources and changes in meteorological conditions (e.g., London, England: Rigby et al., 2008, Atm. Env. 42, 8943-8953). We have monitored [CO2] in Pasadena, CA almost continuously since 2001 using an infrared gas analyzer. In a typical day there is a low [CO2] plateau at about ~10 AM-4 PM (all times given as Pacific Standard Time) and a high [CO2] plateau at ~9 PM-3 AM, as observed previously for both CO (e.g., Riverside, CA: Gentner et al., 2009, Env. Sci. Tech. 43, 4247-4252) and CO2 (e.g., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Reid and Steyn, 1997, Atm. Env. 31, 3101-3114; Phoenix, AZ: Idso et al., 2002, Atm. Env. 36, 1655-1660; Salt Lake City, UT: Pataki et al., 2007, Oecolog. 152, 307-322; London, England: Rigby et al., 2008). The midday low and nighttime high in [CO2] are probably due to draw-down by photosynthesis during daylight hours and respiration at night, accompanied by diurnal changes in the mixed-layer depth resulting from formation and destruction of a nocturnal temperature inversion layer (e.g., Reid and Steyn, 1997). The amplitude of the diurnal variation in Pasadena ranges from ~20 ppm in June to ~70 ppm in December. We typically observe a maximum in [CO2] at ~5-9 AM on weekday mornings. This peak is smaller on weekends, generally being smallest on Sundays. This morning [CO2] peak coincides with increased traffic on surface streets in Los Angeles due to weekday morning rush hour (Chinkin et al., 2003, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc. 53, 829-843) it has also been observed by Reid and Steyn (1997) and Idso, et al. (2002 ) in Vancouver, BC, Canada, and Phoenix, AZ, respectively. There is no corresponding peak that can be associated with afternoon rush hour, perhaps because the time period of the afternoon commute is ill-defined in Pasadena and/or increased emissions from this time of day contribute to the evening increase in [CO2] along

  4. Contact ratio of rough surfaces with multiple asperities in mixed lubrication at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Guo, Dan; Liu, Shuhai; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2012-02-01

    Relative optical intensity interference was used to measure the lubrication film thickness when four kinds of polyalphaolefin (PAO) were used as lubricants confined between a smooth sapphire disc surface and a rough steel ball surface. Maximum Hertz contact pressure up to 3 GPa was applied in the central part of the contact region in mixed lubrication. It was found that the contact ratio (the ratio of real contact region to the whole nominal contact region) is related to the film thickness, the applied pressure, the surface roughness and the rolling speed, and so on. Contact ratio evidently reduces as lubrication film thickness or rolling speed increases. Quantitative relationship between the contact ratio and the influence factors was summarized based on the nonlinear fitting of experimental measurements. A formula was put forward to calculate the contact ratio at high pressure conditions according to the current experimental results.

  5. Confidence interval of the likelihood ratio associated with mixed stain DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Beecham, Gary W; Weir, Bruce S

    2011-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are necessary to properly interpret mixed stain DNA evidence. They can flexibly consider alternate hypotheses and can account for population substructure. The likelihood ratio should be seen as an estimate and not a fixed value, because the calculations are functions of allelic frequency estimates that were estimated from a small portion of the population. Current methods do not account for uncertainty in the likelihood ratio estimates and are therefore an incomplete picture of the strength of the evidence. We propose the use of a confidence interval to report the consequent variation of likelihood ratios. The confidence interval is calculated using the standard forensic likelihood ratio formulae and a variance estimate derived using the Taylor expansion. The formula is explained, and a computer program has been made available. Numeric work shows that the evidential strength of DNA profiles decreases as the variation among populations increases.

  6. Effect of Co/Ni ratios in cobalt nickel mixed oxide catalysts on methane combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Cho, Sung June; Yang, Hee Sung; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kim, Do Heui

    2015-07-31

    A series of cobalt nickel mixed oxide catalysts with the varying ratios of Co to Ni, prepared by co-precipitation method, were applied to methane combustion. Among the various ratios, cobalt nickel mixed oxides having the ratios of Co to Ni of (50:50) and (67:33) demonstrate the highest activity for methane combustion. Structural analysis obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) evidently demonstrates that CoNi (50:50) and (67:33) samples consist of NiCo2O4and NiO phase and, more importantly, NiCo2O4spinel structure is largely distorted, which is attributed to the insertion of Ni2+ions into octahedral sites in Co3O4spinel structure. Such structural dis-order results in the enhanced portion of surface oxygen species, thus leading to the improved reducibility of the catalysts in the low temperature region as evidenced by temperature programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) O 1s results. They prove that structural disorder in cobalt nickel mixed oxides enhances the catalytic performance for methane combustion. Thus, it is concluded that a strong relationship between structural property and activity in cobalt nickel mixed oxide for methane combustion exists and, more importantly, distorted NiCo2O4spinel structure is found to be an active site for methane combustion.

  7. Effect of jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio on mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Alka; Ibrahim, Mohamed Saeed; Amano, R. S.

    2016-03-01

    Temperature uniformity after a mixing process plays a very important role in many applications. Non-uniform temperature at the entrance of the turbine in gas turbine systems has an adverse effect on the life of the blades. These temperature non-uniformities cause thermal stresses in the blades leading to higher maintenance costs. This paper presents experimental and numerical results for mixing process in coaxial ducts. The effect of increased jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio on the temperature uniformity of the exit flow was analyzed. It was found that better mixing of primary (or hot) stream and dilution (or cold) stream was achieved at higher flux ratio. Almost 85 % of the equilibrium mixture fraction was achieved at flux ratio of 0.85 after which no significant improvement was achieved while the exergy destruction kept on increasing. A new parameter, `Cooling Rate Number', was defined to identify the potential sites for presence of cold zones within the mixing section. Parametric study reveals that the cooling rate numbers were higher near the dilution holes which may result in rapid cooling of the gases.

  8. The Effects of Air Preheat and Number of Orifices on Flow and Emissions in an RQL Mixing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2007-01-01

    This study was motivated by a goal to understand the mixing and emissions in the rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn (RQL) combustor scheme that has been proposed to minimize the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in gas turbine combustors. The study reported in this paper was a reacting jet-in-crossflow experiment at atmospheric pressure in a cylindrical duct. The jets were injected from the perimeter of the duct through round-hole orifices into a fuel-rich mainstream flow. The number of orifices investigated in this study gave over- to optimum to underpenetrating jets at a jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio of 57. The size of individual orifices was decreased as their number increased to maintain a constant total area. The jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio was held constant at 2.5. The experiments focused on the effects of the number of orifices and inlet air preheat and were conducted in a facility that provided the capability for independent variation of jet and main inlet air preheat temperature. The number of orifices was found to have a significant effect on mixing and the distributions of species, but very little effect on overall NOx emissions, suggesting that an aerodynamically optimum mixer may not minimize NOx emissions. Air preheat was found to have very little effect on mixing and the distributions of major species, but preheat did increase NOx emissions significantly. Although the air jets injected in the quick-mix section of a RQL combustor may comprise over 70% of the total air flow, the overall NOx emission levels were found to be more sensitive to mainstream air preheat than to jet stream air preheat.

  9. Effects of specimen size and mix ratio on the nickel migration behavior of landfill waste mixed mortar.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Aminul

    2017-04-01

    Landfill solid waste management system poses the potential source of silent wide-spread heavy metals like nickel poisoning in the entire ecosystem of nearby environment. Nickel containing demolish solid wastes are disposed at landfill zones to a great extent from where nickel migrate into the food chain through the surface water body as well as groundwater. Consequently, nickel exposure may cause different environmental problems. From this sense, it may be an attractive proposal to recycle the waste as a sustainable product. Herein is presented a long-term feasibility study on potential leaching behavioral pattern of nickel from different sizes and mixes based solidified landfill waste mixed mortar block. The calculated results revealed the larger sizes block entrapped more nickel content than the smaller in relation to the available for leaching. Moreover, the specimen bearing the higher amount of waste resulted the significant nickel immobilization within the crystalline structure. The study observed the fixation results 97.72%-99.35%, 97.08%-99.11%, 96.19%-98.58% and 95.86%-91.6% under the stabilizing agent to fine aggregate mixing combination 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5 respectively where 30% of the total volume of fine aggregate was replaced by landfill waste. Although, mechanical strength test of all surrogate waste forms was also conducted that showed acceptable performance for land disposal, the current research pointing out that constructed green products were non-hazardous except the specimens having mixture ratio 1:2.5 because nickel ion release mechanism was observed under this ratio by surface decay or physical erosion of the monolithic matrices. Furthermore, semi-empirical based dominant leaching mechanism models were justified against the goodness of fit statistical parameters for interpreting the experimental observations of nickel transport profile where the adopted models possessed strong potential for predicting Ni content with high accuracy.

  10. Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, Claude Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800 nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400 nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1 μm to 18 μm. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

  11. Effective Giromagnetic Ratios in Artifical Nuclear Magnetization Pumping of the Noble Gases Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, E. N.; Barantsev, K. A.; Litvinov, A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic of the nuclear magnetization of the two noble gases mix was studied in this research. Nuclear magnetization pumped along the induction of external magnetic field. Vector of nuclear magnetization is given a tilt by the week rotational magnetic field, which makes NMR for noble gases. Interaction between the nuclear magnetic moments of the different noble gases adducted to shifts at the frequency of nuclear moments precession in external magnetic field. Effective gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclear of noble gases is defined and it different from the tabulated value. There is theoretical calculation of effective gyromagnetic ratios in this research.

  12. Mean ocean temperature change over the last glacial transition based on atmospheric changes in heavy noble mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, Bernhard; Severinghaus, Jeff; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    On paleo-climatic timescales heavy noble gases (Krypton and Xenon) are passively cycled through the atmosphere-ocean system without seeing any significant sink or source. Since the solubility in water of each gas species is characterized by a specific temperature dependency, mixing ratios in the atmosphere change with changing ocean temperatures. In this study, we use this fact to reconstruct mean global ocean temperatures (MOT) over the course of the last glacial transition based on measurements of trapped air in the WAIS Divide ice core. We analyzed 70 ice samples with a recently developed method which determines the isotopic ratios of N2, Ar, Kr (and in some cases also of Xe, though with less precision) and the elemental ratios of Kr/N2, Xe/N2 and Xe/Kr. We use the isotope ratios to correct the elemental ratios for gravitational enrichment in the firn column. The corrected elemental ratios are then used in a simple box model to reconstruct MOT. The three elemental ratio pairs are first interpreted as independent measures of MOT and then combined to a single "best-estimate" MOT record with an average uncertainty of 0.27°C. We find a clear link to Antarctic temperatures and a LGM-Holocene change in MOT of 2.4°C. This value is in good agreement with results from marine sediment cores (which, however, have an uncertainty of 1°C). Our record provides an unprecedented constrain on ocean heat uptake over the last glacial transition and therefore gives new insights in the mechanisms underlying long term ocean heat fluxes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that MOT has been reconstructed in such great detail.

  13. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline.

  14. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  15. Study of CFU for individual microorganisms in mixed cultures with a known ratio using MBRT.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Venkatesh, Kv

    2014-01-01

    Determination of metabolically active cell count is an important step in designing, operating and controlling fermentation processes. It's particularly relevant in processes involving mixed cultures, where multiple species contribute to the total growth. The motivation for the current study is to develop a methodology to estimate metabolically active cell counts for the individual species in a mixed culture with approximate equal numbers. Further, the methodology should indicate the presence of a contaminant in short time periods since in the agar plate methods used frequently it takes about 24 h. We present a methodology based on the rate of Methylene blue (MB) reduction to evaluate total count of metabolically active cells. The standard curve relating the slope of MB reduction and CFU of the individual species could be used to measure the metabolic activity of each species in the mixed culture. The slope of MB reduction could also be used to obtain the growth rate of individual species in a mixed culture and that of the total cell count. These measurements were achieved in less than 6 minutes during the growth of the cells. Evaluating the metabolic activity of individual species in a mixed culture is tedious, difficult and time consuming. The Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT) presented here is capable of quickly estimating colony forming units (CFU) of individual species in a mixed culture if the ratio of the numbers of cells is known. The method was used to dynamically detect the occurrence of a contaminating microorganism during fermentation. The protocol developed here can be adapted to applications in processes involving mixed cultures.

  16. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

  17. Deep Uranus Cloud Structure and Methane Mixing Ratio as Constrained by Keck AO Imaging Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, P. M.

    2006-09-01

    Keck AO imaging of Uranus in 2004 with H and H-continuum filters provide deep views of scattered light in the Uranian atmosphere with different sensitivities to methane absorption and collision-induced absorption by Hydrogen. After deconvolution, these images provide accurate low-latitude center-to-limb (east-west) profiles out to view angles of nearly 80 degrees, permitting solutions for both cloud properties and the methane mixing ratio. After accounting for a very small high-altitude haze contribution, the observed central disk I/F values for H and H-continuum filters can be modeled using an opaque semi-infinite cloud of very low albedo (near 0.04), a broken cloud of high albedo (fractional coverage near 0.04-.06), or a continuous cloud of low optical depth (0.2-1.0) containing particles of high single-scattering albedo. For low methane mixing ratios (0.5-1 percent) the central disk I/F values require a deep cloud (near 8 bars), while for the high methane mixing ratios (2-4 percent) a higher altitude solution is possible (near 3 bars). However, the observed slightly limb-brightened and relatively flat center-to-limb H-continuum profile is only consistent with an optically thin cloud. The best-fit solution is a low methane mixing ratio (0.75-1.0 percent vmr), and a deep low opacity cloud (optical depth ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 for scattering asymmetry parameters ranging from 0 to 0.3). This CH4 mixing ratio is slightly below the lower limit of the Baines et al. (1995, Icarus 114, 328-340) result of 1.6(+0.7/-0.5) percent. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres programs and the W.M. Keck Observatory. We thank those of Hawaiian ancestry whose generous hospitality in allowing use of their sacred mountain made the observations possible.

  18. Preliminary investigation of cooling-air ejector performance at pressure ratios from 1 to 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, C W; Hollister, D P; Sargent, A F , Jr

    1951-01-01

    Preliminary investigation was made of conical cooling air ejector at primary pressure ratios from 1 to 10. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The gross thrust of the ejector and nozzle were compared. Several ratios of the spacing between the nozzle and shroud exit to the nozzle exit diameter were investigated for several shroud to nozzle exit diameter ratios. Maximum gross thrust loss occurred under conditions of zero cooling-air flow and was as much as 35 percent below nozzle jet thrust. For minimum thrust loss, ejector should be designed with as low diameter and spacing ratio as possible.

  19. Quantitative Reconstruction of Sulfur Deposition Using a Mixing Model Based on Sulfur Isotope Ratios in Tree Rings.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-11-01

    Quantification of sulfur (S) deposition is critical to deciphering the environmental archive of S in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we propose a mixing model that quantifies S deposition based on the S isotope ratio (δS) in tree rings. We collected samples from Japanese cedar ( D. Don) stumps from two sites: one near Yokkaichi City (YOK), which is well known for having the heaviest S air pollution in the world, and one at Inabu-cho (INA) in central Japan, which has been much less affected by air pollution. The δS profiles at both sites are consistent with S air pollution and contributions of anthropogenic S. The minimum value in YOK is lower than the δS values of anthropogenic S or any other possible source. Because the δS in the tree rings is affected by fractionation in the forest ecosystems, we used a mixing model to account for the isotope effects and to distinguish the sources of S. Based on the model results, we infer that the peak of S emissions at YOK occurred sometime between the late 1960s and early 1970s (489 mmol m yr). This estimated value is comparable with the highest reported values in Europe. This is the first quantitative estimate of anthropogenic input of S in forest systems based on δS in tree rings. Our results suggest that tree ring data can be used when monitoring stations of atmospheric S are lacking and that estimates of S deposition using δS in tree rings will advance our understanding of the local-scale S dynamics and the effect of human activities on it.

  20. Air staging and swirl-assisted mixing and combustion of methane and air

    SciTech Connect

    Krass, B.J.; Puri, I.K.

    1996-12-31

    Two-state combustors offer an effective method for the suppression of combustion-generated pollutants. The imposition of swirl on the fuel and/or oxidizer flows causes recirculation which enhances mixing that in turn reduces NO{sub x} (i.e., total nitrogen oxide) formation. The authors investigate the characteristics of a burner that allows for both good mixing through swirl, and staging. Temperature measurements establish the presence of separate rich and lean zones during staging. Relative uniformity of the temperature profiles, and small magnitudes of temperature fluctuations are characteristic of the burner exit. In the burner product can be either dispersed (with no radial swirl-type structure) or concentrated into separate lean and rich regions. High speed video images confirm the swirling of the inner rich flame. The swirl allows interaction of the primary region with the secondary zone, and shears the secondary fuel jets causing further turbulence and vorticity that enhances mixing and prevents hot spots. Under conditions favoring unmixedness, product distribution occurs on relatively thin flamelet sheets that curve and wrinkle due to vorticity. In general, lower fractions of secondary air are beneficial from the perspective of mixing and homogeneity. The emission index of NO{sub x}, i.e., EINO{sub x} values correlate with the relative fractions of primary air. Fluid dynamical effects supersede those related to stoichiometry in the burner. The maximum EINO{sub x} value is lower than typical EINO{sub x} values for jet-type nonpremixed flames. Therefore, the authors conclude that they have successfully designed and characterized a low-NO{sub x} burner.

  1. Finite mixture models for the computation of isotope ratios in mixed isotopic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor; Leisch, Friedrich; Kappel, Stefanie; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Finite mixture models have been used for more than 100 years, but have seen a real boost in popularity over the last two decades due to the tremendous increase in available computing power. The areas of application of mixture models range from biology and medicine to physics, economics and marketing. These models can be applied to data where observations originate from various groups and where group affiliations are not known, as is the case for multiple isotope ratios present in mixed isotopic samples. Recently, the potential of finite mixture models for the computation of 235U/238U isotope ratios from transient signals measured in individual (sub-)µm-sized particles by laser ablation - multi-collector - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) was demonstrated by Kappel et al. [1]. The particles, which were deposited on the same substrate, were certified with respect to their isotopic compositions. Here, we focus on the statistical model and its application to isotope data in ecogeochemistry. Commonly applied evaluation approaches for mixed isotopic samples are time-consuming and are dependent on the judgement of the analyst. Thus, isotopic compositions may be overlooked due to the presence of more dominant constituents. Evaluation using finite mixture models can be accomplished unsupervised and automatically. The models try to fit several linear models (regression lines) to subgroups of data taking the respective slope as estimation for the isotope ratio. The finite mixture models are parameterised by: • The number of different ratios. • Number of points belonging to each ratio-group. • The ratios (i.e. slopes) of each group. Fitting of the parameters is done by maximising the log-likelihood function using an iterative expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. In each iteration step, groups of size smaller than a control parameter are dropped; thereby the number of different ratios is determined. The analyst only influences some control

  2. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  3. The role of grain-size ratio in the mobility of mixed granular beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Franziska; Mullarney, Julia C.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Huhn, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of the study was to understand the effects of grain-size distribution on the stability of beds in the sand-silt range, which is a critical subject for the understanding of geomorphological processes in aquatic environments. Although theoretical models can explain the mobilization of a mixed bed, there is a clear lack in knowledge regarding the stabilizing effect of non-cohesive fine material. To connect existing findings, we analysed bed stability in relation to grain-size distribution in laboratory experiments. Erosion experiments in an annular flume were conducted using beds of different size compositions of spherical glass beads, i.e. a) the grain-size ratio RD = D50,coarse/D50,fine (the relative size of coarse and fine grains; D50 = 39-367 μm) and b) the amount of fines. Several glass-bead combinations with unimodal and bimodal grain-size distributions (RD = 3.9, 5.8, and 9.4) and varying fine fractions (10-40% dry weight) were subjected to increasing flow speeds (0.01-0.19 m s-1). Using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) and optical backscatter, the flow profile in the vicinity of the bed surface, the changes in bed morphology, and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured. A new method was developed to evaluate the bed-level changes detected by the ADV as a proxy for the bed mobility. We found different modes of bed mobility depending on the grain-size ratio. For low grain-size ratios, an increase in the fine fraction (to 40%) led to increased bed-level changes during the experiment and the mobilization of the mixed bed at the highest flow speed. For high ratios an increase in fine fraction (to 40%) led to a decrease of bed-level changes and the beds remained stable, i.e. no bed forms developed even at the highest flow speed. Therefore, increasing the amount of fine particles can lead to different modes of behaviour depending on the grain-size ratio. For a bimodal sediment bed with spherical grains under unidirectional flow

  4. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  5. Direct isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium mixed particles with various U/Pu ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Uranium and plutonium isotope ratios in individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed particles with various U/Pu atomic ratios were analyzed without prior chemical separation by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Prior to measurement, micron-sized particles with U/Pu ratios of 1, 5, 10, 18, and 70 were produced from uranium and plutonium certified reference materials. In the TIMS analysis, the peaks of americium, plutonium, and uranium ion signals were successfully separated by continuously increasing the evaporation filament current. Consequently, the uranium and plutonium isotope ratios, except the (238)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, were successfully determined for the particles at all U/Pu ratios. This indicates that TIMS direct analysis allows for the measurement of individual U-Pu mixed particles without prior chemical separation.

  6. Asymptotic solution of the turbulent mixing layer for velocity ratio close to unity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuera, F. J.; Jimenez, J.; Linan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The equations describing the first two terms of an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the planar turbulent mixing layer for values of the velocity ratio close to one are obtained. The first term of this expansion is the solution of the well-known time-evolving problem and the second, which includes the effects of the increase of the turbulence scales in the stream-wise direction, obeys a linear system of equations. Numerical solutions of these equations for a two-dimensional reacting mixing layer show that the correction to the time-evolving solution may explain the asymmetry of the entrainment and the differences in product generation observed in flip experiments.

  7. Optimization of automated gas sample collection and isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis of delta(13)C of CO(2) in air.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Matthias J; Werner, Roland A; Eugster, Werner; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Wehrle, Günther; Mohn, Joachim; Buchmann, Nina

    2008-12-01

    The application of (13)C/(12)C in ecosystem-scale tracer models for CO(2) in air requires accurate measurements of the mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CO(2). To increase measurement reliability and data intercomparability, as well as to shorten analysis times, we have improved an existing field sampling setup with portable air sampling units and developed a laboratory setup for the analysis of the delta(13)C of CO(2) in air by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The changes consist of (a) optimization of sample and standard gas flow paths, (b) additional software configuration, and (c) automation of liquid nitrogen refilling for the cryogenic trap. We achieved a precision better than 0.1 per thousand and an accuracy of 0.11 +/- 0.04 per thousand for the measurement of delta(13)C of CO(2) in air and unattended operation of measurement sequences up to 12 h.

  8. Flatness-based embedded control of air-fuel ratio in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    A nonlinear controller is designed for air-fuel ratio control in combustion engines, making use of differential flatness theory and of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is proven that the air-fuel ratio system is a differentially flat one and admits dynamic feedback linearization. Using a change of variables that is based on differential flatness theory it is shown that the air-fuel ratio system can be transformed to the linear canonical form, for which the design of a state feedback controller is easier. Moreover, to compensate for modeling uncertainties and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is designed as a disturbance observer. The estimation of the perturbations that effect the air-fuel systems enables their compensation through the inclusion of an additional term in the feedback control law. The efficiency of the proposed nonlinear feedback control scheme is tested through simulation experiments.

  9. Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H.; Simpson, W. R.; Apodaca, R. L.; Brauers, T.; Cohen, R. C.; Crowley, J. N.; Dorn, H.-P.; Dubé, W. P.; Fry, J. L.; Häseler, R.; Kajii, Y.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Labazan, I.; Matsumoto, J.; Mentel, T. F.; Nakashima, Y.; Rohrer, F.; Rollins, A. W.; Schuster, G.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    N2O5 detection in the atmosphere has been accomplished using techniques which have been developed during the last decade. Most techniques use a heated inlet to thermally decompose N2O5 to NO3, which can be detected by either cavity based absorption at 662 nm or by laser-induced fluorescence. In summer 2007, a large set of instruments, which were capable of measuring NO3 mixing ratios, were simultaneously deployed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany. Some of these instruments measured N2O5 mixing ratios either simultaneously or alternatively. Experiments focused on the investigation of potential interferences from, e.g., water vapour or aerosol and on the investigation of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3. The comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios shows an excellent agreement between measurements of instruments applying different techniques (3 cavity ring-down (CRDS) instruments, 2 laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments). Datasets are highly correlated as indicated by the square of the linear correlation coefficients, R2, which values were larger than 0.96 for the entire datasets. N2O5 mixing ratios well agree within the combined accuracy of measurements. Slopes of the linear regression range between 0.87 and 1.26 and intercepts are negligible. The most critical aspect of N2O5 measurements by cavity ring-down instruments is the determination of the inlet and filter transmission efficiency. Measurements here show that the N2O5 inlet transmission efficiency can decrease in the presence of high aerosol loads, and that frequent filter/inlet changing is necessary to quantitatively sample N2O5 in some environments. The analysis of data also demonstrates that a general correction for degrading filter transmission is not applicable for all conditions encountered during this campaign. Besides the effect of a gradual degradation of the inlet transmission efficiency aerosol exposure, no other interference for N2O5

  10. Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H.; Simpson, W. R.; Apodaca, R. L.; Brauers, T.; Cohen, R. C.; Crowley, J. N.; Dorn, H.-P.; Dubé, W. P.; Fry, J. L.; Häseler, R.; Kajii, Y.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Labazan, I.; Matsumoto, J.; Mentel, T. F.; Nakashima, Y.; Rohrer, F.; Rollins, A. W.; Schuster, G.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2012-07-01

    N2O5 detection in the atmosphere has been accomplished using techniques which have been developed during the last decade. Most techniques use a heated inlet to thermally decompose N2O5 to NO3, which can be detected by either cavity based absorption at 662 nm or by laser-induced fluorescence. In summer 2007, a large set of instruments, which were capable of measuring NO3 mixing ratios, were simultaneously deployed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany. Some of these instruments measured N2O5 mixing ratios either simultaneously or alternatively. Experiments focussed on the investigation of potential interferences from e.g. water vapor or aerosol and on the investigation of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3. The comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios shows an excellent agreement between measurements of instruments applying different techniques (3 cavity ring-down (CRDS) instruments, 2 laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments). Data sets are highly correlated as indicated by the square of the linear correlation coefficients, R2, which values are larger than 0.96 for the entire data sets. N2O5 mixing ratios well agree within the combined accuracy of measurements. Slopes of the linear regression range between 0.87 and 1.26 and intercepts are negligible. The most critical aspect of N2O5 measurements by cavity ring-down instruments is the determination of the inlet and filter transmission efficiency. Measurements here show that the N2O5 inlet transmission efficiency can decrease in the presence of high aerosol loads, and that frequent filter/inlet changing is necessary to quantitatively sample N2O5 in some environments. The analysis of data also demonstrates that a general correction for degrading filter transmission is not applicable for all conditions encountered during this campaign. Besides the effect of a gradual degradation of the inlet transmission efficiency aerosol exposure, no other interference for N2O5

  11. Boundary Layer CO2 mixing ratio measurements by an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the primary signature of CO2 fluxes at the surface occurs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), remote sensing measurements of CO2 that can resolve the CO2 absorption in the PBL separate from the total column are more sensitive to fluxes than those that can only measure a total column. The NASA Goddard CO2 sounder is a pulsed, range-resolved lidar that samples multiple (presently 30) wavelengths across the 1572.335 nm CO2 absorption line. The range resolution and line shape measurement enable CO2 mixing ratio measurements to be made in two or more altitude layers including the PBL via lidar cloud-slicing and multi-layer retrievals techniques. The pulsed lidar approach allows range-resolved backscatter of scattering from ground and cloud tops. Post flight data analysis can be used split the vertical CO2 column into layers (lidar cloud-slicing) and solve for the CO2 mixing ratio in each layer. We have demonstrated lidar cloud slicing with lidar measurements from a flight over Iowa, USA in August 2011 during the corn-growing season, remotely measuring a ≈15 ppm drawdown in the PBL CO2. We will present results using an improved lidar cloud slicing retrieval algorithm as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign. The CO2 absorption line is also more pressure broadened at lower altitudes. Analyzing the line shape also allows solving for some vertical resolution in the CO2 distribution. By allowing the retrieval process to independently vary the column concentrations in two or more altitude layers, one can perform a best-fit retrieval to obtain the CO2 mixing ratios in each of the layers. Analysis of airborne lidar measurements (in 2011) over Iowa, USA and Four Corners, New Mexico, USA show that for altitudes above 8 km, the CO2 sounder can detect and measure enhanced or diminished CO2 mixing ratios in the PBL even in the absence of clouds. We will present these results as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming

  12. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  13. Parameterization retrieval of trace gas volume mixing ratios from Airborne MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Barbara; Koenig, Theodore K.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    We present a parameterization retrieval of volume mixing ratios (VMRs) from differential slant column density (dSCD) measurements by Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMAX-DOAS). The method makes use of the fact that horizontally recorded limb spectra (elevation angle 0°) are strongly sensitive to the atmospheric layer at instrument altitude. These limb spectra are analyzed using reference spectra that largely cancel out column contributions from above and below the instrument, so that the resulting limb dSCDs, i.e., the column integrated concentration with respect to a reference spectrum, are almost exclusively sensitive to the atmospheric layers around instrument altitude. The conversion of limb dSCDs into VMRs is then realized by calculating box air mass factors (Box-AMFs) for a Rayleigh atmosphere and applying a scaling factor constrained by O4 dSCDs to account for aerosol extinction. An iterative VMR retrieval scheme corrects for trace gas profile shape effects. Benefits of this method are (1) a fast conversion that only requires the computation of Box-AMFs in a Rayleigh atmosphere; (2) neither local aerosol extinction nor the slant column density in the DOAS reference (SCDref) needs to be known; and (3) VMRs can be retrieved for every measurement point along a flight track, thus increasing statistics and adding flexibility to capture concentration gradients. Sensitivity studies are performed for bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), using (1) simulated dSCD data for different trace gas and aerosol profiles and (2) field measurements from the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field experiment. For simulated data in a Rayleigh atmosphere, the agreement between the VMR from the parameterization method (VMRpara) and the true VMR (VMRtrue) is excellent for all trace gases. Offsets, slopes and R2 values for the linear fit of VMRpara over

  14. Column Averaged CO2, CH4, and CO Mixing Ratios at ARM-SGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Wunch, D.; Biraud, S.; Abshire, J. B.; Blavier, J. L.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Kulawik, S. S.; Miller, C. E.; Roehl, C. M.; Payne, V.; Sweeney, C.; Smith, J.; Toon, G. C.; Torn, M. S.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2009-12-01

    We report column-averaged measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO made at the ARM Climate Research Facility in the Southern Great Plains (36.6053 N, 97.4891 W), near Lamont, Oklahoma, USA. Data include multi-year records of midday near-surface (60 m) CO2 and CO mixing ratios, periodic continuous CO2, and flask CO2, CH4, and CO profiles (to ~ 5 km) from a small aircraft, a limited number of flask profiles (to ~ 12 km) from a NASA Lear 25, column CO2, CH4, and CO retrievals made with a sun-tracking Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) deployed at the SGP site, and estimates of CO2, CH4, and CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the NASA Aura spacecraft. We compare aircraft measurements with prototype TES retrievals of CO2, TES representative tropospheric values of CH4, and TES CO profile values. We then compare the column-average mixing ratios with the FTS retrievals, and examine the differences in each comparison for seasonality. These results provide an initial evaluation of the TES and FTS retrievals at the ARM-SGP and prepare for future evaluation of CO2 and CH4 retrievals from future satellite missions including GOSAT.

  15. Deep Atmosphere Ammonia Mixing Ratio at Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Demick, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    New laboratory studies employing the Engineering Unit (EU) of the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) have resulted in a substantial reduction in the previously reported upper limit on the ammonia mixing ratio derived from the GPMS experiment at Jupiter. This measurement is complicated by background ammonia contributions in the GPMS during direct atmospheric sampling produced from the preceding gas enrichment experiments. These backgrounds can be quantified with the data from the EU studies when they are carried out in a manner that duplicates the descent profile of pressure and enrichment cell loading. This background is due to the tendency of ammonia to interact strongly with the walls of the mass spectrometer and on release to contribute to the gas being directly directed into the ion source from the atmosphere through a capillary pressure reduction leak. It is evident from the GPMS and other observations that the mixing ratio of ammonia at Jupiter reaches the deep atmosphere value at substantially higher pressures than previously assumed. This is a likely explanation for the previously perceived discrepancy between ammonia values derived from ground based microwave observations and those obtained from attenuation of the Galileo Probe radio signal.

  16. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  17. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  18. Effect of mixing ratio of food waste and rice husk co-digestion and substrate to inoculum ratio on biogas production.

    PubMed

    Haider, Muhammad Rizwan; Zeshan; Yousaf, Sohail; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2015-08-01

    Aim of this study was to find out suitable mixing ratio of food waste and rice husk for their co-digestion in order to overcome VFA accumulation in digestion of food waste alone. Four mixing ratios of food waste and rice husk with C/N ratios of 20, 25, 30 and 35 were subjected to a lab scale anaerobic batch experiment under mesophilic conditions. Highest specific biogas yield of 584L/kgVS was obtained from feedstock with C/N ratio of 20. Biogas yield decreased with decrease in food waste proportion. Further, fresh cow dung was used as inoculum to investigate optimum S/I ratio with the selected feedstock. In experiment 2, feedstock with C/N ratio 20 was subjected to anaerobic digestion at five S/I ratios of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Specific biogas yield of 557L/kgVS was obtained at S/I ratio of 0.25. However, VFA accumulation occurred at higher S/I ratios due to higher organic loadings.

  19. The Measurement of Fuel-air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124

  20. The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C.; Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.

  1. A new method for the determination of the mixing ratio hydrogen to helium in the giant planets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, D.; Grossman, K.

    1972-01-01

    By using a numerical iterative method, it is demonstrated that the mixing ratio H2/He on the giant planets can be inferred from spectral measurements of the intensity emitted by these planets in the far infrared range. The method is successfully applied to synthetic spectra of Saturn computed from atmospheric thermal models. The effect of random and systematic measurement errors on the determination of the mixing ratio is also studied.

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and pig manure with different mixing ratios.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hailin; Duan, Na; Lin, Cong; Li, Xue; Zhong, Mingzhu

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste (KW) and pig manure (PM) with seven different PM to KW total solids (TS) ratios of 1:0, 5:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 0:1 was conducted at mesophilic temperature (35 ± 1 °C) to investigate the feasibility and process performance. The co-digestion of PM and KW was found to be an available way to enhance methane production compared with solo-digestion of PM or KW. The ratio of PM to KW of 1:1 got the highest biodegradability (BDA) of 85.03% and a methane yield of 409.5 mL/gVS. For the co-digestion of KW and PM, there was no obvious inhibition of ammonia nitrogen because it was in an acceptable range from 1380 mg/L to 2020 mg/L in the whole process. However, severe methane inhibition and long lag phase due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was observed while the KW content was over 50%, and in the lag phase, propionic acid and butyric acid made up the major constituents of the total VFAs. The technical digestion time (T80: the time it takes to produce 80% of the digester's maximum gas production) of the above 7 ratios was 15, 21, 22, 27, 49, 62 and 61 days, respectively. In this study, a mixing ratio of 1:1 for PM and KW was found to maximize BDA and methane yield, provided a short digestion time and stable digestion performance and was therefore recommended for further study and engineering application.

  3. Calibration of the Purple Crow Lidar vibrational Raman water-vapour mixing ratio and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argall, P. S.; Sica, R. J.; Bryant, C. R.; Algara-Siller, M.; Schijns, H.

    2007-02-01

    Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) measurements of the vibrational Raman-shifted backscatter from water vapour and nitrogen molecules allows height profiles of the water-vapour mixing ratio to be measured from 500 m up into the lower stratosphere. In addition, the Raman nitrogen measurements allow the determination of temperature profiles from about 10 to 40 km altitude. However, external calibration of these measurements is necessary to compensate for instrumental effects, uncertainties in our knowledge of the relevant molecular cross sections, and atmospheric transmission. A comparison of the PCL-derived water-vapour concentration and temperature profiles with routine radiosonde measurements from Detroit and Buffalo on 37 and 141 nights, respectively, was undertaken to provide this calibration. The calibration is then applied to the measurements and monthly mean-temperature and water-vapour profiles are determined.

  4. Shipboard Measurements of the Distribution of Methane Mixing Ratio and 13CH4 in the Western Pacific: The Impact of Tropical Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, A.; Martin, R.; Moss, R.; Allan, W.; Lowe, D.; Renwick, J.

    2007-12-01

    Trace gas transport in the troposphere from the Northern to Southern Hemisphere is profoundly influenced by the position and strength of two meteorological zones: the Inter-Tropical and South Pacific Convergence Zones (ITCZ and SPCZ). In the mid-Pacific these zones are well separated, vary with season and El Nino Southern Oscillation events, and are usually well defined. In the Western Pacific the situation is more complicated with the zones often joining in a wedge east of Indonesia or disappearing altogether. The situation is further complicated by complex tropical meteorology involving deep convection. Here we present the first results of a joint project aimed at examining the impact of the ITCZ and SPCZ on the transport of atmospheric trace gases from the Northern to the Southern Hemispheres in the tropical Western Pacific. The project (developed between the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research - NIWA, and the Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies - NIES) uses high precision measurements of methane mixing ratio and the stable methane carbon isotopic species 13CH4 as atmospheric tracers supplemented by measurements of related species such as CO, 13CO, and 14CO. The measurements are made on large clean air samples (up to 1~m3) collected aboard bulk carrier ships operated by the Japanese shipping company Toyofuji on voyages between New Zealand and Japan. These air samples provide excellent snapshots of trace gas mixing ratio and isotopic gradients between the hemispheres as well as in-depth information on changes through the convergence zones. We show the initial results from 6 voyages between May 2004 and January 2007 illustrating the clearly defined latitudinal gradients in mixing ratio and isotopic composition, and their seasonal variations. One particular voyage (December 2005) showcases the distinct "zones" in trace gas distribution as the ship moved from south to north through the SPCZ and ITCZ, and highlights the

  5. Reevaluated martian atmospheric mixing ratios from the mass spectrometer on the Curiosity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Wong, Michael H.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Manning, Heidi L. K.; Stern, Jennifer C.

    2015-05-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is a miniature geochemical laboratory designed to analyze martian atmospheric gases as well as volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials (Mahaffy et al., 2012). SAM began sampling the martian atmosphere to measure its chemical and isotopic composition shortly after Curiosity landed in Mars' Gale Crater in August 2012 (Mahaffy et al., 2013). Analytical methods and constants required for atmospheric measurements with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) were provided in a previous contribution (Franz et al., 2014). Review of results obtained through application of these constants to repeated analyses over a full martian year and supporting studies with laboratory instruments offer new insights into QMS performance that allow refinement of the calibration constants and critical reassessment of their estimated uncertainties. This report describes the findings of these studies, provides updated calibration constants for atmospheric analyses with the SAM QMS, and compares volume mixing ratios for the martian atmosphere retrieved with the revised constants to those initially reported (Mahaffy et al., 2013). Sufficient confidence is enabled by the extended data set to support calculation of precise abundances for CO rather than an upper limit. Reanalysis of data acquired on mission sols 45 and 77 (at solar longitudes of 175° and 193°, respectively) with the revised constants leads to the following average volume mixing ratios: CO2 0.957(±0.016), N2 0.0203(±0.0003), Ar 0.0207(±0.0002), O2 1.73(±0.06)×10-3, CO 7.49(±0.026)×10-4.

  6. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  7. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  8. A conceptual framework to quantify the influence of convective boundary layer development on carbon dioxide mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Peters, W.; Schroter, J.; van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Krol, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interpretation of observed diurnal carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios near the surface requires knowledge of the local dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. In this paper, we quantify the relationship between the boundary layer dynamics and the CO2 budget in convective conditions through a newly derived set of analytical equations. From these equations, we are able to quantify how uncertainties in boundary layer dynamical variables or in the morning CO2 distribution in the mixed-layer or in the free atmosphere influence the bulk CO2 mixing ratio. We find that the largest uncertainty incurred on the mid-day CO2 mixing ratio comes from the prescribed early morning CO2 mixing ratios in the stable boundary layer, and in the free atmosphere. Errors in these values influence CO2 mixing ratios inversely proportional to the boundary layer depth (h), just like uncertainties in the assumed initial boundary layer depth and surface CO2 flux. The influence of uncertainties in the boundary layer depth itself are one order of magnitude smaller. If we "invert" the problem and calculate CO2 surface exchange from observed or simulated CO2 mixing ratios, the sensitivities to errors in boundary layer dynamics also invert: they become linearly proportional to the boundary layer depth. We demonstrate these relations for a typical well characterized situation at the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands, and conclude that knowledge of the temperature and carbon dioxide vertical profiles in the early morning are of vital importance to correctly interpret observed CO2 mixing ratios during midday.

  9. A conceptual framework to quantify the influence of convective boundary layer development on carbon dioxide mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Peters, W.; Schröter, J.; van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Krol, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Interpretation of observed diurnal carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios near the surface requires knowledge of the local dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. In this paper, we study the relationship between the boundary layer dynamics and the CO2 budget in convective conditions through a newly derived set of analytical equations. From these equations, we are able to quantify how uncertainties in boundary layer dynamical variables or in the morning CO2 distribution in the mixed-layer or in the free atmosphere (FA) influence the bulk CO2 mixing ratio. We find that the largest uncertainty incurred on the mid-day CO2 mixing ratio comes from the prescribed early morning CO2 mixing ratios in the stable boundary layer, and in the free atmosphere. Errors in these values influence CO2 mixing ratios inversely proportional to the boundary layer depth (h), just like uncertainties in the assumed initial boundary layer depth and surface CO2 flux. The influence of uncertainties in the boundary layer depth itself is one order of magnitude smaller. If we "invert" the problem and calculate CO2 surface exchange from observed or simulated CO2 mixing ratios, the sensitivities to errors in boundary layer dynamics also invert: they become linearly proportional to the boundary layer depth. We demonstrate these relations for a typical well characterized situation at the Cabauw site in The Netherlands, and conclude that knowledge of the temperature and carbon dioxide profiles of the atmosphere in the early morning are of vital importance to correctly interpret observed CO2 mixing ratios during midday.

