Science.gov

Sample records for air monitoring equipment

  1. [Use of vertical SODAR equipment in monitoring the extent of air pollution].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H R; Küchler, W

    1989-06-01

    The authors inform about the vertical-SODAR-equipment developed at the Heinrich-Hertz-Institut (HHI) and discuss the possibilities of application especially under the aspect of the air pollution control. PMID:2800627

  2. [Use of vertical SODAR equipment in monitoring the extent of air pollution].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H R; Küchler, W

    1989-06-01

    The authors inform about the vertical-SODAR-equipment developed at the Heinrich-Hertz-Institut (HHI) and discuss the possibilities of application especially under the aspect of the air pollution control.

  3. The roles of vibration analysis and infrared thermography in monitoring air-handling equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Industrial and commercial building equipment maintenance has not historically been targeted for implementation of PdM programs. The focus instead has been on manufacturing, aerospace and energy industries where production interruption has significant cost implications. As cost-effectiveness becomes more pervasive in corporate culture, even office space and labor activities housed in large facilities are being scrutinized for cost-cutting measures. When the maintenance costs for these facilities are reviewed, PdM can be considered for improving the reliability of the building temperature regulation, and reduction of maintenance repair costs. An optimized program to direct maintenance resources toward a cost effective and pro-active management of the facility can result in reduced operating budgets, and greater occupant satisfaction. A large majority of the significant rotating machinery in a large building environment are belt-driven air handling units. These machines are often poorly designed or utilized within the facility. As a result, the maintenance staff typically find themselves scrambling to replace belts and bearings, going from one failure to another. Instead of the reactive-mode maintenance, some progressive and critical institutions are adopting predictive and proactive technologies of infrared thermography and vibration analysis. Together, these technologies can be used to identify design and installation problems, that when corrected, significantly reduce maintenance and increase reliability. For critical building use, such as laboratories, research facilities, and other high value non-industrial settings, the cost-benefits of more reliable machinery can contribute significantly to the operational success.

  4. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  5. Monitoring equipment for multitasking multimicroprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Negrini, R.; Pozzi, F.; Scarabottolo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of monitoring equipment capable of evaluating performances of multimicroprocessor systems is described. The goals and field of application of such equipment are discussed, along with characteristics both at the hardware and software levels. 4 references.

  6. Environmental monitoring equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Perugini, F.

    1995-12-31

    For over 10 years GEOGUARD has been serving the waste industry with innovative, relevant and high quality products for ground water sampling, remediation pumping, and ground water monitoring. GEOGUARD has four advanced technology products for environmental monitoring. (1) MASTER-FLO{trademark} PUMPS collect accurate ground water samples and standardize field sampling procedures. MASTER-FLO{trademark} PUMPS are based upon a time proven bladder squeeze pump, the most accepted ground water sampling pump available, which can be operated with a flow through cell and low flow rates to minimize sample aeration and turbidity. (2) RELIA-FLO{trademark} PUMPS simplifiy ground water pollution clean ups. Pump and Test Remediation depends upon reliable pumping systems that can operate continually year after year in the most hostile environments. RELIA-FLO{trademark} PUMPS combine simplicity with versatility to satisfy the most demanding ground water pollution clean-up projects. (3) TUBER{trademark} measures and combines the latest sensor technology with a dedicated logger into one integrated unit, which can record well water levels, temperatures, pH and conductivity in two inch or larger wells. (4) TERRAPROBE{trademark} offers a versatile, portable alternative to drilling Wells for shallow ground penetration up to 30 feet. With TERRAPROBE{trademark}, samples for soil gas, water or soil can be easily acquired where vehicle access is not possible.

  7. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  8. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  9. Noise control of radiological monitoring equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, R.D.; Stevens, W.W.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Although vacuum pumps on continuous air monitors (CAMs) do not produce noise levels above regulatory limits, engineering controls were used to establish a safer work environment. Operations performed in areas where CAMs are located are highly specialized and require precision work when handling nuclear materials, heavy metals, and inert gases. Traditional methods for controlling noise such as enclosing or isolating the source and the use of personal protection equipment were evaluated. An innovative solution was found by retrofitting CAMs with air powered multistage ejectors pumps. By allowing the air to expand in several chambers to create a vacuum, one can eliminate the noise hazard altogether. In facilities with adequate pressurized air, use of these improved ejector pumps may be a cost-effective replacement for noisy vacuum pumps. A workplace designed or engineered with noise levels as low as possible or as close to background adds to increased concentration, attention to detail, and increased production.

  10. 40 CFR 63.2994 - How do I verify the performance of monitoring equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting of performance evaluation results. (b) If you use a thermal oxidizer, the temperature monitoring... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE..., and monitoring equipment. (2) Conduct a performance evaluation of the continuous monitoring...

  11. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  12. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  13. 4. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on east wall of the equipment room on the east side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 3. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on north wall of the equipment room on the east side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  16. Automatic Web-Based, Radio-Network System To Monitor And Control Equipment For Investigating Gas Flux At Water - Air Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Beckman, P.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive automatic device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter, all in one. Besides a function of automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device utilizes low cost CO2 sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and CH4 sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. To measure the spatial variability of emissions, each of the devices is equipped with an XBee module to enable a local radio communication DigiMesh network for time synchronization and data readout at a server-controller station on the lakeshore. Software of this server-controller is operated on a low cost Raspberry Pi computer which has a 3G connection for remote monitoring - controlling functions from anywhere in the world. From field studies in Abisko, Sweden in summer 2014 and 2015, the system has resulted in measurements of GHG fluxes comparable to manual methods. In addition, the deployments have shown the advantage of a low cost automatic network system to study GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

  17. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Uu of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks... Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors Operating time(% of year) Equivalent...

  20. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  1. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  2. Test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Yokuda, E.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration (CRD). Air monitors will be used to sample for the tracer elements neodymium, terbium, and ytterbium, and dysprosium. The results from this air monitoring will be used to determine if the CRD is successful in controlling dust and minimizing contamination. Procedures and equipment specifications for the test are included.

  3. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  4. Soil water monitoring equipment for irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equipment for monitoring soil water content and sometimes bulk electrical conductivity can be used for scheduling irrigations if the accuracy of the equipment is sufficient to avoid damanging plants and wasting water and fertilizer. Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when to irrigate a...

  5. 5. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on north and east walls of the signal transfer room on the west side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  8. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  9. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  10. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  11. Features of a micro-gas chromatograph equipped with enrichment device and microchip plasma emission detection (muPED) for air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tienpont, Bart; David, Frank; Witdouck, Wim; Vermeersch, Dries; Stoeri, Herbert; Sandra, Pat

    2008-11-01

    A field portable gas chromatograph (GC) was constructed allowing the enrichment of organic solutes from air samples on a miniaturized chemical trap and the subsequent gas chromatographic analysis on a resistively heated capillary column. The heart of the system is an integrated chip-based plasma emission detector (muPED). As a non-selective detector, the sensitivity is similar to that of a flame ionization detector (FID). The detector shows good selectivity for phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine-containing compounds with relative selectivities of ca. 5 x 10(5) gP gC(-1), 50 gS gC(-1) and 10(2) gCl gC(-1). The lifetime of the plasma chip under air monitoring conditions exceeded 3000 analyses. PMID:18941680

  12. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  18. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  19. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10).

  20. 45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) at right, looking southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. 46. Communication equipment room, shock isolator air compressor at right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Communication equipment room, shock isolator air compressor at right, looking northeast - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  3. Analysis of flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The process through which representative air carriers decide whether or not to purchase flight equipment was investigated as well as their practices and policies in retiring surplus aircraft. An analysis of the flight equipment investment decision process in ten airlines shows that for the airline industry as a whole, the flight equipment investment decision is in a state of transition from a wholly informal process in earliest years to a much more organized and structured process in the future. Individual air carriers are in different stages with respect to the formality and sophistication associated with the flight equipment investment decision.

  4. 64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT REPAIR SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  6. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  7. 44. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) in center, telephone repeater group at right, looking west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. The Sensing Technology for Air-Conditioning Equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaka, Takashi

    Various kinds of sensor are used for control of air-conditioning equipments. In this paper, examples of control system using some kinks of sensor about improvement of amenity are introduced. Humidity control methods using ceramic humidity sonsor, temperature-radiation-air flow control methods using amenity sensor, zone control methods using human detecting sensor and IAQ control methods using gas sensor, are discussed.

  9. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  10. 30 CFR 7.507 - Air-monitoring components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in mines with a history of harmful gases, other than carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, shall be equipped to measure the harmful gases' concentrations. (c) The air-monitoring component shall... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION,...

  11. 14. CLOSEUP OF RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO FRAMEWORK. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP OF RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO FRAMEWORK. CAMERA FACING SKY. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6175, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  13. Impact of Air-Filter Condition on HVAC Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis was performed of changes in energy consumption caused by dirty filters for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems during both heating and cooling cycles. Basic heat-transfer fundamentals and the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for air conditioners were used. The energy cost savings between a dirty and a clean filter were small and were mainly offset by the filter cost. However, the consequences of deferring filter replacement could be very costly because of early equipment failures.

  14. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  15. Micro-Accelerometers Monitor Equipment Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Evigia Systems to develop a miniaturized accelerometer to account for gravitational effects in space experiments. The company has gone on to implement the technology in its suite of prognostic sensors, which are used to monitor the integrity of industrial machinery. As a result, five employees have been hired.

  16. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  17. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  18. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  19. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA. PMID:22175178

  20. The changing paradigm of air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Emily G; Watkins, Timothy H; Solomon, Paul A; Thoma, Eben D; Williams, Ronald W; Hagler, Gayle S W; Shelow, David; Hindin, David A; Kilaru, Vasu J; Preuss, Peter W

    2013-10-15

    The air pollution monitoring paradigm is rapidly changing due to recent advances in (1) the development of portable, lower-cost air pollution sensors reporting data in near-real time at a high-time resolution, (2) increased computational and visualization capabilities, and (3) wireless communication/infrastructure. It is possible that these advances can support traditional air quality monitoring by supplementing ambient air monitoring and enhancing compliance monitoring. Sensors are beginning to provide individuals and communities the tools needed to understand their environmental exposures with these data individual and community-based strategies can be developed to reduce pollution exposure as well as understand linkages to health indicators. Each of these areas as well as corresponding challenges (e.g., quality of data) and potential opportunities associated with development and implementation of air pollution sensors are discussed.

  1. A survey of an air monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes.

  2. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  3. Progress report of the critical equipment monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Pantis, M.J.

    1984-05-01

    The Philadelphia Electric Company has contracted with Energy Data Systems to develop a Critical Equipment Monitoring System for its Peach Bottom Nuclear Plant. This computerized system is designed to acquire and maintain accurate and timely status information on plant equipment. It will provide auditable record of plant and equipment transactions. Positive equipment identification and location will be provided. Errors in complex logical checking will be minimized. This system should reduce operator loading and improve operator communicatin with the plant personnel. Phase I of this system was installed at Peach Bottom Nuclear Station May 1982. It provides the necessary hardware and software to do check-off lists on critical plant systems. This paper describes some of the start-up and operational problems encountered.

  4. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  5. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  6. 77 FR 21834 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) AGENCY..., Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This is a confirmation notice of the cancellation of TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). The...

  7. Preliminary draft: comprehensive air-monitoring plan report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-15

    The topography of the CAMP Study Area, climate, and air pollution meteorology are described. The population analysis indicated limited growth during the next 10 years in the CAMP Study Area. Analysis of emission sources (current and projected) included a presentation of the types of emissions and their impact on the Study Area population (receptors). The general conclusion was drawn that of the non-condensible gases emitted, and considered pollutants, hydrogen sulfide was the only one for which monitoring would be recommended. Recommendations for type, placement, performance criteria, and the timing of establishment and terminating monitoring equipment were determined.

  8. Micro Sensor Node for Air Pollutant Monitoring: Hardware and Software Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sukwon; Kim, Nakyoung; Cha, Hojung; Ha, Rhan

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks equipped with various gas sensors have been actively used for air quality monitoring. Previous studies have typically explored system issues that include middleware or networking performance, but most research has barely considered the details of the hardware and software of the sensor node itself. In this paper, we focus on the design and implementation of a sensor board for air pollutant monitoring applications. Several hardware and software issues are discussed to explore the possibilities of a practical WSN-based air pollution monitoring system. Through extensive experiments and evaluation, we have determined the various characteristics of the gas sensors and their practical implications for air pollutant monitoring systems. PMID:22408489

  9. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  10. Sensor selection for outdoor air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, K. L.; Herr, John R.; Pisano, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    Gas chemical monitoring for next-generation robotics applications such as fire fighting, explosive gas detection, ubiquitous urban monitoring, and mine safety require high performance, reliable sensors. In this work, we discuss the performance requirements of fixed-location, mobile vehicle, and personal sensor nodes for outdoor air quality sensing. We characterize and compare the performance of a miniature commercial electrochemical and a metal oxide gas sensor and discuss their suitability for environmental monitoring applications. Metal oxide sensors are highly cross-sensitive to factors that affect chemical adsorption (e.g., air speed, pressure) and require careful enclosure design or compensation methods. In contrast, electrochemical sensors are less susceptible to environmental variations, have very low power consumption, and are well matched for mobile air quality monitoring.

  11. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  12. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  13. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  14. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  15. Data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring for ISOLDE RILIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossel, R. E.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Richter, D.; Rothe, S.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-12-01

    With a steadily increasing on-line operation time up to a record 3000 h in the year 2012, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is one of the key components of the ISOLDE on-line isotope user facility at CERN. Ion beam production using the RILIS is essential for many experiments due to the unmatched combination of ionization efficiency and selectivity. To meet the reliability requirements the RILIS is currently operated in shift duty for continuous maintenance of crucial laser parameters such as wavelength, power, beam position and timing, as well as ensuring swift intervention in case of an equipment malfunction. A recent overhaul of the RILIS included the installation of new pump lasers, commercial dye lasers and a complementary, fully solid-state titanium:sapphire laser system. The framework of the upgrade also required the setup of a network-extended, LabVIEW-based system for data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring, to support RILIS operators as well as ISOLDE users. The system contributes to four key aspects of RILIS operation: equipment monitoring, machine protection, automated self-reliance, and collaborative data acquisition. The overall concept, technologies used, implementation status and recent applications during the 2012 on-line operation period will be presented along with a summary of future developments.

  16. Air emission control equipment - the new challenge for equpiment suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Lobb, F.H.

    1997-12-31

    The combination of Title V, the CAM Rule and the Credible Evidence Rule demand industrial sites view the selection and operation of emission control devices in a whole new light. No longer can users see these devices as detached end of pipe pieces of equipment essentially purchased off lowest bid. These regulatory changes force plants to fully integrate the operation of these devices into their process control systems and instrumentation. And this is specifically EPA`s stated intent. EPA believes that by forcing sites to exercise the same knowledge and attention to air emissions that they do to operate their production processes, emissions will undergo a natural reduction across the country. Process and operational data that historically has been the sole province of sites becomes public. And compliance with state defined requirements must be demonstrated essentially continuously. This paper explores the new approach to compliance and provides insight through specific field examples/installations of emission control equipment. The author seeks to promote understanding through discussion of these significant regulatory changes.

  17. Air pollution monitoring by advanced spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Hodgeson, J A; McClenny, W A; Hanst, P L

    1973-10-19

    The monitoring requirements related to air pollution are many and varied. The molecules of concern differ greatly in their chemical and physical properties, in the nature of their environment, and in their concentration ranges. Furthermore, the application may have specific requirements such as rapid response time, ultrasensitivity, multipollutant capability, or capability for remote measurements. For these reasons, no single spectroscopic technique appears to offer a panacea for all monitoring needs. Instead we have attempted to demonstrate in the above discussion that, regardless of the difficulty and complexity of the monitoring problems, spectroscopy offers many tools by which such problems may be solved.

  18. Continuous air monitoring apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, G.D.; Cates, M.

    1992-01-01

    A continuous air monitoring apparatus utilizes a solid sorbent preconcentrator to concentrate airborne sorbent compounds to gas chromatographic analysis. Direct connection between the preconcentrator and gas chromatographic column allows direct desorption of the compounds into the column with minimal dead space. Temperature control on the column allows sharp chromatographic peaks to be attained without cryogenic focusing.