  10. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  11. Determination of mixing layer heights by ceilometer and influences upon air quality at Mexico City airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Flores-Jardines, Edgar; Emeis, Stefan; Grutter, Michel; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Wiesen, Peter; Münkel, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    Monitoring of mixing layer height (MLH) was performed during different measurement campaigns in urban and suburban area (Hannover, Munich, Budapest, Zürich, Augsburg) by the Vaisala ceilometer LD40. It is an eye-safe commercial lidar and designed originally to detect cloud base heights and vertical visibility for aviation safety purposes. Software for routine retrieval of mixing layer height from ceilometer data was developed and improved continuously. MLH was determined during a one-week-campaign at the airport Mexico City. Air pollutants like NO, NOx, CO and O3 as well as meteorological parameters like wind, temperature and irradiance are measured at the airport in addition to the air quality monitoring network RAMA in Mexico City. The influence of MLH together with wind, temperature and cloudiness upon air pollution is investigated. These continuous MLH and meteorological data are correlated with simultaneous measured air pollutants. The influence of mixing layer height upon air quality is shown.

  12. Swirl-can combustor performance to near-stoichiometric fuel-air ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Biaglow, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions and performance characteristics were determined for full-annulus swirl-can modular combustors operated to near stoichiometric fuel air ratios. The purposes of the tests were to obtain stoichiometric data at inlet air temperatures up to 894 K and to determine the effect of module number by investigating 120 and 72 module swirl-can combustors. The maximum average exit temperature obtained with the 120-module swirl-can combustor was 2465 K with a combustion efficiency of 95 percent at an inlet-air temperature of 894 K. The 72-module swirl-can combustor reached a maximum average exit temperature of 2306 K with a combustion efficiency of 92 percent at an inlet air temperature of 894 K. At a constant inlet air temperature, maximum oxides of nitrogen emission index values occurred at a fuel-air ratio of 0.037 for the 72-module design and 0.044 for the 120-module design. The combustor average exit temperature and combustion efficiency were calculated from emissions measurements. The measured emissions included carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke.

  13. Subsidence, Mixing and Denitrification of Polar Vortex Air Measured During Polaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rex, M.; Salawitch, R.; Toon, G.; Sen, B.; Margitan, J.; Osterman, G.; Blavier, J.; Gao, R.; Del Negro, L.; Donnelly, S.; Keim, E.; Neuman, J.; Fahey, D.; Webster, C.; Scott, D.; Herman, B.; May, R.; Moyer, L.; Gunson, M.; Irion, F.; Chang, A.; Rinsland, R.; Bui, P.; Loewenstein, M.

    1998-01-01

    We use the correlation between CH(sub 4) and N(sub 2)O as measured during the POLARIS campaign in spring 1997 to estimate the degree of mixing between descended air masses from the vortex and air masses from mid-latitudes.

  14. Purple Crow Lidar Vibrational Raman water vapor mixing ratio and temperature measurements in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) measurements of the vibrational Raman-shifted backscatter from water vapor and nitrogen molecules allows height profiles of water vapor mixing ratio to be measured from 500 m to up into the lower stratosphere from the Delaware Observatory near London, Canada. In addition, the Raman nitrogen measurements allow the determination of temperature profiles from about 10 km to 40 km altitude. External calibration of these measurements is necessary to compensate for instrumental effects, uncertainties in our knowledge of the relevant molecular cross sections, and atmospheric transmission. A comparison of the PCL derived water vapor concentration and temperature profiles with routine radiosonde measurements from Detroit and Buffalo on 37 and 141 nights respectively, was undertaken to provide this calibration, which showed mean temperature differences over all flights for altitudes above 9 km of about 0.5 K, with agreement for water vapor below 7 km to within ±12%. Comparisons of the cold point temperature with the coincident water vapor measurements will be presented to investigate the transport of air from the tropics to midlatitudes.

  15. Mixing of Multiple Jets with a Confined Subsonic Crossflow: Part III--The Effects of Air Preheat and Number of Orifices on Flow and Emissions in an RQL Mixing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdemann, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2008-01-01

    This study was motivated by a goal to understand the mixing and emissions in the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor scheme that has been proposed to minimize the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in gas turbine combustors. The study reported herein was a reacting jet-in-crossflow experiment at atmospheric pressure. The jets were injected from the perimeter of a cylindrical duct through round-hole orifices into a fuel-rich mainstream flow. The number of orifices investigated in this study gave over- to optimum to underpenetrating jets at a jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio of J = 57. The size of individual orifices was decreased as the number of orifices increased to maintain a constant total area; the jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio was constant at MR = 2.5. The experiments focused on the effects of the number of orifices and inlet air preheat and were conducted in a facility that provided the capability for independent variation of jet and main inlet air preheat temperature. The number of orifices was found to have a significant effect on mixing and the distributions of species, but very little effect on overall NOx emissions, suggesting that an aerodynamically optimum mixer might not minimize NOx emissions. Air preheat was found to have very little effect on mixing and the distributions of major species, but preheating both main and jet air did increase NOx emissions significantly. Although the air jets injected in the quick-mix section of an RQL combustor may comprise over 70 percent of the total air flow, the overall NOx emission levels were found to be more sensitive to main stream air preheat than to jet stream air preheat.

  16. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-09-11

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  17. Numerical simulation of the flow and fuel-air mixing in an axisymmetric piston-cylinder arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I. P.; Smith, G. E.; Springer, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The implicit factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to describe the flow and the fuel-air mixing in an axisymmetric piston-cylinder configuration during the intake and compression strokes. The governing equations were established on the basis of laminar flow. The increased mixing due to turbulence was simulated by appropriately chosen effective transport properties. Calculations were performed for single-component gases and for two-component gases and for two-component gas mixtures. The flow field was calculated as functions of time and position for different geometries, piston speeds, intake-charge-to-residual-gas-pressure ratios, and species mass fractions of the intake charge. Results are presented in graphical form which show the formation, growth, and break-up of those vortices which form during the intake stroke and the mixing of fuel and air throughout the intake and compression strokes. It is shown that at bore-to-stroke ratio of less than unity, the vortices may break-up during the intake stroke. It is also shown that vortices which do not break-up during the intake stroke coalesce during the compression stroke. The results generated were compared to existing numerical solutions and to available experimental data.

  18. Effects of volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio on hydrogen production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-11-28

    Co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was evaluated for hydrogen production by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch experiments in accordance with various dilution ratios (40- to 5-fold) and waste mixing composition ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, on a volume basis) were conducted. Volatile solid (VS) concentration strongly affected the hydrogen production rate and yield compared with the waste mixing ratio. The specific hydrogen production rate was predicted to be optimal when the VS concentration ranged from 10 to 12 g/l at all the mixing ratios of molasses wastewater and sewage sludge. A hydrogen yield of over 50 ml H2/g VS(removed) was obtained from mixed waste of 10% sewage sludge and 10 g/l VS (about 10-fold dilution ratio). The optimal chemical oxygen demand/ total nitrogen ratio for co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was between 250 and 300 with a hydrogen yield above 20 ml H2/g VS(removed).

  19. Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.

  20. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    SciTech Connect

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  1. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Stephen; Wang, Lixin; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  2. Mixing characteristics of pulsed air-assist liquid jet into an internal subsonic cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inchul; Kang, Youngsu; Koo, Jaye

    2010-04-01

    Penetration depth, spray dispersion angle, droplet sizes in breakup processes and atomization processes are very important parameters in combustor of air-breathing engine. These processes will enhance air/fuel mixing inside the combustor. Experimental results from the pulsed air-assist liquid jet injected into a cross-flow are investigated. And experiments were conducted to a range of cross-flow velocities from 42˜136 m/s. Air is injected with 0˜300kPa, with air-assist pulsation frequency of 0˜20Hz. Pulsation frequency was modulated by solenoid valve. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer(PDPA) was utilized to quantitatively measuring droplet characteristics. High-speed CCD camera was used to obtain injected spray structure. Pulsed air-assist liquid jet will offer rapid mixing and good liquid jet penetration. Air-assist makes a very fine droplet which generated mist-like spray. Pulsed air-assist liquid jet will introduce additional supplementary turbulent mixing and control of penetration depth into a cross-flow field. The results show that pulsation frequency has an effect on penetration, transverse velocities and droplet sizes. The experimental data generated in these studies are used for a development of active control strategies to optimize the liquid jet penetration in subsonic cross-flow conditions and predict combustion low frequency instability.

  3. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  4. Simultaneous Engineering of the Substrate Temperature and Mixing Ratio to Improve the Performance of Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyung-Jun; Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Changhee

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the donor/acceptor mixing ratio and the substrate temperature (T(SUB)) during the co-deposition process on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. We found that the ratio of dispersed donor islands (less than 10 nm), which hinders charge carrier transport, increased as the donor concentration (C(D)) increased in the film processed at room temperature. By contrast, the donor cluster (larger than 10 nm), providing percolation paths for the carriers, was enlarged in the film containing a high C(D) fabricated at high T(SUB) (70 degrees C). This enhanced phase separation in the mixed layer led to an improved fill factor and a decreased activation energy of the short-circuit current (J(SC)). Therefore, we demonstrated a 23% improvement in the device performance by employing an elevated T(SUB) and optimized mixing ratio in comparison with the device fabricated at room temperature.

  5. Large Engine Technology (LET) Task XXXVII Low-Bypass Ratio Mixed Turbofan Engine Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Joseph R.; Zysman, Steven H.; Barber, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center supported a three year effort to develop the technology for reducing jet noise from low-bypass ratio engines. This effort concentrated on both analytical and experimental approaches using various mixer designs. CFD and MGB predictions are compared with LDV and noise data, respectively. While former predictions matched well with data, experiment shows a need for improving the latter predictions. Data also show that mixing noise can be sensitive to engine hardware upstream of the mixing exit plane.

  6. Fluid mixing and recycling during Pyrenean thrusting: evidence from fluid inclusion halogen ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Tritlla, J.; Banks, D. A.

    2000-10-01

    Syntectonic fluids have been sampled through fluid inclusion microthermometry and crush-leach analyses (cations and halogens) from a 50 km N-S transect through the central-southern Pyrenees. The fluid inclusions are contained in syntectonic quartz veins in Triassic redbeds, Cretaceous carbonates and Hercynian basement rocks, with some calcite and dolomite data from limestones and evaporites in more external parts of the belt. The main datasets come from (1) Alpine shear zones cutting the Néouvielle granodiorite in the Hercynian Axial Zone at the north end of the transect; (2) An imbricate zone beneath the Alpine Gavarnie Thrust at the Pic de Port Vieux; (3) Several localities in the footwall and hangingwall of the Gavarnie Thrust on the southern margin of the Axial Zone. The inclusion fluids generally decrease in salinity from 27-35% at the northern end of the transect to 7-22% on the southern margin of the Axial Zone. The majority of the inclusions have Cl/Br ratios lower than seawater and are interpreted as relict fluids after seawater evaporation and halite precipitation in the upper Trias. This interpretation is supported by Cl-Br-Na systematics, which are consistent with a change from halite to halite + sylvite precipitation with progressive evaporation. Fluids in the basement shear zones are interpreted to have essentially the same evaporitic origin as those still contained in sedimentary formations, although it is possible that final concentration of brines in the Néouvielle Massif involved retrograde hydration reactions with removal of water by precipitation of hydrous minerals. The fluids are also very similar in salinity and halogen chemistry to those found in veins associated with Mesozoic Pb-Zn-F deposits which predate the thrusting. The lower salinities seen at the southern margin of the Axial Zone are interpreted to reflect mixing of the brines with a higher level fluid (connate or meteoric water) circulating within the Mesozoic carbonates of the

  7. Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling system has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the system. Vertical profiles of mixing ratios of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing ratios of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing ratio, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.

  8. Chemical signatures of aged Pacific marine air: Mixed layer and free troposphere as measured during PEM-West A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Bachmeier, A. S.; Blake, D. R.; Heikes, B. G.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Kondo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean is one of the few remaining regions of the northern hemisphere that is relatively free of direct anthropogenic emissions. However, long-range transport of air pollutants is beginning to have a significant impact on the atmosphere over the Pacific. In September and October 1991, NASA conducted the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A expedition to study the atmospheric chemistry and background budgets of key atmospheric trace species. Aircraft sampling centered on the northern Pacific, 0° to 40°N and 115° to 180°E. The paper summarizes the chemical signature of relatively well-aged Pacific marine air (residence time ≥10 days over the ocean). The chemical signatures show that marine air is not always devoid of continental influences. Aged marine air which circulates around the semipermanent subtropical anticyclone located off the Asian continent is influenced by infusion of continental air with anthropogenic emissions. The infusion occurs as the result of Asian outflow swept off the continent behind eastward moving cold fronts. When compared to aged marine air with a more southerly pathway, this infusion results in enhancements in the mixing ratio of many anthropogenic/continental species and typically those with lifetimes of weeks in the free troposphere. Less enhancement is seen for the short-lived species with lifetimes of a few days as infused continental emissions are depleted during transport (about a week) around the semipermanent subtropical high.

  9. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  10. Effect of Mixture Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Detonation Cell Size for Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Detonation MAPE Mean Absolute Percent Error PDE Pulsed Detonation Engine RDE Rotating Detonation Engine ZND...1997. DeBarmore, Nick D., Paul King, Fred Schauer, and John Hoke, “Nozzle Guide Vane Integration into Rotating Detonation Engine,” 51st AIAA...initial mixture pressure and equivalence ratio. ^Hydrogen and air, detonation cell size, detonation , cell size, Rotating Detonation Engine, RDE U U U UU 129 Dr. Paul I. King, AFIT/ENY (937) 255-3636 x4628

  11. Effects of equivalence ratio variation on lean, stratified methane-air laminar counterflow flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, E. S.; Granet, V. E.; Eyssartier, A.; Chen, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    The effects of equivalence ratio variations on flame structure and propagation have been studied computationally. Equivalence ratio stratification is a key technology for advanced low emission combustors. Laminar counterflow simulations of lean methane-air combustion have been presented which show the effect of strain variations on flames stabilized in an equivalence ratio gradient, and the response of flames propagating into a mixture with a time-varying equivalence ratio. 'Back supported' lean flames, whose products are closer to stoichiometry than their reactants, display increased propagation velocities and reduced thickness compared with flames where the reactants are richer than the products. The radical concentrations in the vicinity of the flame are modified by the effect of an equivalence ratio gradient on the temperature profile and thermal dissociation. Analysis of steady flames stabilized in an equivalence ratio gradient demonstrates that the radical flux through the flame, and the modified radical concentrations in the reaction zone, contribute to the modified propagation speed and thickness of stratified flames. The modified concentrations of radical species in stratified flames mean that, in general, the reaction rate is not accurately parametrized by progress variable and equivalence ratio alone. A definition of stratified flame propagation based upon the displacement speed of a mixture fraction dependent progress variable was seen to be suitable for stratified combustion. The response times of the reaction, diffusion, and cross-dissipation components which contribute to this displacement speed have been used to explain flame response to stratification and unsteady fluid dynamic strain.

  12. Extinction ratio improvement by pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Chow, K K; Shu, C; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2005-10-31

    We demonstrate extinction ratio improvement by using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A 6-dB improvement in the extinction ratio of a degraded return-to-zero signal has been achieved. A power penalty improvement of 3 dB at 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is obtained in the 10 Gb/s bit-error-rate measurements.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of projections of ozone-depleting substances: mixing ratios, EESC, ODPs, and GWPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, G. J. M.; Daniel, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    The rates at which ozone depleting substances (ODSs) are removed from the atmosphere, that is, their lifetimes, are key factors for determining the rate of ozone layer recovery in the coming decades. We present here a comprehensive uncertainty analysis of future mixing ratios of ODSs, levels of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials, using, among other information, the 2013 WCRP/SPARC assessment of lifetimes of ODSs and their uncertainties. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels, a metric commonly used to indicate a level of recovery from ODS-induced ozone depletion, is 2048 for mid-latitudes based on the lifetimes from the SPARC assessment, which is about 2 yr later than based on the lifetimes from the WMO assessment of 2011. However, the uncertainty in this return to 1980 levels is much larger than the 2 yr change. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels ranges from 2039 to 2064 (95% confidence interval) for mid-latitudes and 2061 to 2105 for the Antarctic spring. The primary contribution to these ranges comes from the uncertainty in the lifetimes. The earlier years of the return estimates are comparable to a hypothetical scenario in which emissions of ODSs cease in 2014. The later end of the range corresponds to a scenario containing an additional emission of about 7 Mt CFC-11-eq in 2015, which is the same as about 2 times the cumulative anthropogenic emissions of all ODSs from 2014 to 2050, or about 12 times the cumulative HCFC emissions from 2014 to 2050.

  14. Influence of fundamental material properties and air void structure on moisture damage of asphalt mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arambula Mercado, Edith

    2007-12-01

    Moisture damage in asphalt mixes refers to the loss of serviceability due to the presence of moisture. The extent of moisture damage, also called moisture susceptibility, depends on internal and external factors. The internal factors relate to the properties of the materials and the microstructure distribution, while the external factors include the environmental conditions, production and construction practices, pavement design, and traffic level. The majority of the research on moisture damage is based on the hypothesis that infiltration of surface water is the main source of moisture. Of the two other principal mechanisms of water transport, permeation of water vapor and capillary rise of subsurface water, the latter has been least explored. A laboratory test and analysis methods based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) were established to assess the capillary rise of water. The amount and size of air voids filled with water were used in the capillary rise equation to estimate the distribution of the contact angles between the water and the mastic. The results were able to show the influence of air void size on capillary rise and contact angles. The relationship between air void structure and moisture susceptibility was evaluated using a fundamental fracture model based on dissipated energy of viscoelastic materials. Detailed description is provided in this dissertation on the deduction of the model equation, the selection of the model parameters, and the required testing protocols. The model parameters were obtained using mechanical tests and surface energy measurements. The microstructure of asphalt mixes prepared in the laboratory having different air void structures was captured using X-ray CT, and image analysis techniques were used to quantify the air void structure and air void connectivity. The air void structure was found to influence the mix resistance to moisture damage. To validate the fracture model, asphalt mixes with known field performance were

  15. CONVERTING ISOTOPE RATIOS TO DIET COMPOSITION - THE USE OF MIXING MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of wildlife foraging ecology with stable isotope analysis are increasing. Converting isotope values to proportions of different foods in a consumer's diet requires the use of mixing models. Simple mixing models based on mass balance equations have been used for d...

  16. Effects of inoculum to substrate ratio, substrate mix ratio and inoculum source on batch co-digestion of grass and pig manure.

    PubMed

    Dechrugsa, Sumeth; Kantachote, Duangporn; Chaiprapat, Sumate

    2013-10-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was conducted at 35 °C to evaluate the effects of inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR) and substrate mix ratio between para-grass and pig manure co-digesting using different inocula. Rubber latex digester (RLD) inoculum showed higher methanogenic activity (41.4 mL CH4/gVS) than pig farm digester (PFD) inoculum (37.3 mL CH4/gVS). However, the maximum methane yields, occurred at the highest para-grass mix ratio (G), were 369.6, 437.6, 465.9 and 442.6 mL CH4/gTSadded for RLD inoculum, versus 332.4, 475.0, 519.5 and 521.9 mL/gTSadded for PFD inoculum at ISR 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. HPr, HBu and HVa appeared at higher G, corresponding to substrate's higher biodegradability. Response surface indicated that higher ISR and G had a significantly positive impact on methane yield. It suggested the use of higher ISR, i.e. 3 or 4, for BMP assay of these co-substrates. Dominant species of fermentative bacteria in each inoculum was tested by DGGE.

  17. Fundamental Insulation Characteristics of Air, N2, CO2, N2/O2 and SF6/N2 Mixed Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Yagihashi, Yoshitaka; Endo, Fumihiro; Oomori, Takashi

    SF6 gas has excellent dielectric strength and interruption performance. For these reasons, it has been widely used for gas insulated switchgear (GIS). However, use of SF6 gas has become regulated under agreements set at the 1997 COP3. Presently, development of a gas circuit breaker (GCB) using CO2 gas and development of a high voltage vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) are being pursued. GIS consists of disconnectors (DS), earthing switches (ES) and buses in addition to GCB. Since the interruption performance is not an important requirement for DS, ES and BUS, use of a gas with high dielectric strength is better than use of a gas with good interruption performance. Air and N2 are not greenhouse gases, and their dielectric strengths are higher than those of other SF6 alternative gases, but only about one-third of the dielectric strength of SF6 gas. This paper deals with a suitable insulation gas which has no greenhouse effect as an SF6 alternative gas. The N2/O2 mixed gas was investigated by changing the ratio of O2. Moreover, the effect of an insulation coating was investigated and compared with the dielectric strength of SF6/N2 mixed gas. The dielectric strength of air under the coating condition was equal to that of 10%SF6/N2 mixed gas.

  18. Uncertainty analysis of projections of ozone-depleting substances: mixing ratios, EESC, ODPs, and GWPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, G. J. M.; Daniel, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    The rates at which ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are removed from the atmosphere, which determine the lifetimes of these ODSs, are key factors for determining the rate of ozone layer recovery in the coming decades. We present here a comprehensive uncertainty analysis of future mixing ratios of ODSs, levels of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials (GWPs), using, among other information, the 2013 WCRP/SPARC (World Climate Research Programme/Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) assessment of lifetimes of ODSs and their uncertainties. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels, a metric commonly used to indicate a level of recovery from ODS-induced ozone depletion, is 2048 for midlatitudes and 2075 for Antarctic conditions based on the lifetimes from the SPARC assessment, which is about 2 and 4 yr, respectively, later than based on the lifetimes from the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) assessment of 2011. However, the uncertainty in this return to 1980 levels is much larger than the shift due to this change in lifetimes. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels ranges from 2039 to 2064 (95% confidence interval) for midlatitudes and from 2061 to 2105 for the Antarctic spring. The primary contribution to these ranges comes from the uncertainty in the lifetimes, with smaller contributions from uncertainties in other modeled parameters. The earlier years of the return estimates derived by the uncertainty analysis, i.e., 2039 for midlatitudes and 2061 for Antarctic spring, are comparable to a hypothetical scenario in which emissions of ODSs cease in 2014. The later end of the range, i.e., 2064 for midlatitudes and 2105 for Antarctic spring, can also be obtained by a scenario with an additional emission of about 7 Mt CFC-11 eq. (eq. - equivalent) in 2015, which is the same as about 2 times the projected cumulative anthropogenic emissions of all ODSs from 2014 to 2050, or about 12

  19. Uncertainty Analysis of Ozone-Depleting Substances: Mixing Ratios, EESC, ODPs, and GWPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, G. J.; Daniel, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Important for the recovery of the ozone layer from depletion by ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) is the rate at which ODSs are removed from the atmosphere, that is, their lifetimes. Recently the WCRP/SPARC project conducted an assessment of lifetimes of ODSs [SPARC, 2013] and presented a new set of recommended lifetimes as well as their uncertainties. We present here a comprehensive uncertainty analysis of ODS mixing ratios, levels of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), radiative forcing, ozone depletion potentials (ODPs), and global warming potentials (GWPs), using the new lifetimes and their uncertainties as well as uncertainties on all other relevant parameters. Using a box model the year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels, a metric commonly used to indicate a level of recovery for ODS induced ozone depletion, is 2048 for mid-latitudes based on the new lifetimes, which is 2 years later than that based on the lifetimes from WMO [2011]. The uncertainty in this return time is much larger than this change, however. The year EESC returns to pre-1980 levels ranges from is 2038 to 2064 (95% CI) for mid-latitudes and 2060 to 2104 for the Antarctic. The largest contribution to these ranges comes from the uncertainties in the lifetimes, since the current atmospheric burden of CFCs is much larger than the amounts present in existing equipment or still being produced. The earlier end of the recovery times is comparable to the return time in a hypothetical scenario with a cease in anthropogenic ODS emissions in 2014. The upper end of the range corresponds with an extra emission of about 7 MtCFC-11-eq in 2015, or about twice the cumulative anthropogenic emissions of all ODSs from 2014 to 2050. Semi-empirical ODPs calculated using the lifetimes from SPARC [2013] are up to 25% lower than the data reported in WMO [2011] for most species, mainly as a result of the increase in the estimated lifetime of CFC-11. The ODP of Halon-2402 increases by 20%, while the only

  20. Mixing a sol and a precipitate of block copolymers with different block ratios leads to an injectable hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Jiandong

    2009-06-08

    A facile method to obtain a thermoreversible physical hydrogel was found by simply mixing an aqueous sol of a block copolymer with a precipitate of a similar copolymer but with a different block ratio. Two ABA-type triblock copolymers poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-B-poly(ethylene glycol)-B-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) were synthesized. One sample in water was a sol in a broad temperature region, while the other in water was just a precipitate. The mixture of these two samples with a certain mix ratio underwent, however, a sol-to-gel-to-precipitate transition upon an increase of temperature. A dramatic tuning of the sol-gel transition temperature was conveniently achieved by merely varying mix ratio, even in the case of a similar molecular weight. Our study indicates that the balance of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity within this sort of amphiphilic copolymers is critical to the inverse thermal gelation in water resulting from aggregation of micelles. The availability of encapsulation and sustained release of lysozyme, a model protein by the thermogelling systems was confirmed. This "mix" method provides a very convenient approach to design injectable thermogelling biomaterials with a broad adjustable window, and the novel copolymer mixture platform is potentially used in drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  1. The effect of fuel-to-air ratio on burner-rig hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.; Kohl, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of a cobalt-base alloy, Mar M-509, were subjected to hot corrosion in a Mach-0.3 burner rig. The corrodent was NaCl added as an aqueous solution to the combustion products of a sulfur-containing Jet-A fuel. The metal temperature was fixed at 900 C. The extent of hot corrosion increased by a factor of three as the fuel-to-air mass ratio was increased from 0.033 to 0.050. Because the depositing salt was always Na2SO4, the increased attack appeared to be related to the gas composition.

  2. Fifteen years of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements at the mountain site Kasprowy Wierch, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmura, L.; Korus, A.; Necki, J.; Rozanski, K.; Zimnoch, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Kasprowy Wierch station is located in the south of Poland, within the High Tatra Mountains. The meteorological observatory which hosts the monitoring station is located on top of a mountain peak called Kasprowy Wierch (49o14'N, 19o59'E, 1989 m a.s.l., 300 m above the tree line). Climate of Kasprowy Wierch area is typical for a continental mountain location, with relatively large diurnal and seasonal variations of temperature, high precipitation rate, frequent changes of atmospheric pressure and strong winds. Regular observations of atmospheric CH4 and CO2mixing ratios at Kasprowy Wierch begun in 1994. Continuous measurements using GC technique were initiated in 1996. The available dataset of CO2 and CH4mixing ratios at Kasprowy Wierch comprise a valuable source of information about temporal variability of those gases in the atmosphere above central Europe over 15-year period. Significant year-to-year variability of carbon dioxide mixing ratio, both with respect to the observed annual growth rate as well as the amplitude of seasonal changes, was observed. The presented carbon dioxide mixing ratio record reveals typical behaviour of atmospheric CO2 observed at mid-latitude continental sites of the Northern Hemisphere. The winter maximum ends in spring, when the photosynthetic sink starts to operate. From that time on, the CO2 mixing ratio gradually decreases, reaching a minimum in August/September. Afterwards, the CO2 level increases, reaching winter maximum in February/March. The length of the CO2 deficit season at Kasprowy Wierch, defined as the period when CO2 mixing ratio remains below the long-term trend curve, is getting shorter (c.a. -0.5 ppm year-1, averaged over the observation period 1994-2008). The average peak-to-peak amplitude for the period 1994-2008 is equal c.a. 19 ppm (minimum value of 14,7 ppm recorded in 2003 and maximum of 20,7 ppm recorded in 1995). It is worth to note that the 2003 summer draw-down of CO2 concentration at Kasprowy Wierch was

  3. The averaging effect of odorant mixing as determined by air dilution sensory tests: a case study on reduced sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (CH(3)SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying concentration levels. The tests were initially conducted by analyzing samples containing single individual RSCs at a wide range of concentrations. The resulting data were then evaluated to define the empirical relationship for each RSC between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on the relationships defined for each individual RSC, the D/T ratios were estimated for a synthetic mixture of four RSCs. The effect of mixing was then examined by assessing the relative contribution of each RSC to those estimates with the aid of the actually measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed that the odor intensity of the synthetic mixture is not governed by the common theoretical basis (e.g., rule of additivity, synergism, or a stronger component model) but is best represented by the averaged contribution of all RSC components. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants.

  4. Algal layer ratios as indicators of air pollutant effects in Permelia sulcata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Parmelia sulcata Taylor is generally believed to be fairly pollution tolerant, and consequently it is sometimes collected in urban and/or polluted localities. The condition of these specimens, however, is not always luxuriant and healthy. This study tested the hypothesis that total thallus and algal layer thickness, and the algal layer ratio would be thinner in polluted areas, thus allowing these characters to be used a indicators of air pollutant effects. Herbarium specimens were studied from 16 different localities varying in pollution level. The thallus and algal layers and ratio were not affected by year or locality of sampling, but decreased 11, 31 and 21% respectively between low and high pollution level localities. These results agreed with earlier studies using other species, but further work is needed to clarify the effects of geography and substrate on these phenomena.

  5. Observations of Atmospheric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Mixing Ratios: Tall-Tower or Mountain-Top Stations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Mountain-top observations of greenhouse gas mixing ratios may be an alternative to tall-tower measurements for regional scale source and sink estimation. To investigate the equivalence or limitations of a mountain-top site as compared to a tall-tower site, we used the unique opportunity of comparing in situ measurements of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) mixing ratios at a mountain top (986 m above sea level, a.s.l.) with measurements from a nearby (distance 28.4 km) tall tower, sampled at almost the same elevation (1009 m a.s.l.). Special attention was given to, (i) how local wind statistics and greenhouse gas sources and sinks at the mountain top influence the observations, and (ii) whether mountain-top observations can be used as for those from a tall tower for constraining regional greenhouse gas emissions. Wind statistics at the mountain-top site are clearly more influenced by local flow systems than those at the tall-tower site. Differences in temporal patterns of the greenhouse gas mixing ratios observed at the two sites are mostly related to the influence of local sources and sinks at the mountain-top site. Major influences of local sources can be removed by applying a statistical filter (5{th} percentile) or a filter that removes periods with unfavourable flow conditions. In the best case, the bias in mixing ratios between the mountain-top and the tall-tower sites after the application of the wind filter was {-}0.0005± 0.0010 ppm for methane (September, 0000-0400 UTC) and 0.11± 0.18 ppm for CO2 (February, 1200-1600 UTC). Temporal fluctuations of atmospheric CH4 and CO2 mixing ratios at both stations also showed good agreement (apart from CO2 during summertime) as determined by moving bi-weekly Pearson correlation coefficients (up to 0.96 for CO2 and 0.97 for CH4 ). When only comparing mixing ratios minimally influenced by local sources (low bias and high correlation coefficients), our measurements indicate that mountain-top observations are

  6. Fuel-air ratio (Lambda) correcting apparatus for a rotor-type carburetor for integral combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, R.

    1988-02-23

    This patent describes a fuel-air ratio correcting apparatus in a rotor-type carburetor for internal combustion engines with spark ignition for producing ingestion air with fuel-air ratios within a predetermined range defined by lean and rich limits matched to the requirements of the various operational points of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotating element including a turbine which is driven by a turbine driving airstream which is induced by the engine and which becomes at least a portion of the ingested air stream, the rotating element containing a centrifugal pump for delivering a quantity of fuel which is in a substantially constant ratio to the rotational velocity of the rotating element. The fuel is delivered to a coaxial atomization means on the rotating element for broad-casting atomized fuel into the driving airstream. The centrifugal pump is sized to deliver a quantity of fuel to the driving airstream to establish a fuel-air ratio at one limit of the predetermined range, and means for sensing one or more parameters(s) affecting operation of the internal combustion engine and for selectively varying the volume of at least one of the constituents of the fuel-air mixture ingested by the engine for establishing a predetermined fuel-air ratio variable over the remainder of the range of fuel-air ratios in dependence on one or more measured operating parameter(s) of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotor driven via an impeller by the ingested air stream, the rotor containing a centrifugal pump for delivering via at least one lateral fuel discharge bore a qantity of fuel which is in a constant ratio to the ingested air and which is dimensioned for a lean mixture.

  7. Determination of air/water ratio in pipes by fast neutrons: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    AboAlfaraj, Tareq; Abdul-Majid, Samir

    2012-04-01

    Fast neutron dose attenuation from a (252)Cf neutron source is used for the determination of air to water ratio in pipes. Such measurement of the two-phase flow volume fraction is important for many industrial plants such as desalination plants and oil refineries. Fast neutrons penetrate liquid more than slow neutrons or gamma rays. Using diameters from 11.5 cm to 20.76 cm and with wall thicknesses from 0.45 to 1.02 cm, attenuation was independent of pipe wall thicknesses and diameters. Experimental data was in good agreement with values calculated using MCNP codes. The measured neutron flux values decreased with increasing water levels in pipes up to about 14 cm, indicating that our system can be used successfully in desalination plants in pipes of different sizes. The experimental sensitivity was found to be about 0.015 mSv/hcm and the system can be used to measure water level changes down to few millimeters. Use of such a system in fixed positions in the plant can provide information on plant's overall performance and can detect loss of flow immediately before any consequences. A portable system could be designed to measure the air to water ratio in different locations in the plant in a relatively short time.

  8. The Impact of New Estimates of Mixing Ratio and Flux-based Halogen Scenarios on Ozone Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Liang, Qing; Strahan, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ozone in the 21st century has been shown to be mainly impacted by the halogen emissions scenario and predicted changes in the circulation of the stratosphere. New estimates of mixing ratio and flux-based emission scenarios have been produced from the SPARC Lifetime Assessment 2013. Simulations using the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM) are conducted using this new A1 2014 halogen scenario and compared to ones using the A1 2010 scenario. This updated version of GEOSCCM includes a realistic representation of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and improvements related to the break up of the Antarctic polar vortex. We will present results of the ozone evolution over the recent past and 21st century to the A1 2010, A1 2014 mixing ratio, and an A1 2014 flux-based halogen scenario. Implications of the uncertainties in these estimates as well as those from possible circulation changes will be discussed.

  9. Methods for Retrievals of CO2 Mixing Ratios from JPL Laser Absorption Spectrometer Flights During a Summer 2011 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. This instrument employs CW laser transmitters and coherent detection receivers in the 2.05- micro m spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the evolving LAS signal processing and data analysis algorithms and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from 2011 flights in various U.S. locations include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest and high spatial resolution plume detection during a leg downwind of the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico.

  10. Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer Measurements of CO2 Column Mixing Ratios: Source and Sink Detection in the Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The four most recent flight campaigns were on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft, in support of the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission formulation studies. This instrument operates in the 2.05-μm spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the CO2LAS signal processing, data analysis, and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from flights in various U.S. locations during the past three years include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest, also cases of point-source and regional plume detection that enable the calculation of emission rates.

  11. Converting isotope ratios to diet composition - the use of mixing models - June 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    One application of stable isotope analysis is to reconstruct diet composition based on isotopic mass balance. The isotopic value of a consumer’s tissue reflects the isotopic values of its food sources proportional to their dietary contributions. Isotopic mixing models are used ...

  12. Effectiveness and humidification capacity investigation of liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger under low heat capacity ratios at winter air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassai, Miklos

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a novel small-scale single-panel liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger has been used to numerically investigate the effect of given number of heat transfer units (4.5), different cold inlet air temperature (1.7, 5.0, 10.0 °C) and different low heat capacity ratio (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9) on the steady-state performance of the energy exchanger. This small-scale energy exchanger represents the full-scale prototypes well, saving manufacturing costs and time. Lithium chloride is used as a salt solution in the system and the steady-state total effectiveness of the exchanger is evaluated for winter inlet air conditions. The results show that total effectiveness of the energy exchanger decreases with heat capacity ratio in the mentioned range. Maximum numerical total effectiveness of 97% is achieved for the energy exchanger. Increasing the heat capacity ratio values on given inlet air temperature, the humidification capacity of energy exhanger is also investigated in this paper. The humidification performance increases with heat capacity ratio. The highest humidification performance (4.53 g/kg) can be reached when inlet air temperature is 1.7 °C, and heat capacity ratio is 1.0 in winter inlet air conditions in the range of low heat capacity ratio.

  13. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  14. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mixing ratios for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2011-09-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are difficult to measure often due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport in complex terrain. Using five years of CO2 mixing ratio observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical (subsetting) filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mixing ratios. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diurnal variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mixing ratio variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that even when standardized to common subset sizes these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to constrain subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales.

  15. Effect of Volatility on Air-Fuel Ratio Distribution and Torque Output of a Carbureted Light Aircraft Piston Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Positive displacement fuel flow sensor Burette type volumetric fuel flowmeter(2) Meriam laminar airflow meter Lamdascan air-fuel ratio meter Lebow inline...therefore the resulting data was not utilized. The volumetric flowrate of engine intake air was calculated from the pressure drop across a Meriam Model 50MC2

  16. Relationship Between Column-Density and Surface Mixing Ratio: Statistical Analysis of O3 and NO2 Data from the July 2011 Maryland DISCOVER-AQ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Clare; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Crawford, James H.; Lamsol, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Chen, Gao; Liu, Xiong; Szykman, James; Tsay, Si-Chee; Loughner, Christipher

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of column (or partial column) information to represent surface air quality, results of linear regression analyses between surface mixing ratio data and column abundances for O3 and NO2 are presented for the July 2011 Maryland deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ mission. Data collected by the P-3B aircraft, ground-based Pandora spectrometers, Aura/OMI satellite instrument, and simulations for July 2011 from the CMAQ air quality model during this deployment provide a large and varied data set, allowing this problem to be approached from multiple perspectives. O3 columns typically exhibited a statistically significant and high degree of correlation with surface data (R(sup 2) > 0.64) in the P- 3B data set, a moderate degree of correlation (0.16 < R(sup 2) < 0.64) in the CMAQ data set, and a low degree of correlation (R(sup 2) < 0.16) in the Pandora and OMI data sets. NO2 columns typically exhibited a low to moderate degree of correlation with surface data in each data set. The results of linear regression analyses for O3 exhibited smaller errors relative to the observations than NO2 regressions. These results suggest that O3 partial column observations from future satellite instruments with sufficient sensitivity to the lower troposphere can be meaningful for surface air quality analysis.

  17. Compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs: effects of porous media and gas mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4

  18. Prediction of Air Mixing From High Sidewall Diffusers in Cooling Mode: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.; Gawlik, K.

    2011-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply in cooling mode. The research focused on the design, placement, and operation of air supply diffusers located high on a sidewall and return grilles located near the floor on the same sidewall. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions and room dimensions. Thermal loads characteristic of high performance homes were applied at the walls and room temperature was controlled via a thermostat. The results are intended to provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to provide proper room mixing for cooling of high performance homes.

  19. Nuclear Data Matters - The obvious case of a bad mixing ratio for 58Co

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Mattoon, Caleb

    2015-05-13

    We present results of modeled cross sections for neutron- and proton-induced reactions leading to the final product nucleus 58Co. In each case the gamma-cascade branching ratios given in the ENSDF database circa 2014 predict modeled nuclear cross sections leading to the ground and first excited metastable state that are incompatible with measured cross sections found in the NNDC experimental cross section database EXFOR. We show that exploring the uncertainty in the mixing ratio used to calculate the gamma-cascade branching ratios for the 53.15 keV 2nd excited state leads to changes in the predicted partial cross sections by amounts that give good agreement with measured data.

  20. Effect of Fuel-Air Ratio, Inlet Temperature, and Exhaust Pressure on Detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E S; Leary, W A; Diver, J R

    1940-01-01

    An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.

  1. Studies on the mixing of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows for lean direct injection combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jun-Young

    A lean direct injection (LDI) combustion concept was introduced recently to obtain both low NOsbx emissions and high performance for advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was reported that pollutant emissions, especially NOsbx, in a lean combustion mode depend significantly on the degree of mixing (mixedness) of supplied air and liquid fuel droplets. From a viewpoint of environmental protection, therefore, uniform mixing of fuel and air in a very short period of time, i.e., well-stirred mixing, is crucially important in the LDI combustion mode. In the present study, as the first stage toward understanding the combustion phenomena in a lean direct injection (LDI) mode, the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows is investigated. Laser-based flow visualization and image analysis techniques are applied to analyze the instantaneous motion of the mixing process of the jets and pre-atomized sprays. Statistical analysis system (SAS) software is utilized to analyze the experimental data, and correlate experimental parameters. Statistical parameters, such as centrality, degree of spread, and total area ratio of particles, are defined in this study, and used to quantify the mixedness (degree of mixing) of liquid particles in confined geometry. Two empirical equations are obtained to predict jet intact lengths and spray angles, respectively, in confined swirling air flows. It is found that initial jet characteristics, such as intact length and spray angle, determine the mixing of the liquid particles resulting from the jet. It is verified that image analysis is feasible in quantitative determination of the mixedness of liquid particles. Even though substantial improvements in liquid fuel injector systems are required before they can be considered adequate for LDI combustion at high pressure and high temperature, the results and ideas obtained from the present study will help engineers find better mixing methods for LDI

  2. Surface shear rheology of WPI-monoglyceride mixed films spread at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio; Rodríguez Patino, Juan M

    2004-07-01

    Surface shear viscosity of food emulsifiers may contribute appreciably to the long-term stability of food dispersions (emulsions and foams). In this work we have analyzed the structural, topographical, and shear characteristics of a whey protein isolate (WPI) and monoglyceride (monopalmitin and monoolein) mixed films spread on the air-water interface at pH 7 and at 20 degrees C. The surface shear viscosity (etas) depend on the surface pressure and on the composition of the mixed film. The surface shear viscosity varies greatly with the surface pressure. In general, the greater the surface pressure, the greater are the values of etas. The values of etas for the mixed WPI-monoolein monolayer were more than one order of magnitude lower than those for a WPI-monopalmitin mixed film, especially at the higher surface pressures. At higher surface pressures, collapsed WPI residues may be displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules with important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films. A shear-induced change in the topography and a segregation between domains of the film forming components were also observed. The displacement of the WPI by the monoglycerides is facilitates under shear conditions, especially for WPI-monoolein mixed films.

  3. The relationship among air quality, mixing heights, and winds observed during the entire TexAQS-II field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C.; Knoderer, C. A.; Zahn, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS-II) was designed to provide support for State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions. The SIP revisions outline strategies for improving air quality to meet the new federal 8-hr ozone standard and regional haze requirements. As part of TexAQS-II, a field study was conducted to collect air quality and meteorological data throughout eastern Texas from May 1, 2005, through October 15, 2006. As part of the field study, various organizations made upper-air meteorological measurements at several locations. These measurements were collected by twelve 915-MHz radar wind profilers (RWPs), three 404 MHz RWPs, nine Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), two sodars, and one lidar. These instruments provide vertically, horizontally, and temporally resolved wind, virtual temperature (Tv), and mixing height information. This presentation will address the three-dimensional and temporal characteristics of these parameters throughout the study domain for the entire study period and how these characteristic vary by season, month, and synoptic weather pattern. The presentation will also address how these characteristics influence regional and local air quality conditions throughout the study domain, including the relationship among various transport statistics, mixing height characteristics (e.g., time of peak mixing, morning mixing height growth rate, peak mixing height, average morning mixing height, etc.) and air quality. In addition, case studies will illustrate the finer-scale details of the relationship among the evolution of mixing heights, diurnal variability of winds, and air quality.

  4. Turbulent Fluxes and Pollutant Mixing during Wintertime Air Pollution Episodes in Complex Terrain.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Heather A; Sriramasamudram, Jai K; Pardyjak, Eric R; Whiteman, C David

    2015-11-17

    Cold air pools (CAPs) are stagnant stable air masses that form in valleys and basins in the winter. Low wintertime insolation limits convective mixing, such that pollutant concentrations can build up within the CAP when pollutant sources are present. In the western United States, wintertime CAPs often persist for days or weeks. Atmospheric models do not adequately capture the strength and evolution of CAPs. This is in part due to the limited availability of data quantifying the local turbulence during the formation, maintenance, and destruction of persistent CAPs. This paper presents observational data to quantify the turbulent mixing during two CAP episodes in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during February of 2004. Particulate matter (PM) concentration data and turbulence measurements for CAP and non-CAP time periods indicate that two distinct types of mixing scenarios occur depending on whether the CAP is dry or cloudy. Where cloudy, CAPs have enhanced vertical mixing due to top-down convection from the cloud layer. A comparison between the heat and momentum fluxes during 5 days of a dry CAP episode in February to those of an equivalent 5 day time period in March with no CAP indicates that the average turbulent kinetic energy during the CAP was suppressed by approximately 80%.

  5. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  6. FORMATION CONDITIONS OF ICY MATERIALS IN COMET C/2004 Q2 (MACHHOLZ). I. MIXING RATIOS OF ORGANIC VOLATILES

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2009-09-20

    We observed comet C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) with the Keck II telescope in late 2005 January and we obtained the spectra of C/2004 Q2 including many emission lines of volatile species such as H{sub 2}O, HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and H{sub 2}CO with high-signal-to-noise ratios. Based on our observations, we determined the mixing ratios of the molecules relative to H{sub 2}O in C/2004 Q2. Since C/2004 Q2 is one of Oort Cloud comets, it is interesting to compare our results with other Oort Cloud comets. The mixing ratios of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/H{sub 2}O in C/2004 Q2 are lower than typical Oort Cloud comets. Especially, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is as lower as Jupiter Family comets. However, mixing ratios of other molecules in C/2004 Q2 are similar to typical Oort Cloud comets. C/2004 Q2 might be the intermediate type between Oort Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. To investigate the formation conditions of such intermediate type comet, we focused on the (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+C{sub 2}H{sub 6})/H{sub 2}O ratios and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ratios in comets from the viewpoint of conversion from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} to C{sub 2}H{sub 6} in the precometary ices. We found that (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+C{sub 2}H{sub 6})/H{sub 2}O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is lower than the ratio in typical Oort Cloud comets while C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ratio in C/2004 Q2 is consistent with the ratio of the typical Oort Cloud comets and Jupiter family comets. If we assume that the cometary volatiles such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} formed similar environment, the C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ratio might not be sensitive in the temperature range where hydrogen-addition reactions occurred and cometesimals formed ({approx}30 K). We employed the dynamical-evolutional model and the chemical-evolutional model to determine the

  7. Mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air-masses detected with CRISTA-NF during AMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, K.; Guenther, G.; Hoffmann, L.; Konopka, P.; Riese, M.

    2009-04-01

    CRISTA-NF (CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers) is an infrared limb sounding instrument installed onbord the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica and took part in the AMMA-SCOUT measurement campaign in Summer 2006. During the test flight on 29th of July 2006, CRISTA-NF detected a sharp boundary between ozone rich air over northernItaly and ozone poor air over southern Italy and the Mediterranean Sea. The structure is also clearly visible in the HNO3 distribution. The air mass boundary extends from about 10km altitude to the thermal tropopause at about 16km altitude with indication for mixing in the lower part of this altitude range. This is supported by enhanced values of PAN and water vapour found. The observed structure is also visible in the CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere) ozone distribution but hardly resolved in ECMWF forecast data. Backward trajectories show that the ozone rich air is originated westwards, between 40 and 60oN while the ozone poor air is coming from the south-east, at about 0-20oN and has a younger age of air. In the presentation details of the CRISTA-NF measurements and retrieval procedures as well as the origin of the trace gas structures will be discussed.

  8. Analytical Modeling of Operating Characteristics of Premixing-prevaporizing Fuel-air Mixing Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.

    1983-01-01

    A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is described. This model consists of three computer programs: a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; and a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The air flow calculation can treat compressible swirling flows in arbitrary ducts with arbitrary distributions of temperature and velocity as initial conditions. The fuel droplets are treated as initial conditions. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes with the turbulence level determined by the air flow calculations and the source terms determined by the droplet evaporation rates.

  9. X-ray attenuation measurements in a cavitating mixing layer for instantaneous two-dimensional void ratio determination

    SciTech Connect

    Aeschlimann, Vincent; Barre, Stephane; Legoupil, Samuel

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this experimental study was to analyze a two-dimensional cavitating shear layer. The global aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding and modeling of cavitation phenomenon in a 2D turbulent sheared flow which can be considered as quite representative of cavitating rocket engine turbopomp inducers. This 2D mixing layer flow provided us a well documented test case which can be used for the characterization of the cavitation effects in sheared flows. The development of a velocity gradient was observed inside a liquid water flow: Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities developed at the interface. Vaporizations and implosions of cavitating structures inside the vortices were observed. X-ray attenuation measurements were performed to estimate the amount of vapor present inside the mixing area. Instantaneous two-dimensional void ratio fields were acquired. The real spatial resolutions are 0.5 mm with 2000 fps and 1.5 mm with 20 000 fps. The effective time resolution is equal to the camera frame rate up to a 19% void ratio variation between two consecutive images. This seems to be sufficient in the context of the present flow configuration. The two-phase structures present inside the mixing area were analyzed at three different cavitation levels and their behaviors were compared to non-cavitating flow dynamic. Convection velocities and vortices shedding frequencies were estimated. Results show that vapor was transported by the turbulent velocity field. Statistical analysis of the void ratio signal was carried out up to the fourth order moment. This study provided a global understanding of the cavitating structure evolution and of the cavitation effects on turbulent sheared flows.

  10. On atmospheric lidar performance comparison: from power aperture product to power aperture mixing ratio scattering cross-section product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Chiao-Yao

    2005-12-01

    A new performance index for atmospheric lidar, namely the power aperture mixing ratio scattering cross-section (PAMS) product, is proposed. Unlike the index widely used at present, namely the power aperture (PA) product, the new index provides an accurate comparison between different types of lidar for measuring the same atmospheric parameters. Using a sodium resonance lidar and a ‘Rayleigh’ lidar for measuring temperature and wind in the mesopause region (80 105 km) as an example, the concept and application of PAMS are illustrated.

  11. Detection of internally mixed Asian dust with air pollution aerosols using a polarization optical particle counter and a polarization-sensitive two-wavelength lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    East Asia is a unique region where mineral dust (Asian dust) sources are located near urban and industrial areas. Asian dust is often mixed with air pollution aerosols during transportation. It is important to understand the mixing states of Asian dust and other aerosols, because the effects on the environment and human health differ depending on the mixing state. We studied the mixing states of Asian dust using a polarization particle counter (POPC) that measures the forward scattering and the two polarization components of backscattering for single particles and a polarization-sensitive (532 nm) two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) lidar. We conducted the simultaneous observations using the POPC and the lidar in Seoul from March to December 2013 and captured the characteristics of pure Asian dust and internally mixed polluted Asian dust. POPC measurements indicated that the density of large particles was lower in polluted Asian dust that transported slowly over the polluted areas than in pure Asian dust that transported quickly from the dust source region. Moreover, the backscattering depolarization ratio was smaller for all particle sizes in polluted dust. The optical characteristics measured using the lidar were consistent with the POPC measurements. The backscattering color ratio of polluted dust was comparable to that of pure dust, but the depolarization ratio was lower for polluted dust. In addition, coarse non-spherical particles (Asian dust) almost always existed in the background, and the depolarization ratio had seasonal variation with a lower depolarization ratio in the summer. These results suggest background Asian dust particles are internally mixed in the summer.

  12. Real-Time Optical Fuel-to-Air Ratio Sensor for Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Mongia, Rajiv K.; Dibble, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of the temporal distribution of fuel in gas turbine combustors is important in considering pollution, combustion efficiency and combustor dynamics and acoustics. Much of the previous work in measuring fuel distributions in gas turbine combustors has focused on the spatial aspect of the distribution. The temporal aspect however, has often been overlooked, even though it is just as important. In part, this is due to the challenges of applying real-time diagnostic techniques in a high pressure and high temperature environment. A simple and low-cost instrument that non-intrusively measures the real-time fuel-to-air ratio (FAR) in a gas turbine combustor has been developed. The device uses a dual wavelength laser absorption technique to measure the concentration of most hydrocarbon fuels such as jet fuel, methane, propane, etc. The device can be configured to use fiber optics to measure the local FAR inside a high pressure test rig without the need for windows. Alternatively, the device can readily be used in test rigs that have existing windows without modifications. An initial application of this instrument was to obtain time-resolved measurements of the FAR in the premixer of a lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustor at inlet air pressures and temperatures as high as 17 atm at 800 K, with liquid JP-8 as the fuel. Results will be presented that quantitatively show the transient nature of the local FAR inside a LPP gas turbine combustor at actual operating conditions. The high speed (kHz) time resolution of this device, combined with a rugged fiber optic delivery system, should enable the realization of a flight capable active-feedback and control system for the abatement of noise and pollutant emissions in the future. Other applications that require an in-situ and time-resolved measurement of fuel vapor concentrations should also find this device to be of use.

  13. On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirel, Ronit; Dayan, Uri

    2001-07-01

    The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The main sources of pollution in the area are the tall stacks of the Eshkol power plant, the stacks of oil refineries, and areal sources (stationary and mobile). The factors that affect RSN are studied using four regression models: a binary regression tree in original scale, a tree in logarithmic scale, a data partition produced by a combination of the two trees, and a linear regression model. All models have similar relative prediction error, with the combined partition best highlighting the sources of variability in RSN: (a) very low values (interquartile range of [0.12, 0.48]) are associated with traffic, (b) low values ([0.43, 1.00]) are attributed to the power plant and to daytime emissions of local industry, (c) medium values ([0.74, 1.90]) are associated with local industry emissions during cooler hours of the day and refinery emissions mainly on slow wind episodes, and (d) high values ([1.07, 4.30]) are attributed to refinery emissions during moderate to fast wind episodes. Analysis of the number of episodes of increased concentrations indicates that, during 1996 and 1997, about 42% of SO2 episodes are attributable to the power plant and 33% to the refineries. Increased-NOx episodes are mainly contributed by traffic (91%) and power plant (4.5%) emissions.

  14. Quantifying the effects of mixing and residual circulation on trends of stratospheric mean age of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, Felix; Abalos, Marta; Birner, Thomas; Konopka, Paul; Legras, Bernard; Müller, Rolf; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Trends in stratospheric mean age of air are driven both by changes in the (slow, large scale) residual mean mass circulation and by changes in (fast, locally acting) eddy mixing. However, to what degree both effects affect mean age trends is an open question. Here, we present a method that allows the effects of mixing and residual circulation on trends of mean age of air to be quantified. This method is based on mean age simulations with the Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, and on the mean age tracer continuity equation integrated along the residual circulation. CLaMS simulated climatological mean age in the lower stratosphere shows reliable agreement with balloon borne in-situ obsevations and with satellite observations by MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding). During 1990--2013, CLaMS simulated mean age decreases throughout most of the stratosphere, qualitatively consistent with results based on climate model simulations (e.g., Butchart et al., 2010). Remarkably, in the Northern hemisphere subtropics and mid-latitudes above about 24km CLaMS mean age trends are insignificant, consistent with published mean age trends from in-situ observations (Engel et al., 2009). Furthermore, during 2002--2012 CLaMS mean age changes show a clear hemispheric asymmetry in agreement with MIPAS satellite observations (Stiller et al., 2012; Ploeger et al., 2014) and HCl decadal changes (Mahieu et al., 2014). We find that changes in the transit time along the residual circulation alone cannot explain the mean age trends, and including the effect of mixing integrated along the air parcel history is essential. Therefore, differences in mean age trends between models or between models and observations are likely related to differences in the integrated effect of mixing on mean age of air. Above about 550K, trends in the integrated mixing effect appear to be likely coupled to residual circulation changes. References

  15. Studies on behaviors of dipalmitoylposphatidylcholine and bilirubin in mixed monolayer at the air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuhua; Tang, Yufeng; Xie, Anjian; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Shikuo; Zhang, Yong

    2006-06-01

    Mixed monolayers of dipalmitoylposphatidylcholine (DPPC) and bilirubin (BR) were prepared on different subphases. The properties of DPPC/BR monolayer, such as collapse pressure ( πcoll), limiting area per molecule ( Alim), surface compressibility modulus, free energy (Δ Gmix) and excess free energy (Δ Gex), were investigated based on the analysis of the surface pressure-area isotherms on pure water. The results showed that DPPC and BR were miscible and formed non-ideal mixed monolayers at the air/water interface. With the molar fraction of BR ( XBR) increasing, the LE-LC coexistence region of DPPC monolayer was eliminated gradually. The DPPC/BR complex (M D-B) of 1:2 stoichiometry formed as a result of the strong hydrogen bonds between the polar groups of DPPC and BR. The studies of effects of pH values and calcium ions in subphase on the DPPC/BR monolayers showed that the mixed monolayer became expanded on alkali aqueous solution and on 1 mmol/L CaCl 2 aqueous solution. The orientation of DPPC and BR at air/water interface was also discussed.

  16. Optimization of the mixing ratio of ice crystal shapes in cirrus clouds for atmospheric point spread function modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguet, Isabelle; Chervet, Patrick; Rozé, Claude

    2007-10-01

    A critical issue to calculate the image transmission through cirrus clouds is to obtain a detailed description of the angular distribution of the scattered radiation in the forward direction. Computation of the scattering phase function on the basis of microphysics description of the cloud thanks to ray-tracing codes, seems to be the best way to fulfill this requirement. However, a comprehensive microphysical model can not be found, because of the great variability of the ice crystals composing natural cirrus. An optimization process has been developed to find the best mixing ratio of four pristine ice crystals shapes that minimizes the error on the forward peak of the scattering phase function. To achieve this goal, a comparison with a reference phase function derived from MODIS database has been led. The bulk scattering properties of the seven size distributions defined in this database have been computed at four wavelengths in the spectral domain from visible to medium infrared, applying the mixing ratio obtained after an optimization at 0.55μm. Used as an input to a propagation model based on a Monte Carlo method, PSF have been computed. They show very good agreement with the PSF calculated with the corresponding reference scattering properties.

  17. Recyclability of bottom ash mixed with dredged soils according to the transportation distance and mixing ratio through the estimation of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sookack; Son, Younghwan; Yoon, Taegang; Bong, Taeho

    2015-06-01

    Bottom ash and dredged soils can be used as construction materials because they are similar in physical characteristics to natural aggregates. However, whenever such byproducts as bottom ash and dredged soils are used, the energy efficiency of recycling is offset to a certain degree by emissions from transportation. The objective of this study is to analyze the environmental efficiency of recycling bottom ash and dredged soils through the estimation of CO2 emissions, considering both transportation distance and the mixing ratio. Agricultural reservoirs were selected as the final destinations of these recycled materials. This analysis demonstrated that using 100% bottom ash emits less CO2 than using natural aggregates when the ash is transported less than 35.15 km. This breakeven distance increases exponentially with the mass fraction of admixed dredged soil. However, admixture with natural soils does not affect the breakeven distance. Using the breakeven distances, the effective area with which it is efficient to recycle bottom ash was delineated. When dredged soil is admixed to a mass fraction of 70%, the effective area covers most of South Korea. In addition, 100% bottom ash was efficient in 1622 reservoirs (9.45%) in terms of CO2 emissions, and the mixture with 30% bottom ash and 70% dredged soils is efficient in 98.83% of all of the reservoirs in Korea. Bottom ash is most useful for reducing CO2 emissions when it is mixed with dredged soils, which are a byproduct of construction found on-site. This result is meaningful because bottom ash and dredged soils are complementary in their physical characteristics, and they need to be mixed before use as construction materials. The recycling of bottom ash becomes even more attractive with anticipated improvements in fuel efficiency.

  18. "We Burn to Learn" About Fuel-Air Mixing Within Aircraft Powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Heidi N.

    2004-01-01

    I am working with my branch s advanced diagnostics team to investigate fuel-air mixing in jet-fueled gas turbine combustors and jet-fuel reformers. Our data acquisition begins with bench-top experiments which will help with calibration of equipment for facility testing. While conducting the bench-top experiments I learned to align laser and optical equipment to collect data, to use the data acquisition software, and to process the data into graphs and images. which jet he1 is to be reformed into hydrogen. Testing will commence shortly, after which we will obtain and analyze data and meet a critical milestone for the end of September. I am also designing the layout for a Schlieren system that will be used during that time frame. A Schlieren instrument records changes in the refractive index distribution of transparent media like air flows. The refractive index distribution can then be related to density, temperature, or pressure distributions within the flow. I am working on a scheme to quantify this information and add to the knowledge of the fuel-air mixing process.

  19. Mixing characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio screeching supersonic rectangular jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentich, Griffin; Upadhyay, Puja; Kumar, Rajan

    2016-05-01

    Flow field characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio supersonic rectangular jet were examined at two overexpanded, a perfectly expanded, and an underexpanded jet conditions. The underexpanded and one overexpanded operating condition were of maximum screech, while the second overexpanded condition was of minimum screech intensity. Streamwise particle image velocimetry was performed along both major and minor axes of the jet and the measurements were made up to 30 nozzle heights, h, where h is the small dimension of the nozzle. Select cross planes were examined using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to investigate the jet development and the role streamwise vortices play in jet spreading at each operating condition. The results show that streamwise vortices present at the nozzle corners along with vortices excited by screech tones play a major role in the jet evolution. All cases except for the perfectly expanded operating condition exhibited axis switching at streamwise locations ranging from 11 to 16 nozzle heights downstream of the exit. The overexpanded condition of maximum screech showed the most upstream switch over, while the underexpanded case showed the farthest downstream. Both of the maximum screeching cases developed into a diamond cross-sectional profile far downstream of the exit, while the ideally expanded case maintained a rectangular shape. The overexpanded minimum screeching case eventually decayed into an oblong profile.

  20. Identifying non-normal and lognormal characteristics of temperature, mixing ratio, surface pressure, and wind for data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliewer, A. J.; Fletcher, S. J.; Jones, A. S.; Forsythe, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Data assimilation systems and retrieval systems that are based upon a maximum likelihood estimation, many of which are in operational use, rely on the assumption that all of the errors and variables involved follow a normal distribution. This work develops a series of statistical tests to show that mixing ratio, temperature, wind and surface pressure follow non-normal, or in fact, lognormal distributions thus impacting the design-basis of many operational data assimilation and retrieval systems. For this study one year of Global Forecast System 00:00 UTC 6 h forecast were analyzed using statistical hypothesis tests. The motivation of this work is to identify the need to resolve whether or not the assumption of normality is valid and to give guidance for where and when a data assimilation system or a retrieval system needs to adapt its cost function to the mixed normal-lognormal distribution-based Bayesian model. The statistical methods of detection are based upon Shapiro-Wilk, Jarque-Bera and a χ2 test, and a new composite indicator using all three measures. Another method of detection fits distributions to the temporal-based histograms of temperature, mixing ratio, and wind. The conclusion of this work is that there are persistent areas, times, and vertical levels where the normal assumption is not valid, and that the lognormal distribution-based Bayesian model is observationally justified to minimize the error for these conditions. The results herein suggest that comprehensive statistical climatologies may need to be developed to capture the non-normal traits of the 6 h forecast.

  1. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  2. Lidar measurements of the column CO2 mixing ratio made by NASA Goddard's CO2 Sounder during the NASA ASCENDS 2014 Airborne campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing measurements of CO2 from space can help improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and help constrain the global carbon budget. However, such measurements need to be sufficiently accurate to detect small (1 ppm) changes in the CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) against a large background (~ 400 ppm). Satellite measurements of XCO2 using passive spectrometers, such as those from the Japanese GOSAT (Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite) and the NASA OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) are limited to daytime sunlit portions of the Earth and are susceptible to biases from clouds and aerosols. For this reason, NASA commissioned the formulation study of ASCENDS a space-based lidar mission. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's CO2 Sounder lidar is one candidate approach for the ASCENDS mission. The NASA GSFC CO2 Sounder measures the CO2 mixing ratio using a pulsed multi-wavelength integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) approach. The CO2 Sounder has flown in the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ASCENDS airborne campaigns over the continental US, and has produced measurements in close agreement with in situ measurements of the CO2 column. In 2014, the CO2 Sounder upgraded its laser with a precision step-locked diode laser source to improve the lidar wavelength position accuracy. It also improved its optical receiver with a low-noise, high efficiency, HgCdTe avalanche photo diode detector. The combination of these two technologies enabled lidar XCO2 measurements with unprecedented accuracy. In this presentation, we show analysis from the ASCENDS 2014 field campaign, exploring: (1) Horizontal XCO2 gradients measured by the lidar, (2) Comparisons of lidar XCO2 measurements against the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM), and (3) Lidar column water vapor measurements using a HDO absorption line that occurs next to the CO2 absorption line. This can reduce the uncertainty in the dry air column used in XCO2 retrievals.

  3. The effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit and emissions characteristics of a Lean Prevaporized Premixed (LPP) combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santavicca, D. A.; Steinberger, R. L.; Gibbons, K. A.; Citeno, J. V.; Mills, S.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental study of the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit and emissions characteristics of a lean, prevaporized, premixed (LPP), coaxial mixing tube combustor. Two-dimensional exciplex fluorescence was used to characterize the degree of fuel vaporization and mixing at the combustor inlet under non-combusting conditions. These tests were conducted at a pressure of 4 atm., a temperature of 400 C, a mixer tube velocity of 100 m/sec and an equivalence ratio of .8, using a mixture of tetradecane, 1 methyl naphthalene and TMPD as a fuel simulant. Fuel-air mixtures with two distinct spatial distributions were studied. The exciplex measurements showed that there was a significant amount of unvaporized fuel at the combustor entrance in both cases. One case, however, exhibited a very non-uniform distribution of fuel liquid and vapor at the combustor entrance, i.e., with most of the fuel in the upper half of the combustor tube, while in the other case, both the fuel liquid and vapor were much more uniformly distributed across the width of the combustor entrance. The lean limit and emissions measurements were all made at a pressure of 4 atm. and a mixer tube velocity of 100 m/sec, using Jet A fuel and both fuel-air mixture distributions. Contrary to what was expected, the better mixed case was found to have a substantially leaner operating limit. The two mixture distributions also unexpectedly resulted in comparable NO(x) emissions, for a given equivalence ratio and inlet temperature, however, lower NO(x) emissions were possible in the better mixed case due to its leaner operating limit.

  4. 77 FR 50651 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot... Hampshire Hot Mix Asphalt Plant Rule at Env-A 2703.02(a). This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of...

  5. 77 FR 50608 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot... 2703.02 for hot mix asphalt plants. This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of all...

  6. Entropy of adsorption of mixed surfactants from solutions onto the air/water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-W.; Chen, J.-H.; Zhou, N.-F.

    1995-01-01

    The partial molar entropy change for mixed surfactant molecules adsorbed from solution at the air/water interface has been investigated by surface thermodynamics based upon the experimental surface tension isotherms at various temperatures. Results for different surfactant mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, decylpyridinium chloride and sodium alkylsulfonates have shown that the partial molar entropy changes for adsorption of the mixed surfactants were generally negative and decreased with increasing adsorption to a minimum near the maximum adsorption and then increased abruptly. The entropy decrease can be explained by the adsorption-orientation of surfactant molecules in the adsorbed monolayer and the abrupt entropy increase at the maximum adsorption is possible due to the strong repulsion between the adsorbed molecules.

  7. Mixing layer height and its implications for air pollution over Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiaowan; Song, Tao; Münkel, Christoph; Hu, Bo; Schäfer, Klaus; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Junke; Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Suppan, Peter; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-03-01

    The mixing layer is an important meteorological factor that affects air pollution. In this study, the atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) was observed in Beijing from July 2009 to December 2012 using a ceilometer. By comparison with radiosonde data, we found that the ceilometer underestimates the MLH under conditions of neutral stratification caused by strong winds, whereas it overestimates the MLH when sand-dust is crossing. Using meteorological, PM2.5, and PM10 observational data, we screened the observed MLH automatically; the ceilometer observations were fairly consistent with the radiosondes, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Further analysis indicated that the MLH is low in autumn and winter and high in spring and summer in Beijing. There is a significant correlation between the sensible heat flux and MLH, and the diurnal cycle of the MLH in summer is also affected by the circulation of mountainous plain winds. Using visibility as an index to classify the degree of air pollution, we found that the variation in the sensible heat and buoyancy term in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is insignificant when visibility decreases from 10 to 5 km, but the reduction of shear term in TKE is near 70 %. When visibility decreases from 5 to 1 km, the variation of the shear term in TKE is insignificant, but the decrease in the sensible heat and buoyancy term in TKE is approximately 60 %. Although the correlation between the daily variation of the MLH and visibility is very poor, the correlation between them is significantly enhanced when the relative humidity increases beyond 80 %. This indicates that humidity-related physicochemical processes is the primary source of atmospheric particles under heavy pollution and that the dissipation of atmospheric particles mainly depends on the MLH. The presented results of the atmospheric mixing layer provide useful empirical information for improving meteorological and atmospheric chemistry models and the forecasting

  8. Long-term study of air urban quality together with mixing layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Air pollution episodes in urban areas often occur during low wind speeds and low mixing layer height (MLH) and can not only be ascribed to increased local anthropogenic emissions. The continuous knowledge of MLH is supporting the understanding of processes directing air quality. If the MLH is located near to the ground, which occurs mainly during winter and night-time, air pollution can be high due to a strongly limited air mass dilution. The Vaisala ceilometer CL31, which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system, is used for long-term continuous remote sensing of MLH. The ceilometer measurements provide information about the range-dependent aerosol concentration; gradient minima within this profile mark the borders of mixed layers. Special software for this ceilometer developed with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. To study the gaseous pollutants and those compounds important for secondary aerosol formation like NO and NO2 as well as O3 The data retrieval software is extended to improve remote sensing of MLH. The original 10-minute-interval values are used to calculate continuous 1-hour-mean values. Gaps and strong variations of the original data are considered. The results of investigations of the meteorological influences and the role of emissions within the context of the air quality in Augsburg are discussed. a DOAS is operated since March 2012 in Augsburg. Information about different road traffic emissions is provided by this one instrument i.e. by path-integrated air pollution information in different directions. The DOAS contains an analyser and an emitter/receiver unit pointing to three retroreflectors. The retroreflectors were installed at lamp masts so that the paths were about 10 m above street level and perpendicular across the streets. The emitter/receiver unit was in a distance of about 20 m to an in situ air pollution measurement station at the ground. Ground

  9. The influence of the intensity of electric field on methane-air mixed gas discharge electron transport parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shuang-yan; Jin, Xing; Zhang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Plasma enhanced ignition is an important way in the field of ignition auxiliary. It has got wide attention throughout the researchers both at home and abroad. The plasma is usually added in the form of discharge. It makes a big difference in the discharge form according to different discharge unit, different kinds of electric field and different kinds of discharge medium. Variety of methods could be used to characterize the parameters of the plasma. The electron transport parameter is an important variable during the process of the plasma discharge. The mathematical model was set up to calculate the electron transport parameters in different reduced electric intensity. The electrons meet the Boltzmann equations in plasma system. Reasonable methods were used to simplify the Boltzmann equations. The electron transport parameters of methane-air mixed gas at the same equivalent ratio and pressure in different reduced electric field were calculated. The calculation results show that the EEDF turns to the right with the increasing of reduced electric field. The average electron energy and average electron energy of the mixed gas increases linearly with the increasing of reduced electric field. The increasing of reduced electric field enhances the electronic/energy diffusion effect and the enhancing effect is more apparent when the reduced electric field is high. The increasing of reduced electric field restrains the electron diffusion and energy transference restrains from the trend of the change. The inhibition effect is weakening with the increasing of the reduced electric field.

  10. Mixing layer growth and background air-quality measurements over the Colorado oil-shale area

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, N.S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Davis, W.E.; Thorp, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The daily growth of convective boundary layers over the complex terrain of the oil shale areas of Colorado is a prominent feature of the meteorology of the region. The development of these layers was investigated using airsondes, rawinsondes, and aircraft. The deep growth of the layers in August, to heights in excess of 5500-m MSL on clear or partly cloudy days, is expected to have important implications for the dispersal of pollutants released in the region as the oil shale resource undergoes future development. Aircraft observations show that the present background air quality is good over the region and that pollutants, when present, become well mixed throughout the depth of the convective boundary layer. The layer therefore represents an important natural means of dilution for pollutants introduced into the atmosphere. Work is proceeding to incorporate the time-dependent convective boundary layer growth into air pollution models for the region.

  11. Influence of Gas Turbulence on the Instability of an Air-Water Mixing Layer.

    PubMed

    Matas, Jean-Philippe; Marty, Sylvain; Dem, Mohamed Seydou; Cartellier, Alain

    2015-08-14

    We present the first evidence of the direct influence of gas turbulence on the shear instability of a planar air-water mixing layer. We show with two different experiments that increasing the level of velocity fluctuations in the gas phase continuously increases the frequency of the instability, up to a doubling of frequency for the largest turbulence intensity investigated. A modified spatiotemporal stability analysis taking turbulence into account via a simple Reynolds stress closure provides the right trend and magnitude for this effect.

  12. Planar Rayleigh Scattering Results in Helium/Air Mixing Experiments in a Mach 6 Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Hillard, M. E.; Anders, J. B.; Exton, R. J.; Waitz, I. A.

    1991-01-01

    Planar Rayleigh scattering measurements using an ArF-excimer laser have been performed to investigate helium mixing into air at supersonic speeds. The capability of the Rayleigh scattering technique for flow visualization of a turbulent environment is demonstrated in a large-scale, Mach 6facility. The detection limit obtained with the present setup indicates that planar, quantitative measurements of density can be made over a large cross sectional area (5 cm by 10 cm) of the flow field in the absence of clusters.

  13. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  14. Bypass Ratio: The US Air Force and Light-Attack Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    and largely shaped how the Air Force viewed itself. In an attempt to define itself as a new service, the Air Force advertised quick wars. These...existing knowledge to the core.”5 If a new paradigm must be born from crisis, what kind of crisis could cause the Air Force to rethink its stance on the...and AirSea Battle. This theory correlates with the pivot in emphasis to the Asia -Pacific region and the relative decrease in spending cuts for the Air

  15. [Study of the effect of light source stability on the signal to noise ratio in degenerate four wave mixing experiment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Bo; Chen, De-Ying; Fan, Rong-Wei; Xia, Yuan-Qin

    2010-02-01

    The effects of the stability of dye laser on the signal to noise ratio in degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) were first investigated in iodine vapor using forward geometries. Frequency-doubled outputs from a multi-mode Nd : YAG laser pumped dye laser with laser dye PM580 dissolved in ethanol was used. With the help of forward compensated beam-split technique and imaging detecting system, the saturation intensity of DFWM spectrum in the iodine vapor at 5 554.013 nm was first measured to be 290 microJ under the condition of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The features of the dye laser such as wavelength ranges, beam quality and energy conversion efficiency decreased gradually with increasing pumping service use, pulse number and intensity. Additionally, with the comparison of the stable and unstable dye laser output, it was found that the instability of dye laser output had greatly influenced the DFWM signal and decreased the signal to background noise ratio. Shot to shot jitter and the broadening in the output frequency leads to an effective broadening of the recorded spectrum and loss of the DFWM signal to noise ratio under the same pumping intensity at different time. The study is of importance to the detection of trace atom, molecule and radical in combustion diagnosis.

  16. Characterization of a deep-level compensation ratio through picosecond four-wave mixing on a transient reflection grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadys, A.; Delaye, Ph; Roosen, G.; Jarasiunas, K.

    2007-09-01

    We demonstrate a novel application of a time-resolved four-wave mixing technique for the determination of a deep-level compensation ratio in a semi-insulating crystal. The approach is based on photoexcitation of carriers from deep impurity levels, formation of a space-charge electric field in deep traps, and monitoring dynamics of photorefractive, free- carrier and absorption gratings by light diffraction. The analysis of anisotropic diffraction features on the reflection grating provided requirements for crystal orientation in order to discriminate contribution of amplitude grating from the photorefractive phase grating, both being related to deep-trap occupation. Contributions of these optical nonlinearities were studied experimentally in (0 0 1)-oriented GaAs wafers by using a transient reflection grating configuration with a very small grating period (150 nm). Comparison of the reflection grating picosecond kinetics and its diffraction efficiency with modeling curves allowed us to ascribe the slow decay component to amplitude grating in recharged deep traps and determine their compensation ratio. The proposed technique allowed the determination of the compensation ratio of a deep EL2 donor, equal to 0.6 ± 0.05 in the given GaAs crystal.

  17. Richtmyer-Meshkov induced turbulent mixing of air-SF6 multimode discontinuous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jean-François; Lassis, Alexandre; Montlaurent, Philippe; Rayer, Claude; Schwaederlé, Laurent

    2002-11-01

    We measure the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI)-induced turbulent mixing initiated by the interaction of an incident shock wave (typically Mach 1.2 in air at atmospheric condition) with a discontinuous multimode air-SF6 interface and amplified by the subsequent shock and rarefaction waves reverberating between the mixing zone and the end plate. This experiment is carried out in a shock tube (square internal cross section 13 cm by 13 cm) and the length of the downstream section filled with SF6 is about 30 cm. Initially, the gases are separated by a nitrocellulose microfilm (0,5 µm thick) in sandwich between two fine wire grids imposing a non-linear three-dimensional perturbation of fundamental wave length 1 mm but of unknown amplitude (we estimate 0.1 to 0.3 mm). We visualize the flow with conventional schlieren and shadow systems and aim at obtaining instantaneous concentration maps using a 0,5 mm thick laser sheet (from a single pulse ruby laser providing 1 Joule during 50 ns) shining through the transparent endplate. We seed either the SF6 with olive oil droplets or the air with smoke from the combustion of incense. As previouly for a SF6-air interface, the evolution of the axial and transversal components of the velocity field will be obtained with a laser doppler velocimeter, in which case both gases are seeded. We may also present the final results of constant temperature hot wire anemometer measurements on the same flows in a Marseille shock tube which provide the evolution of the concentration. The experimental results may be compared to the calculations using turbulent modelling or two or three dimensional simulations.

  18. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  20. Suitability of air sampling locations downstream of bends and static mixing elements.

    PubMed

    McFarland, A R; Gupta, R; Anand, N K

    1999-12-01

    The revised standard for sampling effluent air from stacks and ducts of the nuclear industry places limits on the non-uniformity of velocity and contaminant profiles at the sampling location; namely, the coefficients of variation must not exceed 20% over an area that encompasses at least the center 2/3 of the cross sectional area. Tests were conducted to characterize the degree of mixing at downstream locations as affected by several types of flow disturbances, including 90 degree elbows and commercial static mixing devices. Flow straighteners were incorporated into the ducting upstream of the mixer to be tested to simulate the dampening of flow turbulence that might occur because of upstream HEPA filters. The coefficients of variation of velocity and tracer gas concentration measured in a straight tube at a distance of 3 diameters downstream from a 90 degree elbow were 17% and 69%, respectively. The mixing is impacted by the upstream flow turbulence. Without a flow straightener, the tracer gas concentration coefficient of variation was reduced to 33% at the 3-diameter location. The use of static mixing elements can greatly enhance the mixing process. A ring placed just downstream of a 90 degree elbow, which blocks the outer 56% of the cross sectional area, results in a coefficient of variation of 19% for tracer gas concentration at the 3-diameter location. Pressure loss across the elbow with the ring is about nine times that of the basic elbow. One of the commercially available static mixers provides coefficients of variation that are less than 10% for both velocity and tracer gas concentration at 4 diameters downstream from the mixer with a pressure loss that is only about 3.5 times as large as that of a 90 degree elbow.

  1. Nickel, manganese and copper removal by a mixed consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria at a high COD/sulfate ratio.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L P; Costa, P F; Bertolino, S M; Silva, J C C; Guerra-Sá, R; Leão, V A; Teixeira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in passive treatments of acidic effluents containing heavy metals has become an attractive alternative biotechnology. Treatment efficiency may be linked with the effluent conditions (pH and metal concentration) and also to the amount and nature of the organic substrate. Variations on organic substrate and sulfate ratios clearly interfere with the biological removal of this ion by mixed cultures of SRB. This study aimed to cultivate a mixed culture of SRB using different lactate concentrations at pH 7.0 in the presence of Ni, Mn and Cu. The highest sulfate removal efficiency obtained was 98 %, at a COD/sulfate ratio of 2.0. The organic acid analyses indicated an acetate accumulation as a consequence of lactate degradation. Different concentrations of metals were added to the system at neutral pH conditions. Cell proliferation and sulfate consumption in the presence of nickel (4, 20 and 50 mg l(-1)), manganese (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) and copper (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) were measured. The presence of metals interfered in the sulfate biological removal however the concentration of sulfide produced was high enough to remove over 90 % of the metals in the environment. The molecular characterization of the bacterial consortium based on dsrB gene sequencing indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomonas pigra and Desulfobulbus sp. The results here presented indicate that this SRB culture may be employed for mine effluent bioremediation due to its potential for removing sulfate and metals, simultaneously.

  2. Mixing ratios and eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds from an urban canopy (Manchester, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, B.; Davison, B.; Nemitz, E.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2009-03-01

    Mixing ratios and fluxes of six selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured above the city of Manchester (UK) during the summer of 2006. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer was used for the measurement of mixing ratios, and fluxes were calculated from these using both the disjunct and the virtual disjunct eddy covariance techniques. The two flux systems, which operated in alternate half hours, showed good agreement, with R2 values ranging between 0.74 and 0.9 for the individual analytes. On average, fluxes measured in the disjunct mode were approximately 20% lower than those measured in the virtual mode. This difference is due to both the dampening of the VOC signal by the disjunct flux sampler and carry over from one sample to the next. Correcting for these effects reduced the difference to less than 7%. Observed fluxes are thought to be largely controlled by anthropogenic sources, with vehicle emissions the major contributor. However, both evaporative and biogenic emissions may account for some of the VOCs present. Concentrations and fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were highest on average, ranging between 0.15 to 1 mg m-2 h-1; the fluxes of aromatic compounds were lower, between 0.12 to 0.28 mg m-2 h-1. The observed fluxes were up-scaled to give city wide emission estimates for each compound and the results compared to estimates made by the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) for the same flux footprint. Fluxes of toluene and benzene compared most closely differing by approximately 50%, while in contrast the oxygenated fluxes were found to be between 3.6-6.3 times larger than the annual average predicted by the NAEI.

  3. Acid Mine Drainage Passive Remediation: Potential Use of Alkaline Clay, Optimal Mixing Ratio and Long Term Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, F.; Liang, X.; Wen, Y.; Perone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry. Surface water and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and heavy metals. In this study, alkaline clay, an industrial waste with a high pH, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation. Through a series of batch and column experiments, complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and auto sustainable acid mine drainage remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an AMD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values near to neutral conditions, and, 3) the prediction of long term impacts, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a coal waste site located in Mather, Pennsylvania. Alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for AMD. It was found that 10% AC/CR is an adequate mixing ratio (i.e. the upper limit), which has been also indicated by field measurements. The concentrations of some contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate are significantly reduced with the remediation approach, compared to those representative concentrations found in mine tailings. Moreover, results suggest a very reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating and hardpan (i.e. cemented layer) on the surface. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increasing water retention and hindering oxygen diffusion.

  4. Joining Mixed Conducting Oxides Using an Air-Fired Electrically Conductive Braze

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Weil, K. Scott

    2004-10-01

    Due to their mixed oxygen ion and electron conducting properties, ceramics such as lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrites (LSCF) are attractive materials for use in active electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen separation membranes. However, to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. If such a joining technique yields a ceramic-to-metal junction that is also electrically conductive, the hermetic seals in the device could provide the added function of either drawing current from the mixed conducting oxide, in the case of SOFC applications, or carrying it to the oxide to initate ionic conduction, in the case of oxygen separation and electrocatalysis applications. This would greatly reduce the need for complex interconnect design, thereby simplifying one of the major challenges faced in SOFC development. A process referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has been developed in which firing a Ag-CuO filler material in air creates a functional ceramic-to-metal junction, in which the silver-based matrix of the braze affords both metallic ductility and conductivity in the joint. Investigating a range of Ag-CuO alloy combinations determined that compositions containing between 1.4 and 16 mol% CuO appear to offer the best combination of wettability, joint strength, and electrical conductivity.

  5. Bovine insulin-phosphatidylcholine mixed Langmuir monolayers: behavior at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, S; Blanco-Vila, N M; Vila-Romeu, N

    2011-08-04

    The behavior of the binary mixed Langmuir monolayers of bovine insulin (INS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) spread at the air-water interface was investigated under various subphase conditions. Pure and mixed monolayers were spread on water, on NaOH and phosphate-buffered solutions of pH 7.4, and on Zn(2+)-containing solutions. Miscibility and interactions between the components were studied on the basis of the analysis of the surface pressure (π)-mean molecular area (A) isotherms, surface compression modulus (C(s)(-1))-π curves, and plots of A versus mole fraction of INS (X(INS)). Our results indicate that intermolecular interactions between INS and PC depend on both the monolayer state and the structural characteristics of INS at the interface, which are strongly influenced by the subphase pH and salt content. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was applied to investigate the peptide aggregation pattern at the air-water interface in the presence of the studied lipid under any experimental condition investigated. The influence of the lipid on the INS behavior at the interface strongly depends on the subphase conditions.