  19. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  20. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC... Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units... each basic model of commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, efficiency...

  1. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC... Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units... each basic model of commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, efficiency...

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  3. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  4. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  7. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data certification. 58.15 Section 58.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring...

  8. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data certification. 58.15 Section 58.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring...

  9. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn. PMID:21051429

  10. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  11. Air toxics: sources and monitoring in Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, D R

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, federal legislation has required industries to publicly report their annual emissions of toxic compounds. Industry reports show the largest contributor to toxic emission levels in Texas is the massive concentration of petrochemical industries along the Gulf Coast. It is interesting to note that although Texas produces over 50% of the nation's synthetic chemicals, it discharges less than 8% of the nation's toxic emissions. However, in response to growing concerns about the effects of these toxic emissions, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) initiated a long-term program for monitoring toxic chemicals in the air. This article provides details of this monitoring program as well as industry-funded toxic monitoring networks in Texas. This includes information on the technology currently being used for sample collection and analysis as well as plans for implementing methods that are on the technological horizon. Finally, details of some key measurements from the state's air toxics monitoring network will be provided along with an explanation of how they impact current air quality trends in Texas. PMID:8549477

  12. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  13. Fine PM measurements: personal and indoor air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, M; Hänninen, O; Koistinen, K; Hashim, J H

    2002-12-01

    This review compiles personal and indoor microenvironment particulate matter (PM) monitoring needs from recently set research objectives, most importantly the NRC published "Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (1998)". Techniques and equipment used to monitor PM personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations and the constituents of the sampled PM during the last 20 years are then reviewed. Development objectives are set and discussed for personal and microenvironment PM samplers and monitors, for filter materials, and analytical laboratory techniques for equipment calibration, filter weighing and laboratory climate control. The progress is leading towards smaller sample flows, lighter, silent, independent (battery powered) monitors with data logging capacity to store microenvironment or activity relevant sensor data, advanced flow controls and continuous recording of the concentration. The best filters are non-hygroscopic, chemically pure and inert, and physically robust against mechanical wear. Semiautomatic and primary standard equivalent positive displacement flow meters are replacing the less accurate methods in flow calibration, and also personal sampling flow rates should become mass flow controlled (with or without volumetric compensation for pressure and temperature changes). In the weighing laboratory the alternatives are climatic control (set temperature and relative humidity), and mechanically simpler thermostatic heating, air conditioning and dehumidification systems combined with numerical control of temperature, humidity and pressure effects on flow calibration and filter weighing.

  14. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  15. Compact automated ozone monitor for ambient air quality applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bognar, J.A.; French, P.D.

    1999-07-01

    A compact, inexpensive, automated ozone monitor has been designed which may expect to see use in a wide variety of applications in the area of ambient air quality measurements. The monitor is based on a simple single-beam ultraviolet absorption photometer with a separate reference beam path. It is a novel design in that it is far smaller, lighter and cheaper than other ultraviolet absorption systems, while retaining the high performance the technique is known for. Another unique feature is the incorporation of a data logging capability. The instrument is capable of measuring down to 1 ppbv ozone with a precision of 0.3 ppbv and accuracy of 2%, with independent measurements made once every six seconds or faster. The instrument is well suited for unattended operation, and has excellent potential for use as an embedded unit. Several applications within the fields of indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring are foreseen, as well as use within ozone-generating equipment as a built-in safety monitor. Advantages over existing instruments for these applications include far smaller size and lower cost while maintaining high performance.

  16. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  17. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  18. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  19. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  2. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  3. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  4. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  5. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  6. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  7. 10 CFR 429.43 - Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC... Commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR... § 429.11 are applicable to commercial HVAC equipment; and (2) For each basic model of commercial...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73992, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  13. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2008-09-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average “all modes” failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment.

  14. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What equipment is required to monitor drilling... Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you... monitor the drilling fluid returns. The indicator may be located in the drilling fluid-logging...

  15. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What equipment is required to monitor drilling... to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain... audible warning device; and (d) Gas-detecting equipment to monitor the drilling fluid returns....

  16. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  17. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  18. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. For test vehicles selected under §§ 86.1822-01... be expected to influence emissions include, but are not limited to: air conditioning, power steering...) Except for air conditioning, where it is expected that 33 percent or less of a car line, within a...

  20. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  1. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  4. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  5. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha‑1 year‑1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did

  6. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  7. Subterranean heat exchanger for refrigeration air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, H.

    1980-09-30

    Heat exchanger apparatus for use with refrigeration cycle heating and cooling equipment is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, it cooperates with and modifies refrigeration equipment including a compressor, an expansion valve, an evaporator coil and a closed loop for cycling refrigerant. This apparatus is a sealed container adapted to be placed in a well extending into artesian (Relatively heated or chilled) formations whereby the water of the formation stabilizes the temperature around the unit and enables heating and cooling. The sealed unit receives refrigerant from the top which flows along the sidewall at a reduced temperature, thereby condensing on the sidewall and trickling down the sidewall to collect in a sump at the bottom where the compressor pump picks up condensed refrigerant as a liquid and pumps it out of the artesian well to the connected refrigeration equipment.

  8. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  9. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  10. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  11. Alternating-Current Equipment for the Measurement of Fluctuations of Air Speed in Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, W C , Jr

    1937-01-01

    Recent electrical and mechanical improvements have been made in the equipment developed at the National Bureau of Standards for measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow. Data useful in the design of similar equipment are presented. The design of rectified alternating-current power supplies for such apparatus is treated briefly, and the effect of the power supplies on the performance of the equipment is discussed.

  12. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the continuous... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and for monitoring air. Technical status report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.

    1999-01-31

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team was assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment.

  14. 40 CFR 60.2944 - What operating parameter monitoring equipment must I install, and what operating parameters must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment must I install, and what operating parameters must I monitor? 60.2944 Section 60.2944 Protection... parameter monitoring equipment must I install, and what operating parameters must I monitor? (a) If you are... operate the equipment necessary to monitor compliance with the site-specific operating limits...

  15. Understand the limitations of air/water testing of distillation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.L.; Ludwig, K.A. )

    1994-04-01

    Distillation continues to be a unit operation of major importance--and a dynamic area for technical development. The designs of trays and packings are rapidly evolving, and the application of equipment also is changing. As chemical processes are pushed to become more efficient and lower cost, a general reduction in the traditional values for equipment safety factors are being seen. The net results is that one now has a greater need for a more thorough and fundamental understanding of distillation equipment. One technique to improve the understanding of distillation equipment is air/water testing. Such testing of distillation trays has become very common, and air/water test results for packed columns also are being reported. In this article, the authors will provide some guidance on how to assess the validity of such tests to industrial applications. In addition, they will discuss several possible approaches to test--and develop confidence in--the design of distillation equipment.

  16. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air...

  18. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air...

  20. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  1. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  2. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  3. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  4. Characterization of a New Continuous Air Monitoring System For the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mohammad Saad

    A continuous air monitor (CAM) is a critical piece of equipment to support radiation safety in nuclear facilities where the generation of airborne radioactivity is a possibility for either normal operations or accident scenarios. The University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor is planning to install a new CAM system manufactured by Canberra Industries for monitoring airborne radioactive particulates. In this study, the new CAM was evaluated to determine 1) baseline response, 2) response to high exposure rates, 3) appropriate background compensation, 4) detection limits, and 5) alarm settings. The results of this study will help to properly integrate the new CAM into the reactor radiation monitoring system.

  5. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  6. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  7. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  8. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  9. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  10. A quantitative method for optimized placement of continuous air monitors.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Rodgers, John C; Moxley, John S

    2003-11-01

    Alarming continuous air monitors (CAMs) are a critical component for worker protection in facilities that handle large amounts of hazardous materials. In nuclear facilities, continuous air monitors alarm when levels of airborne radioactive materials exceed alarm thresholds, thus prompting workers to exit the room to reduce inhalation exposures. To maintain a high level of worker protection, continuous air monitors are required to detect radioactive aerosol clouds quickly and with good sensitivity. This requires that there are sufficient numbers of continuous air monitors in a room and that they are well positioned. Yet there are no published methodologies to quantitatively determine the optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The goal of this study was to develop and test an approach to quantitatively determine optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The method we have developed uses tracer aerosol releases (to simulate accidental releases) and the measurement of the temporal and spatial aspects of the dispersion of the tracer aerosol through the room. The aerosol dispersion data is then analyzed to optimize continuous air monitor utilization based on simulated worker exposure. This method was tested in a room within a Department of Energy operated plutonium facility at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, U.S. Results from this study show that the value of quantitative airflow and aerosol dispersion studies is significant and that worker protection can be significantly improved while balancing the costs associated with CAM programs.

  11. Compatibility of Payload Equipment for Monitoring of the Seismoionospheric Precursors.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.; Depueva, A. Kh.; Stefan, V.

    1996-11-01

    The earthquake prediction including precursors appearance and their detection on the Earth's surface and at ionospheric altitudes is a matter of high interest.^2 Present warning systems are based on ground-based monitoring data. Satellite monitoring represents, due to some well known advantages (global scale, continuous records, etc.) a significant progress in the area. It is shown that by means of one payload it is possible to monitor all main parameters of seismoionospheric precursors. The active methods and airglow imager are used for detection of anomalous plasma structure during a few days before first shock. Supported in part by Tesla Labs, Inc., La Jolla, CA 92038-2946. ^1Also with Tesla Labs, Inc., La Jolla, CA 92038-2946. ^2V. Stefan (Editor-in-Chief). Environmental Physics. Frontiers in Interdisciplinary Physics series of the La Jolla International School of Physics, The Institute for Advanced Physics Studies, La Jolla, CA (IAPS Press, La Jolla, 1996).

  12. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  13. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  14. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  15. Using PHM to measure equipment usable life on the Air Force's next generation reusable space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasdel, A.

    The U.S. Air Force procures many launch vehicles and launch vehicle services to place their satellites at their desired location in space. The equipment on-board these satellite and launch vehicle often suffer from premature failures that result in the total loss of the satellite or a shortened mission life sometimes requiring the purchase of a replacement satellite and launch vehicle. The Air Force uses its EELV to launch its high priority satellites. Due to a rise in the cost of purchasing a launch using the Air Force's EELV from 72M in 1997 to as high as 475M per launch today, the Air Force is working to replace the EELV with a reusable space booster (RSB). The RSB will be similar in design and operations to the recently cancelled NASA reusable space booster known as the Space Shuttle. If the Air Force uses the same process that procures the EELV and other launch vehicles and satellites, the RSB will also suffer from premature equipment failures thus putting the payloads at a similar high risk of mission failure. The RSB is expected to lower each launch cost by 50% compared to the EELV. The development of the RSB offers the Air Force an opportunity to use a new reliability paradigm that includes a prognostic and health management program and a condition-based maintenance program. These both require using intelligent, decision making self-prognostic equipment The prognostic and health management program and its condition-based maintenance program allows increases in RSB equipment usable life, lower logistics and maintenance costs, while increasing safety and mission assurance. The PHM removes many decisions from personnel that, in the past resulted in catastrophic failures and loss of life. Adding intelligent, decision-making self-prognostic equipment to the RSB will further decrease launch costs while decreasing risk and increasing safety and mission assurance.

  16. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  17. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  18. 77 FR 3323 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 3323-3324] [FR... Engineering Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2012-1243 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE... Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT....

  19. MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. RELATED AIR COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT OUTSIDE BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. RELATED AIR COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT OUTSIDE BUILDING. PIPE LEADS BELOW GRADE INTO MTR BUILDING. CAMERA FACING WEST, IE, EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1265. Jack L. Larsen, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. DESIGN OF LARGE-SCALE AIR MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of air pollution on human health have received much attention in recent years. In the U.S. and other countries, there are extensive large-scale monitoring networks designed to collect data to inform the public of exposure risks to air pollution. A major crit...

  1. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General... leak is detected. (ii) The owner or operator of equipment designated as difficult-to-monitor according... procedures in § 65.105 if a leak is detected. (d) Special equipment designations: Equipment that is unsafe...

  2. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General... leak is detected. (ii) The owner or operator of equipment designated as difficult-to-monitor according... procedures in § 65.105 if a leak is detected. (d) Special equipment designations: Equipment that is unsafe...

  3. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General... leak is detected. (ii) The owner or operator of equipment designated as difficult-to-monitor according... procedures in § 65.105 if a leak is detected. (d) Special equipment designations: Equipment that is unsafe...

  4. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  5. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ..., that revised the NAAQS for lead and associated ambient air lead monitoring requirements (73 FR 66964... revisions to the requirements for both source-oriented and non-source-oriented monitoring for lead (74 FR... 1.0 tpy as part of the October 2008 lead NAAQS revisions (73 FR 66964, codified at 40 CFR part...

  6. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-05-14

    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  7. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  8. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  9. Semiconducting organic thin films as monitoring devices for NO2 air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, A.; Lantto, V.

    The chemisorption of NO2 on lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin films changes the electrical conductivity of this semiconducting organic material and so the detection of NO2 concentration in the ppb range is possible. Some mesurements concerning the NO2 concentration in city air (Oulu, Finland) were carried out using this kind of device (PbPc thin film on metal slit electrodes). In the first part of the study, the sensor devices were heated in a test chamber up to 170 C and air from outside the laboratory was pumped into the test chamber using a conventional pump. In the second part of the study, a PbPc sensor with internal heating and measuring amplifier was installed directly at the city air pollution monitoring station where a commercial equipment based on chemiluminescnece was also used for continuous monitoring of the NO2 concentration in the city air. Good correlation between the sensor response and the chemiluminescence values was obtained under these circumstances. The measurements show that NO2 sensors based on PbPc thin films are suited to monitor NO2 as an air pollutant in city air.

  10. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  11. Australian and New Zealand perfusion survey: equipment and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert A; Willcox, Timothy W

    2006-09-01

    The current practice of perfusion in Australia and New Zealand continues to adopt new techniques and procedures into clinical practice. Our aims were to report current practice in 2003 and to compare and contrast current practice with historic practice. A total of 62 centers (40 perfusion groups) performing procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were identified and were e-mailed a detailed electronic survey. The survey was comprised of an excel worksheet that contained 233 single answer questions (either dropdown lists, yes/no, true/false, or numeric) and 12 questions that allowed the respondent to provide a commentary. Respondents were instructed to answer all questions based on what represented the predominant practice of perfusion in their institutions during 2003. We report an 89% response rate representing a caseload of 20,688 adult cases. These data allowed us to profile the following. A standard adult CPB setup in 2003 consisted of a membrane oxygenator (100% of cases), a roller pump (70%) as the main arterial pump, although a centrifugal pump would be considered for selected procedures (30%), a circuit incorporating a hard-shell venous reservoir (86%), and a mixture of biocompatible and non-biocompatible circuit components (66%). The circuit would include a pre-bypass filter (88%), an arterial line filter (94%), and would allow monitoring of the following: hard-shell venous reservoir low level (100%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (85%), microbubble alarm (94%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (79.5%), arterial line pressures (100%) with servo-regulation of the arterial pump (79%), inline venous O2 saturation (100%), and inline hematocrit (58%). Perfusion practice in Australia and New Zealand has adopted changes over the last decade; however, some areas of practice show wide variation. This survey provides a baseline of contemporary practice for Australian and New Zealand perfusionists.

  12. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-06-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment.

  13. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  14. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. PMID:25340455

  15. 40 CFR 60.3043 - What operating parameter monitoring equipment must I install, and what operating parameters must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment must I install, and what operating parameters must I monitor? 60.3043 Section 60.3043 Protection... monitor? (a) If you are using a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations under § 60.3022, you... operate the equipment necessary to monitor compliance with the site-specific operating limits...

  16. Unusual basal skull fracture in a vehicle equipped with an air bag.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, R A; Carbone, L S

    2001-09-01

    A woman who was the lap/shoulder belt-restrained driver of a car equipped with a full-size air bag was involved in an oblique frontal collision with a tractor-trailer combination. She was extremely out of position, i.e., witnessed to be slumped over the steering wheel before impact. This preimpact positioning led to fatal injuries resulting from the inflating air bag. Postmortem examination showed an unusual partial ring fracture of the base of the skull, which to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported.

  17. Unusual basal skull fracture in a vehicle equipped with an air bag.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, R A; Carbone, L S

    2001-09-01

    A woman who was the lap/shoulder belt-restrained driver of a car equipped with a full-size air bag was involved in an oblique frontal collision with a tractor-trailer combination. She was extremely out of position, i.e., witnessed to be slumped over the steering wheel before impact. This preimpact positioning led to fatal injuries resulting from the inflating air bag. Postmortem examination showed an unusual partial ring fracture of the base of the skull, which to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported. PMID:11563734

  18. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Sbrana, I.; Migliore, L.; Marrazzini, A.; Scarcelli, V.; Bacci, E.; Di Sibio, A.; Tessa, A.; Cocchi, L.; Lubrano, V.; Vassalle, C.; He, J.

    1993-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and invididuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. PMID:8143653

  19. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  20. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840–0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867–0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing. PMID:26398125

  1. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick W.; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Follistein, Duke W.

    2004-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response times and detection limits. A Table lists common gases monitored for aerospace applications. The first five gases, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are historically the focus of the HGDL.

  2. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  3. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  4. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and results in the development of an integrated air quality modeling, monitoring, fault detection, and isolation system are presented. The focus was on development of distributed models of the air contaminants transport, the study of air quality monitoring techniques based on the model of transport process and on-line contaminant concentration measurements, and sensor placement. Different approaches to the modeling of spacecraft air contamination are discussed, and a three-dimensional distributed parameter air contaminant dispersion model applicable to both laminar and turbulent transport is proposed. A two-dimensional approximation of a full scale transport model is also proposed based on the spatial averaging of the three dimensional model over the least important space coordinate. A computer implementation of the transport model is considered and a detailed development of two- and three-dimensional models illustrated by contaminant transport simulation results is presented. The use of a well established Kalman filtering approach is suggested as a method for generating on-line contaminant concentration estimates based on both real time measurements and the model of contaminant transport process. It is shown that high computational requirements of the traditional Kalman filter can render difficult its real-time implementation for high-dimensional transport model and a novel implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is proposed which is shown to lead to an order of magnitude faster computer implementation in the case of air quality monitoring.

  5. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  6. The Logistics Equipment Carbon Emission Monitoring System for a Green Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyungrim; Park, Byoungkwon; Lee, Byungha; Park, Yongsung; Lee, Changsup; Ha, Jeongsoo

    Recently, due to the global enforcement of obligations to reduce green house gases and various environmental regulations, low carbon green growth strategies are required. Currently, in our country, environment friendly logistics activities are staying in the early stage compared to advanced countries because of our country's large energy consumption type industrial structures. As a measure to respond to the trend of the reinforcement of international environmental regulations in the sector of logistics, active green logistics systems should be established and to solve this problem, this study is intended to develop a monitoring system that can manage the carbon emission of logistics equipment(container truck, discharging equipment etc) in real time using a new technology named IP-RFID. The monitoring system developed in this study can actively manage the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment by attaching IP-Tags that can measure the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment in real time and transmit the information obtained from the measurement directly to users through IP communication. Since carbon emission can be managed by logistics equipment and drivers can check the carbon emission of equipment through this system, the carbon emission generated in the logistics sector may be reduced by using this system.

  7. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  10. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  11. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  12. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  13. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  14. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  15. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  16. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  17. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  18. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  19. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report. Calendar year, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992.

  20. Battery peak charge voltage monitor for dual air density satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    A battery peak charge voltage monitor was developed for use on the dual air density satellite (DADS). This device retains a reading of the maximum voltage reached by the spacecraft battery during periods of charging, and makes it available during periods of data transmission. The monitor is connected across the battery and operates solely from the battery; it is powered continuously with quiescent input current of only 3 milliamperes. Standard integrated circuits and a thin-film resistor network are utilized. The monitor occupies approximately 40 square centimeters of a printed-circuit board within a larger electronic package.

  1. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  2. Monitoring of air pollution by plants methods and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Steubing, L.; Jager, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution is often discovered too late for preventive measure to be implemented. Papers include the topics of methods and problems of bioindication of air pollution. The participants discussed passive and active biological monitoring, including mapping of natural vegetation (lichens and mosses, for example) and plant exposure. Morphological and microscopical studies, chemical, physiological and biochemical investigations are presented.

  3. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  4. Time-resolved air monitoring using Fourier absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    Two categories where spectroscopic techniques excel are the capabilities to perform air analyses in situ and to obtain data at very high time resolutions. Because of these features, the Department of Pesticide Regulation augmented its extensive air monitoring capabilities with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer using open-path optical systems for time resolved ambient air monitoring. A description of the instrumentation and the data analysis procedures will be presented based on two data sets obtained with this FTIR system. In one case, a 100 m folded optical path was used to measure methyl bromide concentrations after fumigation in a warehouse with a time resolution of 15 min and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm. And trying to assess the capability of this FTIR spectrometer to determine flux, water vapor concentrations were measured with a four-meter path length at a time resolution of 0.6 seconds.

  5. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  6. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  7. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  8. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  9. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  10. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric current between frames of equipment. The maximum level of alternating or direct electric current that exists between the frames of any... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric face equipment; electric...

  11. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric current between frames of equipment. The maximum level of alternating or direct electric current that exists between the frames of any... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric face equipment; electric...

  12. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric current between frames of equipment. The maximum level of alternating or direct electric current that exists between the frames of any... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric face equipment; electric...

  13. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric current between frames of equipment. The maximum level of alternating or direct electric current that exists between the frames of any... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric face equipment; electric...

  14. 30 CFR 75.524 - Electric face equipment; electric equipment used in return air outby the last open crosscut...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the last open crosscut; maximum level of alternating or direct electric current between frames of equipment. The maximum level of alternating or direct electric current that exists between the frames of any... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric face equipment; electric...

  15. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  16. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or {open_quotes}dust{close_quotes}). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or {open_quotes}resuspension rate{close_quotes}.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  18. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  19. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  20. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  1. Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is

  2. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  3. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Don B. Shirey III; Hugh I. Henderson Jr; Richard A. Raustad

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioner cooling coils typically provide both sensible cooling and moisture removal. Data from a limited number of field studies (Khattar et al. 1985; Henderson and Rengarajan 1996; Henderson 1998) have demonstrated that the moisture removal capacity of a cooling coil degrades at part-load conditions--especially when the supply fan operates continuously while the cooling coil cycles on and off. Degradation occurs because moisture that condenses on the coil surfaces during the cooling cycle evaporates back into air stream when the coil is off. This degradation affects the ability of cooling equipment to maintain proper indoor humidity levels and may negatively impact indoor air quality. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive project to better understand and quantify the moisture removal (dehumidification) performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. A review of the open literature was initially conducted to learn from previous research on this topic. Detailed performance measurements were then collected for eight cooling coils in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation by the coils. Measurements of cooling coil dehumidification performance and space humidity levels were also collected at seven field test sites. Finally, an existing engineering model to predict dehumidification performance degradation for single-stage cooling equipment at part-load conditions (Henderson and Rengarajan 1996) was enhanced to include a broader range of fan control strategies and an improved theoretical basis for modeling off-cycle moisture evaporation from cooling coils. The improved model was validated with the laboratory measurements, and this report provides guidance for users regarding proper model inputs. The model is suitable for use in computerized calculation procedures such as hourly or sub-hourly building energy simulation programs (e

  4. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  5. Monitoring air and water quality in Canada's Chemical Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.

    1994-01-01

    As nations begin strengthening environmental enforcement initiatives, governments and industries are evaluating the cost-effectiveness of waste management cooperatives,'' in which several companies operating in an area, such as an industrial park, establish a single organization to conduct monitoring, treatment and disposal activities for the group. One such cooperative is the Lambton Industrial Society (LIS), which monitors air and water quality, and oversees waste management activities for 15 major petrochemical industries in and near Sarnia, Ontario. LIS manages a network of air and water monitoring stations, waste disposal and treatment systems, and an innovative biological monitoring program to oversee long-term water quality in the St. Clair River. Since 1975, discharges of total organic carbon, ammonia, phenols, suspended solids, and oil and grease have been reduced by 95 percent.'' Similar reductions are being realized for another 140 priority pollutants.'' An automatic remote analyzer provides concentrations of 20 VOCs at a point downstream of the industrial site. Results are transmitted to a central LIS computer, and the data may be accessed by any member company.

  6. Operational Use of the Air Quality Monitor on ISS and Potential for Air Quality Monitoring Onboard Submarines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Jones, Jared; Wallace, William; Mudgett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The air quality monitor (AQM) began operations on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2013 and was validated for operational use in January 2014. The AQM is a gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer that currently monitors 22 target compounds in the ISS atmosphere. Data are collected twice per week, although data collection can be more frequent in contingency situations. In its second year, the AQM has provided data to decision-makers on several ISS contaminant related issues in both air and water. AQM has been used in strictly air incidents, such as a potential ammonia leak, and to investigate air contaminants affecting the water processing (excess ethanol). In the latter case data from water monitors and AQM were compared to understand the issue with the water processor. Additionally, the AQM has been moved to different ISS modules to determine whether air is sufficiently mixed between modules so that a central LAB module location is representative of the entire ISS atmosphere. Historic data on the ISS atmosphere in different modules from archival samples (ground lab analysis) suggest that the atmosphere is usually homogenous. This presentation will briefly describe the technical aspects of the AQM operations and summarize the validation results. The main focus of the presentation will be to discuss the results from the AQM survey of the ISS modules and to show how the AQM data has contributed to an understanding of environmental issues that have arisen on ISS. Presentation of a potential ammonia leak (indicated by an alarm) in 2015 will illustrate the use and value of the AQM in such situations.

  7. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring....14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. Link to an amendment... the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring...

  8. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... March 6, 2009. The monitors are commercially available from the applicant, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Air... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY:...

  9. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  10. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  11. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  13. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  14. Comparison of continuous air monitor utilization: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.; Whicker, J.J.; Voss, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Metallurgy Research (CMR) building has been upgrading to different continuous air monitors (CAMs) over the past several years. During the transition, both the newer and older CAMs were positioned in the rooms for field testing and comparison. On December 19, 1996, an accidental release of plutonium aerosol occurred into a laboratory in the CMR building. The event occurred while the room was unoccupied, and no personnel were exposed from this incident. There were two fixed air samplers (FASs) and three CAMs operating in the room at the time the release occurred, including two of the recently installed Canberra Alpha Sentry CAMs and one older Eberline CAM. The apparent cause of the release was a procedure carried out in the basement involving the replacement of the HEPA filter in the ventilation exhaust of a slot-box in the laboratory. For a short period, the ventilation was disconnected from the slot-box in this room, but not from the chemical hood exhaust on the opposite side of the laboratory. Therefore, a condition was created where backflow could occur out of the slot-box and into the room. Eventually all three CAMs in the room alarmed, and the situation was successfully monitored and brought under control by health physics personnel. Data on CAM performance were logged, and Pu activity collected on CAM and FAS filters were measured. A comparison of the new and old continuous air monitoring programs was performed and many interesting lessons on CAM performance and CAM utilization were learned. Overall, this comparison showed the advantages of remote monitoring, timely spectral information, and concentration measurements resolved in time and space.

  15. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  16. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  17. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  18. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Schairer, L A; Sautkulis, R C; Tempel, N R

    1981-01-01

    Final assessment of human health effects resulting from exposure to harmful environmental agents may rest with mammalian test system results. In vitro systems are short-term assays used most frequently for extrapolation to humans. However, no single assay system is adequate and the more expensive long-term tests must be augmented by multiple assays designed for redundancy or to fill gaps in present state of the art of environmental monitoring. The Tradescantia stamen hair test system is one such assay offering redundancy as well as filling the gap of monitoring ambient air for mutagenic agents. The flower color locus in heterozygous clones of Tradescantia mutates when exposed to such agents as fumigants, solvents, chemical additives or catalysts, and compounds requiring activation such as benzo (a) pyrene. The stamen hair system responds to low levels of airborne compounds. The Tradescantia stamen hair system was used as an in situ monitor for mutagens in ambient air in polluted industrial sites. Preliminary results from many sites showed a significant increase in mutation rate. The environment most consistently mutagenic was that downwind from petroleum refineries. No specific compounds or groups of compounds have as yet been correlated with the positive sites. (ERB)

  19. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  20. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.

  1. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  2. Monitoring Trace Contaminants in Air Via Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Karr, Dane; Pearson, Richard; Valero, Gustavo; Wong, Carla

    1995-01-01

    Recent passage of the Clean Air Act with its stricter regulation of toxic gas emissions, and the ever-growing number of applications which require faster turnaround times between sampling and analysis are two major factors which are helping to drive the development of new instrument technologies for in-situ, on-line, real-time monitoring. The ion trap, with its small size, excellent sensitivity, and tandem mass spectrometry capability is a rapidly evolving technology which is well-suited for these applications. In this paper, we describe the use of a commercial ion trap instrument for monitoring trace levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. A number of sample introduction devices including a direct transfer line interface, short column GC, and a cryotrapping interface are employed to achieve increasing levels of sensitivity. MS, MS/MS, and MS/MS/MS methods are compared to illustrate trade-offs between sensitivity and selectivity. Filtered Noise Field (FNF) technology is found to be an excellent means for achieving lower detection limits through selective storage of the ion(s) of interest during ionization. Figures of merit including typical sample sizes, detection limits, and response times are provided. The results indicate the potential of these techniques for atmospheric assessments, the High Speed Research Program, and advanced life support monitoring applications for NASA.

  3. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  4. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  5. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  6. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  7. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results. PMID:27376986

  8. Evaluation of the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment based on the biological monitoring of styrene in fibreglass reinforced plastics industries.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoji; Nishide, Tadashi; Horike, Tokushi; Kishimoto, Takumi; Kira, Shohei

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment in a fibreglass reinforced plastic factory by comparing results of environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to styrene. Five factories including 39 workers were investigated. Three types of respiratory protective equipment were tested: one was a half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with a cartridge for organic solvents, another was a disposable gauze respirator impregnated with charcoal filter, and the third was a dust-proof respirator. The frequency of cartridge exchange of a half-mask respirator was twice a day only at one factory, and that was less than once a month at other factories. The site concentrations exceeded 20 ppm at 10 of the 82 sampling points (12.2%), and 22 of the 39 workers' (56.4%) personal exposure exceeded 20 ppm which is the current occupational exposure limit recommended by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. The efficiency of disposable gauze respirators and dust-proof respirators was low or rather zero. The average efficiency of half-mask respirators in which cartridges were exchanged twice a day and once a month was 83.6% and 46.6%, respectively. There was a significant disparity in the efficiency of the respirator depending on the frequency of cartridge exchange (p<0.05). Overall this study showed that even though a half-mask respirator is used and its cartridge is exchanged every half a day, workers exposed to a styrene concentration at or over 122 ppm are expected to inhale more than 20 ppm of styrene. PMID:15090688

  9. Incorporating Equipment Condition Assessment in Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can complement the current fleet of large light-water reactors in the USA for baseload and peak demand power production and process heat applications (e.g., water desalination, shale oil extraction, hydrogen production). The day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M); however, the effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on O&M is not fully understood. These costs could potentially be reduced by optimized scheduling, with risk-informed scheduling of maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a “living” probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), which reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant and combine event probabilities with population-based probability of failure (POF) for key components. “Risk monitors” extend the PRA by incorporating the actual and dynamic plant configuration (equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions, etc.) into risk assessment. In fact, PRAs are more integrated into plant management in today’s nuclear power plants than at any other time in the history of nuclear power. However, population-based POF curves are still used to populate fault trees; this approach neglects the time-varying condition of equipment that is relied on during standard and non-standard configurations. Equipment condition monitoring techniques can be used to estimate the component POF. Incorporating this unit-specific estimate of POF in the risk monitor can provide a more accurate estimate of risk in different operating and maintenance configurations. This enhanced risk assessment will be especially important for aSMRs that have advanced component designs, which don’t have an available operating history to draw from, and often use passive design features, which present challenges to PRA. This paper presents the requirements and technical gaps for developing a framework to integrate unit

  10. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  11. Equipment for Beam Current and Electron Energy Monitoring During Industry Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electron beam irradiation sterilization is placed first among all types of medical items sterilization. The quality of sterilization is determined by value of dose, which is in one's turn determined by beam current, electron energy and beam scanning system parameters. Therefore this parameters have to be controlled during the irradiation process. The equipment for beam current and electron energy monitoring allows to control beam current, electron energy spectrum and nominal deflection of electron beam when scanning during the irradiation process each scanning period or, for example, each tenth period by request.