  6. Testing cleanable/reuseable HEPA prefilters for mixed waste incinerator air pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, B.W.; Paul, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the US DOE Savannah River Site is undergoing preoperational testing. The CIF is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes from site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing incinerators, air pollution control experience, and recommendations from consultants. This approach resulted in a facility design using experience from other operating hazardous/radioactive incinerators. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Operation of the pilot facility has provided long-term performance data of integrated systems and critical facility components. This has reduced facility startup problems and helped ensure compliance with facility performance requirements. Technical support programs assist in assuring all stakeholders the CIF can properly treat combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas strewn before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sensitivity, stability, and precision of quantitative Ns-LIBS-based fuel-air-ratio measurements for methane-air flames at 1-11 bar.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Paul S; Gragston, Mark; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili; Patnaik, Anil K; Kiefer, Johannes; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2016-10-01

    Nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ns-LIBS) is employed for quantitative local fuel-air (F/A) ratio (i.e., ratio of actual fuel-to-oxidizer mass over ratio of fuel-to-oxidizer mass at stoichiometry, measurements in well-characterized methane-air flames at pressures of 1-11 bar). We selected nitrogen and hydrogen atomic-emission lines at 568 nm and 656 nm, respectively, to establish a correlation between the line intensities and the F/A ratio. We have investigated the effects of laser-pulse energy, camera gate delay, and pressure on the sensitivity, stability, and precision of the quantitative ns-LIBS F/A ratio measurements. We determined the optimal laser energy and camera gate delay for each pressure condition and found that measurement stability and precision are degraded with an increase in pressure. We have identified primary limitations of the F/A ratio measurement employing ns-LIBS at elevated pressures as instabilities caused by the higher density laser-induced plasma and the presence of the higher level of soot. Potential improvements are suggested.

  8. Effect of the HITRAN 92 spectral data on the retrieval of NO2 mixing ratios from Nimbus 7 LIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsburg, Ellis E.; Bhatt, Praful P.; Eckman, Richard S.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.

    1994-01-01

    To ensure spectral consistency when comparing Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere Experiment (LIMS) NO2 distributions with those from Atmosphere Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Experiments (UARS), 1 day (May 5, 1979) of LIMS measurements were reprocessed using the NO2 line list on the HITRAN 92 tape compiled by the Airforce Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). The revised NO2 mixing ratios are smaller by up to 20%. The decrease is not constant with height, latitude, or time of day but depends on the absolute amount of NO2 in the profile, as a result of a change in the degree of saturation for the strong NO2 spectral lines. The revised NO2 agrees better with correlative measurements and with NO2 distributions from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite experiments but not with those from ATMOS 85. Profiles of the day/night ratio of revised NO2 are now larger near 5 hPa. There is also some improvement between observed and modeled ozone in the upper stratosphere, when the revised nighttime NO2 profile is used as the estimate of NO(y) for the model calculations.

  9. Nutritive value of mixed proteins. 2. As determined by net protein utilization and protein efficiency ratio tests.

    PubMed

    Woodham, A A; Clarke, E M

    1977-05-01

    1. A fish meal, meat meal, soya-bean meal, groundnut meal and sunflower-seed meal of known amino acid composition were evaluated individually, and combined in all possible pairs, by the estimation of net protein utilization (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (body-weight gain: crude protein intake; PER) using rats. Each pair provided a total of 100 g protein/kg diet made up so that the amounts of the constituents were (w/w) 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 20:80, and 0:100. 2. Marked synergistic effects were noted only for mixtures of sunflower-seed meal with soya-bean, fish and meat meals. 3. Chemical score ([amount of limiting amino acid/the rat's requirement for the same amino acid] X100; CS), but not essential amino acid index; geometric mean for the ratio, amount of essential amino acid: the rat's requirement for that amino acid, for all ten essential amino acids; EAAI), successfully predicted the rankings of all mixtures except groundnut meal-meat meal and groundnut meal-soya-bean meal, by both PER and NPU tests. 4. Although there is broad agreement linking results of PER and NPU tests with results obtained by a more practical feeding trial in which the mixtures were evaluated as supplements to cereals, neither of these two standard tests is capable of predicting in every instance the advantages to be gained by mixing protein concentrates.

  10. Effect of the HITRAN 92 spectral data on the retrieval of NO2 mixing ratios from Nimbus 7 LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsburg, Ellis E.; Bhatt, Praful P.; Eckman, Richard S.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.

    1994-11-01

    To ensure spectral consistency when comparing Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere Experiment (LIMS) NO2 distributions with those from Atmosphere Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Experiments (UARS), 1 day (May 5, 1979) of LIMS measurements were reprocessed using the NO2 line list on the HITRAN 92 tape compiled by the Airforce Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). The revised NO2 mixing ratios are smaller by up to 20%. The decrease is not constant with height, latitude, or time of day but depends on the absolute amount of NO2 in the profile, as a result of a change in the degree of saturation for the strong NO2 spectral lines. The revised NO2 agrees better with correlative measurements and with NO2 distributions from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite experiments but not with those from ATMOS 85. Profiles of the day/night ratio of revised NO2 are now larger near 5 hPa. There is also some improvement between observed and modeled ozone in the upper stratosphere, when the revised nighttime NO2 profile is used as the estimate of NO(y) for the model calculations.

  11. 30 CFR 7.87 - Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the intake air. Where: Ps = dry atmospheric pressure (kPa) Ta = intake air temperature (°C) (ii) The...) The parameter for the laboratory atmospheric factor, fa, shall be: 0.98≤fa≤1.02; (A) The equation...

  12. 30 CFR 7.87 - Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the intake air. Where: Ps = dry atmospheric pressure (kPa) Ta = intake air temperature (°C) (ii) The...) The parameter for the laboratory atmospheric factor, fa, shall be: 0.98≤fa≤1.02; (A) The equation...

  13. 30 CFR 7.87 - Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the intake air. Where: Ps = dry atmospheric pressure (kPa) Ta = intake air temperature (°C) (ii) The...) The parameter for the laboratory atmospheric factor, fa, shall be: 0.98≤fa≤1.02; (A) The equation...

  14. 30 CFR 7.87 - Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the intake air. Where: Ps = dry atmospheric pressure (kPa) Ta = intake air temperature (°C) (ii) The...) The parameter for the laboratory atmospheric factor, fa, shall be: 0.98≤fa≤1.02; (A) The equation...

  15. 30 CFR 7.87 - Test to determine the maximum fuel-air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the intake air. Where: Ps = dry atmospheric pressure (kPa) Ta = intake air temperature (°C) (ii) The...) The parameter for the laboratory atmospheric factor, fa, shall be: 0.98≤fa≤1.02; (A) The equation...

  16. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    PubMed

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  17. A numerical study of ignition in the supersonic hydrogen/air laminar mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, M.; Law, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    The ignition evolution in the supersonic nonpremixed hydrogen/air laminar mixing layer, consisting of a relatively hot, fast air stream next to a cold, slower hydrogen stream, was computationally simulated using detailed transport and chemical reaction mechanisms and compared with results from asymptotic analysis with reduced mechanisms. The study emphasizes identifying the controlling chemical mechanisms in effecting ignition, on the relative importance of external versus viscous heating as the dominant ignition source, on the roles of thermal versus kinetic-induced ignition in which heat release and hence nonlinear thermal feedback are not needed in initiating system runaway, and on the consequences of imposing the conventional constant property assumptions in analytical studies. Results show that the state of the hydrogen/oxygen second explosion limit has the dominant influence in the system response in that, for all practical purposes, ignition is not possible when the air-stream temperature is lower than the crossover temperature, even allowing for viscous heating. On the other hand, when the air-stream temperature is higher than the crossover temperature, the predicted ignition distance indicates that ignition is feasible within practical supersonic combustion engines. Furthermore, for the latter situations, the ignition event is initiated by radical proliferation and hence runaway instead of thermal runaway. Finally, it is shown that, while the present computed results qualitatively agree well with those from the asymptotic analysis with reduced mechanisms, the analytically predicted ignition distances are much shorter than the computed values because the analysis has overemphasized the viscous effect through the constant Chapman-Rubesin parameter {rho}{mu} and unity Prandtl number assumptions.

  18. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  19. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  20. High aspect ratio, high-quality microholes in PMMA: a comparison between femtosecond laser drilling in air and in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bo; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Yan, Xueliang; Zhao, Weiwei; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-04-01

    Microholes, especially high aspect ratio, high-quality microholes with small diameters (<100 μm), have broad applications. However, it is very difficult for traditional drilling methods to obtain deep microholes, especially with aspect ratios of over 50:1. Femtosecond lasers provide a promising solution for efficient drilling of deep microholes with high-precision material removal, reduced recast/microcracks, minimized heat-affected zones, and the absence of plasma-shielding effects. In this work, a comparison study of high aspect ratio, high-quality microholes fabricated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bulk substrate with the ambient pressure adjusted from 105 Pa (air) down to 1 Pa (vacuum) is presented. High aspect ratio (over 100:1) microholes were obtained in a vacuum environment. The contrast between microhole evolution in air and in vacuum was investigated. The results indicate that efficient energy propagation and easy ejection of ablated material/plasma are probably the most important benefits of drilling microholes in vacuum. The dependence of microhole shapes on different fabrication parameters, including pulse energy and ambient pressure, was investigated to quantitatively reveal the underlying mechanisms. The enhanced drilling effect in vacuum was only found in a high pulse energy region ( E p > 20 μJ), and it becomes saturated when the ambient pressure was reduced to ~102 Pa at a pulse energy of 50 μJ. Drilling microholes in a vacuum provides a simple and effective way of rapidly fabricating high aspect ratio, high-quality microholes.

  1. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED) technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD). The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD) in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%), which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD) of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm) grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength), the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg) and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1) was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a graphical user interface

  2. Water, ammonia, and H 2S mixing ratios in Jupiter's five-micron hot spots: A dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedson, A. James

    2005-09-01

    The Galileo probe entered the jovian atmosphere at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, one of typically 8-10 quasi-evenly-spaced longitudinal areas of anomalously high 5-micron IR emission that reside in a narrow latitude band centered on +7.5 degrees. These hot spots are characterized primarily by a low abundance of the cloud particles that dominate the 5-micron opacity at other locations on the planet, and by significant desiccation of ammonia, water and hydrogen sulfide in the upper layers of the troposphere. Ortiz et al. [1998. Evolution and persistence of 5-micron hot spots at the Galileo probe entry latitude. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 23,051-23,069] found that the latitude and drift rate of the hot spots could be explained if they are formed by an equatorially trapped Rossby wave of meridional degree 1 moving with a phase speed between 99 and 103 m s -1 relative to System III. Here we model additional properties of the hot spots in terms of the amplitude saturation of such a wave propagating in the weakly stratified deep troposphere. We identify the hot spots with locations where the wave plus mean thermal stratification becomes marginally stable. In these locations, potential temperature isotherms stretch downward to very deep levels in the troposphere. Since fluid parcels follow these isotherms under adiabatic flow conditions, the parcels dive downward when they enter the portion of the wave associated with the hot spot and soar upward upon leaving the spot. We show that this model can account for the anomalous vertical profiles of NH 3, H 2O, and H 2S mixing ratio measured by the Galileo probe. Pressures vary by as much as 20 bar over potential temperature isotherms in solutions that produce sufficient desiccation of water and H 2S in hot spots. Approximately 6×10 of Jupiter's internal heat flux must be tapped to maintain the wave over the mean hot spot lifetime of 10 7 s. The results suggest that the phenomenon that causes hot spots may occur widely

  3. The New England Batholith of eastern Australia: Evidence of silicic magma mixing from zircon 176 Hf/ 177 Hf ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. E.; Flood, R. H.; Pearson, N. J.

    2011-09-01

    Zircon Hf isotopic data from six granite supersuites recognised in the New England Batholith of eastern Australia indicate that magma mixing is present in all plutons. Apart from the S-type supersuites, inherited zircons are rare to absent, suggesting that initial melt temperatures were above zircon saturation for the M-, I- and A-type granites. In all supersuites, the range of zircon Hf model ages calculated relative to arc mantle varies greatly, with younger model ages somewhat less than the Permian and Triassic age of crystallisation, and older model ages indicating derivation from source rocks that may be as old as Neoproterozoic. The older model ages are consistent with late Precambrian rocks in the lower crust that may be elements of the Lachlan Fold Belt underlying the New England Fold Belt. Whole-rock δ 18O and ɛNd values, 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios (Sr i) and oxidation state (Fe 2O 3/FeO) are summarised for the five named supersuites, and for a previously unnamed group of Triassic plutons situated east of the main Batholith for which we propose the name Carrai supersuite. Supersuites with higher δ 18O, higher Sr i, lower δ 7Li and lower Fe 2O 3/FeO ratios indicate a metasedimentary component input. The pattern of zircon Hf isotopic variation reflects the other isotopic and geochemical indicators closely, the additional value being that it preserves a magmatic crystallisation record of Hf isotopic variation, that is, a measure of magma mixing from magma generation to final crystallisation. Using the above criteria, at least three distinct crustal components are considered necessary to explain the compositional and isotopic diversity within the Batholith. The crustal components indicated are: 1) a metasedimentary component of Carboniferous and Devonian age for the Hillgrove, Bundarra and Uralla supersuites; 2) a lower crustal K-rich (and Sr-rich) I-type component for the Moonbi, Carrai and possibly Uralla supersuites that could be as old as Proterozoic

  4. Computations of spray, fuel-air mixing, and combustion in a lean-premixed-prevaporized combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Li, Z.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Kundu, K.; Deur, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A code was developed for computing the multidimensional flow, spray, combustion, and pollutant formation inside gas turbine combustors. The code developed is based on a Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation and utilizes an implicit finite-volume method. The focus of this paper is on the spray part of the code (both formulation and algorithm), and a number of issues related to the computation of sprays and fuel-air mixing in a lean-premixed-prevaporized combustor. The issues addressed include: (1) how grid spacings affect the diffusion of evaporated fuel, and (2) how spurious modes can arise through modelling of the spray in the Lagrangian computations. An upwind interpolation scheme is proposed to account for some effects of grid spacing on the artificial diffusion of the evaporated fuel. Also, some guidelines are presented to minimize errors associated with the spurious modes.

  5. Investigating the effect of mixing ratio on molar mass distributions of synthetic polymers determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry using design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heike; Ehmann, Thomas; Otto, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that the mixing ratio affects the molar mass distribution of synthetic polymers determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Surely, the molar mixing ratio determines whether a mass spectrum will be obtained or not. However, depending on the mass range, several effects such as multimer formation occur, which might be a source of errors in molar mass distribution calculations. In this study, the effect of mixing ratio was investigated for several synthetic polymers, including polystyrene (PS), poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using statistical designs of experiments. The 2(3) full factorial design was found to be suitable in the study of more than 1000 samples. The obtained MALDI mass spectra as well as the ANOVA statistics show that the mixing ratio affects the molar mass distribution. The optimal mixing ratio for a defined synthetic polymer depends on the studied combination (matrix, cationization reagent, solvent).

  6. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  7. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  8. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-04-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index.

  9. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  10. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  11. The mistral and its effect on air pollution transport and vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsmeier, U.; Behrendt, R.; Drobinski, Ph.; Kottmeier, Ch.

    2005-03-01

    Within the framework of ESCOMPTE, the influence of local wind systems like land-sea/mountain-valley winds on the distribution of air pollutants in the southern part of the Rhône valley and the coastal regions of southern France was investigated. In addition, the influence of the mistral on the long-range transport and vertical mixing of such substances on July 1, 2001 was analyzed. The results of the measurements of this mistral situation show high concentrations of O 3 and NO 2 in the layer just above the PBL at the southern exit of the Rhône valley near Avignon. By measurements from airborne and ground-based platforms and numerical simulations with the "Local Model" (LM) of the German Weather Service (DWD), it is shown that the mistral develops according to the theory conceived by Pettré [J. Atmos. Sci. 39 (1982) 542-554]. The synoptic-scale northerly flow through the Rhône valley is accelerated up to a Froude number ( Fr) of 2.1, while the valley widens. Then, near the Mediterranean coast, a hydraulic jump occurs and Fr drops down to values below 1.0. High ozone concentrations of 112 ppb measured above the mistral layer disappear due to enhanced mixing after the flow has passed the hydraulic jump. There is some evidence that the ozone-rich air originates from the source region of greater Paris or upwind. The results confirm that regional wind systems associated with transport of trace gases in the high-grade industrialized Rhône valley can be successfully predicted using data of operational weather forecast models.

  12. Catalytic wet air oxidation with Ni- and Fe-doped mixed oxides derived from hydrotalcites.

    PubMed

    Ovejero, G; Rodríguez, A; Vallet, A; Gómez, P; García, J

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation of Basic Yellow 11 (BY11), a basic dye, was studied in a batch reactor. Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structure containing nickel or iron cations have been prepared by coprecipitation and subsequently calcined leading to Ni- and Fe-doped mixed oxides, respectively. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of BY11, these catalysts showed high activity for total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity and dye removal at 120 degrees C and 50 bars after 120 min. It has been demonstrated that the activity depended strongly on the presence of catalyst. The results show that catalysts containing nickel provide a higher extent of oxidation of the dye whereas the reaction carried out with the iron catalyst is faster. The Ni and Fe dispersion determined from the TPR results was higher for the catalysts with a lower Ni or Fe content and decreased for higher Ni or Fe contents. On the basis of activity and selectivity, the Ni containing catalyst with the medium (3%) Ni content was found to be the best catalyst. Finally, a relationship between metal content of the catalyst and reaction rate has been established.

  13. Velocity measurements within a shock and reshock induced air/SF6 turbulent mixing zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane; Joly, Laurent; Shock-induced mixing Team

    2012-11-01

    A turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) is created in a shock tube (based in ISAE, DAEP) when a Mach 1.2 shock wave in air accelerates impulsively to 70 m/s an air/SF6 interface. The gases are initially separated by a 1 μm thick plastic microfilm maintained flat and parallel to the shock by two wire grids. The upper grid of square spacing 1.8 mm imposes the nonlinear initial perturbation for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). After interaction with a reshock and a rarefaction, the TMZ remains approximately stagnant but much more turbulent. High speed Schlieren visualizations enable the choice of abscissae for Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV) measurements. For a length of the SF6 section equal to 250 mm, the LDV abscissae are 43, 135 and 150 mm from the initial position of the interface. Because of numerous microfilm fragments in the flow and a limited number of olive oil droplets as seeding particles for the LDV, statistical convergence requires the superposition of a least 50 identical runs at each abscissa. The dependence of TMZ structure and velocity field on length of the SF6 section between 100 and 300 mm will be presented. This experimental investigation is carried out in support of modeling and multidimensional simulation efforts at CEA, DAM, DIF. Financial support from CEA is thanksfully appreciated by ISAE.

  14. Evaporative assembly of MEH-PPV rings using mixed solvents at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kung-Po; Biswal, Sibani L

    2014-04-22

    Controlling the morphology of conjugated polymers has recently attracted considerable attention because of their applications in photovoltaic (PV) devices and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, we describe the self-assembly of a common conjugated polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), into ringlike structures via solvent evaporation on an air/water interface. The films are monitored using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and transferred onto a solid substrate by either the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) or the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) method and further characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphology of the MEH-PPV thin film at the air/water interface can be controlled by the spreading solvent. By mixing solvents of varying spreading coefficients and evaporation rates, such as chloroform and chlorobenzene, MEH-PPV can be assembled into micrometer-sized ring structures. The optical properties of these MEH-PPV ring structures are also characterized. Lastly, MEH-PPV can be used as a soft template to organize microscale structures of nanoparticles.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Alternative Spectral Bands of CO2 and O2 for the Sensing of CO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-01-01

    We performed comparative studies to establish favorable spectral regions and measurement wavelength combinations in alternative bands of CO2 and O2, for the sensing of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2) in missions such as ASCENDS. The analysis employed several simulation approaches including separate layers calculations based on pre-analyzed atmospheric data from the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA), and the line-byline radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) to obtain achievable accuracy estimates as a function of altitude and for the total path over an annual span of variations in atmospheric parameters. Separate layer error estimates also allowed investigation of the uncertainties in the weighting functions at varying altitudes and atmospheric conditions. The parameters influencing the measurement accuracy were analyzed independently and included temperature sensitivity, water vapor interferences, selection of favorable weighting functions, excitations wavelength stabilities and other factors. The results were used to identify favorable spectral regions and combinations of on / off line wavelengths leading to reductions in interferences and the improved total accuracy.

  16. First Look at the Upper Tropospheric Ozone Mixing Ratio from OMI Estimated using the Cloud Slicing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Joiner, Joanna; Vassilkov, Alexandra; Taylor, Steven; Yang, Kai; Ahn, Chang-Woo

    2004-01-01

    The Cloud Slicing technique has emerged as a powerful tool for the study of ozone in the upper troposphere. In this technique one looks at the variation with cloud height of the above-cloud column ozone derived from the backscattered ultraviolet instruments, such as TOMS, to determine the ozone mixing ratio. For this technique to work properly one needs an instrument with relatively good horizontal resolution with very good signal to noise in measuring above-cloud column ozone. In addition, one needs the (radiatively) effective cloud pressure rather than the cloud-top pressure, for the ultraviolet photons received by a satellite instrument are scattered from inside the cloud rather than from the top. For this study we use data from the OMI sensor, which was recently launched on the EOS Aura satellite. OMI is a W-Visible backscattering instrument with a nadir pixel size of 13 x 24 km. The effective cloud pressure is derived from a new algorithm based on Rotational Raman Scattering and O2-O2, absorption in the 340-400 nm band of OMI.

  17. Remote sensing measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio in the planetary boundary layer using cloud slicing with airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand K.; Mao, Jianping; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.

    2015-03-01

    We have measured the CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using cloud slicing with an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar from flight altitudes of up to 13 km. During a flight over Iowa in summer 2011, simultaneous measurement of the optical range and CO2 absorption to clouds and the ground were made using time-resolved detection of pulse echoes from each scattering surface. We determined the CO2 absorption in the PBL by differencing the two lidar-measured absorption line shapes, one to a broken shallow cumulus cloud layer located at the top of the PBL and the other to the ground. Solving for the CO2 VMR in the PBL and that of the free troposphere, we measured a ≈15 ppm (4%) drawdown in the PBL. Both CO2 VMRs were within ≈3 ppm of in situ CO2 profile measurements. We have also demonstrated cloud slicing using scatter from thin, diffuse cirrus clouds and cumulus clouds, which allowed solving for the CO2 VMR for three vertical layers. The technique and retrieval algorithm are applicable to a space-based lidar instrument as well as to lidar IPDA measurements of other trace gases. Thus, lidar cloud slicing also offers promise toward space-based remote sensing of vertical trace gas profiles in the atmosphere using a variety of clouds.

  18. Mixed cellulose ester filter as a separator for air-diffusion cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zejie; Lim, Bongsu

    2017-04-01

    Separator is important to prevent bio-contamination of the catalyst layer of air-diffusion cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Mixed cellulose ester filter (MCEF) was examined as a separator for an air-cathode MFC in the present study. The MCEF-MFC produced a maximum power density of 780.7 ± 18.7 mW/m(2), which was comparable to 770.9 ± 35.9 mW/m(2) of MFC with Nafion membrane (NFM) as a separator. Long-term examination demonstrated a more stable performance of the MCEF-MFC than NFM-MFC. After 25 cycles, the maximum voltage of the MCEF-MFC decreased by only 1.3% from 425.1 ± 4.3 mV (initial 5 cycles) to 419.5 ± 2.3 mV (last 5 cycles). However, it was decreased by 9.1% from 424.8 ± 5.7 to 386 ± 2.5 mV for the NFM-MFC. The coulombic efficiency (CE) of the MCEF-MFC did not change (from 3.11 ± 0.09% to 3.13 ± 0.02%), while it decreased by 9.12% from 3.18 ± 0.04% to 2.89 ± 0.02% for the NFM-MFC. The MCEF separator was with less biofouling than the NFM separator over 60 days' operation, which might be the reason for the more table long-term performance of the MCEF-MFC. The results demonstrated that MCEF was feasible as a separator to set up good-performing and cost-effective air-diffusion cathode MFC.

  19. Continuous anaerobic co-digestion of Ulva biomass and cheese whey at varying substrate mixing ratios: Different responses in two reactors with different operating regimes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of Ulva with whey was investigated at varying substrate mixing ratios in two continuous reactors run with increasing and decreasing proportions of Ulva, respectively. Co-digestion with whey proved beneficial to the biomethanation of Ulva, with the methane yield being greater by up to 1.6-fold in co-digestion phases than in the Ulva mono-digestion phases. The experimental reactors responded differently, in terms of process performance and community structure, to the changes in the substrate mixing ratio. This can be attributed to the different operating regimes between two reactors, which may have caused the microbial communities to develop in different ways to acclimate. Methanosaeta-related populations were the predominant methanogens responsible for the production of methane regardless of different substrate mixing ratios in both reactors. Considering the methane recovery and the Ulva treatment capacity, the optimal fraction of Ulva in the substrate mixture is suggested to be 50-75%.

  20. Development of a low-pressure "counterflow exchanging virtual impactor" for aerosol analysis, and, Measurement of ozone mixing ratios and meteorological parameters through the boundary layer at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, James Edward

    Trace atmospheric gases may provide significant interferences for in situ chemical analyses of atmospheric particles. Hence, a continuous technique to selectively remove the aerosol fraction from ambient air is desirable. A low-pressure "counterflow exchanging virtual impactor" (LP-CEVI), based upon the principle of inertial particle impaction, was developed to exchange aerosol particles larger than a certain aerodynamic size into a stream of inert gas while excluding atmospheric gases. Impactor particle transmission was characterized by two experimental techniques, one utilizing condensation particle counting of size-selected, nebulized salt particles and the other utilizing filter collection and extraction of monodisperse fluorescent microspheres. The impactor was also characterized for the ability to exclude ambient air, using the detection of nitric oxide by gas-phase chemiluminescence resulting from its reaction with ozone. Within certain pressure and counterflow regimes, the LP-CEVI was found to reproducibly transmit particles greater than approximately 0.2 mum in diameter while excluding more than 99.9% of ambient gas from the particle stream. Potential applications of the impactor to laboratory and field studies are discussed. Chemical processes occurring in firn air, interstitial air within the top several centimeters of snowpack, are important to understanding the composition of the Arctic troposphere. Research was conducted at Summit, Greenland in June 2000 to measure vertical profiles of the ozone mixing ratio and various meteorological parameters through the top of the boundary layer from tethered helium balloon platforms. Ozone mixing ratio profiles were measured using electrochemical ozonesondes in addition to a compact, lightweight, single-beam UV absorbance ozone instrument designed for field use. Profiles of meteorological parameters such as temperature, water vapor pressure, wind speed, and wind direction were measured using radiosondes and

  1. Measurements of mixing layer height variability during the Ligurian air-sea interaction experiment (LASIE '07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, J.

    2009-09-01

    Air-sea interaction processes play a dominant role with respect to detection ranges of shipborne radar and infrared sensor systems. Especially in the littoral most often temperature and humidity gradients affect propagation paths and are the reason for abnormal phenomena such as ducting or mirage. Besides refractivity, spray and aerosols ejected from the sea surface can further degrade the quality of shipborne surveillance systems. Thus environmental effects might seriously hamper ship self defense. During the Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE '07 - 16.06.-26.06.2007) the Federal Armed Forces Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics Research Institute (FWG) carried out simultaneous in-situ measurements of meteorological and oceanographic parameters to study air-sea interaction processes with respect to littoral boundary layer variability. The characterization of the environment included both, in-situ measurements of atmospheric and sea surface parameters. Investigations were carried out on board RV PLANET, RV URANIA and at the ODAS-Italy1 buoy of the Italian National Council of Research (CNR). On board RV PLANET the sea surface and meteorological conditions were analyzed by two multi-sensor buoys, ship sensors and radiosondes. Emphasis was given to the vertical structure of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and its variability. It was analyzed by a one lense lidar ceilometer CL31, a tethersonde system TT12 and radiosondes RS92 (Vaisala). The latter were launched every three hours. The TT12 consisted of three radiosondes, which could be adapted to separate altitudes of special interest. The experiment was characterized by changing meteorological conditions resulting in offshore and onshore blowing winds. In the first case the air temperature TAir was higher than the sea surface temperature TWater leading to a very stable surface layer. This situation was associated with a strong temperature inversion and a very clear atmosphere with a visibility of

  2. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  3. High initial Sr isotopic ratios and evidence for magma mixing in the Pioneer batholith of southwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Arth, J.G.; Zen, E.; Sellers, G.; Hammarstrom, J.

    1986-05-01

    The northeast part of the composite Pioneer batholith of southwest Montana consists of Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline plutons that vary in composition as a function of age, changing from minor hornblende-biotite quartz diorite at about 76 m.y., to a small pluton of hornblende-biotite tonalite at about 74 m.y., to abundant biotite-hornblende granodiorite and biotite granite at about 72 m.y., to some biotite granodiorite and 2-mica granite at 67 to 65 m.y. Initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios (SIRs) for the plutons range from 0.7112 to 0.7160. Magmas having a SIR near 0.7112 appear in most episodes of emplacement, whereas those having higher values are restricted to individual episodes. Two granodiorite plutons of 72 m.y. age show a mutual gradational contact, across which the SIR varies over a distance of 7 km from 0.711 to 0.714. The variation is ascribed to mixing between contemporaneous but isotopically distinct granodiorite magmas. The high SIRs of the batholith are interpreted as reflecting partial melting of portions of Precambrian lower crustal lithosphere to produce mafic to intermediate magma. The source may be similar to parts of Proterozoic gneisses now exposed at the surface. Mafic to intermediate magma may have fractionally crystallized at depth and released residual magma episodically to the upper crust over approximately 11 m.y. The high SIR of the Pioneer batholith is broadly similar to that of large parts of the Idaho batholith to the west, but is distinct from the SIR of the Boulder batholith to the northeast. A significant crustal discontinuity may separate the Pioneer-Idaho region from the Boulder region.

  4. Nighttime lidar water vapor mixing ratio profiling over Warsaw - impact of the relative humidity profile on cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Surós, Montserrat; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2016-04-01

    A long-term study, assessing ground-based remote Raman lidar versus in-situ radiosounding has been conducted with the aim of improving the knowledge on the water content vertical profile through the atmosphere, and thus the conditions for cloud formation processes. Water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and relative humidity (RH) profiles were retrieved from ADR Lidar (PollyXT-type, EARLINET site in Warsaw). So far, more than 100 nighttime profiles averaged over 1h around midnight from July 2013 to December 2015 have been investigated. Data were evaluated with molecular extinctions calculated using two approximations: the US62 standard atmosphere and the radiosounding launched in Legionowo (12374). The calibration factor CH2O for lidar retrievals was obtained for each profile using the regression method and the profile method to determine the best calibration factor approximation to be used in the final WVMR and RH calculation. Thus, statistically representative results for comparisons between lidar WVMR median profiles obtained by calibrating using radiosounding profiles and using atmospheric synthetic profiles, all of them with the best calibration factor, will be presented. Finally, in order to constrain the conditions of cloud formation in function of the RH profile, the COS14 algorithm, capable of deriving cloud bases and tops by applying thresholds to the RH profiles, was applied to find the cloud vertical structure (CVS). The algorithm was former applied to radiosounding profiles at SGP-ARM site and tested against the CVS obtained from the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) data. Similarly, it was applied for lidar measurements at the Warsaw measurement site.

  5. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species.

  6. Acid rock drainage passive remediation: Potential use of alkaline clay, optimal mixing ratio and long-term impacts.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Perone, Hanna; Xu, Yi; Liang, Xu

    2017-01-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mining industry. Surface and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and metals/metalloids. In this study, alkaline clay (AC), an industrial waste with a high alkalinity, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation in waste coal piles. Through a series of laboratory experiments (static and kinetic), complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an ARD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values close to neutral conditions, and, 3) the implications for long-term performance, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local waste coal site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments, AC proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD. Compared to those found in mine tailings, the concentrations of contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate were significantly reduced with this remediation approach. Moreover, results suggest a reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increased water retention and hindered oxygen diffusion.

  7. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species. PMID:26241912

  8. Airborne Remote-Sensing of Atmoshperic CH4 and CO2 Column Mixing Ratio With MAMap - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretner, A.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Erzinger, J.; Burrows, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Methane Airborne Mapper (MAMap) performs quantitative CO2 and CH4 remote sensing measurements of the atmospheric column between an aircraft and the Earth's surface. Its two spectrometers cover wavelenghts of 1.59-1.62μm for CO2, 1.63-1.75μm for CH4 and 760nm for O2. A CH4 detection limit of <35ppbv and a resolution of <5% (at atmospheric background concentration of 1750ppbv) have been ascertained, which makes it possible to detect small changes within the atmospheric CH4 column at a local and regional scale. The atmospheric column mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were calculated using the WFM-DOAS algorithm which is known from the retrieval of CH4 and CO2 column concentrations from nadir measurements by SCIAMACHY. MAMap addresses the uncertainties in the current greenhouse gas emission budgets and provides a link between local ground-based small-scale and global satellite-based measurements. The aim of future MAMap research programs is the detection and quantification of CH4 and CO2 emission sources of both natural and anthropogenic origin. MAMap is designed for flexible operations at various planes, e.g. the DLR Dornier 228, the DLR 'Falcon' or the DLR Gulfstream 'HALO' aircraft. The results presented here were performed with a Cessna aircraft T207 at a flight height of 700m and a flight speed of 200km/h. The related ground pixel size covers 18m (across-track) x 10m (along track, albedo 0.18). The preliminary assessment of the sensor sensitivity under field campaign conditions includes measurements over a variety of natural and anthropogenic CH4 and CO2 emission sources, like coal-fired power plants, landfill sites, wetlands, a large number of different land surface types and a simulated CH4 source (CH4 released from a pressured gas bottle). First results will be reported.

  9. Numerical modeling on air quality in an urban environment with changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohamed F

    2013-06-01

    Due to heavy traffic emissions within an urban environment, air quality during the last decade becomes worse year by year and hazard to public health. In the present work, numerical modeling of flow and dispersion of gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust in a street canyon were investigated under changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction. The three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which was numerically solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer within the street canyon was studied for different aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4, and 1) and wind directions (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°). The numerical models were validated against wind tunnel results to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical results agreed well with the wind tunnel results. The simulation demonstrated that the minimum concentration at the human respiration height within the street canyon was on the windward side for aspect ratios W/H=1/2 and 1 and wind directions θ=112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°. The pollutant concentration level decreases as the wind direction and aspect ratio increase. The wind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as the aspect ratio and wind direction increase.

  10. Changes in Concentration and Isotopic Ratios of CO2 in Air in the Los Angeles Basin, California, Between 1972 and 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Epstein, S.; Xu, X.; Stolper, E.

    2004-12-01

    Air in the Los Angeles Basin (California) is known for its high levels of pollution, due in large part to burning of fossil fuels for industry and transportation. CO2 is a major product of the combustion process. We compare concentrations and isotopic compositions of CO2 in air samples collected in 1998-2003 with samples collected in 1972-1973 in almost the same location on the Caltech campus in Pasadena. We also compare our results to analyses of air from unpolluted areas reported by the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) from oceanic sites at the same latitude. CO2 concentrations have increased by ˜50 ppm (averaging 355 ppm in 1972-1973 and 402 ppm in 1998-2003), but the ranges of the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios have not changed significantly (δ 13CVPDB was -7.9 to -13.5‰ in 1972-1973 and -8.0 to -14.1‰ in 1998-2003; δ 18OVPDB-CO2 was -4.35 to -0.60‰ in 1972-1973 and -4.29 to 0.15‰ in 1998-2003). Each data set displays a significant correlation between δ 13C and 1/ CO2 concentration. The intercepts at infinite CO2 are very similar for both 1972-1973 (-31.7‰ ) and 1998-2003 (-30.6‰ ). Mass balance calculations show that this is consistent with the changing mix of natural gas and petroleum products burned in the region provided the countries of origin of the petroleum products are taken into account. The seasonally averaged 1998-2003 CO2 inventory in Pasadena can be explained by a local contribution of 20-39 ppm (i.e., 5-11% relative) to clean air for this latitude (based on the NOAA data). This additional CO2 is characterized by an average δ 13C of -30.3‰ and δ 18O -9.20‰ . Because of the mild climate in southern California, larger amounts of isotopically light fossil fuel are consumed for energy generation for air conditioning during the summer than during the winter for heating. This offsets the effects of vegetation due to photosynthesis/respiration and masks the periodic seasonal variation observed in clean

  11. Predicting plant uptake of organic chemicals from soil or air using octanol/water and octanol/air partition ratios and a molecular connectivity index

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdy, D.L.; McKone, T.E.

    1997-12-01

    A bioconcentration ratio (BCR) represents the ratio of the concentration of a chemical found in an exposed biological system, such as a plant or fish, to the concentration in the exposure medium (water, soil, or air). A comparison is made of the precision and accuracy of the molecular connectivity index (MCI) and the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) as predictors of BCRs from the soil matrix into above- or below-ground vegetation tissues. Calculated octanol/air partition coefficient (K{sub oa}) values are compared with calculated K{sub ow} and MCI values as predictors of measured air-to-plant BCRs. Based on a statistical evaluation of explained variance, residual error, and cross-validation, this evaluation reveals that the MCI provides higher precision, greater ease of use, and a more cost-effective method for predicting the potential bioconcentration of a chemical from soil into above-ground vegetation. Statistical analyses of the various methods reveal that both the K{sub ow} and MCI approaches have a similar level of precision for predicting BCRs from soil solution into roots and, among MCI, K{sub oa} and K{sub ow}; K{sub oa} is somewhat more precise and valid than MCI and K{sub ow} for estimating uptake, but all have limited accuracy as bioconcentration predictors. These latter results are derived mainly from the paucity of both reliable K{sub oa} values and measured air-to-plant BCRs and indicate a need for more experimental measurements from which more accurate models may be developed.

  12. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  13. Level 2 processing for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: derivation and validation of temperature and trace gas volume mixing ratios from calibrated dynamics mode spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Dick, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Giez, A.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Latzko, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Olchewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Rolf, C.; Schillings, J.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Tan, V.; Thomas, N.; Voigt, C.; Zahn, A.; Zöger, M.; Riese, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an airborne infrared limb imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 High Altitude LOng Range (HALO) research aircraft during the Transport And Composition in the upper Troposphere/lowermost Stratosphere (TACTS) and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVAL) campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature and trace gas (H2O, O3, HNO3) volume mixing ratios from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra that are spectrally sampled every 0.625 cm-1. A total of 26 integrated spectral windows are employed in a joint fit to retrieve seven targets using consecutively a fast and an accurate tabulated radiative transfer model. Typical diagnostic quantities are provided including effects of uncertainties in the calibration and horizontal resolution along the line of sight. Simultaneous in situ observations by the Basic Halo Measurement and Sensor System (BAHAMAS), the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH), an ozone detector named Fairo, and the Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS) allow a validation of retrieved values for three flights in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere region spanning polar and sub-tropical latitudes. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas data, and discrepancies can to a large extent be attributed to differences in the probed air masses caused by different sampling characteristics of the instruments. This 1-D processing of GLORIA dynamics mode spectra provides the basis for future tomographic inversions from circular and linear flight paths to better understand selected dynamical processes of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.

  14. Level 2 processing for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: derivation and validation of temperature and trace gas volume mixing ratios from calibrated dynamics mode spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Dick, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Giez, A.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Latzko, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Olchewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Rolf, C.; Schillings, J.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Tan, V.; Thomas, N.; Voigt, C.; Zahn, A.; Zöger, M.; Riese, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an airborne infrared limb-imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 research aircraft HALO during the Transport And Composition in the upper Troposphere/lowermost Stratosphere (TACTS) and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVAL) campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature and trace gas (H2O, O3, HNO3) volume mixing ratios from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra. 26 integrated spectral windows are employed in a joint fit to retrieve seven targets using consecutively a fast and an accurate tabulated radiative transfer model. Typical diagnostic quantities are provided including effects of uncertainties in the calibration and horizontal resolution along the line-of-sight. Simultaneous in-situ observations by the BAsic HALO Measurement And Sensor System (BAHAMAS), the Fast In-Situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH), FAIRO, and the Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS) allow a validation of retrieved values for three flights in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere region spanning polar and sub-tropical latitudes. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in-situ trace gas data, and discrepancies can to a large fraction be attributed to differences in the probed air masses caused by different sampling characteristics of the instruments. This 1-D processing of GLORIA dynamics mode spectra provides the basis for future tomographic inversions from circular and linear flight paths to better understand selected dynamical processes of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.

  15. MEASUREMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF ISOPRENE FLUXES AND ISOPRENE, METHACROLEIN, AND METHYL VINYL KETONE MIXING RATIOS AT THE PROPHET SITE DURING THE 1998 INTENSIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixing ratios of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), and methacrolein (MACR) were determined continuously during an 8-day period in the summer of 1998 at a rural forested site located within the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). The measurements were obtained as ...

  16. Air-to-fuel ratio control and its effects in a lean-burn natural gas engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hassaneen, A.E.; Varde, K.S.; Bawady, A.H.; Abdul Aziz, A.A.M.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to examine air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio effects on performance and emission of a fuel injected, lean-burn natural gas engine. An eight cylinder, 4.6 liter spark ignited (SI) engine was used in the study. The engine had a compression ratio of 10.6 and was fuel injected with multi-point injection system. The injection and ignition systems of the engine were controlled by an external controller allowing the engine to operate on equivalence ratios as lean as 0.6. A wide range oxygen sensor, calibrated for natural gas, was used to monitor A/F ratio and its variation at steady state engine operation. The overall A/F ratio variations at lean, steady state operating condition, were found to be very low, an average of about {+-}1%, at an equivalence ratio of 0.6. At these conditions hydrocarbons in engine out exhaust, which were primarily made up of methane, increased to about 13 g/kW-h at medium and relatively high loads while the oxides of nitrogen were significantly reduced to below 0.6 g/kW-h. Furthermore, coefficient of variation in hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were much lower than those realized in an earlier study where a four cylinder engine with gaseous carburetion system was used. The fuel injection system was found to maintain the overall A/F ratio much better than in a gaseous carburetion system thus resulting in very stable engine operation.

  17. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  18. Treatment of drinking water residuals: comparing sedimentation and dissolved air flotation performance with optimal cation ratios.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, J C; Walsh, M E; Gagnon, G A

    2004-03-01

    Spent filter backwash water (SFBW) and clarifier sludge generally comprise the majority of the waste residual volume generated and in relative terms, these can be collectively referred to as combined filter backwash water (CFBW). CFBW is essentially a low-solids wastewater with metal hydroxide flocs that are typically light and slow to settle. This study evaluates the impact of adding calcium and magnesium carbonates to CFBW in terms of assessing the impacts on the sedimentation and DAF separation processes. Representative CFBW samples were collected from two surface water treatment plants (WTP): Lake Major WTP (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Victoria Park WTP (Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada). Bench-scale results indicated that improvements in the CFBW settled water quality could be achieved through the addition of the divalent cations, thereby adjusting the monovalent to divalent (M:D) ratios of the wastewater. In general, the DAF process required slightly higher M:D ratios than the sedimentation process. The optimum M:D ratios for DAF and sedimentation were determined to be 1:1 and 0.33:1, respectively. It was concluded that the optimisation of the cation balance between monovalent cations (e.g., Na(+), K(+)) and added divalent cations (i.e., Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) aided in the settling mechanism through charge neutralisation-precipitation. The increase in divalent cation concentrations within the waste residual stream promoted destabilisation of the negatively charged colour molecules within the CFBW, thereby causing the colloidal content to become more hydrophobic.