  12. High-Resolution Isotopic Monitoring of Cave Air CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töchterle, Paul; Dublyansky, Yuri; Mandic, Magda; Stöbener, Nils; Jost, Hj; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1 s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. The data show two distinct patterns in terms of CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition, which are closely coupled with the temperature difference between the cave interior and the outside atmosphere. This gradient controls the direction of air flow in the cave on a seasonal to synoptic timescale (chimney-type ventilation). The summer circulation is characterised by CO2 closely resembling atmospheric values (pCO2 = 399 ± 12 ppm, δ13C = -8.5 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 8.1 ± 2.5 permil). The winter circulation mode features generally higher CO2 concentrations and lower isotopic compositions (pCO2 = 409 ± 14 ppm, δ13C = -10.1 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 2.3 ± 1.5 permil). The high temporal resolution of stable isotope data allows tracking cave air ventilation changes, including transient and short-lived ones. Moreover, the data make it possible to address concomitant geochemical processes, such as the input of atmospheric CO2 and the degassing of CO2 from seepage water. These processes would not be possible to quantify without the new generation of laser-based isotope ratio instruments represented by the Delta Ray.

  13. Photocatalytic equipment with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide for air cleaning and disinfecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son Le, Thanh; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Hien Dao, Trong; Tin Tran, Xuan; Kabachkov, E. N.; Balikhin, I. L.

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were synthesized by a sol-gel procedure using tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate as a titanium precursor and urea as a nitrogen source. Systematic studies for the preparation parameters and their impact on the material's structure were carried out by multiple techniques: thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry showed that the nitrogen-doped TiO2 calcined at 500 °C for 3 h exhibited a spherical form with a particle size about 15-20 nm and crystal phase presented a mixture of 89.12% anatase. The obtained product was deposited on a porous quartz tube (D = 74 mm l = 418 mm) to manufacture an air photocatalytic cleaner as a prototype of the TIOKRAFT company's equipment. The created air cleaner was able to remove 60% of 10 ppm acetone within 390 min and degrade 98.5% of bacteria (total aerobic bacteria and fungi, 300 cfu m-3) within 120 min in a 10 m3 box. These photodegradation activities of N-TiO2 are higher than that of the commercial nano-TiO2 (Skyspring Inc., USA, particle size of 5-10 nm).

  14. An automatic remotely web-based control equipment for investigating gas flux at water - air interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. Capturing the high temporal variability of these fluxes has been labor intensive using manual based methods, or expensive using available high resolution equipment (e.g. eddy correlation methods). Here, we present an inexpensive device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter (inverted funnel) all in one. It is equipped with wireless data readout and web-based remote monitoring and control functions. The device can be programmed to measure in situ mixing ratios of gas in the chamber, and accumulation of ebullitive gas in the funnel. The device can also collect gas samples into sample bottles for subsequent analyses (e.g concentration, stable isotopes) in the laboratory.

  15. Application of infrared spectroscopy to monitoring gas insulated high-voltage equipment: electrode material-dependent SF(6) decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kurte, R; Beyer, C; Heise, H M; Klockow, D

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride is a chemically inert gas which is used in gas insulated substations (GIS) and other high-voltage equipment, leading to a significant enhancement of apparatus lifetime and reductions in installation size and maintenance requirements compared to conventional air insulated substations. However, component failures due to aging of the gas through electrical discharges may occur, and on-site monitoring for risk assessment is needed. Infrared spectroscopy was used for the analysis of gaseous by-products generated from electrical discharges in sulfur hexafluoride gas. An infrared monitoring system was developed using a micro-cell coupled to an FTIR spectrometer by silver halide fibers. Partial least-squares calibration was applied by using a limited number of optimally selected spectral variables. Emphasis was placed on the determination of main decomposition products, such as SOF(2), SOF(4), and SO(2)F(2). Besides the different electrical conditions, the material of the plane counter electrode of the discharge chamber was also varied between silver, aluminum, copper, tungsten, or tungsten/copper alloy. For the spark experiments the point electrode was the same material as chosen for the plane electrode, whereas for partial discharges a stainless steel needle was employed. Complementary investigations on the chemical composition within the solid counter electrode material by secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) were also carried out. Under sparking conditions, the electrode material plays an important role in the decomposition rates of the gas-phase, but no relevant material dependence could be observed under partial discharge conditions. PMID:12185577

  16. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  17. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  18. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  19. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  20. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  1. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  2. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Probe and Monitoring Path Siting... Appendix E to Part 58—Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1.... Maximum Monitoring Path Length. 9. Probe Material and Pollutant Sample Residence Time. 10....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Probe and Monitoring Path Siting... Appendix E to Part 58—Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1.... Maximum Monitoring Path Length. 9. Probe Material and Pollutant Sample Residence Time. 10....

  5. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-monitor equipment include, but is not limited to, equipment under extreme pressure or heat. (2... Section 63.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-to-monitor equipment include, but is not limited to, equipment under extreme pressure or heat. (2... Section 63.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  7. Introducing equipment and plutonium glove box modifications for monitoring gas generation over plutonium oxide materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, D. D.; Berg, J. M.; Carrillo, A. G.; Montoya, A. R.; Morris, J. S.; Veirs, D. K.; Martinez, M. A.; Worl, L. A.; Harradine, D. M.; Hill, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    DOE is embarking on a program to store large quantities of Pu-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials for long-term storage are metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard. Experience with PuO, materials has shown that gases generated by catalytic and/or radiolytic processes may accumulate. Of concern are the generation of H, gas from adsorbed water and the generation of HCI or CI, gases from the radiolysis of chloride-containing salts. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the standard. The containers and surveillance equipment are interfaced with a plutonium glovebox and are designed to allow the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time. The surveillance activities and glovebox interfaces include Raman fiber optic probes, a gas analysis sampling port, corrosion monitors, and pressure and temperature feedthrus. Data collection for these containers is automated in order to reduce worker exposure. The equipment design and glovebox modifications are presented.

  8. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  9. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  10. 40 CFR 60.4350 - How do I use data from the continuous emission monitoring equipment to identify excess emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR... § 60.4345(b), is obtained for both NOX and diluent monitors, the data acquisition and handling system... be reported as monitor downtime in the excess emissions and monitoring performance report...

  11. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity.

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65 Protection of Environment... Leaks Pt. 65, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65 Protection of Environment... Leaks Pt. 65, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65 Protection of Environment... Leaks Pt. 65, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65 Protection of Environment... Leaks Pt. 65, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65 Protection of Environment... Leaks Pt. 65, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 65—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  20. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  1. Magnetic evaluation of TSP-filters for air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Miranda, Ana Gabriela; Böhnel, Harald N.; Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present the magnetic properties of the powders collected by high volume total suspended particle air samplers used to monitor atmospheric pollution in Santiago de Querétaro, a city of one million people in central Mexico. The magnetic measurements have been combined with scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis, in order to characterize the particles captured in the filters as natural and anthropogenic. The main goal of the study is to test if magnetic measurements on the sampled atmospheric dust can be effective, low-cost, proxy to qualitatively estimate the air quality, complementing the traditional analytical methods. The magnetic properties of the powder collected in the filters have been investigated measuring the low field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, thermomagnetic curves, and isothermal remanent magnetization. The rock magnetism data have been supplemented by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the main magnetic carrier is low-Ti magnetite in the PSD range with a contribution from SP particles, and small but significant contributions from hematite, maghemite and goethite particles. Total suspended particles in the atmosphere during the monitored days ranged between about 30 and 280 μg/m3. Magnetic susceptibility values are well correlated with the independently determined total suspended particles concentration (R = 0.93), but particle concentration does not correlate as well with IRM1T. This may be attributed to contributions from SP and paramagnetic particles to the susceptibility signal, but not to the remanence. The effects of climate in particle size, composition and concentration were considered in terms of precipitation and wind intensity, but they are actually minor. The main effect of climate appears to be the removal of SP particles during rainy days. There is a contribution to air pollution from natural mineral sources, which we attribute to low vegetation cover

  2. Research of on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Yao, Junda; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    As the main electrical component for the reactive power compensation, the power capacitors are widely applied in many fields. And since the insulation condition of power capacitor could be identified accurately by using the on-line monitoring system, it attracts more and more attentions in recent years. In this paper, a novel on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network is presented. The operation data which includes the current and voltage of every capacitor is collected at first, and then the FFT is utilized to calculate the amplitude and phase of every signal, thus the insulation condition and the fault symptom could all be diagnosed accurately by analyzing the FFT results. In order to realize the effective isolation and the reliable communication between the sensing part and the merging unit, the wireless sensor network is adopted. The high reliability and transmission rate could be realized by using 2.4GHz UHF and 5GHz ISM radio bands. Thus the on-line monitoring system could be manufactured, and the lab test is carried at last. The testing results illustrate that this system could satisfy the requirement of on-site real-time measurement.

  3. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  4. Plug-and-play web-based visualization of mobile air monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of air measurements in real-time on moving platforms, such as wearable, bicycle-mounted, or vehicle-mounted air sensors, is becoming an increasingly common method to investigate local air quality. However, visualizing and analyzing geospatial air monitoring data r...

  5. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Air quality monitoring based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui

    2006-09-01

    The use of optical techniques to identify and quantify atmospheric pollutants has been focused within the past two decades. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for multi-component analysis of air quality monitoring. The technique has been used for gaseous samples by extractive sampling as well as in the open-path configuration. The present contribution has described the application of FTIR to analyze gaseous pollutants in ambient air in detail. The study for the detection limits of the interested gas, the design of the multipass White mirror system, and the experimental results are described. The White cell is employed to increase the absorbance relative to noise in the absorbance spectrum by increasing the path length without proportional loss of signal. A classical least squares (CLS) fit is used to match the scaled standards or previously measured absorption profiles to those of the observed spectrum in the specified spectral analysis regions for simultaneous quantification of the compounds of interest, plus several other ambient air constituents. The regions were chosen carefully to provide optimum detection of the compounds of interest with minimum interference by other compounds. Specially, spectrum subtraction and differential absorption concepts are introduced into FTIR data analysis. The optimal window for CO, S0 II, NO II, NO and CO II would be the region at 2250-2020 cm -1, 1230-1070 cm -1, 2940-2840 cm -1, 1965-1775 cm -1, and around 668.24 cm -1 respectively. Deviations from traditional measured results for all approaches are in 10%.

  7. Satellite Monitoring of Urban Air Pollution using MODIS and VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Due to rapid economical growth in many developing countries, the problem of deteriorating air quality is becoming an important societal issue of public health over mega cities around the world. Although there are many networks of surface PM2.5 and PM10 measurements in place to monitor the level of air pollutant over these urban sites, satellite data are still required to provide comprehensive information on the overall big picture regarding the spatial distribution of aerosols and their transport paths into the surrounding regions. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas. Such retrievals have been difficult to perform using previously available algorithms that use wavelengths from the mid-visible to the near IR because they have trouble separating the aerosol signal from the contribution due to the bright surface reflectance. The new algorithm, called Deep Blue, utilizes blue-wavelength measurements from instruments such as MODIS and VIIRS to infer the properties of aerosols, since the surface reflectance over land in the blue part of the spectrum is much lower than for longer wavelength channels. We have validated the satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness from both MODIS Collection 6 and new VIIRS Deep Blue products with data from AERONET sunphotometers over urban sites. The comparisons show reasonable agreements between these two. These new satellite products will allow scientists to determine quantitatively the aerosol properties near sources using high spatial resolution measurements from MODIS and VIIRS instruments. The multiyear satellite measurements since 2000 from MODIS will be utilized to investigate the interannual variability of source, pathway, and aerosol loading associated with these urban pollutions. The quantitative effects of direct radiative forcing of these air borne aerosol

  8. Unrestricted release measurements with ambient air ionization monitors

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Gunn, R.; Dockray, T.; Luff, C.

    1999-03-01

    Radiation monitoring systems based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique, such as the BNFL Instruments IonSens{trademark}, provide a single contamination measurement for an entire object rather than the more familiar individual readings for smaller surface areas. The LRAD technique relies on the ionization of ambient air molecules by alpha particles, and the subsequent detection of these ions, rather than direct detection of the alpha particles themselves. A single monitor can detect all of the ions produced over a large object and report a total contamination level for the entire surface of that object. However, both the unrestricted release limits specified in USDOE Order 5400.5 (and similar documents in other countries), and the definitions of radioactive waste categories, are stated in terms of contamination per area. Thus, conversion is required between the total effective contamination as measured by the LRAD-based detector and the allowable release limits. In addition, since the release limits were not written assuming an averaging detector system, the method chosen to average the assumed contamination over the object can have a significant impact on the effective sensitivity of the detector.

  9. A novel method using adaptive hidden semi-Markov model for multi-sensor monitoring equipment health prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinming; Dong, Ming; Lv, Wenyuan; Geng, Xiuli; Li, Yupeng

    2015-12-01

    Health prognosis for equipment is considered as a key process of the condition-based maintenance strategy. This paper presents an integrated framework for multi-sensor equipment diagnosis and prognosis based on adaptive hidden semi-Markov model (AHSMM). Unlike hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM), the basic algorithms in an AHSMM are first modified in order for decreasing computation and space complexity. Then, the maximum likelihood linear regression transformations method is used to train the output and duration distributions to re-estimate all unknown parameters. The AHSMM is used to identify the hidden degradation state and obtain the transition probabilities among health states and durations. Finally, through the proposed hazard rate equations, one can predict the useful remaining life of equipment with multi-sensor information. Our main results are verified in real world applications: monitoring hydraulic pumps from Caterpillar Inc. The results show that the proposed methods are more effective for multi-sensor monitoring equipment health prognosis.

  10. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  11. 30 CFR 75.507-1 - Electric equipment other than power-connection points; outby the last open crosscut; return air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment other than power-connection... requirements. (a) All electric equipment, other than power-connection points, used in return air outby the last... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.507-1 Electric...

  12. Continuous air monitor correlation to fixed air sample data at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, J.J.

    1993-05-01

    Continuous air monitoring instruments (CAMS) deployed in laboratories in the TA-55 plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) alarmed less than 33 percent of the time when fixed air sample measurements in the same laboratory showed integrated concentrations exceeding 500 DAC-hrs. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of non-instrument variables on alarm sensitivities for properly working CAMS. Non-instrument variables include air flow patterns, particle size of released material, and the energy of the release. Dilution Factors (DFs) for 21 airborne releases in various rooms and of different magnitudes were calculated and compared. The median DF for releases where the CAM alarmed was 13.1 while the median DF for releases where the CAM did not alarm was 179. Particle sizes ranged considerably with many particles larger than 10 {mu}m. The cause of the release was found to be important in predicting if a CAM would alarm with releases from bagouts resulting in the greatest percentage of CAM alarms. The results of this study suggest that a two-component strategy for CAM placement at LANL be utilized. The first component would require CAMs at exhaust points in the rooms to provide for reliable detection for random release locations. The second component would require placing CAMs at locations where releases have historically been seen. Finally, improvements in CAM instrumentation is needed.

  13. Validation of a CFD model by using 3D sonic anemometers to analyse the air velocity generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, F Javier; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A Javier; Boné, Antonio; Puyuelo, Javier; Vidal, Mariano

    2015-01-22

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans was developed and validated by practical experiments in the laboratory. The CFD model was developed by considering the total air flow supplied by the sprayer fan to be the main parameter, rather than the outlet air velocity. The model was developed for three air flows corresponding to three fan blade settings and assuming that the sprayer is stationary. Actual measurements of the air velocity near the sprayer were taken using 3D sonic anemometers. The workspace sprayer was divided into three sections, and the air velocity was measured in each section on both sides of the machine at a horizontal distance of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m from the machine, and at heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m above the ground The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated and measured values was 0.859, which demonstrates a good correlation between the simulated and measured data. Considering the overall data, the air velocity values produced by the CFD model were not significantly different from the measured values.