  19. Nitric Oxide PLIF Visualization of Simulated Fuel-Air Mixing in a Dual-Mode Scramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) planar induced laser fluorescence (PLIF) measurements have been performed in a small scale scramjet combustor at the University of Virginia Aerospace Research Laboratory at nominal simulated Mach 5 flight. A mixture of NO and N2 was injected at the upstream end of the inlet isolator as a surrogate for ethylene fuel, and the mixing of this fuel simulant was studied with and without a shock train. The shock train was produced by an air throttle, which simulated the blockage effects of combustion downstream of the cavity flame holder. NO PLIF signal was imaged in a plane orthogonal to the freestream at the leading edge of the cavity. Instantaneous planar images were recorded and analyzed to identify the most uniform cases, which were achieved by varying the location of the fuel injection and shock train. This method was used to screen different possible fueling configurations to provide optimized test conditions for follow-on combustion measurements using ethylene fuel. A theoretical study of the selected NO rotational transitions was performed to obtain a LIF signal that is linear with NO mole fraction and approximately independent of pressure and temperature.

  20. Large mixing ratios of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at Concordia (East Antarctic Plateau) in summer: a strong source from surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Frey, M.; Bartels-Rausch, Th.; Kukui, A.; King, M. D.; Savarino, J.; Kerbrat, M.; Jourdain, B.

    2014-09-01

    During the austral summer 2011/2012 atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) was investigated for the second time at the Concordia site (75°06' S, 123°33' E), located on the East Antarctic Plateau, by deploying a long-path absorption photometer (LOPAP). Hourly mixing ratios of HONO measured in December 2011/January 2012 (35 ± 5.0 pptv) were similar to those measured in December 2010/January 2011 (30.4 ± 3.5 pptv). The large value of the HONO mixing ratio at the remote Concordia site suggests a local source of HONO in addition to weak production from oxidation of NO by the OH radical. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface snow removed from Concordia can produce gas-phase HONO at mixing ratios half that of the NOx mixing ratio produced in the same experiment at typical temperatures encountered at Concordia in summer. Using these lab data and the emission flux of NOx from snow estimated from the vertical gradient of atmospheric concentrations measured during the campaign, a mean diurnal HONO snow emission ranging between 0.5 and 0.8 × 109 molecules cm-2 s-1 is calculated. Model calculations indicate that, in addition to around 1.2 pptv of HONO produced by the NO oxidation, these HONO snow emissions can only explain 6.5 to 10.5 pptv of HONO in the atmosphere at Concordia. To explain the difference between observed and simulated HONO mixing ratios, tests were done both in the field and at lab to explore the possibility that the presence of HNO4 had biased the measurements of HONO.

  1. Observations of molecular hydrogen mixing ratio and stable isotopic composition at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Popa, M. E.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E. G.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopic composition (δD(H2) or δD) of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) are a useful addition to mixing ratio (χ(H2)) measurements for understanding the atmospheric H2 cycle. δD datasets published so far consist mostly of observations at background locations. We complement these with observations from the Cabauw tall tower at the CESAR site, situated in a densely populated region of the Netherlands. Our measurements show a large anthropogenic influence on the local H2 cycle, with frequently occurring pollution events that are characterized by χ(H2) values that reach up to ≈1 ppm and low δD values. An isotopic source signature analysis yields an apparent source signature below -400‰, which is much more D-depleted than the fossil fuel combustion source signature commonly used in H2 budget studies. Two diurnal cycles that were sampled at a suburban site near London also show a more D-depleted source signature (≈-340‰), though not as extremely depleted as at Cabauw. The source signature of the Northwest European vehicle fleet may have shifted to somewhat lower values due to changes in vehicle technology and driving conditions. Even so, the surprisingly depleted apparent source signature at Cabauw requires additional explanation; microbial H2 production seems the most likely cause. The Cabauw tower site also allowed us to sample vertical profiles. We found no decrease in χ(H2) at lower sampling levels (20 and 60 m) with respect to higher sampling levels (120 and 200 m). There was a significant shift to lower median δD values at the lower levels. This confirms the limited role of soil uptake around Cabauw, and again points to microbial H2 production during an extended growing season, as well as to possible differences in average fossil fuel combustion source signature between the different footprint areas of the sampling levels. So, although knowledge of the background cycle of H2 has improved over the last decade, surprising

  2. Use of 1% peroxyacetic acid sanitizer in an air-mixing wash basin to remove bacterial pathogens from seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Ashurst, Kean

    2009-11-01

    To achieve the production of pathogen-free sprouts, there must be appropriate mixing of liquid sanitizer with the seeds to assure contact. Commercial treatments by irradiation or ozone gas of Salmonella spp. artificially inoculated seeds were compared, and these resulted in a 1 log reduction after all treatments. Use of peroxyacetic acid (1%) sanitizer on Salmonella spp. or Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds consistently resulted in a greater than 1 log reduction. In addition, during these studies debris was noted after the seeds were removed. Based on this observation, an air-mixing wash basin was developed for commercial use. Validation was done by commercial growers using 1% peroxyacetic acid sanitizer to wash seeds in the air-mixing basin, followed by sprouting the seeds. No positive or false-positive pathogen results were reported after the required testing of the sprout water (run-off during sprouting). Use of 1% peroxyacetic acid sanitizer in the air-mixing wash basin does provide the sprout grower an effective means of sanitizing sprout seeds.

  3. Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen-air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, T.S.; Wehrmeyer, J.A.; Pitz, R.W. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Jarrett, O. Jr.; Northam, G.B. . Langley Research Center)

    1994-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence (LIPF) from a KrF excimer laser are combined to simultaneously measure temperature, major species concentrations (H[sub 2], O[sub 2], N[sub 2], H[sub 2]O), and OH radical concentration in a supersonic lifted co-flowing hydrogen-air diffusion flame. The axisymmetric flame is formed when a sonic jet of hydrogen mixes with a Mach 2 annular jet of vitiated air. Mean and rms profiles of temperature, species concentrations, and mixture fraction are obtained throughout the supersonic flame. Simultaneous measurements of the chemical species and temperature are compared with frozen chemistry and equilibrium chemistry limits to assess the local state of the mixing and chemistry. Upstream of the lifted flame base, a very small amount of reaction occurs form mixing with hot vitiated air. Downstream of the lifted flame base, strong turbulent mixing leads to sub equilibrium values of temperature and OH concentration. Due to the interaction of velocity and temperature in supersonic compressible flames, the fluctuations of temperature and species concentrations are found to be higher than subsonic flames. Farther downstream, slow three-body recombination reactions result in super equilibrium OH concentrations that depress temperatures below their equilibrium values.

  4. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) as a Probe for Supersonic Hydrogen-Fuel/Air Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, P. M.; O'Byrne, S.; Cutler, A. D.; Rodriguez, C. G.

    2003-01-01

    The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method was used to measure temperature and the absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic non-reacting fuel-air mixing experiment. Experiments were conducted in NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility. Under normal operation of this facility, hydrogen and air burn to increase the enthalpy of the test gas and O2 is added to simulate air. This gas is expanded through a Mach 2 nozzle and into a combustor model where fuel is then injected, mixes and burns. In the present experiment the O2 of the test gas is replaced by N2. The lack of oxidizer inhibited combustion of the injected H2 fuel jet allowing the fuel/air mixing process to be studied. CARS measurements were performed 427 mm downstream of the nozzle exit and 260 mm downstream of the fuel injector. Maps were obtained of the mean temperature, as well as the N2, O2 and H2 mean mole fraction fields. A map of mean H2O vapor mole fraction was also inferred from these measurements. Correlations between different measured parameters and their fluctuations are presented. The CARS measurements are compared with a preliminary computational prediction of the flow.

  5. Experimental study of a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler using a commercial air-conditioning scroll compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisung; Lee, Kyungsoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2013-05-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers have been used to create cryogenic temperatures and are simple, efficient, cheap, and durable. However, compressors for MR J-T cryocoolers still require optimization. As the MR J-T cryocooler uses a commercial scroll compressor developed for air-conditioning systems, compressor overheating due to the use of less optimized refrigerants may not be negligible, and could cause compressor malfunction due to burn-out of scroll tip seals. Therefore, in the present study, the authors propose procedures to optimize compressor operation to avoid the overheating issue when the MR J-T cryocooler is used with a commercial oil lubricated scroll compressor, and the present experimental results obtained for a MR J-T cryocooler. A single stage 1.49 kW (2 HP) scroll compressor designed for R22 utilizing a mixture of nitrogen and hydrocarbons was used in the present study. As was expected, compressor overheating and irreversible high temperatures at a compressor discharge port were found at the beginning of compressor operation, which is critical, and hence, the authors used a water injection cooling system for the compressor to alleviate temperature overshooting. In addition, a portion of refrigerant in the high-pressure stream was by-passed into the compressor suction port. This allowed an adequate compression ratio, prevented excessive temperature increases at the compressor discharge, and eventually enabled the MR J-T cryocooler to operate stably at 121 K. The study shows that commercial oil lubricated scroll compressors can be used for MR J-T cryocooling systems if care is exercised to avoid compressor overheating.

  6. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2004-10-01

    Instrumentation difficulties encountered in the previous reporting period were addressed early in this reporting period, resulting in a new instrumentation configuration that appears to be free of the noise issues found previously. This permitted the collection of flow calibration data to begin. The first issues in question are the effects of the type and location of the transducer mount. Data were collected for 15 different transducer positions (upstream and downstream of an elbow in the pipe), with both a stud mount and a magnetic transducer mount, for each of seven combinations of air and coal flow. Analysis of these data shows that the effects of the transducer mount type and location on the resulting dynamics are complicated, and not easily captured in a single analysis. To maximize the practical value of the calibration data, further detailed calibration data will be collected with both the magnetic and stud mounts, but at a single mounting location just downstream of a pipe elbow. This testing will be performed in the Coal Flow Test Facility in the next reporting period. The program progress in this reporting period was sufficient to put us essentially back on schedule.

  7. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  8. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  9. An air traffic flow management method based on mixed genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ying

    2009-12-01

    With the air traffic congest problem becoming more and more severe, the study of air traffic flow management is more and more important. According to the character of air traffic flow management, the author analyzed the heuristic method and genetic algorithms, later put this two method together and give a new method of air traffic flow management-mixture genetic algorithms, It has global convergence, the simulation result demonstrates that the presented algorithm is effective.

  10. Search for D0-D0 mixing and branching-ratio measurement in the decay D0-->K+ pi- pi0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-12-01

    We analyze 230.4 fb;{-1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e;{+}e;{-} collider at SLAC to search for evidence of D0-D[over ];{0} mixing using regions of phase space in the decay D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0}. We measure the time-integrated mixing rate R_{M}=(0.023_{-0.014};{+0.018}(stat.)+/-0.004(syst.))%, and R_{M}<0.054% at the 95% confidence level, assuming CP invariance. The data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. We also measure the branching ratio for D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0} relative to D;{0}-->K;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0} to be (0.214+/-0.008(stat.)+/-0.008(syst.))%.

  11. Multiple Flux Footprints, Flux Divergences and Boundary Layer Mixing Ratios: Studies of Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Using the WLEF Tall Tower.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Bakwin, P. S.; Yi, C.; Cook, B. D.; Wang, W.; Denning, A. S.; Teclaw, R.; Isebrands, J. G.

    2001-05-01

    Long-term, tower-based measurements using the eddy-covariance method have revealed a wealth of detail about the temporal dynamics of netecosystem-atmosphere exchange (NEE) of CO2. The data also provide a measure of the annual net CO2 exchange. The area represented by these flux measurements, however, is limited, and doubts remain about possible systematic errors that may bias the annual net exchange measurements. Flux and mixing ratio measurements conducted at the WLEF tall tower as part of the Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) allow for unique assessment of the uncertainties in NEE of CO2. The synergy between flux and mixing ratio observations shows the potential for comparing inverse and eddy-covariance methods of estimating NEE of CO2. Such comparisons may strengthen confidence in both results and begin to bridge the huge gap in spatial scales (at least 3 orders of magnitude) between continental or hemispheric scale inverse studies and kilometer-scale eddy covariance flux measurements. Data from WLEF and Willow Creek, another ChEAS tower, are used to estimate random and systematic errors in NEE of CO2. Random uncertainty in seasonal exchange rates and the annual integrated NEE, including both turbulent sampling errors and variability in enviromental conditions, is small. Systematic errors are identified by examining changes in flux as a function of atmospheric stability and wind direction, and by comparing the multiple level flux measurements on the WLEF tower. Nighttime drainage is modest but evident. Systematic horizontal advection occurs during the morning turbulence transition. The potential total systematic error appears to be larger than random uncertainty, but still modest. The total systematic error, however, is difficult to assess. It appears that the WLEF region ecosystems were a small net sink of CO2 in 1997. It is clear that the summer uptake rate at WLEF is much smaller than that at most deciduous forest sites, including the nearby

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Screening-level models to estimate partition ratios of organic chemicals between polymeric materials, air and water.

    PubMed

    Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Efstathios; Sobek, Anna; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-06-15

    Polymeric materials flowing through the technosphere are repositories of organic chemicals throughout their life cycle. Equilibrium partition ratios of organic chemicals between these materials and air (KMA) or water (KMW) are required for models of fate and transport, high-throughput exposure assessment and passive sampling. KMA and KMW have been measured for a growing number of chemical/material combinations, but significant data gaps still exist. We assembled a database of 363 KMA and 910 KMW measurements for 446 individual compounds and nearly 40 individual polymers and biopolymers, collected from 29 studies. We used the EPI Suite and ABSOLV software packages to estimate physicochemical properties of the compounds and we employed an empirical correlation based on Trouton's rule to adjust the measured KMA and KMW values to a standard reference temperature of 298 K. Then, we used a thermodynamic triangle with Henry's law constant to calculate a complete set of 1273 KMA and KMW values. Using simple linear regression, we developed a suite of single parameter linear free energy relationship (spLFER) models to estimate KMA from the EPI Suite-estimated octanol-air partition ratio (KOA) and KMW from the EPI Suite-estimated octanol-water (KOW) partition ratio. Similarly, using multiple linear regression, we developed a set of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (ppLFER) models to estimate KMA and KMW from ABSOLV-estimated Abraham solvation parameters. We explored the two LFER approaches to investigate (1) their performance in estimating partition ratios, and (2) uncertainties associated with treating all different polymers as a single "bulk" polymeric material compartment. The models we have developed are suitable for screening assessments of the tendency for organic chemicals to be emitted from materials, and for use in multimedia models of the fate of organic chemicals in the indoor environment. In screening applications we recommend that KMA and KMW be

  14. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali A.; Pithawalla, Yezdi B.; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J.; Wagner, Karl A.; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  15. Inter-comparison of 2 microm Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar, Laser Diode Spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Fabien; Joly, Lilian; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène; Schmidt, Martina; Royer, Adrien; Flamant, Pierre H; Ramonet, Michel; Parvitte, Bertrand; Durry, Georges; Zéninari, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing and in situ instruments are presented and compared in the same location for accurate CO(2) mixing ratio measurements in the atmosphere: (1) a 2.064 microm Heterodyne DIfferential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL), (2) a field deployable infrared Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) using new commercial diode laser technology at 2.68 microm, (3) LICOR NDIR analyzer and (4) flasks. LDS, LICOR and flasks measurements were made in the same location, LICOR and flasks being taken as reference. Horizontal HDIAL measurements of CO(2) absorption using aerosol backscatter signal are reported. Using new spectroscopic data in the 2 microm band and meteorological sensor measurements, a mean CO(2) mixing ratio is inferred by the HDIAL in a 1 km long path above the 15m height location of the CO(2) in situ sensors. We compare HDIAL and LDS measurements with the LICOR data for 30 min of time averaging. The mean standard deviation of the HDIAL and the LDS CO(2) mixing ratio results are 3.3 ppm and 0.89 ppm, respectively. The bias of the HDIAL and the LDS measurements are -0.54 ppm and -0.99 ppm, respectively.

  16. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources.

  17. The investigations of changes in mineral-organic and carbon-phosphate ratios in the mixed saliva by synchrotron infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredin, Pavel; Goloshchapov, Dmitry; Kashkarov, Vladimir; Ippolitov, Yuri; Bambery, Keith

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the saturation of mixed saliva by mineral complexes and groups necessary for the remineralisation of tooth enamel using exogenous and endogenous methods of caries prevention. Using IR spectroscopy and high-intensity synchrotron radiation, changes in the composition of the human mixed saliva were identified when exogenous and endogenous methods of caries prevention are employed. Based on the calculations of mineral/organic and carbon/phosphate ratios, changes in the composition of the human mixed saliva depending on a certain type of prevention were identified. It is shown that the use of a toothpaste (exogenous prevention) alone based on a multi-mineral complex including calcium glycerophosphate provides only a short-term effect of saturating the oral cavity with mineral complexes and groups. Rinsing of the oral cavity with water following the preventive use of a toothpaste completely removes the effect of the saturation of the mixed saliva with mineral groups and complexes. The use of tablets of a multi-mineral complex with calcium glycerophosphate (endogenous prevention) in combination with exogenous prevention causes an average increase of ∼10% in the content of mineral groups and complexes in the mixed saliva and allows long-term saturation of the oral fluid by them. This method outperforms the exogenous one owing to a long-term effect of optimal concentrations of endogenous and biologically available derivatives of phosphates on the enamel surface.

  18. Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in Arcturus and Aldebaran. Constraining the parameters for non-convective mixing on the red giant branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abia, C.; Palmerini, S.; Busso, M.; Cristallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    Context. We re-analyzed the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of the two bright K giants Arcturus (α Boo) and Aldebaran (α Tau). Aims: These stars are in the evolutionary stage following the first dredge-up (FDU). Previous determinations (dating back more than 20 years) of their 16O/18O ratios showed a rough agreement with FDU expectations; however, the estimated 16O/17O and 12C/13C ratios were lower than in the canonical predictions for red giants. Today these anomalies are interpreted as signs of the occurrence of non-convective mixing episodes. We therefore re-investigated this problem to verify whether the observed data can be reproduced in this scenario and if the fairly well determined properties of the two stars can help us in fixing the uncertain parameters that characterize non-convective mixing and in constraining its physical nature. Methods: We used high-resolution infrared spectra from the literature to derive the 12C/13C and 16O/17O/18O ratios from CO molecular lines near 5 μm, using the local termodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectral synthesis method. We made use of the recently published ACE-FTS atlas of the infrared solar spectrum for constructing an updated atomic and molecular line lists in this spectral range. We also reconsidered the determination of the stellar parameters to build the proper atmospheric and evolutionary models. Results: We found that both the C and the O isotopic ratios for the two stars considered actually disagree with pure FDU predictions. This reinforces the idea that non-convective transport episodes occurred in these stars. By reproducing the observed elemental and isotopic abundances with the help of parametric models for the coupled occurrence of nucleosynthesis and mass circulation, we derived constraints on the properties of non-convective mixing, providing information on the so far elusive physics of these phenomena. We find that very slow mixing, like that associated to diffusive processes, is

  19. The influence of equivalence ratio and Soret effect on the ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures in supersonic boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira da Silva, L.F.; Deshaies, B.

    1994-12-31

    As a result of viscous heating, spontaneous ignition of a supersonic flow of premixed combustible gases can occur in boundary layers. In a previous numerical study, the main structure of the reacting flow related to this specific type of ignition was given in the case of a laminar boundary layer of hydrogen and air developing over a flat plate. To complete the first mapping of the ignition as a function of the boundary conditions, the authors present in this paper the results of a specific study of the influence of the equivalence ratio of the mixture on ignition. The equivalence ratio is found to modify the chemical induction time in the boundary layer as follows: (1) in a direct way, (2) via the dependence of the wall temperature on the composition. Because of these combined effects, the minimum induction length is obtained for unusually lead mixtures. As it modifies local composition, the Soret effect is also found to change the boundary-layer induction length.

  20. Flow-induced molecular segregation in beta-casein-monoglyceride mixed films spread at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Cecilio Carrera; Rodríguez Patino, Juan M

    2004-07-20

    In this work, we have used different and complementary interfacial techniques (surface film balance, Brewster angle microscopy, and interfacial shear rheology) to analyze the static (structure, topography, reflectivity, miscibility, and interactions) and flow characteristics (surface shear characteristics) of beta-casein and monoglyceride (monopalmitin and monoolein) mixed films spread on the air-water interface. The structural, topographical, and shear characteristics of the mixed films depend on the surface pressure and on the composition of the mixed film. The surface shear viscosity (etas) varies greatly with the surface pressure. In general, the greater the surface pressure, the greater the values of etas. At higher surface pressures, collapsed beta-casein residues may be displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules with important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films. A shear-induced change in the topography of monoglyceride and beta-casein domains, on one hand, and a segregation between domains of the film-forming components, on the other hand, were also observed. The displacement of the beta-casein by the monoglycerides is facilitated under shear conditions, especially for beta-casein-monoolein mixed films.

  1. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources.

  2. A possible deuterium anomaly: Implications of the CH3D/CH4 mixing ratios in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Barry L.; Debergh, Catherine; Owen, Tobias

    1986-01-01

    Observations of CH3D in the atmospheres of the outer planets provide a test of the theory of deuterium fractionation equilibrium in the formation and evolution of these planets. Recent measurements of the CH3D/CH4 mixing ratios made for Saturn and Uranus are presented and intercompared with current values of Jupiter, illustrating large differences between the planets. Their implied D/H ratios are compared to D/H ratios derived from measurements of HD/H2; and, in the cases of Jupiter and Saturn, they may be incompatible. Implications of these comparisons are discussed in terms of the deuterium fractionation chemistry and possible enrichments of deuterium in the core ices of the planets.

  3. Isotopic ratio correlation for the isotopic composition analysis of plutonium in Am-Pu mixed samples having high americium content.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sabyasachi; Agarwal, Chhavi; Chaudhury, Sanhita; Newton Nathaniel, T; Gathibandhe, M; Goswami, A

    2013-08-01

    Interference of high amount of americium in the plutonium isotopic composition analysis has been studied by simulating gamma-ray spectra for Am-Pu samples over a wide composition range (5-97% (241)Am) for both power and research reactor grade plutonium. An alternate way for isotopic composition analysis has been proposed by correlating the isotopic ratios available in our old database with the experimentally obtained (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio. The proposed method has been validated using simulated spectra of known isotopic compositions.

  4. Comparison of Oxygenate Mixing Ratios Observed in the San Joaquin Valley, California, as a Consequence of Dairy Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. M.; Blake, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Basin in Central California is plagued with air quality problems, and is classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a serious non-attainment area for health-based eight-hour federal ozone (smog) standard (1). One of the main sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and indirect sources of ozone in the Valley, has been identified as dairy farming (2). Among these compounds, we have found that several OVOCs such as ethanol, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde are produced in major quantities throughout the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage and photochemical oxidation. These oxygenates, especially ethanol, play an important role in ozone (O3) formation within the valley. Since 2008, several different types of sampling protocols have been employed by our group in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the four oxygenates in the valley air shed, as well as to determine their sources, emission profiles and emission rates (2). In 2008 and 2009, samples were in early summer, allowing us to compare the difference in concentration levels between both years.The photochemical production of ozone was calculated for each of the four oxygenates and approximately one hundred other quantified VOCs. Based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale and concentrations of each oxygenate in the atmosphere, for both 2008 and 2009, as much as 15% of O3 production in the valley is from ethanol and its photochemical by-product acetaldehyde. Our findings suggest that the data observed in 2008 is consistent with that observed in 2009, with a slight decrease in concentrations overall for 2009. 1. Lindberg, J. Analysis of the San Joaquin Valley 2007 Ozone Plan. State of California Air Resources Board. Final Draft Staff Report. 5/30/2007. 2. M. Yang, S. Meinardi, C. Krauter, D.R. Blake. Characterization of VOC Emissions from Various Components of Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin

  5. Analytical modeling of operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages. Volume 1: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Edwards, D. E.; Mcvey, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A model for predicting the distribution of liquid fuel droplets and fuel vapor in premixing-prevaporizing fuel-air mixing passages of the direct injection type is reported. This model consists of three computer programs; a calculation of the two dimensional or axisymmetric air flow field neglecting the effects of fuel; a calculation of the three dimensional fuel droplet trajectories and evaporation rates in a known, moving air flow; a calculation of fuel vapor diffusing into a moving three dimensional air flow with source terms dependent on the droplet evaporation rates. The fuel droplets are treated as individual particle classes each satisfying Newton's law, a heat transfer, and a mass transfer equation. This fuel droplet model treats multicomponent fuels and incorporates the physics required for the treatment of elastic droplet collisions, droplet shattering, droplet coalescence and droplet wall interactions. The vapor diffusion calculation treats three dimensional, gas phase, turbulent diffusion processes. The analysis includes a model for the autoignition of the fuel air mixture based upon the rate of formation of an important intermediate chemical species during the preignition period.

  6. Surface Partitioning and Stability of Mixed Films of Fluorinated Alcohols and Acids at the Air- Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, N. A.; Vaida, V.

    2007-05-01

    The production of fluorinated compounds over the past 50 years has had numerous industrial applications. For example, perfluorinated carboxylic acids are used in the synthesis of polymers and fire retardants, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates act as surface protectors, and fluorotelomer alcohols are incorporated into products such as paints, coatings, polymers, and adhesives. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are linear polyfluorinated alcohols with the formula CF3(CF2)nCH2CH2OH (n=1,3,5,...). They have been suggested as possible precursors for perfluorinated carboxylic acids and detected in the troposphere over several North American sites. Perfluorocarboxylic acids have even been detected in the arctic food chain, human blood, tissues of animals and environmental waters. We report the surface activity of fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorinated carboxylic acids at the air-water interface by using a Langmuir trough. Isotherms of the pure compounds along with mixed films with other organic carboxylic acids were collected. The main objective of these experiments was to understand their heterogeneous chemistry by characterizing the pure and mixed films, which serves as a representative model for organic films on atmospheric surfaces such as those found on oceans and aqueous aerosols. Film properties and behavior, notably stabilization, evaporation from the subphase, and miscibility in the single-component mixtures as well as in the mixed films will be discussed. An important consequence of FTOHs and perfluorocarboxylic acids being found to partition to the air-water interface is the possibility of their transport and widespread distribution and deposition using atmospheric aerosols.

  7. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem δ18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation

  8. SU-E-I-19: CTDI Values for All Protocols: Using the Ratio of the DLP Measured in CTDI Phantoms to the Measured Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Raterman, G; Gauntt, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a method other than CTDI phantom measurements for routine CT dosimetry QA. This consists of taking a series of air exposure measurements and calculating a factor for converting from this exposure measurement to the protocol's associated head or body CTDI value using DLP. The data presented are the ratios of phantom DLP to air exposure ratios for different scanners, as well as error in the displayed CTDI. Methods: For each scanner, the CTDI is measured at all available tube voltages using both the head and body phantoms. Then, the exposure is measured using a pencil chamber in air at isocenter. A ratio of phantom DLP to exposure in air for a given protocol may be calculated and used for converting a simple air dose measurement to a head or body CTDI value. For our routine QA, the exposure in air for different collimations, mAs, and kVp is measured, and displayed CTDI is recorded. Therefore, the ratio calculated may convert these exposures to CTDI values that may then be compared to the displayed CTDI for a large range of acquisition parameter combinations. Results: It was found that all scanners tend to have a ratio factor that slightly increases with kVp. Also, Philips scanners appear to have less of a dependence on kVp; whereas, GE scanners have a lower ratio at lower kVp. The use of air exposure times the DLP conversion yielded CTDI values that were less than 10% different from the displayed CTDI on several scanners. Conclusion: This method may be used as a primary method for CT dosimetry QA. As a result of the ease of measurement, a dosimetry metric specific to that scanner may be calculated for a wide variety of CT protocols, which could also be used to monitor display CTDI value accuracy.

  9. Effect of fuel to air ratio on Mach 0.3 burner rig hot corrosion of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to determine how the fuel to air mass ratio affects the durability of ZrO2-Y2O3/Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.31Y thermal barrier coating systems in combustion products containing 5 ppm Na and 2 ppm V. As the fuel to air mass ratio was increased from 0.039 to 0.049, the durability of ZrO2-6Y2O3, ZrO2-8Y2O3 and ZrO2-12Y2O3 coatings decreased. ZrO2-8Y2O3 coatings were approximately 2X and 1.3X more durable than ZrO2-12Y2O3 and ZrO2-6Y2O3 coatings respectively at the fuel to air mass ratio of 0.039. The number of one hour cycles endured by ZrO2-8Y2O3 coatings varied from averages of 53 to 200 for the fuel to air mass ratios of 0.049 and 0.039, respectively. At the fuel to air mass ratio of 0.049, all ZrO2-Y2O3 coated specimens failed in 40 to 60 one hour cycles

  10. Shear characteristics, miscibility, and topography of sodium caseinate-monoglyceride mixed films at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, we are concerned with the study of structure, topography, and surface rheological characteristics (under shear conditions) of mixed sodium caseinate and monoglycerides (monopalmitin and monoolein) at the air/water interface. Combined surface chemistry (surface film balance and surface shear rheometry) and microscopy (Brewster angle microscopy, BAM) techniques have been applied in this study to mixtures of insoluble lipids and sodium caseinate spread at the air-water interface. At a macroscopic level, sodium caseinate and monoglycerides form an heterogeneous and practically immiscible monolayer at the air-water interface. The images from BAM show segregated protein and monoglyceride domains that have different topography. At surface pressures higher than that for the sodium caseinate collapse, this protein is displaced from the interface by monoglycerides. These results and those derived from interfacial shear rheology (at a macroscopic level) appear to support the idea that immiscibility and heterogeneity of these emulsifiers at the interface have important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films, with the alternating flow of segregated monoglyceride domains (of low surface shear viscosity, etas) and protein domains (of high etas) across the canal.

  11. Subminute measurements of SO2 at low parts per trillion by volume mixing ratios in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, Dennis K., Jr.; Benner, Richard L.

    2001-11-01

    The continuous sulfur dioxide detector (CSD) is a sensitive instrument for reliable measurements at high time resolution in the atmosphere. This new instrument is based on a SO2 measurement technique utilizing the sulfur chemiluminescence detector, previously validated in a rigorously blind experiment sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Simplified sample handling, dénuder separation technology, and the intrinsic sensitivity and fast response of the detector permit measurement at levels below 100 parts per trillion by volume in tens of seconds with the CSD. The CSD provides a differential measurement where response from ambient SO2 is determined by the difference between air containing SO2 and air scrubbed of SO2, where both air samples contain other detectable sulfur species. Digital signal post processing with phase-locked amplification of the detector signal enhances the precision and temporal resolution of the CSD. Oversampling of the detector signal at 10 Hz permits subsequent data retrieval to be adapted to changing ambient levels by either enhancing signal to noise when sulfur dioxide levels are low or by maximizing temporal resolution of derived data when levels are high. he instrument has advantages over existing instruments based on Chromatographie separation in that the CSD provides accurate and reliable measurements at low parts per trillion by volume sulfur dioxide with high time resolution. The CSD is compact and automated and does not require cryogenic materials, making this instrument suitable for remote field locations. The high temporal resolution, specificity for SO2, and sensitivity of the CSD make it a good candidate for installation on an aircraft. Airborne studies of SO2 with a sensitive, fast time response instrument may offer new insight into the understanding of phenomena such as gas-to-particle conversion, long-range transport of pollutants, and the oxidation of biogenically produced sulfur gases.

  12. Spray formation in a quasiplanar gas-liquid mixing layer at moderate density ratios: A numerical closeup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yue; Fuster, Daniel; Zaleski, Stéphane; Tryggvason, Grétar

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional development of instabilities and the subsequent spray formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer are important fundamental problems in the area of multiphase flows. It is highly desirable to visualize this detailed atomization process and to analyze the instabilities and mechanisms involved, and massive numerical simulations are required, in addition to experiment. Rapid development of numerical methods and computer technology in the past decade now allows large-scale three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of atomization to be performed. Nevertheless, the fundamental question, whether all the physical scales involved in the primary breakup process are faithfully resolved, has eluded researchers until now. In the present study, we conduct direct numerical simulations of spray formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer with state-of-the-art computational resources (using up to 4 ×109 cells and 16 384 cores), in order to obtain a high-fidelity numerical closeup of the detailed mechanisms of spray formation. We also aim to examine whether present computational resources are sufficient for a fully resolved direct numerical simulation of atomization.

  13. Limits on D0-macro D0 mixing and CP violation from the ratio of lifetimes for decay to K-pi+, K-K+, and pi- pi+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Aspinwall, M L; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-09-19

    We present a measurement of D0-macro D0 mixing parameters using the ratios of lifetimes extracted from samples of D0 mesons decaying to K-pi(+), K-K+, and pi(-)pi(+). Using 91 fb(-1) of data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory, we obtain a value Y=[0.8+/-0.4(stat.)(+0.5)(-0.4)(syst.)]%, which, in the limit of CP conservation, corresponds to the mixing parameter y=Delta Gamma/2 Gamma. Using the difference in lifetimes of D0 and macro D0 mesons, we obtain the CP-violation parameter Delta Y=[-0.8+/-0.6(stat.)+/-0.2(syst.)]%.

  14. Limits on D0-D¯0 Mixing and CP Violation from the Ratio of Lifetimes for Decay to K-π+, K-K+, and π-π+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Goetzen, K.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Barillari, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Tinslay, J.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Diberder, F. Le; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljević, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Hast, C.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; Nardo, G. De; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Losecco, J. M.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, B.; Pulliam, T.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Potter, C. T.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Colecchia, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Buono, L. Del; Hamon, O.; John, M. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; T'jampens, S.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Wagoner, D. E.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J.; Varnes, E. W.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Schott, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Hryn'ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Menke, S.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Simi, G.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Meyer, T. I.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Saleem, M.; Wappler, F. R.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Kim, H.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; di Lodovico, F.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2003-09-01

    We present a measurement of D0-D¯0 mixing parameters using the ratios of lifetimes extracted from samples of D0 mesons decaying to K-π+, K-K+, and π-π+. Using 91 fb-1 of data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory, we obtain a value Y=[0.8±0.4(stat.)+0.5/-0.4(syst.)]%, which, in the limit of CP conservation, corresponds to the mixing parameter y=ΔΓ/2Γ. Using the difference in lifetimes of D0 and D¯0 mesons, we obtain the CP-violation parameter ΔY=[-0.8±0.6(stat.)±0.2(syst.)]%.

  15. The Effect of the Interannual Variability of the OH Sink on the Interannual Variability of the Atmospheric Methane Mixing Ratio and Carbon Stable Isotope Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermo Nuñez Ramirez, Tonatiuh; Houweling, Sander; Marshall, Julia; Williams, Jason; Brailsford, Gordon; Schneising, Oliver; Heimann, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentration (OH) varies due to changes in the incoming UV radiation, in the abundance of atmospheric species involved in the production, recycling and destruction of OH molecules and due to climate variability. Variability in carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning induced by El Niño Southern Oscillation are particularly important. Although the OH sink accounts for the oxidation of approximately 90% of atmospheric CH4, the effect of the variability in the distribution and strength of the OH sink on the interannual variability of atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C-CH4) has often been ignored. To show this effect we simulated the atmospheric signals of CH4 in a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model (TM3). ERA Interim reanalysis data provided the atmospheric transport and temperature variability from 1990 to 2010. We performed simulations using time dependent OH concentration estimations from an atmospheric chemistry transport model and an atmospheric chemistry climate model. The models assumed a different set of reactions and algorithms which caused a very different strength and distribution of the OH concentration. Methane emissions were based on published bottom-up estimates including inventories, upscaled estimations and modeled fluxes. The simulations also included modeled concentrations of atomic chlorine (Cl) and excited oxygen atoms (O(1D)). The isotopic signal of the sources and the fractionation factors of the sinks were based on literature values, however the isotopic signal from wetlands and enteric fermentation processes followed a linear relationship with a map of C4 plant fraction. The same set of CH4emissions and stratospheric reactants was used in all simulations. Two simulations were done per OH field: one in which the CH4 sources were allowed to vary interannually, and a second where the sources were climatological. The simulated mixing ratios and

  16. Particle settling and vertical mixing in the Saharan Air Layer as seen from an integrated model, lidar, and in situ perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Josef; Groß, Silke; Sauer, Daniel; Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2017-01-01

    Long-range transport of aerosol in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) across the Atlantic plays an important role for weather, climate, and ocean fertilization. However, processes occurring within the SAL and their effects on aerosol properties are still unclear. In this work we study particle settling and vertical mixing within the SAL based on measured and modeled vertical aerosol profiles in the upper 1 km of the transported SAL. We use ground-based lidar measurements and airborne particle counter measurements over the western Atlantic, collected during the SALTRACE campaign, as well as space-based CALIOP lidar measurements from Africa to the western Atlantic in the summer season. In our model we take account of the optical properties and the Stokes gravitational settling of irregularly shaped Saharan dust particles.We test two hypotheses about the occurrence of vertical mixing within the SAL over the Atlantic to explain the aerosol profiles observed by the lidars and the particle counter. Our first hypothesis (H1) assumes that no mixing occurs in the SAL leading to a settling-induced separation of particle sizes. The second hypothesis (H2) assumes that vertical mixing occurs in the SAL allowing large super-micron dust particles to stay airborne longer than without mixing. The uncertainties of the particle linear depolarization ratio (δl) profiles measured by the ground-based lidars are comparable to the modeled differences between H1 and H2 and do not allow us to conclude which hypothesis fits better. The SALTRACE in situ data on size-resolved particle number concentrations show a presence of large particles near the SAL top that is inconsistent with H1. The analysis of the CALIOP measurements also reveals that the average δl profile over the western Atlantic is inconsistent with H1. Furthermore, it was found that the average δl profile in the upper 1 km of the SAL does not change along its transport path over the Atlantic. These findings give evidence that

  17. Air sampling of flame retardants based on the use of mixed-bed sorption tubes--a validation study.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Borislav; Swinnen, Rudi; Spruyt, Maarten; Maes, Frederick; Van Campenhout, Karen; Goelen, Eddy; Covaci, Adrian; Stranger, Marianne

    2015-11-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was optimized and validated for simultaneous determination of a set of components from three different flame retardant chemical classes: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (PBDE-28, PBDE-47, PBDE-66, PBDE-85, PBDE-99, PBDE-100), organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) (tributyl phosphate, tripropyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate-, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate and tricresylphosphate), and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (pentabromotoluene, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene, (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether, hexabromobenzene, and 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate) in air. The methodology is based on low volume active air sampling of gaseous and particulate air fractions on mixed-bed (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Tenax TA) sorption tubes. The optimized method provides recoveries >88%; a limit of detection in the range of 6-25 pg m(-3) for PBDEs, 6-171 pg m(-3) for PFRs, and 7-41 pg m(-3) for NBFRs; a linearity greater than 0.996; and a repeatability of less than 10% for all studied compounds. The optimized method was compared with a standard method using active air sampling on XAD-2 sorbent material, followed by liquid extraction. On the one hand, the PDMS/Tenax TA method shows comparable results at longer sampling time conditions (e.g., indoor air sampling, personal air sampling). On the other hand, at shorter sampling time conditions (e.g., sampling from emission test chambers), the optimized method detects up to three times higher concentrations and identifies more flame retardant compounds compared to the standard method based on XAD-2 loading.

  18. Temperatures and CH4 mixing ratios near the homopause of the 8 μm north polar hot spot of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Geballe, Thomas R.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Yung, Yuk L.; Miller, Steve; Orton, G. S.; Minh, Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    We have derived homopause temperatures of 180-250 K for the 8-μm north-polar hot spot (8NPHS) of Jupiter by fitting CH4 emission models to 3 and 8 μm spectra of the 8NPHS obtained 24 days apart in 2013. From the fits, we find that CH4 mixing ratios at the 8NPHS are consistent with those reported by Kim et al. (2014) in equatorial regions. We propose possible mechanisms to account for the temperature of the 8NPHS homopause, which is relatively cool compared with the temperatures of other auroral regions, including locally-fixed and transient but energetic auroral particle precipitation.

  19. Fast response air-to-fuel ratio measurements using a novel device based on a wide band lambda sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regitz, S.; Collings, N.

    2008-07-01

    A crucial parameter influencing the formation of pollutant gases in internal combustion engines is the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR). During transients on gasoline and diesel engines, significant AFR excursions from target values can occur, but cycle-by-cycle AFR resolution, which is helpful in understanding the origin of deviations, is difficult to achieve with existing hardware. This is because current electrochemical devices such as universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have a time constant of 50-100 ms, depending on the engine running conditions. This paper describes the development of a fast reacting device based on a wide band lambda sensor which has a maximum time constant of ~20 ms and enables cyclic AFR measurements for engine speeds of up to ~4000 rpm. The design incorporates a controlled sensor environment which results in insensitivity to sample temperature and pressure. In order to guide the development process, a computational model was developed to predict the effect of pressure and temperature on the diffusion mechanism. Investigations regarding the sensor output and response were carried out, and sensitivities to temperature and pressure are examined. Finally, engine measurements are presented.

  20. Nonlinear torque and air-to-fuel ratio control of spark ignition engines using neuro-sliding mode techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Javaherian, Hossein; Liu, Derong

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the calibration and control of spark ignition engines using a combination of neural networks and sliding mode control technique. Two parallel neural networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSLMC) for self-learning control of automotive engines. The equivalent control and the corrective control terms are the outputs of the neural networks. Instead of using error backpropagation algorithm, the network weights of equivalent control are updated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Moreover, a new approach is utilized to update the gain of corrective control. Both modifications of the NSLMC are aimed at improving the transient performance and speed of convergence. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we built neural network models for the engine torque (TRQ) and the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) dynamics and developed NSLMC controllers to achieve tracking control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values under various operating conditions. From simulation studies, the feasibility and efficiency of the approach are illustrated. For both control problems, excellent tracking performance has been achieved.

  1. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  2. Acetonitrile in the air over Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, S.; Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1989-06-01

    A gas chromatographic technique was developed to measure acetonitrile mixing ratios in air samples collected during three aircraft flights over Europe. Uniform mixing ratios were observed in the troposphere independent of altitude, with an average of 144+-26 pptv for the first two flights, and 194+-7 pptv for the third. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. In this project, IBACOS studied when HVAC equipment is downsized and ducts are unaltered to determine conditions that could cause a supply air delivery problem and to evaluate the feasibility of modifying the duct systems using minimally invasive strategies to improve air distribution.

  4. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  5. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  6. Preparation of hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase with adjustable selectivity by controlling different ratios of the co-monomers.

    PubMed

    Bo, Chunmiao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2017-03-03

    Development of mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) stationary phase with adjustable selectivity is beneficial to meet the needs of complex samples. In this work, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) using the mixture of two functional monomers was proposed as a new preparation strategy for MMC stationary phase with adjustable selectivity. The mixture of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NASS) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) underwent SI-ATRP to bond poly(NASS-co-DMAEMA) on the surface of silica to prepare hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode stationary phase. Various analytes (neutral, acidic, basic analytes and strong polar nucleosides) were employed to investigate the retention behaviors. The influences of water content and pH of the mobile phase on the retention validated the mixed-mode retention mechanisms of HILIC and ion-exchange. The charge and polarity of stationary phase as well as the separation selectivity were conveniently manipulated by the ratio of NASS to DMAEMA monomer, and the use of DMAEMA in the mixture additionally endowed the column with the temperature-responsive characteristics. Moreover, the application of the developed column was demonstrated by the successful separation of nucleosides, β-agonists and safflower injection. In a word, the proposed strategy can be potentially applied in the controllable preparation of MMC stationary phase with adjustable selectivity.

  7. Bioremediation of storage tank bottom sludge by using a two-stage composting system: Effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition.

    PubMed

    Koolivand, Ali; Rajaei, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghanadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Hamid; Godini, Kazem

    2017-03-21

    The effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition on the efficiency of a two-stage composting system in removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from storage tank bottom sludge (STBS) was investigated. The system consisted of ten windrow piles as primary composting (PC) followed by four in-vessel reactors as secondary composting (SC). Various initial C/N/P and mixing ratios of STBS to immature compost (IC) were examined in the PC and SC for 12 and 6weeks, respectively. The removal rates of TPH in the two-stage system (93.72-95.24%) were higher than those in the single-stage one. Depending on the experiments, TPH biodegradation fitted to the first- and second-order kinetics with the rate constants of 0.051-0.334d(-1) and 0.002-0.165gkg(-1)d(-1), respectively. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Proteus sp. The study verified that a two-stage composting system is effective in treating the STBS.

  8. Acoustics and Trust of Separate-Flow Exhaust Nozzles With Mixing Devices for High-Bypass-Ratio Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.; Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; Bridges, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed an experimental study to reduce the jet noise from modern turbofan engines. The study concentrated on exhaust nozzle designs for high-bypass-ratio engines. These designs modified the core and fan nozzles individually and simultaneously. Several designs provided an ideal jet noise reduction of over 2.5 EPNdB for the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) metric. Noise data, after correcting for takeoff thrust losses, indicated over a 2.0-EPNdB reduction for nine designs. Individually modifying the fan nozzle did not provide attractive EPNL reductions. Designs in which only the core nozzle was modified provided greater EPNL reductions. Designs in which core and fan nozzles were modified simultaneously provided the greatest EPNL reduction. The best nozzle design had a 2.7-EPNdB reduction (corrected for takeoff thrust loss) with a 0.06-point cruise thrust loss. This design simultaneously employed chevrons on the core and fan nozzles. In comparison with chevrons, tabs appeared to be an inefficient method for reducing jet noise. Data trends indicate that the sum of the thrust losses from individually modifying core and fan nozzles did not generally equal the thrust loss from modifying them simultaneously. Flow blockage from tabs did not scale directly with cruise thrust loss and the interaction between fan flow and the core nozzle seemed to strongly affect noise and cruise performance. Finally, the nozzle configuration candidates for full-scale engine demonstrations are identified.

  9. Low Ozone and High Mixing Ratios of Long-Lived Trace Gases in the Tropical Tropopause Layer over the Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Haugstad, A.; McClure-Begley, A.; Nance, J. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Gao, R. S.; Rollins, A. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Watts, L. A.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Campos, T. L.; Homeyer, C. R.; Honomichl, S.; Pan, L.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The tropopause over the western tropical Pacific is thought to be one of the primary entry points of air from the troposphere into the stratosphere. In this region, temperatures are low enough in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL; ~14-18.5 km) to dehydrate air to the low values observed in the stratosphere. The NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) mission was designed to study the transport of water vapor and other trace gases in the TTL over the Pacific Ocean, in order to better understand how dehydration occurs and how ozone-depleting gases reach the lower stratosphere. The field campaign phase of the mission recently concluded with flights of the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aircraft over the western tropical Pacific from Guam in January-March 2014 (ATTREX-3). This followed two previous deployments with flights from California to the central and eastern tropical Pacific (ATTREX-1 and 2). Particularly in ATTREX-3, the long duration of the Global Hawk allowed observations over nearly a complete diurnal cycle in the TTL. Over 100 vertical profiles in the TTL were obtained over the western tropical Pacific, as well as long sections at constant altitude. As expected, very low values of water vapor (a few ppm) were observed, and ice saturation was frequently encountered. Ozone was consistently low in the TTL (averaging ~20 ppb), with low values extending up to the tropopause, particularly in March 2014. While ozone as low as 20 ppb was occasionally observed over the central and eastern Pacific in February-March 2013 during ATTREX-2, it more often averaged 40-50 ppb, and typically increased slowly with height from about 14 km to the tropopause. In ATTREX-3, long-lived tracers such as N2O were very close to their tropospheric values over the western tropical Pacific. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) data indicated that sampled air masses originated in the tropics, with little in-mixing of extratropical air. Methane and CO often peaked near the local tropopause

  10. Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong Y; Thomsen, Ed C; Weil, K Scott

    2007-01-19

    This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750°C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3- (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

  11. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  12. Partitioning of atmospheric carbon dioxide over Central Europe: insights from combined measurements of CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition.

    PubMed

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Jelen, Dorota; Galkowski, Michal; Kuc, Tadeusz; Necki, Jaroslaw; Chmura, Lukasz; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Jasek, Alina; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2012-09-01

    Regular measurements of atmospheric CO (2) mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition ((13)C/(12)C and (14)C/(12)C ratios) performed between 2005 and 2009 at two sites of contrasting characteristics (Krakow and the remote mountain site Kasprowy Wierch) located in southern Poland were used to derive fossil fuel-related and biogenic contributions to the total CO (2) load measured at both sites. Carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere, not coming from fossil fuel and biogenic sources, was considered 'background' CO (2). In Krakow, the average contribution of fossil fuel CO (2) was approximately 3.4%. The biogenic component was of the same magnitude. Both components revealed a distinct seasonality, with the fossil fuel component reaching maximum values during winter months and the biogenic component shifted in phase by approximately 6 months. The partitioning of the local CO (2) budget for the Kasprowy Wierch site revealed large differences in the derived components: the fossil fuel component was approximately five times lower than that derived for Krakow, whereas the biogenic component was negative in summer, pointing to the importance of photosynthetic sink associated with extensive forests in the neighbourhood of the station. While the presented study has demonstrated the strength of combined measurements of CO (2) mixing ratios and their carbon isotope signature as efficient tools for elucidating the partitioning of local atmospheric CO (2) loads, it also showed the important role of the land cover and the presence of the soil in the footprint of the measurement location, which control the net biogenic surface CO (2) fluxes.

  13. Mixed protocols: Multiple ratios of FSH and LH bioactivity using highly purified, human-derived FSH (BRAVELLE) and highly purified hMG (MENOPUR) are unaltered by mixing together in the same syringe

    PubMed Central

    Scobey, M Joseph; Raike, Elizabeth; Marshall, Dennis C

    2005-01-01

    Background The use of mixed or blended protocols, that utilize both FSH and hMG, for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is increasing in use. To reduce the number of injections a patient must administer, many physicians instruct their patients to mix their FSH and hMG together to be given as a single injection. Therefore, the goal of this study was to definitively determine if the FSH and LH bioactivities of highly purified, human-derived FSH (Bravelle(R)) and highly purified hMG (Menopur(R)) were altered by reconstituting in 0.9% saline and mixing in the same syringe. Methods Bravelle(R) and Menopur(R) were reconstituted in 0.9% saline and mixed in a Becton Dickinson plastic syringe. The FSH and LH bioactivities of the products were determined after injecting female and male rats, respectively, with Bravelle(R), Menopur(R), or a mixture of Bravelle(R) and Menopur(R). Ratios of FSH:LH activity tested were 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R): 1 vial Menopur(R)), 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R): 1 vial Menopur(R)) or 300:225 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R): 3 vials of Menopur(R)). Results There were no statistically significant changes in either FSH or LH bioactivity that occurred after mixing Bravelle(R) with Menopur(R) in the same syringe. The theoretical vs. actual FSH bioactivity for Bravelle(R) and Menopur(R) were 75 vs. 76.58 IU/mL and 75 vs. 76.0 IU/mL, respectively. For the 3 ratios of FSH:LH activity tested, 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R): 1 vial Menopur(R)), 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R): 1 vial Menopur(R)) or 300:225 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R): 3 vials of Menopur(R)) tested, the theoretical vs. actual FSH bioactivities were 150 vs. 156.86 IU/mL, 300 vs. 308.69 IU/mL and 300 vs. 306.58 IU/mL, respectively. The theoretical vs. actual LH bioactivity for Menopur(R) in the above mentioned ratios tested were 75 vs. 77.50 IU/mL. For the 3 ratios of FSH:LH activity tested, 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R): 1 vial Menopur(R)), 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R): 1 vial Menopur(R)) or 300

  14. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    2002–2011) SOURCES: IMA billets: MPES; deployed days: DMDC and Air Force (multiple files), FYs 2002–2011. In Figure 2.8, we array a subset of...characters, with an optional prefix or suffix . In the officer AFSC, the digits represent, in order, a career group, utilization field, functional area...a single AFSC, while the suffix (also called a shredout) represents particular equipment or functions within an AFSC. 30 AFSCs are used to identify

  15. Identification of European Air Masses Using an Interactive Computer Technique for Separating Mixed Normal Distributions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    classifying a maritime surface, he refers to the Pacific, Atlantic, or Gulf of Mexico using the general term "maritime" only when the exact origin is...portions of North Atlantic NPA PA air modified over warm North Atlantic TC Southern U.S. and Northern Mexico TG Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean NTG TG...Bergeron, T., 1928: " Uber Die Dreidimensional Verknupfende Wetteranalyse, Teil I." Geofys. Pub!., Vol. 5, No. 6. Berggren, R., 1953: "On Temperature

  16. Mixing behavior of a poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted phospholipid in monolayers at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Tsoukanova, Valeria; Salesse, Christian

    2008-11-18

    Mixed phospholipid monolayers hosting a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine with a PEG molecular weight of 5000 (DSPE-PEG5000) spread at the air/water interface were used as model systems to study the effect of PEG-phospholipids on the lateral structure of PEG-grafted membrane-mimetic surfaces. DSPE-PEG5000 has been found to mix readily with distearoylphosphoethanolamine-succinyl (DSPE-succynil), a phospholipid whose structure resembles closely that of the phospholipid part of the DSPE-PEG5000 molecule. However, properties of mixed monolayers such as morphology and stability varied significantly with DSPE-PEG5000 content. In particular, our surface pressure, epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) studies have shown that mixtures containing 1-9 mol % of DSPE-PEG5000 form stable condensed monolayers with no sign of microscopic phase separation at surface pressures above approximately 25 mN/m. Yet, at 1 mol % of DSPE-PEG5000 in mixed monolayers, the two components have been found to behave nearly immiscibly at surface pressures below approximately 25 mN/m. For monolayers containing 18-75 mol % of DSPE-PEG5000, a high-pressure transition has been observed in the low-compressibility region of their isotherms, which has been identified on the basis of continuous BAM imaging of monolayer morphology, as reminiscent of the collapse nucleation in a pure DSPE-PEG5000 monolayer. Thus, the comparative analysis of our surface pressure, EFM, and BAM data has revealed that there exists a rather narrow range of mixture compositions with DSPE-PEG5000 content between 3 and 9 mol %, where somewhat homogeneous distribution of DSPE-PEG5000 molecules and high pressure stability can be achieved. This finding can be useful to "navigating" through possible mixture compositions while developing guidelines to the rational design of membrane-mimetic surfaces with highly controlled bio-nonfouling properties.

  17. Influence of the overfire air ratio on the NO(x) emission and combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MW(e) utility boiler.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feng; Li, Zhengqi; Chen, Zhichao; Fan, Subo; Liu, Guangkui

    2010-08-15

    Down-fired boilers used to burn low-volatile coals have high NO(x) emissions. To find a way of solving this problem, an overfire air (OFA) system was introduced on a 300 MW(e) down-fired boiler. Full-scale experiments were performed on this retrofitted boiler to explore the influence of the OFA ratio (the mass flux ratio of OFA to the total combustion air) on the combustion and NO(x) emission characteristics in the furnace. Measurements were taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows, average gas temperatures along the furnace height, concentrations of gases such as O(2), CO, and NO(x) in the near-wall region and carbon content in the fly ash. Data were compared for five different OFA ratios. The results show that as the OFA ratio increases from 12% to 35%, the NO(x) emission decreases from 1308 to 966 mg/Nm(3) (at 6% O(2) dry) and the carbon content in the fly ash increases from 6.53% to 15.86%. Considering both the environmental and economic effect, 25% was chosen as the optimized OFA ratio.

  18. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  19. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene levels in ambient air and the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a diagnostic ratio method in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants produced from incomplete combustion of fuel or vegetation fires. Their presence in air deserves attention because they can produce carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. As an industrialized and economically significant city in Ghana, Kumasi has been subject to heavy anthropogenic influences due to rapid economic development and urbanization leading to a greater fuel combustion rate. Airborne particulate samples were collected on filters using a Sibata air sampler and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results indicated that air from the city center can be classified as highly polluted with benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P). The diagnostic ratios of the results showed that PAHs in the air samples were mainly from fuel combustion.

  20. Mixing layer height and the implications for air pollution over Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Zhang, J.; Münkel, C.; Song, T.; Hu, B.; Schäfer, K.; Liu, Z.; Xin, J.; Suppan, P.; Wang, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The mixing layer is an important meteorological factor that affects atmospheric pollution. A study of atmospheric pollution in the Beijing area was performed from July 2009 to December 2012, using a ceilometer, to observe and study the atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH). Based on a comparison and validation of multiple types of data, we evaluated the quality of the MLH data as observed by the ceilometer and found that the ceilometer underestimates MLH during neutral stratification caused by strong winds, whereas it overestimates MLH during dust crossing. By combining conventional meteorological data and PM2.5 and PM10 observational data, we screened the observational results for the MLH, and the ceilometer observations were fairly consistent with the meteorological radiosonde profile results. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.9, and the effective rate of acquired data is near 80 %. Further analysis of the variation in the MLH indicates that the MLH in the Beijing area exhibits the feature of being low in autumn and winter and being high in spring and summer. There is a significant correlation between the variation in the MLH and the sensible heat flux, whereas the diurnal variation in the mixing layer during summer is affected by the circulation of mountainous plain winds. By applying visibility as the index for the classification of atmospheric pollution degree, it is found that in comparison with a clear day, the variation of sensible heat and buoyancy term in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of a slight haze day is insignificant, but the reduction of shear term in TKE is near 70 % when visibility decreased from 10 to 5 km; in comparison with the slight haze day, the variation of shear term in TKE of medium and heavy haze days is insignificant, but the declination of sensible heat and buoyancy term in TKE are about 60 % when visibility decreased from 5 to 1 km. Although the correlation between the daily variation of MLH and visibility is very poor, the

  1. Patterns of understory diversity in mixed coniferous forests of southern California impacted by air pollution.

    PubMed

    Allen, Edith B; Temple, Patrick J; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael J; Sirulnik, Abby G; Rao, Leela E

    2007-03-21

    The forests of the San Bernardino Mountains have been subject to ozone and nitrogen (N) deposition for some 60 years. Much work has been done to assess the impacts of these pollutants on trees, but little is known about how the diverse understory flora has fared. Understory vegetation has declined in diversity in response to elevated N in the eastern U.S. and Europe. Six sites along an ozone and N deposition gradient that had been part of a long-term study on response of plants to air pollution beginning in 1973 were resampled in 2003. Historic ozone data and leaf injury scores confirmed the gradient. Present-day ozone levels were almost half of these, and recent atmospheric N pollution concentrations confirmed the continued air pollution gradient. Both total and extractable soil N were higher in sites on the western end of the gradient closer to the urban source of pollution, pH was lower, and soil carbon (C) and litter were higher. The gradient also had decreasing precipitation and increasing elevation from west to east. However, the dominant tree species were the same across the gradient. Tree basal area increased during the 30-year interval in five of the sites. The two westernmost sites had 30-45% cover divided equally between native and exotic understory herbaceous species, while the other sites had only 3-13% cover dominated by native species. The high production is likely related to higher precipitation at the western sites as well as elevated N. The species richness was in the range of 24 to 30 in four of the sites, but one site of intermediate N deposition had 42 species, while the easternmost, least polluted site had 57 species. These were primarily native species, as no site had more than one to three exotic species. In three of six sites, 20-40% of species were lost between 1973 and 2003, including the two westernmost sites. Two sites with intermediate pollution had little change in total species number over 30 years, and the easternmost site had more

  2. Turbulent Mixing and Combustion for High-Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-12

    AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION APPLICATIONS P . E. Dimotakis, Principal Investigator John K. Northrop Professor ofAeronautics and Professor of Applied Physics...performance of the device is the overall pressure coefficient, C = 2(pe- p )/(pU12), where pe and pi are the exit and inlet pressures, respectively. In...1 . O. 1 o-o p ) Fig. 6 Instantaneous passive scalar isosurfaces for a M, 0.5 top stream. 7 Fig. 7 Computed pressure coefficient on the top (solid line

  3. Experimental study of the operating characteristics of premixing-prevaporizing fuel/air mixing passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohy, D. A.; Meier, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel spray and air flow characteristics were determined using nonintrusive (optical) measurement techniques in a fuel preparation duct. A very detailed data set was obtained at high pressures (to 10 atm) and temperatures (to 750 K). The data will be used to calibrate an analytical model which will facilitate the design of a lean premixed prevaporized combustor. This combustor has potential for achieving low pollutant emissions and low levels of flame radiation and pattern factors conductive to improved durability and performance for a variety of fuels.

  4. Numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer from two isothermal circular cylinders in tandem arrangement: buoyancy, spacing ratio, and confinement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, Erick; Cajas, Juan C.; Treviño, César; Martínez-Suástegui, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical study for mixed convection in a laminar cross-flow with a pair of stationary equal-sized isothermal cylinders in tandem arrangement confined in a channel. The governing equations are solved using the control volume method on a nonuniform orthogonal Cartesian grid, and the immersed boundary method is employed to identify the cylinders placed in the flow field. The numerical scheme is first validated against standard cases of symmetrically confined isothermal circular cylinders in plane channels, and grid convergence tests were also examined. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of buoyancy and the blockage ratio constraint on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the immersed cylinder array. Using a fixed Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter of ReD = 200, a fixed value of the Prandtl number of Pr = 7, and a blockage ratio of D/H = 0.2, all possible flow regimes are considered by setting the longitudinal spacing ratio (σ = L/D) between the cylinder axes to 2, 3, and 5 for values of the buoyancy parameter (Richardson number) in the range -1≤ Ri≤ 4. The interference effects and complex flow features are presented in the form of mean and instantaneous velocity, vorticity, and temperature distributions. The results demonstrate how the buoyancy, spacing ratio, and wall confinement affect the wake structure and vortex dynamics. In addition, local and average heat transfer characteristics of both cylinders are comprehensively presented for a wide range in the parametric space.

  5. Mixed Sex Effects on the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio of Túngara Frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and Cane Toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Beaty, Lynne E; Emmering, Quinn C; Bernal, Ximena E

    2016-04-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the ratio of digit lengths has been correlated to behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits in a variety of taxa. While sexual dimorphism in the second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is a well-established indicator of prenatal androgen exposure in mammals, investigations into the patterns of 2D:4D and the drivers of such variation in other taxa are lacking. We used linear mixed effects models to gain a mechanistic understanding of the factors that drive variation in the scaling relationship between the lengths of the second and fourth digits in two species of anurans: túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and cane toads (Rhinella marina). We found evidence for sexual dimorphism of the 2D:4D scaling relationship on the front feet of túngara frogs, with female frogs having a larger ratio than males resulting from a relatively longer second digit on females. To our knowledge, this mammal-like pattern of sex differences in digit ratio has not yet been reported for anurans. However, given the reduced number of digits on the front feet of anurans, and uncertainty about which digit was lost during evolutionary history, this apparent sexual dimorphism in the front feet of túngara frogs should be treated with caution. In contrast, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D on either the front or rear feet of cane toads. This study highlights ambiguities in 2D:4D across taxa and suggests that further research is needed to evaluate the effect of androgens on 2D:4D in animals other than placental mammals.

  6. Numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer from two isothermal circular cylinders in tandem arrangement: buoyancy, spacing ratio, and confinement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, Erick; Cajas, Juan C.; Treviño, César; Martínez-Suástegui, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical study for mixed convection in a laminar cross-flow with a pair of stationary equal-sized isothermal cylinders in tandem arrangement confined in a channel. The governing equations are solved using the control volume method on a nonuniform orthogonal Cartesian grid, and the immersed boundary method is employed to identify the cylinders placed in the flow field. The numerical scheme is first validated against standard cases of symmetrically confined isothermal circular cylinders in plane channels, and grid convergence tests were also examined. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of buoyancy and the blockage ratio constraint on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the immersed cylinder array. Using a fixed Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter of ReD = 200 , a fixed value of the Prandtl number of Pr = 7 , and a blockage ratio of D/H = 0.2 , all possible flow regimes are considered by setting the longitudinal spacing ratio (σ = L/D ) between the cylinder axes to 2, 3, and 5 for values of the buoyancy parameter (Richardson number) in the range -1≤ Ri≤ 4 . The interference effects and complex flow features are presented in the form of mean and instantaneous velocity, vorticity, and temperature distributions. The results demonstrate how the buoyancy, spacing ratio, and wall confinement affect the wake structure and vortex dynamics. In addition, local and average heat transfer characteristics of both cylinders are comprehensively presented for a wide range in the parametric space.

  7. Plasma parameters and active species kinetics in CF4/O2/Ar gas mixture: effects of CF4/O2 and O2/Ar mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junmyung; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Efremov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of both CF4/O2 and O2/Ar mixing ratios in three-component CF4/O2/Ar mixture on plasma parameters, densities and fluxes of active species determining the dry etching kinetics were analyzed. The investigation combined plasma diagnostics by Langmuir probes and zero-dimensional plasma modeling. It was found that the substitution of CF4 for O2 at constant fraction of Ar in a feed gas produces the non-monotonic change in F atom density, as it was repeatedly reported for the binary CF4/O2 gas mixtures. At the same time, the substitution of Ar for O2 at constant fraction of CF4 results in the monotonic increase in F atom density toward more oxygenated plasmas. The natures of these phenomena as well as theirs possible impacts on the etching/polymerization kinetics were discussed in details.

  8. Surface properties and morphology of mixed POSS-DPPC monolayers at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Rojewska, Monika; Skrzypiec, Marta; Prochaska, Krystyna

    2017-02-01

    From the point of view of the possible medical applications of POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes), it is crucial to analyse interactions occurring between POSS and model biological membrane at molecular level. Knowledge of the interaction between POSS and DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) allows prediction of the impact of POSS contained in biomaterials or cosmetics on a living organism. In the study presented, the surface properties and morphology of Langmuir monolayers formed by mixtures of POSS and the phospholipid (DPPC) at the air/water surface are examined. We selected two POSS derivatives, with completely different chemical structure of substituents attached to the corner of the silicon open cage, which allowed the analysis of the impact of the character of organic moieties (strongly hydrophobic or clearly hydrophilic) on the order of POSS molecules and their tendency to form self-aggregates at the air/water surface. POSS derivatives significantly changed the profile of the π-A isotherms obtained for DPPC but in different ways. On the basis of the regular solution theory, the miscibility and stability of the two components in the monolayer were analysed in terms of compression modulus (Cs(-1)), excess Gibbs free energy (ΔGexc), activity coefficients (γ) and interaction parameter (ξ). The results obtained indicate the existence of two different interaction mechanisms between DPPC and POSS which depend on the chemical character of moieties present in POSS molecules.

  9. Leaching of boron, arsenic and selenium from sedimentary rocks: I. Effects of contact time, mixing speed and liquid-to-solid ratio.

    PubMed

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Hashimoto, Ayaka; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Tetsuro

    2014-02-15

    Sedimentary rocks of marine origin excavated in tunnel projects were recently identified as potentially hazardous because they could release significant amounts of toxic trace elements when exposed to the environment. This study investigated the leaching characteristics of B, As, Se and the major coexisting ions under various conditions to identify the factors and processes controlling their evolution in the leachate. In addition, we evaluated whether the parameters of the currently used leachability test for excavated rocks were adequate. Although the leachabilities of B, As and Se similarly increased at longer contact times, only those of B and As were influenced by the mixing speed and/or liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S). The majority of trace elements dissolved in the leachate originated from the dissolution of soluble salts formed from seawater of the Cretaceous trapped during the formation of the sedimentary rocks. Moreover, the alkaline pH of the leachates could be attributed to the simultaneous dissolutions at varying degrees of the mineral components of the rocks as well as the precipitation of clay minerals. In the leaching test of excavated rocks for regulatory purposes, the best values of contact time and mixing speed should represent conditions of the highest trace element extractabilities, which in this study were found at longer contact times (>48 h) and the fastest mixing speed (200 rpm). The most appropriate L/S for the leaching test is 10 because it was around this L/S that the extractabilities and leaching concentrations of the trace elements were simultaneously observed at their highest values.

  10. Exploring the possibility to store the mixed oxygen-hydrogen cluster in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2 (O2+2H2).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan; Du, Qi-Shi; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Li, Jian-Xiu; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-02-01

    An interesting possibility is explored: storing the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2. The interaction energies between oxygen, hydrogen, and clathrate hydrate are calculated using high level quantum chemical methods. The useful conclusion points from this study are summarized as follows. (1) The interaction energies of oxygen-hydrogen mixed cluster are larger than the energies of pure hydrogen molecular cluster. (2) The affinity of oxygen molecules with water molecules is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules with water molecules. (3) The dimension of O2-2H2 interaction structure is smaller than the dimension of CO2-2H2 interaction structure. (4) The escaping energy of oxygen molecules from the hydrate cell is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules. (5) The high affinity of the oxygen molecules with both the water molecules and the hydrogen molecules may promote the stability of oxygen-hydrogen mixture in the clathrate hydrate. Therefore it is possible to store the mixed (O2+2H2) cluster in clathrate hydrate.

  11. Effect of atmospheric mixing layer depth variations on urban air quality and daily mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, M; Tobias, A; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Lorente, J; Pey, J; Querol, X

    2014-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the outbreaks of Saharan dust over southern European countries can cause negative health effects. The reasons for the increased toxicity of airborne particles during dust storms remain to be understood although the presence of biogenic factors carried by dust particles and the interaction between dust and man-made air pollution have been hypothesized as possible causes. Intriguingly, recent findings have also demonstrated that during Saharan dust outbreaks the local man-made particulates can have stronger effects on health than during days without outbreaks. We show that the thinning of the mixing layer (ML) during Saharan dust outbreaks, systematically described here for the first time, can trigger the observed higher toxicity of ambient local air. The mixing layer height (MLH) progressively reduced with increasing intensity of dust outbreaks thus causing a progressive accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants and favouring the formation of new fine particles or specific relevant species likely from condensation of accumulated gaseous precursors on dust particles surface. Overall, statistically significant associations of MLH with all-cause daily mortality were observed. Moreover, as the MLH reduced, the risk of mortality associated with the same concentration of particulate matter increased due to the observed pollutant accumulation. The association of MLH with daily mortality and the effect of ML thinning on particle toxicity exacerbated when Saharan dust outbreaks occurred suggesting a synergic effect of atmospheric pollutants on health which was amplified during dust outbreaks. Moreover, the results may reflect higher toxicity of primary particles which predominate on low MLH days.

  12. Effect of atmospheric mixing layer depth variations on urban air quality and daily mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfi, M.; Tobias, A.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Schwartz, J.; Lorente, J.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the outbreaks of Saharan dust over southern European countries can cause negative health effects. The reasons for the increased toxicity of airborne particles during dust storms remain to be understood although the presence of biogenic factors carried by dust particles or the interaction between dust and man-made air pollution have been hypothesized as possible causes. Intriguingly, recent findings have also demonstrated that during Saharan dust outbreaks the local man-made particulates can have stronger effects on health than during days without outbreaks. We show that the thinning of the mixing layer (ML) during Saharan dust outbreaks, systematically described here for the first time, can trigger the observed higher toxicity of ambient local air. The mixing layer height (MLH) progressively reduced with increasing intensity of dust outbreaks thus causing a progressive accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants and favouring the formation of new fine particles or specific relevant species likely from condensation of accumulated gaseous precursors on dust particles surface. Overall, statistically significant associations of MLH with all-cause daily mortality were observed. Moreover, as the MLH reduced, the risk of mortality associated with the same concentration of particulate matter increased due to the observed pollutants accumulation. The association of MLH with daily mortality and the effect of ML thinning on particle toxicity exacerbated when Saharan dust outbreaks occurred suggesting a synergic effect of atmospheric pollutants on health which was amplified during dust outbreaks. Moreover, the results may reflect higher toxicity of primary particles which predominate on low MLH days. PMID:25051327

  13. Polydimethylsiloxane-air partition ratios for semi-volatile organic compounds by GC-based measurement and COSMO-RS estimation: Rapid measurements and accurate modelling.

    PubMed

    Okeme, Joseph O; Parnis, J Mark; Poole, Justen; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M

    2016-08-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shows promise for use as a passive air sampler (PAS) for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To use PDMS as a PAS, knowledge of its chemical-specific partitioning behaviour and time to equilibrium is needed. Here we report on the effectiveness of two approaches for estimating the partitioning properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), values of PDMS-to-air partition ratios or coefficients (KPDMS-Air), and time to equilibrium of a range of SVOCs. Measured values of KPDMS-Air, Exp' at 25 °C obtained using the gas chromatography retention method (GC-RT) were compared with estimates from a poly-parameter free energy relationship (pp-FLER) and a COSMO-RS oligomer-based model. Target SVOCs included novel flame retardants (NFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Significant positive relationships were found between log KPDMS-Air, Exp' and estimates made using the pp-FLER model (log KPDMS-Air, pp-LFER) and the COSMOtherm program (log KPDMS-Air, COSMOtherm). The discrepancy and bias between measured and predicted values were much higher for COSMO-RS than the pp-LFER model, indicating the anticipated better performance of the pp-LFER model than COSMO-RS. Calculations made using measured KPDMS-Air, Exp' values show that a PDMS PAS of 0.1 cm thickness will reach 25% of its equilibrium capacity in ∼1 day for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) to ∼ 500 years for tris (4-tert-butylphenyl) phosphate (TTBPP), which brackets the volatility range of all compounds tested. The results presented show the utility of GC-RT method for rapid and precise measurements of KPDMS-Air.

  14. The Effect of Air Preheat at Atmospheric Pressure on the Formation of NO(x) in the Quick-Mix Sections of an Axially Staged Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vardakas, M. A.; Leong, M. Y.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept has been proposed to minimize the formation of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in gas turbine systems. The success of this combustor strategy is dependent upon the efficiency of the mixing section bridging the fuel-rich and fuel-lean stages. Note that although these results were obtained from an experiment designed to study an RQL mixer, the link between mixing and NOx signatures is considerably broader than this application, in that the need to understand this link exists in most advanced combustors. The experiment reported herein was designed to study the effects of inlet air temperature on NO(x) formation in a mixing section. The results indicate that NO(x) emission is increased for all preheated cases compared to non-preheated cases. When comparing the various mixing modules, the affect of jet penetration is important, as this determines where NO(x) concentrations peak, and affects overall NO(x) production. Although jet air comprises 70 percent of the total airflow, the impact that jet air preheat has on overall NO(x) emissions is small compared to preheating both main and jet air flow.

  15. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  16. Black carbon over Mexico: the effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, D.; Clarke, A.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, T. L.; Heizer, C. G.; Stephens, B. B.; de Foy, B.; Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 μg/m3) and over hill-fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a background-corrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m3-STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m2/g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m2/g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  17. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    R. Demler

    2006-04-01

    been mixed results in the field using variable orifices in coal pipes. Development of other coal flow control devices has been limited. An underlying difficulty that, to date, has hindered the development of an accurate instrument for coal flow measurements is the fact that coal flow is characterized by irregular temporal and spatial variation. However, despite the inherent complexity of the dynamic system, the system is in fact deterministic. Therefore, in principle, the coal flow can be deduced from the dynamics it exhibits. Nonetheless, the interactions are highly nonlinear, rendering standard signal processing approaches, which rely on techniques such as frequency decomposition, to be of little value. Foster-Miller, Inc. has developed a methodology that relates the complex variation in such systems to the information of interest. This technology will be described in detail in Section 2. A second concern regarding the current measurement systems is installation, which can be labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive. A process that does not require the pulverizer to be taken off line would be highly desirable. Most microwave and electrostatic methods require drilling up to 20 holes in the pipe, all with a high degree of precision so as to produce a proper alignment of the probes. At least one electrostatic method requires a special spool piece to be fitted into each existing coal pipe. Overall, these procedures are both difficult and very expensive. An alternative approach is pursued here, namely the development of an instrument that relies on an acoustic signal captured by way of a commercial accelerometer. The installation of this type of sensor is both simpler and less invasive than other techniques. An accelerometer installed in a pipe wall need not penetrate through the wall, which means that the system may be able to remain on line during the installation. Further, due to the fact that the Dynamical Instruments technology, unlike other systems, does not rely on

  18. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste with dairy manure in the batch digester: Focusing on mixing ratios and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinlei; Yun, Sining; Zhu, Jiang; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xue

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste (APW) with dairy manure (DM) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate, and the stability of digestate. Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic condition (36±1°C) at five different APW/DM wet weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1). Experimental methane yield from the mixtures was higher than the yield from APW or DM alone, indicating the synergistic effect and benefits of co-digestion of APW with DM. The optimal mixing ratio of APW/DM was found to be 3:1. The cumulative methane yield was 195.1mL/g VS and the VS removal rate was 59.91%. The characteristics of the digestate were investigated by the thermal analysis which indicated the high stability in the samples of the co-digestion. The co-digestion can be an efficient way to improve the degradation efficiency of the bio-wastes and increase the energy output.

  19. Reduced kinetic mechanism of ignition for nonpremixed hydrogen/air in a supersonic mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Y.; Niioka, T. . Inst. of Fluid Science)

    1994-11-01

    Transient ignition processes in a two-dimensional spatially evolving supersonic mixing layer consisting of a parallel nonpremixed airstream and a hydrogen stream both with temperatures higher than 1,000 K were investigated numerically by using the full chemistry and its reduced chemistry. A phenomenon different from that examined in previous studies, in which ignition of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures was considered, was found in the nonpremixed case examined here. It was shown that the concentration of O was greater than that of OH before ignition, but became smaller with the development of ignition process. Fourteen important reactions for ignition were obtained and verified using sensitivity analyses of ignition delay time and radical concentrations. Several different four-step and three-step reduced kinetic mechanisms were then deduced by introducing the steady-state approximation to different species. Comparison of these reduced kinetic mechanisms with the full chemistry showed that the steady-state approximation of O used in previous studies caused serious errors in the prediction of ignition delay time in supersonic flow, in which nonpremixed character is predominant and the transport phenomenon is important. Ignition locations predicted with the proper four-step and three-step reduced kinetic mechanisms were within 5% and 20% of those predicted with the full chemistry. Finally, these two reduced mechanisms were used to evaluate the effect of viscous dissipation on ignition in the supersonic shear layer. Good agreements between the results of the present reduced kinetic mechanisms and those of the full chemistry were obtained.

  20. Reactive bromine chemistry in Mount Etna's volcanic plume: the influence of total Br, high-temperature processing, aerosol loading and plume-air mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T. J.; Martin, R. S.; Jourdain, L.

    2014-10-01

    Volcanic emissions present a source of reactive halogens to the troposphere, through rapid plume chemistry that converts the emitted HBr to more reactive forms such as BrO. The nature of this process is poorly quantified, yet is of interest in order to understand volcanic impacts on the troposphere, and infer volcanic activity from volcanic gas measurements (i.e. BrO / SO2 ratios). Recent observations from Etna report an initial increase and subsequent plateau or decline in BrO / SO2 ratios with distance downwind. We present daytime PlumeChem model simulations that reproduce and explain the reported trend in BrO / SO2 at Etna including the initial rise and subsequent plateau. Suites of model simulations also investigate the influences of volcanic aerosol loading, bromine emission, and plume-air mixing rate on the downwind plume chemistry. Emitted volcanic HBr is converted into reactive bromine by autocatalytic bromine chemistry cycles whose onset is accelerated by the model high-temperature initialisation. These rapid chemistry cycles also impact the reactive bromine speciation through inter-conversion of Br, Br2, BrO, BrONO2, BrCl, HOBr. We predict a new evolution of Br speciation in the plume. BrO, Br2, Br and HBr are the main plume species near downwind whilst BrO and HOBr are present further downwind (where BrONO2 and BrCl also make up a minor fraction). BrNO2 is predicted to be only a relatively minor plume component. The initial rise in BrO / SO2 occurs as ozone is entrained into the plume whose reaction with Br promotes net formation of BrO. Aerosol has a modest impact on BrO / SO2 near-downwind (< ~6 km, ~10 min) at the relatively high loadings considered. The subsequent decline in BrO / SO2 occurs as entrainment of oxidants HO2 and NO2 promotes net formation of HOBr and BrONO2, whilst the plume dispersion dilutes volcanic aerosol so slows the heterogeneous loss rates of these species. A higher volcanic aerosol loading enhances BrO / SO2 in the (> 6 km

  1. Interaction of the cationic peptide bactenecin with mixed phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    López-Oyama, Ana B; Taboada, Pablo; Burboa, María G; Rodríguez, Ezequiel; Mosquera, Víctor; Valdez, Miguel A

    2011-07-01

    The initial mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides target microbes occurs via electrostatic interactions; however, the mechanism is not well understood. We investigate the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide bactenecin with a 50:50 w:w% 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DMPG) phospholipid mixture at the air-water interface with different NaCl concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 M) in the subphase. A larger shift of DPPC:DMPG isotherms was obtained for 0.1 M salt concentration at lower and higher pressures, demonstrating the influence of the negative charge of DMPG molecules and the screening of the electrostatic interaction by the salt concentration. Raman spectroscopy of monolayers demonstrated the presence of cysteine-cysteine bridges in bactenecin loops. The peptide adsorption in DPPC:DMPG monolayers observed by AFM images suggests a self-assembled aggregation process, starting with filament-like networks. Domains similar to carpets were formed and pore structures were obtained after a critical peptide concentration, according to the carpet model.

  2. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  3. Tracking the origin of the Asian Dust based on its Pb isotope ratios at background ambient air site in Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Yoo, E.; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Nam, Y.; Hwang, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, W.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    In order to track the origin of the Asian dust, its Pb isotope ratios had been measured at the national background air monitoring station located in Padori, Chungcheongnam-do, for about one month during March in 2011. High volume air sampler (Shibata Co.) with a quartz fiber filter was used to collect about 1,000 m3 of TSP at the flux of 700 LPM at background ambient air in Republic of Korea. The ratios of five group such as 206/204Pb, 207/204Pb, 208/204Pb, 207/206Pb and 208/206Pb, NIST-SRM 981 were measured by using MC-ICP/MS. The results showed that the Pb isotope ratios during the Asian dust season were quite different from those during the non-dust season. The Pb isotope ratios during Asian dust (A-8) turned out to be 17.98957(206/204Pb), 15.57343(207/204Pb), 37.86195(208/204Pb), 2.10478(208/206Pb) and 0.86569(207/206Pb). Their value differences compared with the non-dust period groups (A-9) were -0.38645, -0.05615, -0.31868, 0.02704 and 0.01515, respectively. This indicates that the ratios of the 204Pb groups were lower during the dust season while those of the 206Pb groups were higher. Besides the difference in the Pb isotope ratios, the backward and forward trajectory was also monitored around the sampling site to compare the current movement of air mass between the dust (A8) and non-dust (A9). The monitoring found that dust shows a typical trajectory during the dust period : it starts from Gobi Desert in Inner Mongolia 72 hours before, traveling along with the strong uplift from the back end of low pressure, passing through the Shantung Peninsula to the west coast of Korea. In conclusion, the analysis of Pb isotope compositions in TSP and the trajectory of air mass helped identify the origin of Asian dust.