  14. Validation of a CFD Model by Using 3D Sonic Anemometers to Analyse the Air Velocity Generated by an Air-Assisted Sprayer Equipped with Two Axial Fans

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, F. Javier; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A. Javier; Boné, Antonio; Puyuelo, Javier; Vidal, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans was developed and validated by practical experiments in the laboratory. The CFD model was developed by considering the total air flow supplied by the sprayer fan to be the main parameter, rather than the outlet air velocity. The model was developed for three air flows corresponding to three fan blade settings and assuming that the sprayer is stationary. Actual measurements of the air velocity near the sprayer were taken using 3D sonic anemometers. The workspace sprayer was divided into three sections, and the air velocity was measured in each section on both sides of the machine at a horizontal distance of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m from the machine, and at heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m above the ground The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated and measured values was 0.859, which demonstrates a good correlation between the simulated and measured data. Considering the overall data, the air velocity values produced by the CFD model were not significantly different from the measured values. PMID:25621611

  15. New Brunswick air quality monitoring results for the years 1996 and 1997. Technical report number T-9901

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes air quality monitoring data from New Brunswick during 1996 and 1997, with an emphasis on air quality assessment in relation to existing air quality standards and objectives. Introductory sections review provincial air quality legislation, national and provincial standards, other air quality criteria, sources and effects of regulated air pollutants, and air quality monitoring networks in the province. Results are presented by area, corporation, or network monitored, and are discussed and compared with data from centres in other parts of the world. Air pollutants monitored include nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulphide, particulates, ozone, acid precipitation, carbon monoxide, and sulphur dioxide. Appendices include a glossary and detailed monthly monitoring results.

  16. New Brunswick air quality monitoring results for the years 1996 and 1997. Technical report number T-9901

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes air quality monitoring data from New Brunswick during 1996 and 1997, with an emphasis on air quality assessment in relation to existing air quality standards and objectives. Introductory sections review provincial air quality legislation, national and provincial standards, other air quality criteria, sources and effects of regulated air pollutants, and air quality monitoring networks in the province. Results are presented by area, corporation, or network monitored, and are discussed and compared with data from centres in other parts of the world. Air pollutants monitored include nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulphide, particulates, ozone, acid precipitation, carbon monoxide, and sulphur dioxide. Appendices include a glossary and detailed monthly monitoring results.

  17. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  18. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  19. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  20. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF...) As specified in § 60.13(e)(2), during each full unit operating hour, both the NOX monitor and the diluent monitor must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing, and data...

  1. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  2. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. National-Scale Air Quality Data Assessment: Initial Findings from the Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2. NO2 is a reactive gas that is emitted from motor vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and off-road equipment, as well as non-mobile sources, and is known to adversely affect human respiratory health. In conjunction with the NAAQS revision, EPA has mandated air quality monitoring next to selected major roadways throughout the United States that are in large urban areas where peak hourly NO2 concentrations are expected. Monitoring began in phases during 2012-2015 and included nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) at 40 monitoring sites nationwide. We conducted a national-scale review of near-road air pollutant concentrations, identified areas where high concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and CO occurred, and evaluated how concentrations varied by factors such as location, distance to roadway, fleet mix characteristics, and traffic volume. We present the findings from our national near-road data assessment for the 2014 monitoring year.

  4. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  5. Mobile air monitoring data-processing strategies and effects on spatial air pollution trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, H. L.; Hagler, G. S. W.; Kimbrough, E. S.; Williams, R. W.; Mukerjee, S.; Neas, L. M.

    2014-07-01

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data analysis with complex second-by-second multipollutant data varying as a function of time and location. Data reduction and filtering techniques are often applied to deduce trends, such as pollutant spatial gradients downwind of a highway. However, rarely do mobile monitoring studies report the sensitivity of their results to the chosen data-processing approaches. The study being reported here utilized 40 h (> 140 000 observations) of mobile monitoring data collected on a roadway network in central North Carolina to explore common data-processing strategies including local emission plume detection, background estimation, and averaging techniques for spatial trend analyses. One-second time resolution measurements of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected on 12 unique driving routes that were each sampled repeatedly. The route with the highest number of repetitions was used to compare local exhaust plume detection and averaging methods. Analyses demonstrate that the multiple local exhaust plume detection strategies reported produce generally similar results and that utilizing a median of measurements taken within a specified route segment (as opposed to a mean) may be sufficient to avoid bias in near-source spatial trends. A time-series-based method of estimating background concentrations was shown to produce similar but slightly lower estimates than a location-based method. For the complete data set the estimated contributions of the background to the mean pollutant concentrations were as follows: BC (15%), UFPs (26%), CO (41%), PM2.5-10 (45%), NO2 (57%), PM10 (60%), PM2.5 (68%). Lastly, while

  6. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  7. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  8. Overview of the new National Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, EPA promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As part of this new NAAQS, EPA required the establishment of a national near-road air quality monitoring network. This network will consist of one NO2 near-road monitoring st...

  9. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate an...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  13. Analysis of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans using a 3D sonic anemometer.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, F Javier; Vidal, Mariano; Boné, Antonio; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The flow of air generated by a new design of air assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans of reversed rotation was analyzed. For this goal, a 3D sonic anemometer has been used (accuracy: 1.5%; measurement range: 0 to 45 m/s). The study was divided into a static test and a dynamic test. During the static test, the air velocity in the working vicinity of the sprayer was measured considering the following machine configurations: (1) one activated fan regulated at three air flows (machine working as a traditional sprayer); (2) two activated fans regulated at three air flows for each fan. In the static test 72 measurement points were considered. The location of the measurement points was as follow: left and right sides of the sprayer; three sections of measurement (A, B and C); three measurement distances from the shaft of the machine (1.5 m, 2.5 m and 3.5 m); and four measurement heights (1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m). The static test results have shown significant differences in the module and the vertical angle of the air velocity vector in function of the regulations of the sprayer. In the dynamic test, the air velocity was measured at 2.5 m from the axis of the sprayer considering four measurement heights (1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m). In this test, the sprayer regulations were: one or two activated fans; one air flow for each fan; forward speed of 2.8 km/h. The use of one fan (back) or two fans (back and front) produced significant differences on the duration of the presence of wind in the measurement point and on the direction of the air velocity vector. The module of the air velocity vector was not affected by the number of activated fans.

  14. Analysis of the Air Flow Generated by an Air-Assisted Sprayer Equipped with Two Axial Fans Using a 3D Sonic Anemometer

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, F. Javier; Vidal, Mariano; Boné, Antonio; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The flow of air generated by a new design of air assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans of reversed rotation was analyzed. For this goal, a 3D sonic anemometer has been used (accuracy: 1.5%; measurement range: 0 to 45 m/s). The study was divided into a static test and a dynamic test. During the static test, the air velocity in the working vicinity of the sprayer was measured considering the following machine configurations: (1) one activated fan regulated at three air flows (machine working as a traditional sprayer); (2) two activated fans regulated at three air flows for each fan. In the static test 72 measurement points were considered. The location of the measurement points was as follow: left and right sides of the sprayer; three sections of measurement (A, B and C); three measurement distances from the shaft of the machine (1.5 m, 2.5 m and 3.5 m); and four measurement heights (1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m). The static test results have shown significant differences in the module and the vertical angle of the air velocity vector in function of the regulations of the sprayer. In the dynamic test, the air velocity was measured at 2.5 m from the axis of the sprayer considering four measurement heights (1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m). In this test, the sprayer regulations were: one or two activated fans; one air flow for each fan; forward speed of 2.8 km/h. The use of one fan (back) or two fans (back and front) produced significant differences on the duration of the presence of wind in the measurement point and on the direction of the air velocity vector. The module of the air velocity vector was not affected by the number of activated fans. PMID:22969363

  15. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  16. Global Monitoring of Air Pollution Using Spaceborne Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Remer, L. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The MODIS sensor onboard EOS-Terra satellite provides not only daily global coverage but also high spectral (36 channels from 0.41 to 14 microns wavelength) and spatial (250m, 500m and 1km) resolution measurements. A similar MODIS instrument will be also configured into EOS-Aqua satellite to be launched soon. Using the complementary EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua sun-synchronous orbits (10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equator-crossing time respectively), it enables us also to study the diurnal changes of the Earth system. It is unprecedented for the derivation of aerosol properties with such high spatial resolution and daily global converge. Aerosol optical depth and other aerosol properties, e.g., Angstrom coefficient over land and particle size over ocean, are derived as standard products at a spatial resolution of 10 x 10 sq km. The high resolution results are found surprisingly useful in detecting aerosols in both urban and rural regions as a result of urban/industrial pollution and biomass burning. For long-lived aerosols, the ability to monitoring the evolution of these aerosol events could help us to establish an system of air quality especially for highly populated areas. Aerosol scenarios with city pollution and biomass burning will be presented. Also presented are the method used in the derivation of aerosol optical properties and preliminary results will be presented, and issue as well as obstacles in validating aerosol optical depth with AERONET ground-based observations.

  17. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  18. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water. PMID:9380841

  19. Using Unmanned Air Systems to Monitor Methane in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, Jacqueline; Smith, Jeremy Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Methane is likely to be an important contributor to global warming, and our current knowledge of its sources, distributions, and transport is insufficient. It is estimated that there could be from 7.5 to 400 billion tons carbon-equivalent of methane in the arctic region, a broad range that is indicative of the uncertainty within the Earth Science community. Unmanned Air Systems (UASs) are often used for combat or surveillance by the military, but they also have been used for Earth Science field missions. In this study, we will analyze the utility of the NASA Global Hawk and the Aurora Flight Sciences Orion UASs compared to the manned DC-8 aircraft for conducting a methane monitoring mission. The mission will focus on the measurement of methane along the boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers. The use of Long Endurance UAS brings a new range of possibilities including the ability to obtain long- term and persistent observations and to significantly augment methane measurements/retrievals collected by satellite. Furthermore, we discuss the future of long endurance UAS and their potential for science applications in the next twenty to twenty-five years.

  20. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  1. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 1: meeting United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 standards.

    PubMed

    Kastango, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmcopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. Included in this article are a review of United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary requirements that pertain to air sampling, a discussion of how recent revision to Chapter 797 affect air sampling and patient safety, and, for easy reference, a table that features specifications for various models of microbial air samplers.

  2. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were <0.001 mg m(-3), the limit of quantification (LOQ), therefore samples below the LOQ were assigned a value of 1/2 LOQ (0.0005 mg m(-3)). Of the 70 samples, 67 were below the current workplace exposure limit of 0.02 mg m(-3). The highest inhalation exposures occurred during spray painting activities in a truck manufacturing

  3. Development of a system for monitoring technical state of the equipment of a cogeneration steam turbine unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Novoselov, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Generalized results from the work on developing elements of a comprehensive system for monitoring technical state of the equipment of cogeneration turbines are presented. The parameters of the electrohydraulic turbine control system are considered together with a number of problems concerned with assessing the state of condensers and delivery water heaters.

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Uu of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...-Control Level 2 Standards Pt. 63, Subpt. UU, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63—Batch...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Uu of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...-Control Level 2 Standards Pt. 63, Subpt. UU, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63—Batch...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Uu of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...-Control Level 2 Standards Pt. 63, Subpt. UU, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63—Batch...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Uu of... - Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency For Equipment Other Than Connectors 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...-Control Level 2 Standards Pt. 63, Subpt. UU, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart UU of Part 63—Batch...

  8. Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mahboob; Athar, Makshoof

    2008-01-01

    Transportation system has contributed significantly to the development of human civilization; on the other hand it has an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. In this paper the air and noise pollution at selected sites along three sections of National Highway was monitored. Pakistan National Highway Authority has started a Highway Improvement program for rehabilitations and maintenance of National highways to improve the traffic flows, and would ultimately improve the air quality along highways. The ambient air quality and noise level was monitored at nine different locations along these sections of highways to quantify the air pollution. The duration of monitoring at individual location was 72 h. The most of the sampling points were near the urban or village population, schools or hospitals, in order to quantify the air pollution at most affected locations along these roads. A database consisting of information regarding the source of emission, local metrology and air quality may be created to assess the profile of air quality in the area.

  9. Elevated Temperature Sensors for On-Line Critical Equipment Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    James Sebastian

    2006-03-31

    The objective of the program was to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. Improvements were aimed primarily at extending the useful temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and investigating ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures and tailoring high temperature coupling for use with the sensor. During the project, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Film adhesion under thermal cycling was found to be poor, and additional substrate materials and surface preparations were evaluated. A new, porous SiC substrate improved the performance but not to the point of making the films useful for sensors. Near the end of the program, a new family of high temperature piezoelectric materials came to the attention of the program. Samples of langasite, the most promising member of this family, were obtained and experimental data showed promise for use up to the 1000 C target temperature. In parallel, research successfully determined that metal foil under moderate pressure provided a practical method of coupling ultrasound at high temperature. A conceptual sensor was designed based upon these methods and was tested in the laboratory.

  10. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE CRITICAL EQUIPMENT HEALTH MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    James Sebastian

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates in the first year of the program, and additional substrates were evaluated. In the second year of the program, additional substrate research was performed with the goal of improving the performance of using SiC substrates. While greatly improved bandwidth was achieved, sensor survival at elevated temperature remains problematic. The elevated temperature coupling work continued with significant experimentation. Molten glasses were found to work within a limited temperature range, but metal foils applied with heat and pressure were found to have superior performance overall. The final year of the program will be dedicated to making further advances in AlN/ substrate behavior, and the design and implementation of a sensor demonstration experiment at very high temperature in a simulated industrial application.

  11. Research of weapon equipments health monitoring based on FBG intelligent composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-li; Fu, Zhu-lin; Zhao, Bing; Xu, Jian-guo

    2010-10-01

    Embedding the Polymer fibers, whose limiting strain is about 10%, into the composite materials to form the intelligent materials is researched. Encapsulating polymer fibers with epoxy resin of identical elastic modulus and embedding them into the structures during the molding process. The Demodulating system based on F-P filter method is advanced to analyze the shift of wavelengths with high speed DSP TMSC3206713 as data processor. Precise PIN photoelectric cell-InGaAs-PIN-PD753, is used to transform the output of F-P filter to electricity and two high speed A/D chips ADS1610 are used to collect the outputs of PINs. C2H2 GC for dynamical wavelength demarcation is advanced for more precise metrical results. Strain and damage condition information is transferred to the master computer as the references of health monitoring of weapon equipments. The primary experiments indicate that when 2 fibers with 3 gratings on each are embedded into the material, the intensity of materials don't weaken obviously. During the molding process of high temperature and high pressure, reflected spectrum of FBGs in hot stretching environment is analyzed through Spectrum Instrument. Fibers do not be ruptured and their sensitivity of strain is well. F-P demodulating system realizes strain resolution by 2μɛ when it works at 200Hz.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capture rate. (d) For near-road NO2 monitoring stations, the monitor probe shall have an unobstructed air...) Trees can provide surfaces for SO2, O3, or NO2 adsorption or reactions, and surfaces for particle... desorption reactions on the FEP Teflon ®. Borosilicate glass, stainless steel, or its equivalent are...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture rate. (d) For near-road NO2 monitoring stations, the monitor probe shall have an unobstructed air...) Trees can provide surfaces for SO2, O3, or NO2 adsorption or reactions, and surfaces for particle... desorption reactions on the FEP Teflon®. Borosilicate glass, stainless steel, or its equivalent are...

  14. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors. PMID:27682903

  15. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  16. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 2: experiences of compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Cabaleiro, Joe; Latta, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. This article summarizes discussions from compounding pharmacists and their experiences with air sampling devices.

  17. Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.; Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R.; Elia, G.G.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

  18. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance.