  4. Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts to Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…

  5. Estimates of free-tropospheric NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios derived from high-altitude mountain MAX-DOAS observations in the mid-latitudes and tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, mixing ratios of NO2 (XNO2) and HCHO (XHCHO) in the free troposphere are derived from two Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) data sets collected at Zugspitze (2650 m a.s.l., Germany) and Pico Espejo (4765 m a.s.l., Venezuela). The estimation of NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios is based on the modified geometrical approach, which assumes a single-scattering geometry and a scattering point altitude close to the instrument. Firstly, the horizontal optical path length (hOPL) is obtained from O4 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) in the horizontal (0°) and vertical (90°) viewing directions. Secondly, XNO2 and XHCHO are estimated from the NO2 and HCHO DSCDs at the 0 and 90° viewing directions and averaged along the obtained hOPLs. As the MAX-DOAS instrument was performing measurements in the ultraviolet region, wavelength ranges of 346-372 and 338-357 nm are selected for the DOAS analysis to retrieve NO2 and HCHO DSCDs, respectively. In order to compare the measured O4 DSCDs and moreover to perform some sensitivity tests, the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN with adapted altitude settings for mountainous terrain is operated to simulate synthetic spectra, on which the DOAS analysis is also applied. The overall agreement between measured and synthetic O4 DSCDs is better for the higher Pico Espejo station than for Zugspitze. Further sensitivity analysis shows that a change in surface albedo (from 0.05 to 0.7) can influence the O4 DSCDs, with a larger absolute difference observed for the horizontal viewing direction. Consequently, the hOPL can vary by about 5 % throughout the season, for example when winter snow cover fully disappears in summer. Typical values of hOPLs during clear sky conditions are 19 km (14 km) at Zugspitze and 34 km (26.5 km) at Pico Espejo when using the 346-372 nm (338-357 nm) fitting window. The estimated monthly values of XNO2 (XHCHO), averaged over these hOPLs during clear sky conditions, are in

  6. Estimates of free-tropospheric NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios derived from high-altitude mountain MAX-DOAS observations at midlatitudes and in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Stefan F.; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, mixing ratios of NO2 (XNO2) and HCHO (XHCHO) in the free troposphere are derived from two multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) data sets collected at Zugspitze (2650 m a.s.l., Germany) and Pico Espejo (4765 m a.s.l., Venezuela). The estimation of NO2 and HCHO mixing ratios is based on the modified geometrical approach, which assumes a single-scattering geometry and a scattering point altitude close to the instrument altitude. Firstly, the horizontal optical path length (hOPL) is obtained from O4 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) in the horizontal (0°) and vertical (90°) viewing directions. Secondly, XNO2 and XHCHO are estimated from the NO2 and HCHO DSCDs at the 0° and 90° viewing directions and averaged along the obtained hOPLs. As the MAX-DOAS instrument was performing measurements in the ultraviolet region, wavelength ranges of 346-372 and 338-357 nm are selected for the DOAS analysis to retrieve NO2 and HCHO DSCDs, respectively. In order to compare the measured O4 DSCDs and moreover to perform some sensitivity tests, the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN with adapted altitude settings for mountainous terrain is operated to simulate synthetic spectra, on which the DOAS analysis is also applied. The overall agreement between measured and synthetic O4 DSCDs is better for the higher Pico Espejo station than for Zugspitze. Further sensitivity analysis shows that a change in surface albedo (from 0.05 to 0.7) can influence the O4 DSCDs, with a larger absolute difference observed for the horizontal viewing direction. Consequently, the hOPL can vary by about 5 % throughout the season, for example when winter snow cover fully disappears in summer. Typical values of hOPLs during clear-sky conditions are 19 km (14 km) at Zugspitze and 34 km (26.5 km) at Pico Espejo when using the 346-372 (338-357 nm) fitting window. The estimated monthly values of XNO2 (XHCHO), averaged over these hOPLs during clear-sky conditions

  7. Impacts of compact growth and electric vehicles on future air quality and urban exposures may be mixed.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haofei; Stuart, Amy L

    2017-01-15

    'Smart' growth and electric vehicles are potential solutions to the negative impacts of worldwide urbanization on air pollution and health. However, the effects of planning strategies on distinct types of pollutants, and on human exposures, remain understudied. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential impacts of alternative urban designs for the area around Tampa, Florida USA, on emissions, ambient concentrations, and exposures to oxides of nitrogen (NOx), 1,3-butadiene, and benzene. We studied three potential future scenarios: sprawling growth, compact growth, and 100% vehicle fleet electrification with compact growth. We projected emissions in the seven-county region to 2050 based on One Bay regional visioning plan data. We estimated pollutant concentrations in the county that contains Tampa using the CALPUFF dispersion model. We applied residential population projections to forecast acute (highest hour) and chronic (annual average) exposure. The compact scenario was projected to result in lower regional emissions of all pollutants than sprawl, with differences of -18%, -3%, and -14% for NOx, butadiene, and benzene, respectively. Within Hillsborough County, the compact form also had lower emissions, concentrations, and exposures than sprawl for NOx (-16%/-5% for acute/chronic exposures, respectively), but higher exposures for butadiene (+41%/+30%) and benzene (+21%/+9%). The addition of complete vehicle fleet electrification to the compact scenario mitigated these in-county increases for the latter pollutants, lowering predicted exposures to butadiene (-25%/-39%) and benzene (-5%/-19%), but also resulted in higher exposures to NOx (+81%/+30%) due to increased demand on power plants. These results suggest that compact forms may have mixed impacts on exposures and health. 'Smart' urban designs should consider multiple pollutants and the diverse mix of pollutant sources. Cleaner power generation will also likely be needed to support aggressive adoption

  8. Reactive bromine chemistry in Mt. Etna's volcanic plume: the influence of total Br, high temperature processing, aerosol loading and plume-air mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T. J.; Martin, R. S.; Jourdain, L.

    2014-03-01

    Volcanic emissions present a source of reactive halogens to the troposphere, through rapid plume chemistry that converts the emitted HBr to more reactive forms such as BrO. The nature of this process is poorly quantified, yet is of interest to understand volcanic impacts on the troposphere, and infer volcanic activity from volcanic gas measurements (i.e. BrO / SO2 ratios). Recent observations from Etna report an initial increase and subsequent plateau or decline in BrO / SO2 ratios with distance downwind. We present daytime PlumeChem model simulations that reproduce and explain the reported trend in BrO / SO2 at Etna including the initial rise and subsequent plateau. Through suites of model simulations we also investigate the influences of volcanic aerosol loading, bromine emission, and plume-air mixing rate on the downwind plume chemistry. Emitted volcanic HBr is converted into reactive bromine by autocatalytic bromine chemistry cycles whose onset is accelerated by the model high-temperature initialisation. These rapid chemistry cycles also impact the reactive bromine speciation through inter-conversion of Br, Br2, BrO, BrONO2, BrCl, HOBr. Formation of BrNO2 is also discussed. We predict a new evolution of Br-speciation in the plume, with BrO, Br2, Br and HBr as the main plume species in the near downwind plume whilst BrO, and HOBr are present in significant quantities further downwind (where BrONO2 and BrCl also make up a minor fraction). The initial rise in BrO / SO2 occurs as ozone is entrained into the plume whose reaction with Br promotes net formation of BrO. Aerosol has a modest impact on BrO / SO2 near-downwind (< 6 km) at the relatively high loadings considered. The subsequent decline in BrO / SO2 occurs as entrainment of oxidants HO2 and NO2 promotes net formation of HOBr and BrONO2, whilst the plume dispersion dilutes volcanic aerosol so slows the heterogeneous loss rates of these species. A higher volcanic aerosol loading enhances BrO / SO2 in the (> 6

  9. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including (238)Pu/(239)Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as (238)U with (238)Pu and (241)Am with (241)Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of (238)Pu/(239)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, (238)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the (238)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including (238)Pu/(239)Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles.

  10. Estimating surface NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios from fast-response total column observations and potential application to geostationary missions.

    PubMed

    Knepp, T; Pippin, M; Crawford, J; Chen, G; Szykman, J; Long, R; Cowen, L; Cede, A; Abuhassan, N; Herman, J; Delgado, R; Compton, J; Berkoff, T; Fishman, J; Martins, D; Stauffer, R; Thompson, A M; Weinheimer, A; Knapp, D; Montzka, D; Lenschow, D; Neil, D

    Total-column nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data collected by a ground-based sun-tracking spectrometer system (Pandora) and an photolytic-converter-based in-situ instrument collocated at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia were analyzed to study the relationship between total-column and surface NO2 measurements. The measurements span more than a year and cover all seasons. Surface mixing ratios are estimated via application of a planetary boundary-layer (PBL) height correction factor. This PBL correction factor effectively corrects for boundary-layer variability throughout the day, and accounts for up to ≈75 % of the variability between the NO2 data sets. Previous studies have made monthly and seasonal comparisons of column/surface data, which has shown generally good agreement over these long average times. In the current analysis comparisons of column densities averaged over 90 s and 1 h are made. Applicability of this technique to sulfur dioxide (SO2) is briefly explored. The SO2 correlation is improved by excluding conditions where surface levels are considered background. The analysis is extended to data from the July 2011 DISCOVER-AQ mission over the greater Baltimore, MD area to examine the method's performance in more-polluted urban conditions where NO2 concentrations are typically much higher.

  11. Water Vapour Mixing Ratio Measurements in Potenza in the Frame of the International Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change - NDACC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Benedetto; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Mancini, Ignazio

    2016-06-01

    In November 2012 the University of BASILicata Raman Lidar system (BASIL) was approved to enter the International Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). This network includes more than 70 high-quality, remote-sensing research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the upper troposphere and stratosphere and for assessing the impact of stratosphere changes on the underlying troposphere and on global climate. As part of this network, more than thirty groundbased Lidars deployed worldwide are routinely operated to monitor atmospheric ozone, temperature, aerosols, water vapour, and polar stratospheric clouds. In the frame of NDACC, BASIL performs measurements on a routine basis each Thursday, typically from local noon to midnight, covering a large portion of the daily cycle. Measurements from BASIL are included in the NDACC database both in terms of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature. This paper illustrates some measurement examples from BASIL, with a specific focus on water vapour measurements, with the goal to try and characterize the system performances.

  12. Observations of CO dayglow at 4.7 μm, CO mixing ratios, and temperatures at 74 and 104-111 km on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2014-07-01

    The CO dayglow at 4.7 μm on Venus has been observed using the long-slit high-resolution spectrograph CSHELL at NASA IRTF with a resolving power of 4 × 104. The observations covered a latitude range of ±60° at local time of 07:50 at low latitudes. Solar lines in the spectra are used to measure Venus reflectivity which is found to be of 0.077 at 4.7 μm. Intensity ratio of the P2, P1, and R1 lines of the CO dayglow at the fundamental band (1-0) differs from that calculated by Crovisier et al. (Crovisier, J., Lellouch, E., de Bergh, C., Maillard, J.P., Lutz, B.L., Bezard, B. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1398-1414) and is closer to that expected at local thermodynamic equilibrium. The CO (1-0) dayglow is optically thick, its intensity weakly depends on the CO abundance and it proves poorly accessible for diagnostics of the Venus atmosphere. Six observed lines of the CO dayglow at the hot (2-1) band show a significant limb brightening typical of an optically thin airglow. Vertical intensities of the CO (2-1) band corrected for viewing angle and the Venus reflection are constant at 3.3 MR in the latitude range of ±50° at a solar zenith angle of 64°. Rotational temperatures of the CO (2-1) dayglow should reflect ambient temperature near 111 km. The observed temperatures are slightly higher on the south with a mean value of 203 K. A model of the CO (2-1) dayglow has been improved. The CO (v = 2) molecules are excited by absorption of the sunlight at the CO (2-0) and (3-0) bands at 2.35 and 1.58 μm and photolysis of CO2 by the solar Lyman-alpha emission. The dayglow is quenched by CO2, and the calculated mean dayside intensity is 3.1 MR. The weighted-mean dayglow altitude is 104 km. Variations of the dayglow with CO abundance and solar zenith angle are calculated and presented. Then the model results are used to convert the observed dayglow intensities into CO abundances at 104 km. The retrieved CO mixing ratios are constant from 50°S to 50°N with a mean value

  13. Observations of CO dayglow at 4.7 mu, CO mixing ratios, and temperatures at 74 and 105 km on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir

    The CO dayglow at 4.7 mum on Venus was observed using a long-slit high-resolution spectrograph CSHELL at NASA IRTF with resolving power of 4*10 (4) . The observations covered a latitude range of ±60(°) at local time of 07:50 at low latitudes. Solar lines in the spectra are used to measure Venus reflectivity of 0.077 at 4.7 mum. Intensity ratio of the P2, P1, and R1 lines of the CO dayglow at the fundamental band (1-0) differs from that calculated by Crovisier et al. (2006) and is closer to that expected at local thermodynamic equilibrium. The CO (1-0) dayglow is optically thick, its intensity weakly depends on the CO abundance, and it is poorly accessible for diagnostics of the Venus atmosphere. Six observed lines of the CO dayglow at the hot (2-1) band show a significant limb brightening typical of an optically thin airglow. Vertical intensities of the CO (2-1) band corrected for viewing angle and the Venus reflection are constant at 3.3 MR in the latitude range of ±50(°) at solar zenith angle of 64(°) . Rotational temperatures of the CO (2-1) dayglow should be equal to ambient temperature near 105 km. Two versions of latitudinal distribution of temperature are derived, with mean values of 203 and 188 K. A model of the CO (2-1) dayglow has been improved. The CO (v = 2) molecules are excited by absorption of the sunlight at the CO (2-0) and (3-0) bands at 2.35 and 1.58 mum and photolysis of CO _{2} by the solar Lyman-alpha emission. The dayglow is quenched by CO _{2}, and three values of the rate coefficient are used in the calculations. The calculated mean dayside dayglow is 2.8 MR for the mean value of the quenching coefficient. A weighted-mean dayglow altitude is 105 km. Variations of the dayglow with CO abundance and solar zenith angle are calculated and presented. The model results are used to convert the observed dayglow intensities into CO abundances at 105 km. The retrieved CO mixing ratios are constant from 50(°) S to 50(°) N with a mean value of

  14. Development of a Laboratory Model of a Phototroph-Heterotroph Mixed-Species Biofilm at the Stone/Air Interface

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen; Cappitelli, Francesca; Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific investigations have shed light on the ecological importance and physiological complexity of subaerial biofilms (SABs) inhabiting lithic surfaces. In the field of sustainable cultural heritage (CH) preservation, mechanistic approaches aimed at investigation of the spatiotemporal patterns of interactions between the biofilm, the stone, and the atmosphere are of outstanding importance. However, these interactions have proven difficult to explore with field experiments due to the inaccessibility of samples, the complexity of the ecosystem under investigation and the temporal resolution of the experiments. To overcome these limitations, we aimed at developing a unifying methodology to reproduce a fast-growing, phototroph-heterotroph mixed species biofilm at the stone/air interface. Our experiments underscore the ability of the dual-species SAB model to capture functional traits characteristic of biofilms inhabiting lithic substrate such as: (i) microcolonies of aggregated bacteria; (ii) network like structure following surface topography; (iii) cooperation between phototrophs and heterotrophs and cross feeding processes; (iv) ability to change the chemical parameters that characterize the microhabitats; (v) survival under desiccation and (vi) biocide tolerance. With its advantages in control, replication, range of different experimental scenarios and matches with the real ecosystem, the developed model system is a powerful tool to advance our mechanistic understanding of the stone-biofilm-atmosphere interplay in different environments. PMID:26635736

  15. Development of a Laboratory Model of a Phototroph-Heterotroph Mixed-Species Biofilm at the Stone/Air Interface.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen; Cappitelli, Francesca; Stewart, Philip S

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific investigations have shed light on the ecological importance and physiological complexity of subaerial biofilms (SABs) inhabiting lithic surfaces. In the field of sustainable cultural heritage (CH) preservation, mechanistic approaches aimed at investigation of the spatiotemporal patterns of interactions between the biofilm, the stone, and the atmosphere are of outstanding importance. However, these interactions have proven difficult to explore with field experiments due to the inaccessibility of samples, the complexity of the ecosystem under investigation and the temporal resolution of the experiments. To overcome these limitations, we aimed at developing a unifying methodology to reproduce a fast-growing, phototroph-heterotroph mixed species biofilm at the stone/air interface. Our experiments underscore the ability of the dual-species SAB model to capture functional traits characteristic of biofilms inhabiting lithic substrate such as: (i) microcolonies of aggregated bacteria; (ii) network like structure following surface topography; (iii) cooperation between phototrophs and heterotrophs and cross feeding processes; (iv) ability to change the chemical parameters that characterize the microhabitats; (v) survival under desiccation and (vi) biocide tolerance. With its advantages in control, replication, range of different experimental scenarios and matches with the real ecosystem, the developed model system is a powerful tool to advance our mechanistic understanding of the stone-biofilm-atmosphere interplay in different environments.

  16. Using a Market Ratio Factor in Faculty Salary Equity Studies. AIR Professional File. Number 103, Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a market ratio factor was a better predictor of faculty salaries than the use of k-1 dummy variables representing the various disciplines. This study used two multiple regression analyses to develop an explanatory model to determine which model might best explain faculty salaries. A total of 20 out of…

  17. Mixed layers of β-lactoglobulin and SDS at air-water interfaces with tunable intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Kathrin; Weichsel, Ulrike; Kraft, Elena; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang; Braunschweig, Björn

    2014-04-17

    Mixtures of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied at pH 3.8 and 6.7 under equilibrium conditions. At these pH conditions, BLG carries either a positive or a negative net charge, respectively, which enables tunable electrostatic interactions between anionic SDS surfactants and BLG proteins. For pH 3.8, vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) and ellipsometry indicate strong BLG-SDS complex formation at air-water interfaces that is caused by attractive electrostatic interactions. The latter complexes are already formed in the bulk solution which was confirmed by a thermodynamic study of BLG-SDS mixtures using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). For acidic conditions we determine from our ITC data an exothermal binding enthalpy of -40 kJ mol(-1). Increasing SDS/BLG molar ratios above 10 leads to a surface excess of SDS and thus to a charge reversal from a positive net charge with BLG as the dominating surface adsorbed species to a negatively charged layer with SDS as the dominating surface species. The latter is evidenced by a pronounced minimum in SFG intensities that is also accompanied by a phase change of O-H stretching bands due to a reorientation of H2O within the local electric field. This phase change which occurs at SDS/BLG molar ratio between 1 and 10 causes a polarity change in SFG intensities from BLG aromatic C-H stretching vibrations. Conclusions from SFG spectra are corroborated by ellipsometry which shows a dramatic increase in layer thicknesses at molar ratios where a charge reversal occurs. The formation of interfacial multilayers comprising SDS-BLG complexes is, thus, caused by cancellation of electrostatic interactions which leads to agglomeration at the interface. In contrast to pH 3.8, behavior of BLG-SDS mixtures at pH 6.7 is different due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between SDS and BLG which lead to a significantly reduced binding enthalpy of -17 kJ mol(-1). Finally, it has to be mentioned that

  18. Effects of different ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast mixed with cassava pulp on chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Angthong, Wanna; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Bureenok, Smerjai

    2016-06-11

    This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation of various ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) mixed with cassava pulp (CVP). Four mixtures of fresh LBY and CVP were made (LBY0, LBY10, LBY20 and LBY30 for LBY:CVP at 0:100, 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70, respectively) on a fresh matter basis, in 500 g in plastic bags and stored at 30 to 32 °C. After storage, the bags were opened weekly from weeks 0 to 4. Fermentation quality and in vitro gas production (IVGP) were determined, as well as the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents. The contents of CP and EE increased, whereas all other components decreased, in proportion to LBY inclusion (p<0.01). The DM and OM contents gradually decreased in weeks 3 and 4 (p<0.05), while EE contents were lowest in week 0. The pH, ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH3-N/TN) and V-score in each mixture and storage period demonstrated superior fermentation quality (pH≤4.2, NH3-N/TN ≤12.5% and V-score >90%). The pH increased and NH3-N/TN decreased, with proportionate increases of LBY, whereas the pH decreased and NH3-N/TN increased, as the storage periods were extended (p<0.01). Although IVGP decreased in proportion to the amount of LBY inclusion (p<0.01), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was unaffected by the mixture ratios. The highest IVGP and IVOMD were observed in week 0 (p<0.01). We have found that the inclusion of LBY (as high as 30%) into CVP improves the chemical composition of the mixture, thereby increasing the CP content, while decreasing IVGP, without decreasing fermentation quality and IVOMD. In addition, a preservation period of up to four weeks can guarantee superior fermentation quality in all types of mixtures. Therefore, we recommend limiting the use of cassava pulp as a feed ingredient, given its low

  19. Re: Penetration Behavior of Opposed Rows of Staggered Secondary Air Jets Depending on Jet Penetration Coefficient and Momentum Flux Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.

  20. SU-E-T-207: Comparison of Integrated Tissue Air Ratio (ITAR) to Traditional TAR for Kilovoltage Pencil-Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J; Koruga, I; Chell, E; Pintaske, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically viable depth dose determination in kilovoltage pencil-beams is a great challenge that resulted in a published dosimetry method called ITAR, which involves measurement of air kerma and attenuation with a detector in a low scatter environment coupled with MCNP scatter calculations. The objective of this work is to compare ITAR to traditional TAR using inherently water-proof microchambers that have only recently become commercially available. Methods: An Exradin A26 microchamber was centered 150 mm from a 100 kVp x-ray source with 2 mm aluminum HVL. Depth dose in water from 16 to 24 mm in 2 mm increments was determined by: (1) placing blocks of Plastic Water LR near the source to minimize scatter and using previously published conversion coefficients [ITAR method] and (2) submerging the detector in a water tank with 2 mm thick Plastic Water LR walls and jogging the tank with motor controllers while keeping the detector position fixed [traditional TAR method]. Each method was repeated four to five times. For each repetition, dose was measured free in-air to normalize the data for exponential regression. Results: Traditional TAR indicated higher depth dose than ITAR; differences ranged from 2.1% at 24 mm depth to 2.5% at 16 mm depth. However, the results of traditional TAR did not include a correction for Pq,cham because it is unknown for this detector type in these conditions. It is estimated that the component of Pq,cham due to the effect of water displacement alone is ∼0.94, but Pq,cham is likely several percent larger than 0.94 due to the energy dependency of the microchamber in the presence of low energy scatter that is not present during in-air calibration. Conclusion: The ITAR method remains preferable for clinical depth dose determination in kilovoltage pencil-beams due to Pq,cham being unknown for suitable detectors in relevant conditions. All four of the authors are either current full time employees, which include stock option grants, or

  1. Follow-up of the air pollution and the human male-to-female ratio analysis in São Paulo, Brazil: a times series study

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Veras, Mariana Matera; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In order to assess if ambient air pollution in urban areas could be related to alterations in male/female ratio this study objectives to evaluate changes in ambient particulate matter (PM10) concentrations after implementation of pollution control programmes in São Paulo city and the secondary sex ratio (SRR). Design and methods A time series study was conducted. São Paulo’s districts were stratified according to the PM10 concentrations levels and were used as a marker of overall air pollution. The male ratio was chosen to represent the secondary sex ratio (SSR=total male birth/total births). The SSR data from each area was analysed according to the time variation and PM10 concentration areas using descriptive statistics. The strength association between annual average of PM10 concentration and SSR was performed through exponential regression, and it was adopted as a statistical significance level of p<0.05. Results The exponential regression showed a negative and significant association between PM10 and SSR. SSR varied from 51.4% to 50.7% in São Paulo in the analysed period (2000–2007). Considering the PM10 average concentration in São Paulo city of 44.72 μg/m3 in the study period, the SSR decline reached almost 4.37%, equivalent to 30 934 less male births. Conclusions Ambient levels of PM10 are negatively associated with changes in the SSR. Therefore, we can speculate that higher levels of particulate pollution could be related to increased rates of female births. PMID:23892420

  2. Foaming and adsorption behavior of bovine and camel proteins mixed layers at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine foaming and interfacial behavior of three milk protein mixtures, bovine α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M1), camel α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M2) and β-lactoglobulin-β-casein (M3), alone and in binary mixtures, at the air/water interface in order to better understand the foaming properties of bovine and camel milks. Different mixture ratios (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) were used during foaming tests and interfacial protein interactions were studied with a pendant drop tensiometer. Experimental results evidenced that the greatest foam was obtained with a higher β-casein amount in all camel and bovine mixtures. Good correlation was observed with the adsorption and the interfacial rheological properties of camel and bovine protein mixtures. The proteins adsorbed layers are mainly affected by the presence of β-casein molecules, which are probably the most abundant protein at interface and the most efficient in reducing the interfacial properties. In contrast of, the globular proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin that are involved in the protein layer composition, but could not compact well at the interface to ensure foams creation and stabilization because of their rigid molecular structure.

  3. Forced-air warming and ultra-clean ventilation do not mix: an investigation of theatre ventilation, patient warming and joint replacement infection in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P D; Albrecht, M; Belani, K G; Nachtsheim, C; Partington, P F; Carluke, I; Reed, M R

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the capacity of patient warming devices to disrupt the ultra-clean airflow system. We compared the effects of two patient warming technologies, forced-air and conductive fabric, on operating theatre ventilation during simulated hip replacement and lumbar spinal procedures using a mannequin as a patient. Infection data were reviewed to determine whether joint infection rates were associated with the type of patient warming device that was used. Neutral-buoyancy detergent bubbles were released adjacent to the mannequin's head and at floor level to assess the movement of non-sterile air into the clean airflow over the surgical site. During simulated hip replacement, bubble counts over the surgical site were greater for forced-air than for conductive fabric warming when the anaesthesia/surgery drape was laid down (p = 0.010) and at half-height (p < 0.001). For lumbar surgery, forced-air warming generated convection currents that mobilised floor air into the surgical site area. Conductive fabric warming had no such effect. A significant increase in deep joint infection, as demonstrated by an elevated infection odds ratio (3.8, p = 0.024), was identified during a period when forced-air warming was used compared to a period when conductive fabric warming was used. Air-free warming is, therefore, recommended over forced-air warming for orthopaedic procedures.

  4. Tensiometry and dilational rheology of mixed β-lactoglobulin/ionic surfactant adsorption layers at water/air and water/hexane interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dan, Abhijit; Gochev, Georgi; Miller, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Oscillating drop tensiometry was applied to study adsorbed interfacial layers at water/air and water/hexane interfaces formed from mixed solutions of β-lactoglobulin (BLG, 1 μM in 10 mM buffer, pH 7 - negative net charge) and the anionic surfactant SDS or the cationic DoTAB. The interfacial pressure Π and the dilational viscoelasticity modulus |E| of the mixed layers were measured for mixtures of varying surfactant concentrations. The double capillary technique was employed which enables exchange of the protein solution in the drop bulk by surfactant solution (sequential adsorption) or by pure buffer (washing out). The first protocol allows probing the influence of the surfactant on a pre-adsorbed protein layer thus studying the protein/surfactant interactions at the interface. The second protocol gives access to the residual values of Π and |E| measured after the washing out procedure thus bringing information about the process of protein desorption. The DoTAB/BLG complexes exhibit higher surface activity and higher resistance to desorption in comparison with those for the SDS/BLG complexes due to hydrophobization via electrostatic binding of surfactant molecules. The neutral DoTAB/BLG complexes achieve maximum elastic response of the mixed layer. Mixed BLG/surfactant layers at the water/oil interface are found to reach higher surface pressure and lower maximum dilational elasticity than those at the water/air surface. The sequential adsorption mode experiments and the desorption study reveal that binding of DoTAB to pre-adsorbed BLG globules is somehow restricted at the water/air surface in comparison with the case of complex formation in the solution bulk and subsequently adsorbed at the water/air surface. Maximum elasticity is achieved with washed out layers obtained after simultaneous adsorption, i.e. isolation of the most surface active DoTAB/BLG complex. These specific effects are much less pronounced at the W/H interface.

  5. He, Ne and Ar systematics in single vesicles: Mantle isotopic ratios and origin of the air component in basaltic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raquin, Aude; Moreira, Manuel Alexis; Guillon, Fabien

    2008-09-01

    An outstanding problem in understanding the origin of the gaseous phase, particularly the rare gas compositions in magmatic rocks, is the ubiquitous atmospheric component in bulk rock samples, and whether this atmospheric component is a late stage contamination of the sample, or a recycled component though sediments or altered oceanic crust. In the present study we address this problem by analyzing single vesicles from the "popping rock 2∏D43" sample from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using a UV laser ablation system. We have determined both elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne and Ar in single vesicles as well as Kr and Xe abundances. All vesicles analyzed have an isotopic composition identical to the referred degassed mantle value estimated from this same sample, despite analyzing vesicles from a wide size distribution. The atmospheric component, which is always detected in bulk samples by crushing or heating, was not detected in the single vesicles. This implies that the recycling of atmospheric noble gases in the mantle cannot explain the air-like component of this sample. The addition of the atmospheric component must occur either during the eruption, or after sample recovery.

  6. Effect of Mach number, valve angle and length to diameter ratio on thermal performance in flow of air through Ranque Hilsch vortex tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devade, Kiran D.; Pise, Ashok T.

    2017-01-01

    Ranque Hilsch vortex tube is a device that can produce cold and hot air streams simultaneously from pressurized air. Performance of vortex tube is influenced by a number of geometrical and operational parameters. In this study parametric analysis of vortex tube is carried out. Air is used as the working fluid and geometrical parameters like length to diameter ratio (15, 16, 17, 18), exit valve angles (30°-90°), orifice diameters (5, 6 and 7 mm), 2 entry nozzles and tube divergence angle 4° is used for experimentation. Operational parameters like pressure (200-600 kPa), cold mass fraction (0-1) is varied and effect of Mach number at the inlet of the tube is investigated. The vortex tube is tested at sub sonic (0 < Ma < 1), sonic (Ma = 1) and supersonic (1 < Ma < 2) Mach number, and its effect on thermal performance is analysed. As a result it is observed that, higher COP and low cold end temperature is obtained at subsonic Ma. As CMF increases, COP rises and cold and temperature drops. Optimum performance of the tube is observed for CMF up to 0.5. Experimental correlations are proposed for optimum COP. Parametric correlation is developed for geometrical and operational parameters.

  7. Long-term (2004-2015) tendencies and variabilities of tropical UTLS water vapor mixing ratio and temperature observed by AURA/MLS using multivariate regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, S.; Sandhya, M.

    2016-09-01

    Long-term variabilities and tendencies in the tropical (30°N-30°S)monthly averaged zonal mean water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument onboard Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite for the period October 2004-September 2015, are studied using multivariate regression analysis. It is found that the WVMR shows a decreasing trend of 0.02-0.1 ppmv/year in WVMR below 100 hPa while the trend is positive (0.02-0.035 ppmv/year) above 100 hPa. There is no significant trend at 121 hPa. The WVMR response to solar cycle (SC) is negative below 21 hPa. However, the magnitude decreases with height from 0.13 ppmv/100 sfu(solar flux unit) at 178 hPa to 0.07 ppmv/100sfuat 26 hPa. The response of WVMR to multivariate El Niño index (MEI), which is a proxy for El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is positive at and below 100 hPa and negative above 100 hPa. It is negative at 56-46 hPa with maximum value of 0.1 ppmv/MEI at 56 hPa. Large positive (negative) quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in WVMR at 56-68 hPa reconstructed from the regression analysis coincide with eastward (westward) to westward (eastward) transition of QBO winds at that level. The trend in zonal mean tropical temperature is negative above 56 hPa with magnitude increasing with height. The maximum negative trend of 0.05 K/year is observed at 21-17 hPa and the trend insignificant around tropopause. The response of temperature to SC is negative in the UTLS region and to ENSO is positive below 100 hPa and mostly negative above 100 hPa. The negative response of WVMR to MEI in the stratosphere is suggested to be due to the extended cold trap of tropopause temperature during El Niño years that might have controlled the water vapor entry into the stratosphere. The WVMR response to residual vertical velocity at 70 hPa is positive in the stratosphere, whereas the temperature response is positive in the

  8. Influence of different morphology of three-dimensional Cu(x)O with mixed facets modified air-cathodes on microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziqi; Li, Kexun; Zhang, Xi; Ge, Baochao; Pu, Liangtao

    2015-11-01

    Three kinds of three-dimensional (3D) CuxO catalysts were prepared to modify activated carbon air-cathode using a facile electrochemical method with addition of surfactants. The maximum power density of MFC using SC-Cu air cathode (added sodium citrate into the electrolyte solution in electrodeposition process) was 1550±47 mW m(-2), almost 77% higher than AC cathode. Specifically, the charge transfer resistance significantly decreased by 89% from 9.3980 Ω to 1.0640 Ω compared to the control. Lumphy and mutually embedded filmy sheet structure were observed in SEM, which provided sufficient active sites for oxygen adsorption and diffusion. In XRD and TEM result, CuxO with mixed facets showed special structure which had a better performance. Crystallization condition of electrodeposited materials played a significant role in their nature electrochemical properties, morphology controlled by surfactant of CuxO exhibited high properties on the air-cathode MFC.

  9. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  10. Effect of the air-fuel mixing on the NOx yield in a low-emission gas-turbine plant combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. D.; Bulysova, L. A.; Berne, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with construction of a simplified model of inhibition of nitric oxides formed in the combustors of the gas-turbine plants (GTPs) operating on natural gas. A combustor in which premixed, lean air-fuel mixtures are burnt is studied theoretically and experimentally. The research was carried out using a full-scale combustor that had parameters characteristic of modern GTPs. The article presents the results computed by the FlowVision software and the results of the experiments carried out on the test bench of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The calculations and the tests were conducted under the following conditions: a flow rate of approximately 4.6 kg/s, a pressure to 450 kPa, an air temperature at the combustor inlet of approximately 400°C, the outlet temperature t 3 ≤ 1200°C, and natural gas as the fuel. The comparison of the simulated parameters with the experimental results underlies the constructed correlation dependence of the experimental NO x emission on the calculated parameter of nonuniform fuel concentration at the premixing zone outlet. The postulate about a weak dependence of the emission of NO x formed upon combustion of a perfectly mixed air-fuel mixture—when the methane concentration in air is constant at any point of the air-fuel mixture, i.e., constant in the mixture bulk—on the pressure in the combustor has been experimentally proven. The correctness and the practicability of the stationary mathematical model of the mixing process used to assess the NO x emission by the calculated amount of the air-fuel mixture generated in the premixing zone has been validated. This eliminates some difficulties that arise in the course of calculation of combustion and formation of NO x .

  11. Determination of the origin of elevated uranium at a Former Air Force Landfill using non-parametric statistics analysis and uranium isotope ratio analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, J.; Young, C.; Masciulli, S.; Caputo, D.

    2007-07-01

    Lowry Air Force Base (Lowry) was closed in September 1994 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) program and the base was transferred to the Lowry Redevelopment Authority in 1995. As part of the due diligence activities conducted by the Air Force, a series of remedial investigations were conducted across the base. A closed waste landfill, designated Operable Unit 2 (OU 2), was initially assessed in a 1990 Remedial Investigation (RI; [1]). A Supplemental Remedial Investigation was conducted in 1995 [2] and additional studies were conducted in a 1998 Focused Feasibility Study. [3] The three studies indicated that gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations were consistently above regulatory standards and that there were detections of low concentrations other radionuclides. Results from previous investigations at OU 2 have shown elevated gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations in groundwater, surface water, and sediments. The US Air Force has sought to understand the provenance of these radionuclides in order to determine if they could be due to leachates from buried radioactive materials within the landfill or whether they are naturally-occurring. The Air Force and regulators agreed to use a one-year monitoring and sampling program to seek to explain the origins of the radionuclides. Over the course of the one-year program, dissolved uranium levels greater than the 30 {mu}g/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) were consistently found in both up-gradient and down-gradient wells at OU 2. Elevated Gross Alpha and Gross Beta measurements that were observed during prior investigations and confirmed during the LTM were found to correlate with high dissolved uranium content in groundwater. If Gross Alpha values are corrected to exclude uranium and radon contributions in accordance with US EPA guidance, then the 15 pCi/L gross alpha level is not exceeded. The large dataset also allowed development of gross alpha to total uranium correlation

  12. Decreases in Short Term Memory, IQ, and Altered Brain Metabolic Ratios in Urban Apolipoprotein ε4 Children Exposed to Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Zhu, Hongtu; Lu, Zhaohua; Solorio, Edelmira; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Children's urban air pollution exposures result in systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD. We assessed whether APOE in healthy children modulates cognition, olfaction, and metabolic brain indices. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were administered to 50 Mexico City Metropolitan Area children (13.4 ± 4.8 years, 28 APOE ε3 and 22 APOE ε4). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, myo-inositol (mI)/Cr, and NAA/mI were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes, hippocampus, and pons. APOE ε4 versus ε3 children had a reduced NAA/Cr ratio in the right frontal white matter and decrements on attention, short-term memory, and below-average scores in Verbal and Full Scale IQ (>10 points). APOE modulated the group effects between WISC-R and left frontal and parietal white matter, and hippocampus metabolites. Soap was the predominantly failed odor in urban children and, in APOE ε4 versus ε3 carriers, strongly correlated with left hippocampus mI/Cr ratio. APOE modulates responses to air pollution in the developing brain. APOE ε4 carriers could have a higher risk of developing early AD if they reside in a polluted environment. APOE, cognition, and olfaction testing and targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy may contribute to the assessment of urban children and their results could provide new paths toward the unprecedented opportunity for early neuroprotection and AD prevention.

  13. Using CO to NOX Ratios to Understand the Impact of Photoactive Roadways on Urban Atmospheric Chemistry and their Efficiency in Mitigating Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, C.; Jobson, B. T.; Haselbach, L.; Shen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Photoactive roadways and the incorporation of diverse photocatalytic surfaces into the built environment have been proposed as a strategy to improve air quality in urban areas. Laboratory studies show that surfaces treated with TiO2 are efficient in removing nitrogen oxides (NOX). Nonetheless, measurements under ambient conditions capable of isolating the impact of the photoactive surface are scarce. Previous work by our group demonstrated that CO remains stable during the timescale where NOX removal is detected, and thus can be used as a tracer. The work presented herein focuses on outdoor tests comparing CO to NOX ratios (CO/NOX) before and after interacting with photoactive pavement materials. The samples were placed in a Teflon chamber receiving a controlled flow of ambient air supplemented with a constant addition of CO and NO calibration gases. Experiments started before sunrise and continued until sunset to understand the variation due to changing UV levels. CO and NOx were monitored at the input and output of the chamber; O3 was monitored at the input. Preliminary results with asphalt roadway samples indicate that while the input CO/NOX remains constant during the day, the output CO/NOX shows a maximum during early morning and subsequently decreases to a steady value throughout the afternoon. Our previous laboratory work indicates that NO2 removal by photoactive asphalt is smaller than that of NO. We hypothesize that the decrease in the CO/NOx ratio after early morning hours is caused by 1) the enhancement in O3 concentrations as the atmospheric photochemistry increases resulting in more NO2 entering the chamber and 2) NO2 released during photocatalytic NO removal process. Therefore, as the NO2/NO increases, the efficiency of photoactive process decreases indicating that the potential benefit from photoactive roads would likely be driven by a balance between UV levels and local photochemistry.

  14. Mixed aliphatic and aromatic composition of evaporating very small grains in NGC 7023 revealed by the 3.4/3.3 μm ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilleri, P.; Joblin, C.; Boulanger, F.; Onaka, T.

    2015-05-01

    Context. A chemical scenario was proposed for photon-dominated regions (PDRs) according to which UV photons from nearby stars lead to the evaporation of very small grains (VSGs) and the production of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims: Our goal is to achieve better insight into the composition and evolution of evaporating very small grains (eVSGs) and PAHs through analyzing the infrared (IR) aliphatic and aromatic emission bands. Methods: We combined spectro-imagery in the near- and mid-IR to study the spatial evolution of the emission bands in the prototypical PDR NGC 7023. We used near-IR spectra obtained with the IRC instrument onboard AKARI to trace the evolution of the 3.3 μm and 3.4 μm bands, which are associated with aromatic and aliphatic C-H bonds on PAHs. The spectral fitting involved an additional broad feature centered at 3.45 μm that is often referred to as the plateau. Mid-IR observations obtained with the IRS instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope were used to distinguish the signatures of eVSGs and neutral and cationic PAHs. We correlated the spatial evolution of all these bands with the intensity of the UV field given in units of the Habing field G0 to explore how their carriers are processed. Results: The intensity of the 3.45 μm plateau shows an excellent correlation with that of the 3.3 μm aromatic band (correlation coefficient R = 0.95) and a relatively poor correlation with the aliphatic 3.4 μm band (R = 0.77). This indicates that the 3.45 μm feature is dominated by the emission from aromatic bonds. We show that the ratio of the 3.4 μm and 3.3 μm band intensity (I3.4/I3.3) decreases by a factor of 4 at the PDR interface from the more UV-shielded layers (G0 ~ 150,I3.4/I3.3 = 0.13) to the more exposed layers (G0> 1 × 104,I3.4/I3.3 = 0.03). The intensity of the 3.3 μm band relative to the total neutral PAH intensity shows an overall increase with G0, associated with an increase of both the hardness of the

  15. Mixed aliphatic and aromatic composition of evaporating very small grains in NGC 7023 revealed by the 3.4/3.3 μm ratio

    PubMed Central

    Pilleri, P.; Joblin, C.; Boulanger, F.; Onaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context A chemical scenario was proposed for photon-dominated regions (PDRs) according to which UV photons from nearby stars lead to the evaporation of very small grains (VSGs) and the production of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims Our goal is to achieve better insight into the composition and evolution of evaporating very small grains (eVSGs) and PAHs through analyzing the infrared (IR) aliphatic and aromatic emission bands. Methods We combined spectro-imagery in the near- and mid-IR to study the spatial evolution of the emission bands in the prototypical PDR NGC 7023. We used near-IR spectra obtained with the IRC instrument onboard AKARI to trace the evolution of the 3.3 μm and 3.4 μm bands, which are associated with aromatic and aliphatic C–H bonds on PAHs. The spectral fitting involved an additional broad feature centered at 3.45 μm that is often referred to as the plateau. Mid-IR observations obtained with the IRS instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope were used to distinguish the signatures of eVSGs and neutral and cationic PAHs. We correlated the spatial evolution of all these bands with the intensity of the UV field given in units of the Habing field G0 to explore how their carriers are processed. Results The intensity of the 3.45 μm plateau shows an excellent correlation with that of the 3.3 μm aromatic band (correlation coefficient R = 0.95) and a relatively poor correlation with the aliphatic 3.4 μm band (R=0.77). This indicates that the 3.45 μm feature is dominated by the emission from aromatic bonds. We show that the ratio of the 3.4 μm and 3.3 μm band intensity (I3.4/I3.3) decreases by a factor of 4 at the PDR interface from the more UV-shielded layers (G0 ~ 150, I3.4/I3.3 = 0.13) to the more exposed layers (G0 > 1 × 104, I3.4/I3.3 = 0.03). The intensity of the 3.3 μm band relative to the total neutral PAH intensity shows an overall increase with G0, associated with an increase of both the hardness of the UV

  16. Global distributions of CO2 volume mixing ratio in the middle and upper atmosphere from daytime MIPAS high-resolution spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Á.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; García-Comas, Maya; Gardini, Angela; González-Galindo, Francisco; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Grabowski, Udo; Linden, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Global distributions of the CO2 vmr (volume mixing ratio) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (from 70 up to ˜ 140 km) have been derived from high-resolution limb emission daytime MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) spectra in the 4.3 µm region. This is the first time that the CO2 vmr has been retrieved in the 120-140 km range. The data set spans from January 2005 to March 2012. The retrieval of CO2 has been performed jointly with the elevation pointing of the line of sight (LOS) by using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) retrieval scheme. The non-LTE model incorporates the new vibrational-vibrational and vibrational-translational collisional rates recently derived from the MIPAS spectra by [Jurado-Navarro et al.(2015)]. It also takes advantage of simultaneous MIPAS measurements of other atmospheric parameters (retrieved in previous steps), such as the kinetic temperature (derived up to ˜ 100 km from the CO2 15 µm region of MIPAS spectra and from 100 up to 170 km from the NO 5.3 µm emission of the same MIPAS spectra) and the O3 measurements (up to ˜ 100 km). The latter is very important for calculations of the non-LTE populations because it strongly constrains the O(3P) and O(1D) concentrations below ˜ 100 km. The estimated precision of the retrieved CO2 vmr profiles varies with altitude ranging from ˜ 1 % below 90 km to 5 % around 120 km and larger than 10 % above 130 km. There are some latitudinal and seasonal variations of the precision, which are mainly driven by the solar illumination conditions. The retrieved CO2 profiles have a vertical resolution of about 5-7 km below 120 km and between 10 and 20 km at 120-140 km. We have shown that the inclusion of the LOS as joint fit parameter improves the retrieval of CO2, allowing for a clear discrimination between the information on CO2 concentration and the LOS and also leading to significantly smaller systematic errors. The retrieved CO2 has an improved

  17. A Study of Cold-Air Modification over the Gulf of Mexico Using In Situ Data and Mixed-Layer Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingfu; Lewis, John M.; Schneider, Jeanne M.

    1992-08-01

    The evolution of the mean characteristics of the marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks can be described with an integrated or slab model. In order to assess the practical applicability of this-type of model to flows over the Gulf of Mexico, we use the observations collected during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) by an instrumented National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) P-3 aircraft and a Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) onboard the U.S. Coast Guard vessel Salvia. The numerical results show that the model successfully reproduced the changes in mean characteristics of momentum, moisture, and temperature under unstable conditions. The largest differences between the predictions and measurements are 0.8°C for the potential temperature, 0.15 g kg1 for the specific humidity, 47 m for the mixed-layer height, and 1.5 m s1 for the horizontal velocity components. A sensitivity analysis shows that the modeled mixed-layer height is slightly sensitive to changes in the specified sea surface temperature, while the other mean characteristics are relatively insensitive to the input parameters. Based upon the results of this single case study, the slab model appears to be a promising approach to account for the moistening and heating processes at the air-sea interface during cold-air outbreaks over the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Acceleration of high-pressure-ratio single-spool turbojet engine as determined from component performance characteristics I : effect of air bleed at compressor outlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebeske, John J , Jr; Rohlik, Harold E

    1953-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made to determine from component performance characteristics the effect of air bleed at the compressor outlet on the acceleration characteristics of a typical high-pressure-ratio single-spool turbojet engine. Consideration of several operating lines on the compressor performance map with two turbine-inlet temperatures showed that for a minimum acceleration time the turbine-inlet temperature should be the maximum allowable, and the operating line on the compressor map should be as close to the surge region as possible throughout the speed range. Operation along such a line would require a continuously varying bleed area. A relatively simple two-step area bleed gives only a small increase in acceleration time over a corresponding variable-area bleed. For the modes of operation considered, over 84 percent of the total acceleration time was required to accelerate through the low-speed range ; therefore, better low-speed compressor performance (higher pressure ratios and efficiencies) would give a significant reduction in acceleration time.

  19. Measurement of formaldehyde in clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzert, V.; Seiler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the measurement of small amounts of formaldehyde in air has been developed. The method is based on the derivatization of HCHO with 2.4-Denetrophenylhydragine, forming 2.4-Dentrophylhydragine, measured with GC-ECD-technique. HCHO is preconcentrated using a cryogenic sampling technique. The detection limit is 0.05 ppbv for a sampling volume of 200 liter. The method has been applied for measurements in continental and marine air masses showing HCHO mixing ratios of 0.4--5.0 ppbv and 0.2--1.0 ppbv, respectively. HCHO mixing ratios show diurnal variations with maximum values during the early afternoon and minimum values during the early morning. In continental air, HCHO mixing ratios are positively correlated with CO and SO/sub 2/, indicating anthropogenic HCHO sources which are estimated to be 6--11 x 10/sup 12/g/year/sup -1/ on a global scale.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of mixed DPPC/fibrinogen layer behavior at the air/liquid interface under a continuous compression-expansion condition.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chia-Lin; Chang, Chien-Hsiang

    2006-07-18

    The mixed layer behavior of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with fibrinogen at continuously compressed-expanded air/liquid interfaces was analyzed in situ by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The reflectance-absorbance (RA) intensities and/or wavenumbers of nu(a)-CH2 and amide I bands for a mixed DPPC/fibrinogen layer at the interface were obtained directly by an infrared spectrometer with a monolayer/grazing angle accessory and a removable Langmuir trough. The nu(a)-CH2 RA intensity-area hysteresis curves of a DPPC monolayer indicate a significant loss of free DPPC molecules at the interface during the first compression stage, which is also supported by the corresponding nu(a)-CH2 wavenumber-area hysteresis curves. For a mixed DPPC/fibrinogen layer at the interface, the amide I RA intensity-area hysteresis curves suggest that the fibrinogen molecules were expelled from the interface upon compression, apparently because of the presence of insoluble DPPC molecules. The squeeze-out of fibrinogen evidently removed a pronounced amount of DPPC from the interface, as judged from the corresponding nu(a)-CH2 intensity and wavenumber data. Moreover, significant adsorption of fibrinogen was found during the subsequent interface expansion stage. With the in situ IRRAS analysis of the mixed layer behavior at the interface, the induced loss of DPPC by fibrinogen expulsion from the compressed interface and the dominant adsorption of fibrinogen to the expanded interface were clearly demonstrated.

  1. Quantitative fuel vapor/air mixing imaging in droplet/gas regions of an evaporating spray flow using filtered Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Allison, Patton M; McManus, Thomas A; Sutton, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter demonstrates the application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for quantitative two-dimensional fuel vapor/air mixing measurements in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel spray flow. Using the FRS approach, gas-phase measurements are made in the presence of liquid-phase droplets without interference. Effective suppression of the liquid-phase droplet scattering using FRS is enabled by the high spectral purity of the current Nd:YAG laser system. Simultaneous Mie-scattering imaging is used to visualize the droplet field and illustrate the droplet loading under which the FRS imaging is applied in the current spray flows. The initial quantification of the FRS imaging is based on calibration measurements from a flow cell of known fuel vapor/air mixtures, while future work targets the utilization of a Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral model for quantification of the FRS signals.

  2. The effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean blowout limit, lean stability limit and NO(x) emissions in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, W.-P.; Lee, J. G.; Santavicca, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for both land-based and aircraft propulsion applications are facing regulations on NOx emissions which cannot be met with current combustor technology. A number of alternative combustor strategies are being investigated which have the potential capability of achieving ultra-low NOx emissions, including lean premixed combustors, direct injection combustors, rich burn-quick quench-lean burn combustors and catalytic combustors. The research reported in this paper addresses the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit performance and the NOx emissions characteristics of lean premixed combustors.

  3. Rotational diffusion of ionic and neutral solutes in mixed micelles: Effect of surfactant to block copolymer mole ratio on solute rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, K. S.; Dutt, G. B.; Mukherjee, T.

    2007-10-01

    Rotational diffusion of an ionic solute rhodamine 110 and a neutral solute 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) has been investigated in aqueous mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and poly(ethyleneoxide)20-poly(propyleneoxide)70-poly(ethyleneoxide)20 (P123). The purpose of this work is to understand how an increase in the mole ratio of surfactant to block copolymer from low to high influences the dynamics of ionic and neutral solute molecules. The variation in the mole ratio of CTAC to P123 from low to high has resulted in a drastic increase in the average reorientation time of rhodamine 110. In contrast, an exactly opposite trend has been noticed in the case of DMDPP. In the low mole ratio regime, rhodamine 110 and DMDPP are located at the interface and palisade layer, respectively, of P123 micelle-CTAC complexes. On the other hand, in the high mole ratio regime, both the probes are located in the Stern layer of CTAC-P123 complexes. The enhancement in the average reorientation time of rhodamine 110 with an increase in the mole ratio of surfactant to block copolymer has been rationalized on the basis of formation of rhodamine 110-Cl ion pair, which in turn associates with the cationic head groups of CTAC-P123 complexes. The observed decrease in the average reorientation time of DMDPP with an increase in the mole ratio of CTAC to P123 is a consequence of lower microviscosity of the Stern layer of CTAC-P123 complexes compared to the palisade layer of P123 micelle-CTAC complexes.

  4. In-Situ Remediation of Mixed Radioactive Tank Waste, Via Air Sparging and Poly-Acrylate Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Edgett, S.M.; Eaton, D.L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes remediation activities performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) on an underground storage tank (UST) from the Idaho National Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN) complex. The UST had been used to collect radioactive liquid wastes from and for the TAN evaporator. Recent analyses had found that the residual waste in Tank V-14 had contained quantities of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in excess of F001 treatment standards. In addition, the residual waste in Tank V-14 was not completely solidified. As a result, further remediation and solidification of the waste was required before the tank could be properly disposed of at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF). Remediation of the PCE-contaminated waste in Tank V-14 was performed by first adding sufficient water to fluidize the residual waste in the tank. This was followed by high-volume, in-situ air sparging of the fluidized waste, using air lances that were inserted to the bottom of V-14. The high-volume air sparging removed residual PCE from the fluidized waste, collecting it on granular activated carbon filters within the off-gas system. The sparged waste was then solidified by educting large-diameter crystals of an acrylic acrylate resin manufactured by WaterWorks America{sup TM} into the fluidized waste, via the air-sparging lances. To improve solidification, the air-sparging lances were rotated during the eduction step, while continuing to provide high-volume air flow into the waste. Eduction was continued until the waste had solidified sufficiently to not allow for further eduction of WaterWorks{sup TM} crystals into the waste. The tank was then disposed of at the ICDF, with the residual void volume in the tank filled with cement. (authors)

  5. Numerical study of high frequency oscillatory air flow and convective mixing in a CT-based human airway model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwoong; Xia, Guohua; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is considered an efficient and safe respiratory technique to ventilate neonates and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. HFOV has very different characteristics from normal breathing physiology, with a much smaller tidal volume and a higher breathing frequency. In this work, the high frequency oscillatory flow is studied using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis in three different geometrical models with increasing complexity: a straight tube, a single-bifurcation tube model, and a computed-tomography (CT)-based human airway model of up to seven generations. We aim to understand the counter-flow phenomenon at flow reversal and its role in convective mixing in these models using sinusoidal waveforms of different frequencies and Reynolds numbers. Mixing is quantified by the stretch rate analysis. In the straight-tube model, coaxial counter flow with opposing fluid streams is formed around flow reversal, agreeing with an analytical Womersley solution. However, counter flow yields no net convective mixing at end cycle. In the single-bifurcation model, counter flow at high Re is intervened with secondary vortices in the parent (child) branch at end expiration (inspiration), resulting in an irreversible mixing process. For the CT-based airway model three cases are considered, consisting of the normal breathing case, the high-frequency-normal-Re case, and the HFOV case. The counter-flow structure is more evident in the high-frequency-normal-Re case than the HFOV case. The instantaneous and time-averaged stretch rates at the end of two breathing cycles and in the vicinity of flow reversal are computed. It is found that counter flow contributes about 20% to mixing in HFOV. PMID:20614248

  6. Enhanced Charge Carrier Transport and Device Performance Through Dual-Cesium Doping in Mixed-Cation Perovskite Solar Cells with Near Unity Free Carrier Ratios.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Petrović, Miloš; Peng, Shengjie; Yoong, Jeremy Lee Kong; Vijila, Chellappan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-25

    PbI2-enriched mixed perovskite film [FA0.81MA0.15Pb(I0.836Br0.15)3] has been widely studied due to its great potential in perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. Herein, a FA0.81MA0.15Pb(I0.836Br0.15)3 film has been fabricated with the temperature-dependent optical absorption spectra utilized to determine its exciton binding energy. A ∼13 meV exciton binding energy is estimated, and a near-unity fraction of free carriers out of the total photoexcitons has been obtained in the solar cell operating regime at equilibrium state. PSCs are fabricated with this mixed perovskite film, but a significant electron transport barrier at the TiO2-perovskite interface limited their performance. Cs2CO3 and CsI are then utilized as functional enhancers with which to substantially balance the electron and hole transport and increase the carriers (both electrons and holes) mobilities in PSCs, resulting in much-improved solar-cell performance. The modified PSCs exhibit reproducible power conversion efficiency (PCE) values with little hysteresis effect in the J-V curves, achieving PCEs up to 19.5% for the Cs2CO3-modified PSC and 20.6% when subsequently further doped with CsI.

  7. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  8. Dispersion, Mixing, and Combustion in Uniform- and Variable-Density Air-Breathing High-Speed Propulsion Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-28

    modifications allowed inclined-jet injection in supersonic flow to be studied with and without chemical reactions and heat release. Work on hydrocarbon ...completion times present particular challenges for scramjet powered flight in the low Mach number regime in that chemical reactions must be preceded...numerical simulations and modeling of jet injection into supersonic flow, and dispersion, mixing, and chemical reactions of flow past a rearward-facing

  9. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2009-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  10. Nonlinear Least-Squares Based Method for Identifying and Quantifying Single and Mixed Contaminants in Air with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hanying; Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Ryan, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has recently developed and built an electronic nose (ENose) using a polymer-carbon composite sensing array. This ENose is designed to be used for air quality monitoring in an enclosed space, and is designed to detect, identify and quantify common contaminants at concentrations in the parts-per-million range. Its capabilities were demonstrated in an experiment aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Flight STS-95. This paper describes a modified nonlinear least-squares based algorithm developed to analyze data taken by the ENose, and its performance for the identification and quantification of single gases and binary mixtures of twelve target analytes in clean air. Results from laboratory-controlled events demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm to identify and quantify a gas event if concentration exceeds the ENose detection threshold. Results from the flight test demonstrate that the algorithm correctly identifies and quantifies all registered events (planned or unplanned, as singles or mixtures) with no false positives and no inconsistencies with the logged events and the independent analysis of air samples.

  11. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  12. Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of Zn-Co-Mixed Sulfide Nanostructures on Carbon Fiber Paper Toward Efficient Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries and Water Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Han, Xiaopeng; Ma, Xiaoya; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Wenbin

    2017-04-12

    It remains an ongoing challenge to develop cheap, highly active, and stable electrocatalysts to promote the sluggish electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, oxygen reduction, and hydrogen evolution reactions for rechargeable metal-air batteries and water-splitting systems. In this work, we report the morphology-controllable synthesis of zinc cobalt mixed sulfide (Zn-Co-S) nanoarchitectures, including nanosheets, nanoplates, and nanoneedles, grown on conductive carbon fiber paper (CFP) and the micronanostructure dependent electrochemical efficacy for catalyzing hydrogen and oxygen in zinc-air batteries and water electrolysis. The formation of different Zn-Co-S morphologies was attributed to the synergistic effect of decomposed urea products and the corrosion of NH4F. Among synthesized Zn-Co-S nanostructures, the nanoneedle arrays supported on CFP exhibit superior trifunctional activity for oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and hydrogen evolution reactions than its nanosheet and nanoplate counterparts through half reaction testing. It also exhibited better catalytic durability than Pt/C and RuO2. Furthermore, the Zn-Co-S nanoneedle/CFP electrode enables rechargeable Zn-air batteries with low overpotential (0.85 V), high efficiency (58.1%), and long cycling lifetimes (200 cycles) at 10 mA cm(-2) as well as considerable performance for water splitting. The superior performance is contributed to the integrated nanoneedle/CFP nanostructure, which not only provides enhanced electrochemical active area, but also facilitates ion and gas transfer between the catalyst surface and electrolyte, thus maintaining an effective solid-liquid-gas interface necessary for electrocatalysis. These results indicate that the Zn-Co-S nanoneedle/CFP system is a low cost, highly active, and durable electrode for highly efficient rechargeable zinc-air batteries and water electrolysis in alkaline solution.

  13. Analysis of the Chemically-Reactive Mixing Region Between a Turbulent Rocket Exhaust and a Confined Air Stream

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-03-03

    experimental results of Zakkay, et al , (HO it was concluded that the turbulent Schmidt and Lewis numbers ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 and 0.U to 1.0...The experimental investigation of Zakkay, et al ., was conducted to determine the turbulent mixing of coaxial Jets for both subsonic and supersonic flow...CO, G02, N2, HC1, Al , Al ^, and one additional inert species which remained as an inpuE" selection^ The phenomenological model employed for the

  14. Stable carbon isotope ratios of toluene in the boundary layer and the lower free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintel, J.; Hösen, E.; Koppmann, R.; Krebsbach, M.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Rohrer, F.

    2013-11-01

    During the field campaign ZEPTER-2 in autumn 2008 whole air samples were collected on board a Zeppelin NT airship in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere (LFT) over south-west Germany using the ZEppelin Based Isotope Sampler (ZEBIS). These samples were analysed with respect to volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios and stable carbon isotope ratios using a gas chromatograph combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS). In this study we present results for toluene, one of the major anthropogenic pollutants, which emphasise the viability of isotope ratio measurements in VOC for atmospheric research, especially to study VOC sources or to track both dynamical and chemical processes. In situ measurements of CO mixing ratios on board the Zeppelin NT were used to allocate the air samples either to the PBL or the LFT. In the PBL we observed rather fresh emissions mixing into the background air. We estimated a toluene source isotope ratio of δ13C = -28.2 ± 0.5‰. Samples from the PBL and the LFT were clearly distinguishable by means of their mixing ratio and isotope ratio signatures. Using the concept of the effective kinetic isotope effect, we were able to separate the effects of dilution processes and photochemical degradation in the free troposphere. We calculated the photochemical age of toluene in the atmosphere in two different ways using isotope ratios and mixing ratios. The results differ strongly in the PBL, probably due to mixing processes, but are compatible with each other in the LFT. Here, they correlate with a slope of 0.90±0.31.

  15. Are the ratios of the two concentrations at steady state in the medium pairs of air-water, air-soil, water-soil, water-sediment, and soil-sediment?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seok; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-05-15

    For optimization and evaluation of a steady state multimedia model, concurrent multimedia monitoring data of steady state are necessary. In the lack of emission rate information, the primary aim of the present work was to assess if five concentration ratios (CRs) (C water/Cair, C soil/Cair, C sediment/C soil, C water/C soil, and C sediment/C water) of chemical compounds are at steady state in South Korea. A total of 16,676 CRs values were calculated using 74,641 concurrent multimedia (air, water, soil and sediment) monitoring data from 96 areas for 45 semi-volatile organic compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Test of steady state indicated that CR is statistically at steady state with an overall occurrence rate of 70% of the 223 tested cases while the rates of individual chemical groups were 94.5%, 88%, 82.5%, and 37.6% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, respectively. About 83% of the steady state CRs resulted from scattering of two concentrations in each of the medium pairs without a certain temporal trend while the rest due to closely co-varying two concentrations. Analysis of the 95% confidence interval of the fugacity ratio indicated that CRs at steady state may occur in equilibrium state with higher chances than CRs at unsteady state. A total of 156 point values representing the CRs at steady state were determined that can be used for optimization and evaluation of steady state one-box multimedia models. However, potential influences of the uncertainties of the values arisen from the scattering of the concentration data should quantitatively be assessed in the model optimization and evaluation.

  16. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  17. A Numerical Study of Tropical Sea-Air Interactions Using a Cloud Resolving Model Coupled with an Ocean Mixed-Layer Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Johnson, Dan; Simpson, Joanne; Li, Xiaofan; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Coupling a cloud resolving model (CRM) with an ocean mixed layer (OML) model can provide a powerful tool for better understanding impacts of atmospheric precipitation on sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. The objective of this study is twofold. First, by using the three dimensional (3-D) CRM-simulated (the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE) diabatic source terms, radiation (longwave and shortwave), surface fluxes (sensible and latent heat, and wind stress), and precipitation as input for the OML model, the respective impact of individual component on upper ocean heat and salt budgets are investigated. Secondly, a two-way air-sea interaction between tropical atmospheric climates (involving atmospheric radiative-convective processes) and upper ocean boundary layer is also examined using a coupled two dimensional (2-D) GCE and OML model. Results presented here, however, only involve the first aspect. Complete results will be presented at the conference.

  18. Effects of aggregates on mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Tonigold, Katrin; Varga, Imre; Nylander, Tommy; Campbell, Richard A

    2009-04-07

    We have exploited the spatial and kinetic resolution of ellipsometry to monitor the lateral movement of inhomogeneous patches of material in mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface. We show that the choice of sample preparation methods can have a profound effect on the state of the interface for chemically equivalent samples. The extent of aggregation in the bulk solution on relevant time scales is affected by specific details of the polymer/surfactant mixing process, which produces varying numbers of aggregates that can become trapped in the interfacial layer, resulting in an enhanced and fluctuating ellipsometry signal. It can be beneficial to apply the surface-cleaning method of aspiration prior to physical measurements to remove trapped aggregates through the creation of a fresh interface. At low pH, the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning is remarkably constant over a factor of >500 in the bulk composition below charge equivalence, which is discussed in terms of possible adsorption mechanisms. At high pH, through observing temporal fluctuations in the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning, we reveal two important processes: there is the spontaneous adsorption of aggregates > 0.2 microm in diameter into the interfacial layer, and with time there is the fusion of smaller aggregates to generate new large surface aggregates. We attribute the favorability of the adsorption and fusion processes at high pH to reduced electrostatic barriers resulting from the low surface charge density of the aggregates. It is inappropriate in this case to consider the interface to comprise a homogeneous adsorption layer that is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk solution. Our work shows that it can be helpful to consider whether there are macroscopic particles embedded in molecular layers at the air/liquid interface for systems where there is prior knowledge of

  19. Measurement of D^0-\\overline{D^0} Mixing using the Ratio of Lifetimes for the Decays D^0 \\to K^-\\pi^+, K^-K^+, and \\pi^-\\pi^+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B

    2008-01-08

    The authors present a measurement of D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing parameters using the ratios of lifetimes extracted from a sample of D{sup 0} mesons produced through the process D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}, that decay to K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, I{sup -}K{sup +}, or {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}. the Cabibbo-suppressed modes K{sup -}K{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} are compared to the Cabibbo-favored mode K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} to obtain a measurement of ycp, which in the limit of CP conservation corresponds to the mixing parameter y. The analysis is based on a data sample of 384 fb{sup -1} collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. They obtain ycp = [1.24 {+-} 0.39(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst)]%, which is evidence of D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing at the 3{sigma} level, and {Delta}Y = [-0.26 {+-} 0.36(stat) {+-} 0.08(syst)]%, where {Delta}Y constrains possible CP violation. Combining this result with a previous BABAR measurement of ycp obtained from a separate sample of D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}K{sup +} events, they obtain ycp = [1.03 {+-} 0.33(stat) {+-} 0.19(syst)]%.

  20. Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen

    2016-07-29

    Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixedmore » parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the “super-adiabatic” growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision–coalescence in warm clouds.« less

  1. Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Takao; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2007-11-15

    Generation of sub-two-cycle, microjoule pulses in the mid-infrared region is demonstrated. Fundamental and second-harmonic pulses of 25 fs Ti:sapphire amplifier output were focused into the air to produce extremely broadband mid-infrared pulses by four-wave difference-frequency generation through the filamentation. The full width at half-maximum of the spectral bandwidth reaches one octave (2.5-5.5 microm), which is sufficiently broad for sub-single-cycle pulse generation. The pulse width was estimated to be 13 fs, without any compressors, by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating. The output energy of more than a few microjoule is sufficient for spectroscopy.

  2. Interactions between polymers and lipid monolayers at the air/water interface: surface behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)-cholesterol mixed films.

    PubMed

    Miñones Conde, M; Conde, O; Trillo, J M; Miñones, J

    2010-08-26

    The behavior of mixed monolayers of cholesterol and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with molecular weights of M(w) = 120,000 g/mol and M(w) = 15,000 g/mol was investigated at the air/water interface using Langmuir and Brewster angle microscopy techniques. From the data of surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherms, compressional modulus-surface pressure (C(s)(-1)-pi) curves, and film thickness, complemented with Brewster angle microscopy images, the interaction between the components was analyzed. Regardless of the surface pressure (pi = 10, 20, or 30 mN/m) at which the mean molecular/monomer areas (Am) were calculated, the Am-mole fraction plots (corresponding to X(PMMA) = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9) show that all the experimental points obtained are placed on the theoretical straight line calculated according to the additivity rule. This fact, together with the existence of two collapses in the mixed monolayers and with the fact that the surface pressure of the liquid-expanded LE-L'E phase transition of PMMA does not change with the monolayer composition, demonstrates the immiscibility of the film components at the interface. The application of the Crisp phase rule to the phase diagram of PMMA-cholesterol mixed monolayers helps to explain the existence of a biphasic system, regardless of their composition and surface pressure. Besides, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) images showed the existence of heterogeneous cholesterol domains with high reflectivity immersed in a homogeneous polymer separate phase with low reflectivity.

  3. Air- and Self-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, and Line Mixing in the Nu(sub 2) Band of (12)CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Benner, D. Chris; Pedroi-Cross, A.; Devi, V. Malathy

    2013-01-01

    Lorentz self- and air-broadened half width and pressure-induced shift coefficients and their dependences on temperature have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra for nearly 130 transitions in the nu(sub 2) band of (12)CH4. In addition line mixing coefficients (using the relaxation matrix element formalism) for both self- and airbroadening were experimentally determined for the first time for a small number of transitions in this band. Accurate line positions and absolute line intensities were also determined. These parameters were obtained by analyzing high-resolution (approx. 0.003 to 0.01 per cm) laboratory spectra of high-purity natural CH4 and air-broadened CH4 recorded at temperatures between 226 and 297 K using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique was used to fit short (5-15 per cm) spectral intervals in 24-29 spectra simultaneously. Parameters were determined for nu(sub 2) transitions up to J" = 16. The variations of the measured broadening and shift parameters with the rotational quantum number index and tetrahedral symmetry species are examined. The present results are also compared with previous measurements available in the literature.

  4. Triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites: towards efficient, annealing-free and air-stable solar cells enabled by Pb(SCN)2 additive

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong; Peng, Jiajun; Chen, Yani; Yao, Yingshan; Liang, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites have suffered undesirably from structural and thermal instabilities. Moreover, thermal annealing is often indispensable to the crystallization of perovskites and removal of residual solvents, which is unsuitable for scalable fabrication of flexible solar modules. Herein, we demonstrate the non-thermal annealing fabrication of a novel type of air-stable triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites, FA0.7MA0.2Cs0.1Pb(I5/6Br1/6)3 (FMC) by incorporation of Pb(SCN)2 additive. It is found that adding Pb(SCN)2 functions the same as thermal annealing process by not only improving the crystallinity and optical absorption of perovskites, but also hindering the formation of morphological defects and non-radiative recombination. Furthermore, such Pb(SCN)2-treated FMC unannealed films present micrometer-sized crystal grains and remarkably high moisture stability. Planar solar cells built upon these unannealed films exhibit a high PCE of 14.09% with significantly suppressed hysteresis phenomenon compared to those of thermal annealing. The corresponding room-temperature fabricated flexible solar cell shows an impressive PCE of 10.55%. This work offers a new avenue to low-temperature fabrication of air-stable, flexible and high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. PMID:28383061

  5. Evolution of the air/SF6 turbulent mixing zone for different lengths of SF6: shock tube visualizations and 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Griffond, Jerome; Souffland, Denis; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane

    2015-11-01

    A turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) is created in a vertical shock tube (based in ISAE DAEP) when a Mach 1.2 shock wave in air accelerates impulsively to 70 m/s an air/SF6 interface. The gases are initially separated by a thin nitrocellulose membrane maintained flat and parallel to the shock by two wire grids. The upper grid (SF6 side) of square mesh spacing hu 1.8 or 12.1 mm is expected to seed perturbation for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) while the lower grid with hl 1 mm is needed to prevent the membrane from bulging prior to the shot. The experiments were carried out for different lengths L of SF6 between the initial interface and the shock tube's end plate: 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm. The time resolved Schlieren image processing based on space and frequency filtering yields similar evolution for the TMZ thickness. Before reshock, the thickness grows initially fast then slows down and reaches different values (10 to 14 mm) according to L. Soon after reshock, the TMZ thickness growths rate is 21 mm/ms independently of L and hu. Numerical Schlieren images generated from 3D numerical simulations (performed at CEA DAM IDF) are analyzed as the experimental ones for L 15 and 25 cm and for hu 1.8 and 12.1 mm. The very weak experimental dependence on hu is not obtained by simulation as expected from dimensional reasoning. This discrepancy remains paradoxical.

  6. Triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites: towards efficient, annealing-free and air-stable solar cells enabled by Pb(SCN)2 additive.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Peng, Jiajun; Chen, Yani; Yao, Yingshan; Liang, Ziqi

    2017-04-06

    Organo-metal halide perovskites have suffered undesirably from structural and thermal instabilities. Moreover, thermal annealing is often indispensable to the crystallization of perovskites and removal of residual solvents, which is unsuitable for scalable fabrication of flexible solar modules. Herein, we demonstrate the non-thermal annealing fabrication of a novel type of air-stable triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites, FA0.7MA0.2Cs0.1Pb(I5/6Br1/6)3 (FMC) by incorporation of Pb(SCN)2 additive. It is found that adding Pb(SCN)2 functions the same as thermal annealing process by not only improving the crystallinity and optical absorption of perovskites, but also hindering the formation of morphological defects and non-radiative recombination. Furthermore, such Pb(SCN)2-treated FMC unannealed films present micrometer-sized crystal grains and remarkably high moisture stability. Planar solar cells built upon these unannealed films exhibit a high PCE of 14.09% with significantly suppressed hysteresis phenomenon compared to those of thermal annealing. The corresponding room-temperature fabricated flexible solar cell shows an impressive PCE of 10.55%. This work offers a new avenue to low-temperature fabrication of air-stable, flexible and high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

  7. Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, T.; Gailhard, J.; Kuentz, A.; Hingray, B.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to improve the understanding of past climatic or hydrologic variability have received a great deal of attention in various fields of geosciences such as glaciology, dendrochronology, sedimentology and hydrology. Based on different proxies, each research community produces different kinds of climatic or hydrologic reanalyses at different spatio-temporal scales and resolutions. When considering climate or hydrology, many studies have been devoted to characterising variability, trends or breaks using observed time series representing different regions or climates of the world. However, in hydrology, these studies have usually been limited to short temporal scales (mainly a few decades and more rarely a century) because they require observed time series (which suffer from a limited spatio-temporal density). This paper introduces ANATEM, a method that combines local observations and large-scale climatic information (such as the 20CR Reanalysis) to build long-term probabilistic air temperature and precipitation time series with a high spatio-temporal resolution (1 day and a few km2). ANATEM was tested on the reconstruction of air temperature and precipitation time series of 22 watersheds situated in the Durance River basin, in the French Alps. Based on a multi-criteria and multi-scale diagnosis, the results show that ANATEM improves the performance of classical statistical models - especially concerning spatial homogeneity - while providing an original representation of uncertainties which are conditioned by atmospheric circulation patterns. The ANATEM model has been also evaluated for the regional scale against independent long-term time series and was able to capture regional low-frequency variability over more than a century (1883-2010). Citation: Kuentz, A., Mathevet, T., Gailhard, J., and Hingray, B.: Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric

  8. Atmospheric helium isotope ratio: Possible temporal and spatial variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuji; Furukawa, Yukiko; Takahata, Naoto

    2010-09-01

    The atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio has been considered to be constant on a global scale, because the residence time of helium is significantly longer than the mixing time in the atmosphere. However, this ratio may be decreasing with time owing to the anthropogenic release of crustal helium from oil and natural gas wells, although this observation has been disputed. Here, we present the 3He/ 4He ratios of old air trapped in historical slags in Japan and of modern surface air samples collected at various sites around the world, measured with a newly developed analytical system. In air helium extracted from metallurgical slag found at refineries in operation between AD 1603 and 1907 in Japan, we determined a mean 3He/ 4He ratio of (5106 ± 108) × 10 -5 R HESJ (where R HESJ is the 3He/ 4He ratio of the Helium Standard of Japan), which is consistent with the previously reported value of (5077 ± 59) × 10 -5 R HESJ for historical slags in France and United Arab Emirates and about 4% higher than that of average modern air, (4901 ± 4) × 10 -5 R HESJ. This result implies that the air 3He/ 4He ratio has decreased with time as expected by anthropogenic causes. Our modern surface air samples revealed that the 3He/ 4He ratio increases from north to south at a rate of (0.16 ± 0.08) × 10 -5 R HESJ/degree of latitude, suggesting that the low 3He/ 4He ratio originates in high-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, which is consistent with the fact that most fossil fuel is extracted and consumed in the northern hemisphere.

  9. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of air thermal plasmas mixed with ablated vapors of Cu and polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JunMin; Lu, ChunRong; Guan, YongGang; Liu, WeiDong

    2015-10-01

    Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around the number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.

  10. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of air thermal plasmas mixed with ablated vapors of Cu and polytetrafluoroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, JunMin E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, ChunRong; Guan, YongGang E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, WeiDong

    2015-10-15

    Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around the number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.

  11. Mixing of Supersonic Jets in a RBCC Strutjet Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, S.; Hawk, Clark W.; Bakker, P. G.; Parkinson, D.; Turner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during take-off and low speed flight. A scale model of the Strutjet device was built and tested to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strut exit plane in simulated sea level take-off conditions. The Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic method has been employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point where the two jets meet, is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0 (the original design point), 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter at 8 locations downstream of the rocket nozzle exit. The results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the strut to a distance of about 18 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream (18"). These images show the turbine exhaust to be confined until a short distance downstream. The expansion into the ingested air is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and 1.5 and shows that mixing with this air would likely begin at a distance of 2" downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Of the pressure ratios tested in this research, 2.0 is the best value for delaying the mixing at the operating conditions considered.

  12. Behavior of cationic surfactants and short chain alcohols in mixed surface layers at water-air and polymer-water interfaces with regard to polymer wettability. I. Adsorption at water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of the surface tension of aqueous solutions were carried out at 293K for mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol, as well as for 1-hexadecylpyridinium bromide (CPyB) with the same alcohols. The concentration of CTAB and CPyB in aqueous solutions was in the range from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M, and methanol and ethanol was in the range from 0 to 21.1M and from 0 to 11.97M, respectively. Moreover, the surface tension of aqueous solution mixtures of cationic surfactants with propanol in the concentration range from 0 to 6.67M was also taken into consideration. The obtained isotherms of the surface tension were compared to those calculated from the Szyszkowski and Connors equations. The constants in these equations were determined by the least squares method. It appeared that they depended on the type of surfactant and alcohol. From comparison of the experimental and theoretical isotherms of the surface tension it is possible, at first approximation, to describe the relationship between the surface tension of aqueous solutions of cationic surfactants with short chain alcohol mixtures as a function of alcohol molar fraction in the bulk phase by the Szyszkowski and Connors equations. Furthermore, changes of the surface tension of aqueous solutions of CTAB and CPyB with alcohol mixtures at each constant concentration of cationic surfactant can be predicted by the Fainerman and Miller equation, if it is possible to determine the molar area of cationic surfactant and alcohol in the mixed monolayer. Based on the surface tension isotherms the Gibbs surface excess concentration of cationic surfactants and alcohols at water-air interface was determined, and in the case of alcohol, this concentration excess was recalculated for that of Guggenheim-Adam. The Guggenheim-Adam surface excess concentration was applied for determination of the real concentration of alcohol in the mixed surface monolayer. The real

  13. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (<1 year) was higher than in adult dogs (62.7% versus 40.8%, respectively). Only the prevalence of A. caninum differed between genders, with higher values for males. The prevalences of six of the parasite species showed a decreasing trend with increasing host age, and an inverse pattern was found for two other species. The prevalences of three protozoa were significantly higher in pure-breed dogs, and those of two nematodes were significantly higher in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalences of T. canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed.

  14. Stable carbon isotope ratios of ambient aromatic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, Anna; Huang, Lin; Saccon, Marina; Rudolph, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of mixing ratios and stable carbon isotope ratios of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere were made in Toronto (Canada) in 2009 and 2010. Consistent with the kinetic isotope effect for reactions of aromatic VOC with the OH radical the observed stable carbon isotope ratios are on average significantly heavier than the isotope ratios of their emissions. The change of carbon isotope ratio between emission and observation is used to determine the extent of photochemical processing (photochemical age, [OH]dt) of the different VOC. It is found that [OH]dt of different VOC depends strongly on the VOC reactivity. This demonstrates that for this set of observations the assumption of a uniform [OH]dt for VOC with different reactivity is not justified and that the observed values for [OH]dt are the result of mixing of VOC from air masses with different values for [OH]dt. Based on comparison between carbon isotope ratios and VOC concentration ratios it is also found that the varying influence of sources with different VOC emission ratios has a larger impact on VOC concentration ratios than photochemical processing. It is concluded that for this data set the use of VOC concentration ratios to determine [OH]dt would result in values for [OH]dt inconsistent with carbon isotope ratios and that the concept of a uniform [OH]dt for an air mass has to be replaced by the concept of individual values of an average [OH]dt for VOC with different reactivity.

  15. DNS of the effects of thermal stratication and turbulent mixing on H2/air ignition in a constant volume, and comparison with the multi-zone model.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Im, Hong G.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thermal stratification on auto-ignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with complex H{sub 2}/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. In particular the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions is determined. The propagation speed of ignition fronts that emanate from 'hot spots' given by a temperature spectrum is monitored by using the displacement velocity of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release. The evolution of the front velocity is compared for different initial temperature distributions and the role of scalar dissipation of heat and mass is identified. It is observed that both deagrative as well as spontaneous ignition front propagation occur depending upon the local temperature gradient. It is found that the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the deflagrative speed is a good measure of the local mode of propagation. This is verified by examining the energy and species balances. A parametric study in the amplitudes of the initial temperature fluctuation is performed and shows that this parameter has a significant influence on the observed combustion mode. Higher levels of stratification lead to more front-like structures. Predictions of the multi-zone model are presented and explained using the diagnostics developed.

  16. An Intercomparison of Water Vapor Measurements in the TTL and Lower Tropical Stratosphere during CRAVE and TC4: The Importance and Implications of Laboratory Calibrations With water Vapor Mixing Ratios From 0-10 ppmv.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Sayres, D. S.; St. Clair, J. M.; O'Brien, A.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the effort to validate instruments on the Aura satellite, the Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CRAVE) was flown in January and February of 2006. Systematic differences in measured water vapor in the tropopause region and lower stratosphere between in situ instruments on the WB57, the NOAA Colorado frostpoint hygrometer (CFH) and satellite borne instruments such as the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are well-documented. Results from CRAVE, presented during a water vapor workshop organized as part of the CRAVE science meeting, provided further confirmation of these differences. The availability for the first time of multiple robust intercomparisons between these instruments led to the conclusion that at low water mixing ratios (less than 10 ppmv), the differences appear to be well-represented by an offset of about 2 ppmv with in situ instruments on the WB57 measuring higher than MLS and CFH. This enduring discrepancy precludes a satisfactory validation of satellite retrievals of stratospheric water vapor profiles. In this talk we will summarize the recent low water calibration runs in our laboratory that provide direct evidence that the Harvard Lyman alpha instrument measures accurately at low water. We will then compare data taken during the recent TC4 campaign in August 2007 with that from CRAVE and previous campaigns. The implications of the results on our understanding of the mechanisms that control the stratospheric water vapor budget will be discussed.

  17. CFD analysis of jet mixing in low NOx flametube combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpallikar, M. V.; Smith, C. E.; Lai, M. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor was identified as a potential gas turbine combustor concept to reduce NO(x) emissions in High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To demonstrate reduced NO(x) levels, cylindrical flametube versions of RQL combustors are being tested at NASA Lewis Research Center. A critical technology needed for the RQL combustor is a method of quickly mixing by-pass combustion air with rich-burn gases. Jet mixing in a cylindrical quick-mix section was numerically analyzed. The quick-mix configuration was five inches in diameter and employed twelve radial-inflow slots. The numerical analyses were performed with an advanced, validated 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code named REFLEQS. Parametric variation of jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio (J) and slot aspect ratio was investigated. Both non-reacting and reacting analyses were performed. Results showed mixing and NO(x) emissions to be highly sensitive to J and slot aspect ratio. Lowest NO(x) emissions occurred when the dilution jet penetrated to approximately mid-radius. The viability of using 3-D CFD analyses for optimizing jet mixing was demonstrated.

  18. Effect of Ratio of Jet Area to Total Area and of Pressure Ratio on Lift Augmentation of Annular Jets in Ground Effect Under Static Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Kenneth W.; Otis, James H., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of the ratio of jet area to total area and of the pressure ratio on the lift-augmentation characteristics of annular jets in ground effect. The investigation was made over an area-ratio range of 1.00 to 0.02 and a pressure-ratio range of about 1.04 to 1.95. Several configurations with center jets were tested through an angle-of-attack range to determine the pitching-moment characteristics. The tests were conducted in a static test room with the use of the compressed-air facilities. The results show that lift augmentation increases somewhat as the area ratio is reduced to about 0.10, below which it deteriorates due to thin jet mixing. The effect of pressure ratio on lift was negligible for the area-ratio range investigated. Calculations of the lift per air horsepower for a given base loading indicate that the greatest lift per air horsepower occurs at area ratios above 0.10, where the greatest lift augmentation occurs. The data show that annular-Jet vehicles are unstable at ratios of height above ground to nozzle diameter above about 0.10. The stability of the annular-jet vehicle can be improved by the use of large center jets. Base compartments also reduces the unstable moment.

  19. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Xuerui; Lai, Chun-Ta; Hollinger, David Y.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Xiao, Jingfeng; Munger, J. William; Owensby, Clenton; Ehleringer, James R.

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling approach builds on a mixed-layer model to infer monthly average net CO2 fluxes using high-precision mixing ratio measurements taken on flux towers. We compared BL model net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with estimates from two independent approaches. First, we compared modeled NEE with tower eddy covariance measurements. The second approach (EC-MOD) was a data-driven method that upscaled EC fluxes from towers to regions using MODIS data streams. Comparisons between modeled CO2 and tower NEE fluxes showed that modeled regional CO2 fluxes displayed interannual and intra-annual variations similar to the tower NEE fluxes at the Rannells Prairie and Wind River Forest sites, but model predictions were frequently different from NEE observations at the Harvard Forest and Howland Forest sites. At the Howland Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes showed a lag in the onset of growing season uptake by 2 months behind that of tower measurements. At the Harvard Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes agreed with the timing of growing season uptake but underestimated the magnitude of observed NEE seasonal fluctuation. This modeling inconsistency among sites can be partially attributed to the likely misrepresentation of atmospheric transport and/or CO2 gradients between ABL and the free troposphere in the idealized BL model. EC-MOD fluxes showed that spatial heterogeneity in land use and cover very likely explained the majority of the data-model inconsistency. We show a site-dependent atmospheric rectifier effect that appears to have had the largest impact on ABL CO2 inversion in the North American Great Plains. We conclude that a systematic BL modeling approach

  20. Observed and model-calculated NO2/NO ratios in tropospheric air sampled during the NASA GTE/CITE-2 field study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Sandholm, S.; Rodgers, M.; Baum, B.; Ridley, B.; Gregory, G.; Torres, A.; Condon, E.

    1990-01-01

    Airborne measurements of NO2/NO ratios in the free troposphere, obtained using two-photon LIF (TP-LIF) and chemiluminescence (CL) detectors during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) program in summer 1986, are analyzed and compared with the predictions of a photochemical model. The derivation of the model is outlined, with an emphasis on the role of peroxy radicals in the fast photochemical cycling of NO and NO2 and the production of O3; the CITE 2 instruments and flight protocols are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It was found that on three CITE 2 flights the CL data were systematically greater than the TP-LIF data; when these data were removed, the averaged values of t