  19. Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized. PMID:25764058

  20. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  1. The expanding scope of air pollution monitoring can facilitate sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Knox, Andrew; Mykhaylova, Natalia; Evans, Greg J; Lee, Colin J; Karney, Bryan; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2013-03-15

    This paper explores technologies currently expanding the physical scope of air pollution monitoring and their potential contributions to the assessment of sustainable development. This potential lies largely in the ability of these technologies to address issues typically on the fringe of the air pollution agenda. Air pollution monitoring tends to be primarily focused on human health, and largely neglects other aspects of sustainable development. Sensor networks, with their relatively inexpensive monitoring nodes, allow for monitoring with finer spatiotemporal resolution. This resolution can support more conclusive studies of air pollution's effect on socio-ecological justice and human quality of life. Satellite observation of air pollution allows for wider geographical scope, and in doing so can facilitate studies of air pollution's effects on natural capital and ecosystem resilience. Many air pollution-related aspects of the sustainability of development in human systems are not being given their due attention. Opportunities exist for air pollution monitoring to attend more to these issues. Improvements to the resolution and scale of monitoring make these opportunities realizable.

  2. Elevated Temperature Sensors for On-Line Critical Equipment Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    James Sebastian

    2003-09-29

    The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Further evaluation of the piezoelectric films on titanium caused it to be discarded as a candidate material due to an excessive thermal expansion coefficient mismatch, causing film failure upon reheating from room temperature. Deposition on SiC is proceeding well, with a highly conductive grade of silicon carbide required for practical use. Additional substrate materials, including refractory metals and conductive ceramics, have been considered but are generally not promising in light of the experience with titanium. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was investigated as an alternate means of creating the films as an alternative to CVD. A concurrent effort has focused on investigation of means of coupling ultrasound from the sensor into the test object at high temperature. A literature search combined with preliminary experimentation has resulted in the selection of two methods for coupling: low melting point glasses and metal foil- pressure couplant. The work in the next two years of the program will include continued improvement of the CVD deposition process, experimental testing of films and coupling at high temperatures, and a laboratory demonstration of the sensor in a simulated industrial application

  3. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  4. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  5. 40 CFR 62.14690 - What monitoring equipment must I install and what parameters must I monitor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter or less. (4) The bag leak detection system sensor must provide output of relative or absolute... record the output signal from the sensor. (6) The bag leak detection system must be equipped with...

  6. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  7. AIR CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE DURING THE OPERATION OF LAWN AND GARDEN EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the Small Engine Exposure Study (SEES) to evaluate potential exposures among users of small, gasoline-powered, non-road spark-ignition (SI) lawn and garden engines. Equipment tested included riding tractors, walk-behind la...

  8. Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

  9. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  10. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Aas, Wenche; Cinnirella, Sergio; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Pacyna, Jozef; Sprovieri, Francesca; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-12-01

    understanding the link between the magnitude of mercury emissions and the concentrations found in the fish that we consume. For air quality monitoring, priorities include expanding the existing data collection network and widening the scope of atmospheric mercury measurements (elemental, oxidised, and particulate species as well as mercury in precipitation). Presently, the only accurate indicators of mercury impacts on human and biological health are methylmercury concentrations in biota. However, recent advances in analytical techniques (stable mercury isotopes) and integrated modelling tools are allowing greater understanding of the relationship between atmospheric deposition, concentrations in water, methylation and uptake by biota. This article recommends an expansion of the current atmospheric monitoring network and the establishment of new coordinated measurements of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in seawater and concurrent concentrations and trends in marine fish.

  11. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  12. Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Seiichi; Abe, Keiko; Ohsumi, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Naotsugu; Miyadera, Koji; Akasaka, Kin-ichi

    2009-06-01

    Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF4(-) ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF4(-) ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R2 = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent.

  13. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  14. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  15. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  16. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2A. Comments on process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). However, the provisions for equipment leaks also apply to certain polymer and resin production processes, certain pesticide production processes, and certain miscellaneous processes that are subject to the negotiated regulation for equipment leaks. Volume 2A is organized by emission point and contains discussions of specific technical issues related to process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Volume 2A discusses specific technical issues such as control technology, cost analysis, emission estimates, Group 1/Group 2 determination, compliance options and demonstrations, and monitoring.

  17. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  18. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  19. Technical Basis for Work Place Air Monitoring for the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    JONES, R.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) work place air monitoring program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835 ''Occupational Radiation Protection''; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1); HNF-PRO-33 1, Work Place Air Monitoring; WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report; and Applicable recognized national standards invoked by DOE Orders and Policies.

  20. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    Poor air quality in commercial aircraft cabins can be caused by volatile organophosphorus (OP) compounds emitted from the jet engine bleed air system during smoke/fume incidents. Tri-cresyl phosphate (TCP), a common anti-wear additive in turbine engine oils, is an important component in today's global aircraft operations. However, exposure to TCP increases risks of certain adverse health effects. This research analyzed used aircraft cabin air filters for jet engine oil contaminants and designed a jet engine bleed air simulator (BAS) to replicate smoke/fume incidents caused by pyrolysis of jet engine oil. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for elemental analysis of filters, and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze used filters to determine TCP isomers. The filter analysis study involved 110 used and 90 incident filters. Clean air filter samples exposed to different bleed air conditions simulating cabin air contamination incidents were also analyzed by FESEM/EDS, NAA, and GC/MS. Experiments were conducted on a BAS at various bleed air conditions typical of an operating jet engine so that the effects of temperature and pressure variations on jet engine oil aerosol formation could be determined. The GC/MS analysis of both used and incident filters characterized tri- m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) by a base peak of an m/z = 368, with corresponding retention times of 21.9 and 23.4 minutes. The hydrocarbons in jet oil were characterized in the filters by a base peak pattern of an m/z = 85, 113. Using retention times and hydrocarbon thermal conductivity peak (TCP) pattern obtained from jet engine oil standards, five out of 110 used filters tested had oil markers. Meanwhile 22 out of 77 incident filters tested positive for oil fingerprints. Probit analysis of jet engine oil aerosols obtained

  1. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  2. 40 CFR 63.2994 - How do I verify the performance of monitoring equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-specific performance evaluation plan, conduct of the performance evaluation, and reporting of performance... installed in a location before any heat recovery or heat exchange equipment, and it must remain in the...

  3. 40 CFR 63.2994 - How do I verify the performance of monitoring equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-specific performance evaluation plan, conduct of the performance evaluation, and reporting of performance... installed in a location before any heat recovery or heat exchange equipment, and it must remain in the...

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. ...

  5. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  6. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  7. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  8. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  9. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  10. A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO INDOOR/OUTDOOR AIR MONITORING IN COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring da...

  11. *A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring in Community Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring data from...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum...) The PM2.5 NAAQS, specified in 40 CFR part 50, provides State and local air monitoring agencies with an... defined in appendix N to 40 CFR part 50. 4.8Coarse Particulate Matter (PM10−2.5) Design Criteria....

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum...) The PM2.5 NAAQS, specified in 40 CFR part 50, provides State and local air monitoring agencies with an... defined in appendix N to 40 CFR part 50. 4.8Coarse Particulate Matter (PM10−2.5) Design Criteria....

  14. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum...) The PM2.5 NAAQS, specified in 40 CFR part 50, provides State and local air monitoring agencies with an... defined in appendix N to 40 CFR part 50. 4.8Coarse Particulate Matter (PM10−2.5) Design Criteria....

  15. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  17. Air Nicotine Monitoring for Second Hand Smoke Exposure in Public Places in India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jagdish; Prasad, Vinayak M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS). Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars) in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India. PMID:21976792

  18. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  3. Pavements Maintenance and Construction Equipment Operator Career Ladders: United States Air Force Job Inventory. AFSCs 55130/31, 55150/51, 55170/71, and 55191.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Personnel and Training Research Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The U. S. Air Force job inventory for the pavements maintenance and construction equipment operator career ladders is divided into 26 categories, each of which is broken down into a duty-task list. Space is provided for Air Force personnel filling out the inventory to check whether each task is at present part of their duties. The 26 categories…

  4. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light...-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a test group, will...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In... and 86.1828-01: (a)(1) Where it is expected that more than 33 percent of a car line, within a...

  8. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment, 11-9. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text consists of three blocks of instructional materials for use by those studying to become refrigeration and air conditioning specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are the following topics: refrigeration and trouble analysis, thermodynamics, and principles of refrigeration; major components and domestic and…

  9. Chloride and mercury monitors for air toxics measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Buttermore, W.H.; Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Peters, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Ames laboratory will develop an integrated sampling and analysis system suitable for on-line monitoring of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and mercury (Hg) in advanced coal gasifiers. The objectives of this project are to (1) summarize current technology for monitoring HCl and Hg in gaseous effluents, (2) identify analytical techniques for such determinations in high-temperature, high-pressure gases from coal-based systems of interest to METC for producing electrical power, (3) evaluate promising analytical approaches, and (4) produce reliable on-line monitors which are adaptable to plant-scale diagnostics and process control.

  10. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the Baton Rouge ozone nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the Baton Rouge ozone nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  12. REVIEW OF THE RADNET AIR MONITORING NETWORK UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    RadNet, formerly known as ERAMS, has been operating since the 1970's, monitoring environmental radiation across the country, supporting responses to radiological emergencies, and providing important information on background levels of radiation in the environment. The original ...

  13. R and D opportunities for commercial HVAC (heating, air conditioning, and ventilation) equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.A.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1987-03-01

    The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize generic HVAC equipment research that will provide the best investment opportunities for DOE R and D funds. The prerequisites of a DOE research program include research efforts that are potentially significant in energy conservation impact and that are cost-effective, long-term, and high risk. These prerequisites form the basic guidelines for the R and D opportunities assessed. The assessment excludes the R and D areas that have potential or current private sector sponsors. Finally, R and D areas which are included in DOE programs generally are not addressed.

  14. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    DOEpatents

    Fergus, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes.

  15. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum... approved as part of the annual monitoring network plan required in 40 CFR 58.10. 1 Daily or with an... nitrogen, VOC, and meteorology. 5.1PAMS Monitoring Objectives. PAMS design criteria are site...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum... approved as part of the annual monitoring network plan required in 40 CFR 58.10. 1 Daily or with an... nitrogen, VOC, and meteorology. 5.1PAMS Monitoring Objectives. PAMS design criteria are site...

  18. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  19. Irrigation system equipped on a high-speed air drill--technical note.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, T; Yanai, H; Kukita, C; Samejima, H; Shinyama, Y

    1998-03-01

    An irrigation system which can easily be applied to the conventional high-speed air drill was developed to allow simultaneous irrigation during micro-drilling. The irrigation system is constructed with a tube of 0.8 mm outer diameter and supporting rings. Irrigation is entirely coordinated with drilling by a single foot switch. The tube of the system ejects normal saline intermittently toward the cutter bar tip. Use of this system in skull base surgery showed that effective irrigation and a clean operative field was achieved even in a narrow space under the operating microscope, saline is ejected exactly on the point of drilling and over-heating does not occur so that heat-related damage to the local nerves and blood vessels is avoided. The system can easily be applied to any type of high-speed air drill by using supporting rings of the correct size. This irrigation system is particularly useful in microneurosurgery using the high-speed air drill. PMID:9597862

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... necessary to ensure the uniform collection of compatible and comparable air quality data. (b) The probe and... help to avoid later questions about the validity of the resulting monitoring data. Conditions under... quality data collected at a site. Particulate matter sites should not be located in an unpaved area...

  1. An Algorithm for Source Checking Continuous Air Monitors Using Radon Progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2000-03-06

    Department of Energy requirements contained within 10CFR835 require that continuous air monitors be periodically checked for operability. The DOE air monitoring implementation guide for 10CFR835 allows the use of radon progeny to perform the recommended weekly source check. The Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site has demonstrated that, through the use of the Hypotheses Concerning Two Means, diurnal changes in the radon progeny detected by the monitors meets the requirements for weekly source checks. The use of the diurnal changes in radon progeny has replaced the man-hours expended performing direct weekly source checking with an automated system requiring minimal man-hour expenditure.

  2. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Quality Assurance Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities in the United States are potentially impacted by a wide variety of environmental pollution sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages communities to advocate for environmental and public health mitigations and to raise awareness of air pol...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  4. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  5. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  6. Failure Monitoring and Leakage Detection for Underground Storage of Compressed Air Energy in Lined Rock Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dohyun; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Park, Eui-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns (LRCs) provides a promising solution for storing energy on a large scale. One of the essential issues facing underground CAES implementation is the risk of air leakage from the storage caverns. Compressed air may leak through an initial defect in the inner containment liner, such as imperfect welds and construction joints, or through structurally damaged points of the liner during CAES operation for repeated compression and decompression cycles. Detection of the air leakage and identification of the leakage location around the underground storage cavern are required. In this study, we analyzed the displacement (or strain) monitoring method to detect the mechanical failure of liners that provides major pathways of air leakage using a previously developed numerical technique simulating the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of underground CAES in LRCs. We analyzed the use of pressure monitoring to detect air leakage and characterize the leakage location. From the simulation results, we demonstrated that tangential strain monitoring at the inner face of sealing liners could enable one to detect failure. We also demonstrated that the use of the cross-correlation method between pressure history data measured at various sensors could identify the air leak location. These results may help in the overall design of a monitoring and alarm system for the successful implementation and operation of CAES in LRCs.

  7. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  8. Operational benefits from the Terminal Configured Vehicle. [aircraft equipment for air traffic improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Schmitz, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research activity is to provide improvements which lead to increased airport and runway capacity, increasing air traffic controller productivity, energy efficient terminal area operations, reduced weather minima with safety, and reduced community noise by use of appropriate measures. Some early results of this research activity are discussed, and present and future research needs to meet the broad research objectives are defined. Particular consideration is given to the development of the TCV B-737 aircraft, the integration of the TCV with MLS, and avionics configurations, flight profiles, and manually controlled approaches for TCV. Some particular test demonstrations are discussed.

  9. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  10. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  11. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  12. A New Approach to Detection of Systematic Errors in Secondary Substation Monitoring Equipment Based on Short Term Load Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Moriano, Javier; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Martín, Pedro; Jiménez, Jose Antonio; Vuksanovic, Branislav

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, Secondary Substations (SSs) are being provided with equipment that allows their full management. This is particularly useful not only for monitoring and planning purposes but also for detecting erroneous measurements, which could negatively affect the performance of the SS. On the other hand, load forecasting is extremely important since they help electricity companies to make crucial decisions regarding purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development. In this regard, Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) allows the electric power load to be predicted over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. However, important issues concerning error detection by employing STLF has not been specifically addressed until now. This paper proposes a novel STLF-based approach to the detection of gain and offset errors introduced by the measurement equipment. The implemented system has been tested against real power load data provided by electricity suppliers. Different gain and offset error levels are successfully detected.

  13. A New Approach to Detection of Systematic Errors in Secondary Substation Monitoring Equipment Based on Short Term Load Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Moriano, Javier; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Martín, Pedro; Jiménez, Jose Antonio; Vuksanovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Secondary Substations (SSs) are being provided with equipment that allows their full management. This is particularly useful not only for monitoring and planning purposes but also for detecting erroneous measurements, which could negatively affect the performance of the SS. On the other hand, load forecasting is extremely important since they help electricity companies to make crucial decisions regarding purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development. In this regard, Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) allows the electric power load to be predicted over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. However, important issues concerning error detection by employing STLF has not been specifically addressed until now. This paper proposes a novel STLF-based approach to the detection of gain and offset errors introduced by the measurement equipment. The implemented system has been tested against real power load data provided by electricity suppliers. Different gain and offset error levels are successfully detected. PMID:26771613

  14. Terahertz sensor for air pollution monitoring from spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Rui; Guo, Aiyan

    2016-07-01

    Terahertz wave is a radio wave which wavelength between infrared and microwave, substantial is from 0.1-1mm that is 300-3000GHz(0.3-3THz). Compare to microwave and visible/infrared it is advantage of resolution and better penetration in atmosphere respectively, and because of wavelength is similar to scale of micro-particle of air pollution, the absorption coefficient due to the many relevant molecules have a maximum signature in the THz region, such as SO2、CH4、H2S、NH3、CO、O3 etc. of molecules of polluted atmosphere . This paper present a conceptional solution of THz sensor for air pollution sounder which using of large aperture antenna and FSS with 15 channels in 0.183-1.5THz region, each channel with 2MHz by extreme narrow band filter for detecting signature of polluted air. Analysis data show that 2Km spatial resolution at 700km altitude orbit. Sensitive is about 10-12W/Hz1/2 level at cryogenic temp.

  15. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  16. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  17. 40 CFR 60.2730 - What monitoring equipment must I install and what parameters must I monitor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen oxides emissions limit. (f) If you use an electrostatic precipitator to comply with the emission... scrubber, in place of hydrogen chloride testing with EPA Method 321 at 40 CFR part 63, appendix A, an owner... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7. You may propose alternative continuous monitoring consistent...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2730 - What monitoring equipment must I install and what parameters must I monitor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... temperature and below the minimum reagent flow rate simultaneously constitute a violation of the nitrogen... scrubber, in place of hydrogen chloride testing with EPA Method 321 at 40 CFR part 63, appendix A, an owner... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7. You may propose alternative continuous monitoring consistent...

  19. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  20. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  1. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  2. Monitoring Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS). Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Performance tests on an electro-optical model of an infrared sensor for remote measurements of trace atmospheric gases are detailed; the instrument utilized a sample of the gas to be measured as spectral filter. Also reported is the development of radiometric calibration equipment that determines responses to simulated pollution effects. Results show excellent agreement with theoretical performance predictions with the exception of nonuniform radiance responses. Balance stability to an accuracy better than the rms noise level was demonstrated for the EOM in both the NH3 and CO modes for a period of two days under laboratory conditions. Flight test results show that the temperature range of the absorption cell is restricted to 255 K or higher.

  3. The Influence of Shale Rock Fracturing Equipment Operation on Atmospheric Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacki, Marek; Macuda, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing jobs performed on shale rocks are connected with atmospheric emissions of dusts and exhaust gases from high-power motors supplying pump aggregates used for fracturing operations and from other technological devices. The total power of motors driving technological systems depends on the specific character of deposit and well and may range between a dozen to tens of thousands kW. An exemplary set of technological systems used for frac jobs is presented in figure 1. The following substances are emitted to the atmosphere during engine operation, e.g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxide (CO), dust PM10, ammonia, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein. As a consequence admissible concentrations of these substances in air can be exceeded. The influence of dust and gaseous emissions accompanying shale rock fracturing jobs is addressed in this paper. Model analyses were performed. An exemplary model of a process used for simulating propagation of atmospheric emissions in a specified calculation area (1,150 m × 1,150 m) were based on the analysis of hydraulic fracturing jobs performed in wells in Poland and abroad. For making calculations more actual, the model was located in the Gdańsk area and was ascribed its typical meteorological and orographic parameters. In the center of this area a rig site 150 m x 150 m was distinguished. The emission field was generated by 12 high-power engines supplying pump aggregates, 1680 kW each. The time of work of particular engines was established for 52 hrs (13 frac jobs, each lasting 4 hrs). It was assumed that all engines will operate simultaneously and using 100% of their power. Attention was paid to the correct modelling of the real emission field. Technical parameters of motors and the applied fuels were characterized. Emission indices were worked out by, e.g. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or European Environment Agency. The

  4. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project GoalDevelop tools Citizen Scientists can use to assist them in conducting environmental monitoringResearch PlanIdentify a citizen science project as a potential pilot study locationEstablish their pollutant monitoring interestsDevelop a sensor package to meet their needs ...

  5. Survey of indoor air monitoring services: is there a private demand for healthful indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, K.

    1985-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that indoor air quality in nonindustrial environments is often less healthful than outdoor air quality. The short- and long-term health consequences of indoor exposures are not well defined, yet private citizens and organizations are becoming more concerned about potential adverse health effects. Questions and complaints about indoor environmental hazards are an expanding problem for federal, state, and local health agencies. This paper describes findings from a national survey of fee-for-service companies which make indoor air measurements in nonindustrial settings. Information is presented on the makeup of these firms, the types and numbers of buildings which have been investigated, typical contaminant measurements, and associated costs. Results indicate that a substantial private demand exists for goods and services which aid building occupants in evaluating and improving indoor air quality.

  6. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... or topography, meteorology, population exposure and other factors in determining where a...

  7. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research in Action: Collect air quality data to characterize near-road/near-source hotspots; Determine potential impact on nearby residences & roadways; Case study of successful use of such data; Relationship between distance to roadways and industrial sources, exposure to...

  8. 40 CFR 63.2994 - How do I verify the performance of monitoring equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notifications, the site-specific performance evaluation plan, conduct of the performance evaluation, and... monitoring device must also be installed in a location before any heat recovery or heat exchange...

  9. Comparison of regional air dispersion simulation and ambient air monitoring data for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene.

    PubMed

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; de Cirugeda Helle, O; Li, C; Driver, J H

    2016-11-01

    SOFEA v2.0 is an air dispersion modeling tool used to predict acute and chronic pesticide concentrations in air for large air sheds resulting from agronomic practices. A 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) air monitoring study in high use townships in Merced County, CA, logged 3-day average air concentrations at nine locations over a 14.5month period. SOFEA, using weather data measured at the site, and using a historical CDPR regulatory assumption of a constant 320m mixing height, predicted the general pattern and correct order of magnitude for 1,3-D air concentrations as a function of time, but failed to estimate the highest observed 1,3-D concentrations of the monitoring study. A time series and statistical comparison of the measured and modeled data indicated that the model underestimated 1,3-D concentrations during calm periods (wind speed <1m/s), such that the annual average concentration was under predicted by approximately 4.7-fold, and the variability was not representative of the measured data. Calm periods are associated with low mixing heights (MHs) and are more prevalent in the Central Valley of CA during the winter months, and thus the assumption of a constant 320m mixing height is not appropriate. An algorithm was developed to calculate the MH using the air temperature in the weather file when the wind speed was <1m/s. When the model was run using the revised MHs, the average of the modeled 1,3-D concentration Probability Distribution Function (PDF) was within 5% of the measured PDF, and the variability in modeled concentrations more closely matched the measured dataset. Use of the PCRAMMET processed weather data from the site (including PCRAMMET MH) resulted in the global annual average concentration within 2-fold of measured data. Receptor density was also found to have an effect on the modeled 1,3-D concentration PDF, and a 50×50 receptor grid in the nine township domain captured the measured 1,3-D concentration distribution much better than a 3×3

  10. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  11. 40 CFR 63.644 - Monitoring provisions for miscellaneous process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries... the equipment will monitor accurately. (1) Where an incinerator is used, a temperature...

  12. 40 CFR 63.644 - Monitoring provisions for miscellaneous process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries... the equipment will monitor accurately. (1) Where an incinerator is used, a temperature...

  13. A Cluster Analysis of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Data from the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Atsushi; Shirato, Shintaro; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates an application of cluster analysis to constant ambient air monitoring data of four pollutants in the Kanto region: NOx, photochemical oxidant (Ox), suspended particulate matter, and non-methane hydrocarbons. Constant ambient air monitoring can provide important information about the surrounding atmospheric pollution. However, at the same time, ambient air monitoring can place a significant financial burden on some autonomous communities. Thus, it has been necessary to reduce both the number of monitoring stations and the number of chemicals monitored. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify those monitoring stations and pollutants that are least significant, while minimizing the loss of data quality and mitigating the effects on the determination of any spatial and temporal trends of the pollutants. Through employing cluster analysis, it was established that the ambient monitoring stations in the Kanto region could be clustered topologically for NOx and Ox into eight groups. From the results of this analysis, it was possible to identify the similarities in site characteristics and pollutant behaviors. PMID:24995597

  14. Biological Monitoring of Air Pollutants and Its Influence on Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Cen, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring air pollutants via plants is an economic, convenient and credible method compared with the traditional ways. Plants show different damage symptoms to different air pollutants, which can be used to determine the species of air pollutants. Besides, pollutants mass concentration scope can be estimated by the damage extent of plants and the span of polluted time. Based on the domestic and foreign research, this paper discusses the principles, mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of plant-monitoring, and exemplifies plenty of such plants and the minimum mass concentration and pollution time of the plants showing damage symptoms. Finally, this paper introduced the human health effects of air pollutants on immune function of the body, such as decrease of the body's immune function, decline of lung function, respiratory and circulatory system changes, inducing and promoting human allergic diseases, respiratory diseases and other diseases.

  15. Biological Monitoring of Air Pollutants and Its Influence on Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring air pollutants via plants is an economic, convenient and credible method compared with the traditional ways. Plants show different damage symptoms to different air pollutants, which can be used to determine the species of air pollutants. Besides, pollutants mass concentration scope can be estimated by the damage extent of plants and the span of polluted time. Based on the domestic and foreign research, this paper discusses the principles, mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of plant-monitoring, and exemplifies plenty of such plants and the minimum mass concentration and pollution time of the plants showing damage symptoms. Finally, this paper introduced the human health effects of air pollutants on immune function of the body, such as decrease of the body's immune function, decline of lung function, respiratory and circulatory system changes, inducing and promoting human allergic diseases, respiratory diseases and other diseases. PMID:26628931

  16. The Influence of Shale Rock Fracturing Equipment Operation on Atmospheric Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacki, Marek; Macuda, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing jobs performed on shale rocks are connected with atmospheric emissions of dusts and exhaust gases from high-power motors supplying pump aggregates used for fracturing operations and from other technological devices. The total power of motors driving technological systems depends on the specific character of deposit and well and may range between a dozen to tens of thousands kW. An exemplary set of technological systems used for frac jobs is presented in figure 1. The following substances are emitted to the atmosphere during engine operation, e.g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxide (CO), dust PM10, ammonia, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein. As a consequence admissible concentrations of these substances in air can be exceeded. The influence of dust and gaseous emissions accompanying shale rock fracturing jobs is addressed in this paper. Model analyses were performed. An exemplary model of a process used for simulating propagation of atmospheric emissions in a specified calculation area (1,150 m × 1,150 m) were based on the analysis of hydraulic fracturing jobs performed in wells in Poland and abroad. For making calculations more actual, the model was located in the Gdańsk area and was ascribed its typical meteorological and orographic parameters. In the center of this area a rig site 150 m x 150 m was distinguished. The emission field was generated by 12 high-power engines supplying pump aggregates, 1680 kW each. The time of work of particular engines was established for 52 hrs (13 frac jobs, each lasting 4 hrs). It was assumed that all engines will operate simultaneously and using 100% of their power. Attention was paid to the correct modelling of the real emission field. Technical parameters of motors and the applied fuels were characterized. Emission indices were worked out by, e.g. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or European Environment Agency. The

  17. 76 FR 39103 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee... and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... provide advice, information, and recommendations to the Administrator on the scientific and...

  18. Feasibility study for the modernization of the air quality monitoring network in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The project is part of the Ministry of Environment and Recoverable Resources`s (MARNR) goal of establishing a consolidated and effective monitoring program nationwide, which would allow for evaluations of air quality, identification of pollution sources and provide a basis for future air quality management decisions. The bilingual Spanish/English report consists of: (1) work plan; (2) evaluation of current monitoring stations and recommendations for improvement; (3) field evaluation report for existing MARNR network; (4) institutional analysis, revenue requirements, selection of funding mechanism, and three sets of attachments.

  19. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  20. Technical specification for transferring ambient air monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In September 1994, a team was formed to develop, document, and implement technical specifications for transmitting ambient air environmental compliance and monitoring data to the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The approach used to transmit this data is documented in the {open_quotes}Plan for Integrating Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Data into OREIS.{close_quotes} This plan addresses the consolidated data requirements defined by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) and the Tennessee Oversight Agreement (TOA) as they pertain to environmental compliance and monitoring data maintained by Energy Systems` Oak Ridge Environmental Management organizations. Ibis document describes. the requirements, responsibilities, criteria, and format for transmitting ambient air compliance and monitoring data to OREIS.

  1. Design and implementation of an air monitoring program in support of a brownfields redevelopment program

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Devaney, R.J. Jr.; Gauvin, M.R.

    1998-12-31

    EPA`s Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative has sparked renewal of industrial and commercial parcels otherwise idled or under-utilized because of real or perceived environmental contamination. In certain cases, restoring such parcels to productive economic use requires a redevelopment effort protective of human health and welfare through minimizing offsite migration of environmental contaminants during cleanup, demolition and remediation activities. To support these objectives, an air monitoring program is often required as an integral element of a comprehensive brownfields redevelopment effort. This paper presents a strategic framework for design and execution of an ambient air monitoring program in support of a brownfields remediation effort ongoing in Lawrence, MA. Based on site characterization, the program included sample collection and laboratory analysis of ambient air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total suspended particulate (TSP), inhalable particulate (PM10), and lead. The program included four monitoring phases, identified as background, wintertime, demolition/remediation and post-demolition. Air sampling occurred over a 16 month period during 1996--97, during which time nine sampling locations were utilized to produce approximately 1,500 ambient air samples. Following strict data review and validation procedures, ambient air data interpretation focused on the following: evaluation of upwind/downwind sample pairs, comparison of ambient levels to existing regulatory standards, relation of ambient levels to data reported in the open literature, and, determination of normal seasonal variations in existing background burden, comparison of ambient levels measured during site activity to background levels.

  2. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  3. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76). PMID:25905923

  4. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Hygiene Air Monitoring Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, A D.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2004-12-10

    Tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision and response time of certain commercially available handheld toxic gas monitors. The tests were conducted by PNNL in the Chemical Chamber Test Facility for CH2MHill Hanford Company. The instruments were tested with a set of dilute test gases including ammonia, nitrous oxide, and a mixture of organic vapors (acetone, benzene, ethanol, hexane, toluene and xylene). The certified gases were diluted to concentrations that may be encountered in the outdoor environment above the underground tank farms containing radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The challenge concentrations are near the lower limits of instrument sensitivity and response time. The performance test simulations were designed to look at how the instruments respond to changes in test gas concentrations that are similar to field conditions.

  5. A real time sorbent based air monitoring system for determining low level airborne exposure levels to Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, F.G.; Paul, D.G.; Jakubowski, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Real Time Analytical Platform (RTAP) is designed to provide mobile, real-time monitoring support to ensure protection of worker safety in areas where military unique compounds are used and stored, and at disposal sites. Quantitative analysis of low-level vapor concentrations in air is accomplished through sorbent-based collection with subsequent thermal desorption into a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a variety of detectors. The monitoring system is characterized by its sensitivity (ability to measure at low concentrations), selectivity (ability to filter out interferences), dynamic range and linearity, real time mode (versus methods requiring extensive sample preparation procedures), and ability to interface with complimentary GC detectors. This presentation describes an RTAP analytical method for analyzing lewisite, an arsenical compound, that consists of a GC screening technique with an Electron Capture Detector (ECD), and a confirmation technique using an Atomic Emission Detector (AED). Included in the presentation is a description of quality assurance objectives in the monitoring system, and an assessment of method accuracy, precision and detection levels.

  6. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  7. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have..., nitrogen flow, or pressure monitoring device having an accuracy of ±10 percent of the flow rate, level, or pressure, or better, capable of recording the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or...

  8. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have..., nitrogen flow, or pressure monitoring device having an accuracy of ±10 percent of the flow rate, level, or pressure, or better, capable of recording the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in.... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required...

  10. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that...

  11. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in.... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in.... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required...

  14. Development of optical equipment for ultrasonic guided wave structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the development of optical equipment that is suitable for ultrasonic guided wave detection for active SHM in the hundreds of kHz range. In recent years, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been investigated by many researchers as an alternative to piezoelectric sensors for the detection of ultrasonic waves. FBG have the advantage of being durable, lightweight, and easily embeddable into composite structures as well as being immune to electromagnetic interference and optically multiplexed. However, there is no commercially available product that uses this promising technology for the detection of ultrasonic guided waves because: (a) the frequency is high (hundreds of kHz); (b) the strains are very small (nano-strain); (c) the operational loads may also induce very large quasi-static strains (the superposition of very small ultrasonic strains and very large quasi-static strain presents a very significant challenge). Although no turn-key optical system exists for ultrasonic guided wave detection, we developed optical ultrasonic guided wave equipment using a tunable laser device. The measurement resolution and sampling speed were considered as the most important criteria in our test. We achieved high sensitive (nano-strain) and high sampling rate. Comparative measurements of low-amplitude ultrasonic waves have been done including FBG, strain gauge, and piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS). Calibration and performance improvements for the optical interrogation system are also developed and discussed. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  15. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  17. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  18. Monitoring intraurban spatial patterns of multiple combustion air pollutants in New York City: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Matte, Thomas D; Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger; Johnson, Sarah; Gorczynski, John E; Kass, Daniel; Markowitz, Steven; Pezeshki, Grant; Clougherty, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Routine air monitoring provides data to assess urban scale temporal variation in pollution concentrations in relation to regulatory standards, but is not well suited to characterizing intraurban spatial variation in pollutant concentrations from local sources. To address these limitations and inform local control strategies, New York City developed a program to track spatial patterns of multiple air pollutants in each season of the year. Monitor locations include 150 distributed street-level sites chosen to represent a range of traffic, land-use and other characteristics. Integrated samples are collected at each distributed site for one 2-week session each season and in every 2-week period at five reference locations to track city-wide temporal variation. Pollutants sampled include PM(2.5) and constituents, nitrogen oxides, black carbon, ozone (summer only) and sulfur dioxide (winter only). During the first full year of monitoring more than 95% of designed samples were completed. Agreement between colocated samples was good (absolute mean % difference 3.2-8.9%). Street-level pollutant concentrations spanned a much greater range than did concentrations at regulatory monitors, especially for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide. Monitoring to characterize intraurban spatial gradients in ambient pollution usefully complements regulatory monitoring data to inform local air quality management. PMID:23321861

  19. Monitoring intraurban spatial patterns of multiple combustion air pollutants in New York City: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Matte, Thomas D; Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger; Johnson, Sarah; Gorczynski, John E; Kass, Daniel; Markowitz, Steven; Pezeshki, Grant; Clougherty, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Routine air monitoring provides data to assess urban scale temporal variation in pollution concentrations in relation to regulatory standards, but is not well suited to characterizing intraurban spatial variation in pollutant concentrations from local sources. To address these limitations and inform local control strategies, New York City developed a program to track spatial patterns of multiple air pollutants in each season of the year. Monitor locations include 150 distributed street-level sites chosen to represent a range of traffic, land-use and other characteristics. Integrated samples are collected at each distributed site for one 2-week session each season and in every 2-week period at five reference locations to track city-wide temporal variation. Pollutants sampled include PM(2.5) and constituents, nitrogen oxides, black carbon, ozone (summer only) and sulfur dioxide (winter only). During the first full year of monitoring more than 95% of designed samples were completed. Agreement between colocated samples was good (absolute mean % difference 3.2-8.9%). Street-level pollutant concentrations spanned a much greater range than did concentrations at regulatory monitors, especially for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide. Monitoring to characterize intraurban spatial gradients in ambient pollution usefully complements regulatory monitoring data to inform local air quality management.

  20. Crosshole shear-wave seismic monitoring of an in situ air stripping waste remediation process

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.

    1992-02-01

    Crosshole shear-wave seismic surveys have been used to monitor the distribution of injected air in the subsurface during an in situ air stripping waste remediation project at the Savannah River site in South Carolina. To remove the contaminant, in this case TCE's from a leaking sewer line, two horizontal wells were drilled at depths of 20 m and 52 m. Air was pumped into the lower well and a vacuum was applied to the upper well to extract the injected air. As the air passed through the subsurface, TCE's were dissolved into the gas and brought out the extraction well. Monitoring of the air injection by crosshole shear wave seismics is feasible due to the changes in soil saturation during injection resulting in a corresponding change in seismic velocities. Using a downhole shear-wave source and clamped downhole receiver, two sets of shear-wave data were taken. The first data were taken before the start of air injection, and the second taken during. The difference in travel times between the two data sets were tomographically inverted to obtain velocity differences. Velocity changes ranging up to 3% were mapped corresponding to saturation changes up to 24%. The distribution of these changes shows a desaturation around the position of the injection well with a plume extending in the direction of the extraction well. Layers with higher clay content show distinctively less change in saturation than the regions with higher sand content.

  1. Crosshole shear-wave seismic monitoring of an in situ air stripping waste remediation process

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.

    1992-02-01

    Crosshole shear-wave seismic surveys have been used to monitor the distribution of injected air in the subsurface during an in situ air stripping waste remediation project at the Savannah River site in South Carolina. To remove the contaminant, in this case TCE`s from a leaking sewer line, two horizontal wells were drilled at depths of 20 m and 52 m. Air was pumped into the lower well and a vacuum was applied to the upper well to extract the injected air. As the air passed through the subsurface, TCE`s were dissolved into the gas and brought out the extraction well. Monitoring of the air injection by crosshole shear wave seismics is feasible due to the changes in soil saturation during injection resulting in a corresponding change in seismic velocities. Using a downhole shear-wave source and clamped downhole receiver, two sets of shear-wave data were taken. The first data were taken before the start of air injection, and the second taken during. The difference in travel times between the two data sets were tomographically inverted to obtain velocity differences. Velocity changes ranging up to 3% were mapped corresponding to saturation changes up to 24%. The distribution of these changes shows a desaturation around the position of the injection well with a plume extending in the direction of the extraction well. Layers with higher clay content show distinctively less change in saturation than the regions with higher sand content.

  2. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  3. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type. PMID:26483085

  4. Assessment of MEKC suitability for residue drug monitoring on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.

    PubMed

    Boca, Madalina Brindusa; Pretorius, Etheresia; Kgaje, Christopher; Apostolides, Zeno

    2008-03-13

    The suitability of micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the simultaneous trace determination of several compounds (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfanilic acid, sulfanilamide, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and nonoxynol-9) was assessed. The mixture was separated within 14min at an applied voltage of 22kV by using 30mM phosphate electrolyte, containing 10mM SDS, adjusted to pH 7.8. Under optimized separation conditions acceptable levels of linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained for all compounds. The method could be used as part of a cleaning validation study when assaying trace levels of co-trimoxazole drug, some of its decomposition products and detergent in the swab samples collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment, after cleaning. PMID:18178359

  5. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  6. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  7. A performance assessment and adjustment program for air quality monitoring networks in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Jiajia; Xu, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of Shanghai's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) using principal components analysis, an assignment method, and cluster analysis. Our goal was to improve the utilization of monitoring stations and evaluate Shanghai's air quality more comprehensively and accurately. Specifically, we (i) identified similar pollution sources or behaviors in the monitoring areas; (ii) identified redundant monitoring stations and re-evaluated the AQMN's performance without them; and (iii) proposed adjustments to the AQMN. We used data on particulates less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) in diameter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) at stations in and around Shanghai from 1 January to 22 August 2014. For each pollutant, we grouped the monitoring stations into clusters based on their different pollution behaviors, revealing redundancy and inefficiency in the current AQMN that resulted from the concentrated station distribution and similarity of the monitoring environments. The analysis results showed that there exist redundant stations in the current AQMN of Shanghai. Furthermore, we proposed adjustments to Shanghai's AQMN: transfer four redundant stations and build a new station in the directions of the Taicang Experimental Primary School, Kunshan Zhenchuan Middle School, Suzhou Industrial Park, Wujiang Industrial Zone, and Jiaxing Monitoring Station. Our analysis suggests that, in addition to industrial, transportation, construction, and population influences inside Shanghai, external pollutants significantly affect Shanghai's air quality. Therefore, it is necessary to jointly prevent and control regional air pollution both in Shanghai and in neighboring cities.

  8. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring. PMID:26016912

  9. Calibrating Personal Air Monitoring. Module 7. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on calibrating personal air monitoring devices. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of the…

  10. Integration of Air Quality Modeling and Monitoring Data for Enhanced Health Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assess the environmental impact of air pollution on human health it is necessary to establish the concentrations to which the population is exposed. The obvious way to determine this is to measure these quantities. However, given the limited number of monitoring stati...

  11. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring. PMID:26016912

  12. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-05-26

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  13. Episodic Impacts from California Wildfires Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and regional background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a recent year-long near-road monitoring study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, a substa...

  14. Accumulation of organic air constituents by plant surfaces. Spruce needles for monitoring airborne chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reischl, A.; Thoma, H.; Reissinger, M.; Hutzinger, O. )

    1988-10-01

    The needles of the spruce (Picea abies) were used to monitor ambient air for organic trace substances. Analyses of spruce needles in an industrialized area demonstrated that the concentrations of these substances were much higher than those in a nonindustrialized area.

  15. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  16. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  17. RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF NO, NO2, NOY, AND INDIVIDUAL NOZ SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most appropriate monitoring methods for reactive nitrogen oxides are identified subject to the requirements for diagnostic testing of air quality simulation models. Measurements must be made over 1 h or less and with an uncertainty of

  18. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method that... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  20. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  1. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... This designation is made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  3. FIELD METHODS TO MEASURE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS OF GAS-PHASE AIR FILTRATION EQUIPMENT - PHASE 1: SEARCH OF LITERATURE AND PRIOR ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, Phase 1 of a two-phase research project, gives results of a literature search into the
    effectiveness of in-field gas-phase air filtration equipment (GPAFE) test methods, including required instrumentation and costs. GPAFE has been used in heating, ventilation, and ...

  4. A study of thyroid radioiodine monitoring by Monte Carlo simulations: implications for equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Gary H.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Yiu, Suzanne

    1997-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to evaluate the design of collimated detectors used to measure or in the thyroid gland. Two detector sizes were simulated for each radioisotope: (i) for monitoring 2.54 cm diameter and 7.62 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thickness and (ii) for monitoring 2.54 cm diameter, 3.2 cm thickness and 7.62 cm diameter, 6.4 cm thickness. The virtual thyroid gland was 20 g. Activity was placed in both the gland and the remainder of the body in varying amounts to assess the efficacy of collimation. The results show that the detector should be sufficiently large so that its solid angle of acceptance when placed 15 cm anterior to the skin surface will include the whole of a moderately enlarged thyroid gland. Heavy collimation to reduce the contribution of extrathyroidal radioiodine within the subject's body is not normally required. It may be of more value as a positioning device and spacer ensuring an appropriate and constant neck to detector distance than in cutting down counts from extrathyroidal activity. In specifying a sensitive detector system for monitoring intrathyroidal radioiodine, a wide angle of acceptance and sufficient detector crystal thickness take precedence over collimation and shielding.

  5. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  6. Environmental continuous air monitor inlet with combined preseparator and virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2007-06-19

    An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls. A plurality of receiver nozzles are located in the base of the manifold coaxial with the accelerator jets, and a plurality of matching flow restrictor elements are located in the plurality of receiver nozzles for balancing and equalizing the total minor flow among all the plurality of receiver nozzles, through which a lower, fractional flow extracts large particle constituents of the air for collection on a sample filter after passing through the plurality of receiver nozzles and the plurality of matching flow restrictor elements.

  7. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  8. High-Density, High-Resolution, Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Networks for Urban Air Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Stewart, G.; Bright, V.; Kaye, P.; Saffell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring air quality in highly granular environments such as urban areas which are spatially heterogeneous with variable emission sources, measurements need to be made at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Current routine air quality monitoring networks generally are either composed of sparse expensive installations (incorporating e.g. chemiluminescence instruments) or higher density low time resolution systems (e.g. NO2 diffusion tubes). Either approach may not accurately capture important effects such as pollutant "hot spots" or adequately capture spatial (or temporal) variability. As a result, analysis based on data from traditional low spatial resolution networks, such as personal exposure, may be inaccurate. In this paper we present details of a sophisticated, low-cost, multi species (gas phase, speciated PM, meteorology) air quality measurement network methodology incorporating GPS and GPRS which has been developed for high resolution air quality measurements in urban areas. Sensor networks developed in the Centre for Atmospheric Science (University of Cambridge) incorporated electrochemical gas sensors configured for use in urban air quality studies operating at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. It has been demonstrated that these sensors can be used to measure key air quality gases such as CO, NO and NO2 at the low ppb mixing ratios present in the urban environment (estimated detection limits <4ppb for CO and NO and <1ppb for NO2. Mead et al (submitted Aug., 2012)). Based on this work, a state of the art multi species instrument package for deployment in scalable sensor networks has been developed which has general applicability. This is currently being employed as part of a major 3 year UK program at London Heathrow airport (the Sensor Networks for Air Quality (SNAQ) Heathrow project). The main project outcome is the creation of a calibrated, high spatial and temporal resolution data set for O3, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, VOCstotal, size-speciated PM

  9. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality. PMID:21336488

  10. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality.

  11. Design of a small personal air monitor and its application in aircraft.

    PubMed

    van Netten, Chris

    2009-01-15

    A small air sampling system using standard air filter sampling technology has been used to monitor the air in aircraft. The device is a small ABS constructed cylinder 5 cm in diameter and 9 cm tall and can be operated by non technical individuals at an instant notice. It is completely self contained with a 4 AAA cell power supply, DC motor, a centrifugal fan, and accommodates standard 37 mm filters and backup pads. The monitor is totally enclosed and pre assembled in the laboratory. A 45 degrees twist of the cap switches on the motor and simultaneously opens up the intake ports and exhaust ports allowing air to pass through the filter. A reverse 45 degrees twist of the cap switches off the motor and closes all intake and exhaust ports, completely enclosing the filter. The whole monitor is returned to the laboratory by standard mail for analysis and reassembly for future use. The sampler has been tested for electromagnetic interference and has been approved for use in aircraft during all phases of flight. A set of samples taken by a BAe-146-300 crew member during two flights in the same aircraft and analyzed by GC-MS, indicated exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP) levels ranging from 31 to 83 nanograms/m(3) (detection limit <4.5 nanograms/m(3)). The latter elevated level was associated with the use of the auxiliary power unit (APU) in the aircraft. It was concluded that the air sampler was capable of monitoring air concentrations of TCP isomers in aircraft above 4.5 nanogram/m(3).

  12. Design of a small personal air monitor and its application in aircraft.

    PubMed

    van Netten, Chris

    2009-01-15

    A small air sampling system using standard air filter sampling technology has been used to monitor the air in aircraft. The device is a small ABS constructed cylinder 5 cm in diameter and 9 cm tall and can be operated by non technical individuals at an instant notice. It is completely self contained with a 4 AAA cell power supply, DC motor, a centrifugal fan, and accommodates standard 37 mm filters and backup pads. The monitor is totally enclosed and pre assembled in the laboratory. A 45 degrees twist of the cap switches on the motor and simultaneously opens up the intake ports and exhaust ports allowing air to pass through the filter. A reverse 45 degrees twist of the cap switches off the motor and closes all intake and exhaust ports, completely enclosing the filter. The whole monitor is returned to the laboratory by standard mail for analysis and reassembly for future use. The sampler has been tested for electromagnetic interference and has been approved for use in aircraft during all phases of flight. A set of samples taken by a BAe-146-300 crew member during two flights in the same aircraft and analyzed by GC-MS, indicated exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP) levels ranging from 31 to 83 nanograms/m(3) (detection limit <4.5 nanograms/m(3)). The latter elevated level was associated with the use of the auxiliary power unit (APU) in the aircraft. It was concluded that the air sampler was capable of monitoring air concentrations of TCP isomers in aircraft above 4.5 nanogram/m(3). PMID:18801557

  13. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  14. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  15. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  16. Using a temperature-controlled quartz crystal microbalance in a space equipment cleanroom to monitor molecular contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, William J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a need for continuous monitoring for molecular contamination in clean rooms where spaceflight equipment is assembled, integrated, and tested to insure that contamination budgets are met. The TQCM (temperature-controlled quartz crystal microbalance) can be used to provide both a real time warning and a cumulative measurement of molecular contamination. It has advantages over the other measurement methods such as witness mirrors, NVR (non-volatile residue) plates, and gas analyzers. A comparison of the TQCM sensitivity and ease of operations is made with the other methods. The surface acoustic wave microbalance (SAW), a newly developed instrument similar to TQCM, is considered in the comparison. An example is provided of TQCM use at Goddard Space Flight Center when the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC-2) and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) were undergoing integrated testing prior to their installation in the Hubble Space Telescope on its first servicing mission. Areas for further investigation are presented.

  17. Equipment environmental monitoring: Perspective from the BWR license renewal lead plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.L.

    1991-06-01

    Northern States Power`s Monticello Nuclear Plant is the BWR License Renewal Lead Plant. NSP is currently evaluating plant components and programs such that a license renewal application may be submitted by the end of 1991. As part of the justification to extend the license of the plant, NSP will be required to demonstrate for components important to license renewal that either: evaluations show degradation of the component is not significant during the license renewal term or demonstrate that programs are in place which manage potentially significant degradation mechanisms. This paper identifies NSP`s perspective of the environmental monitoring activities which are expected to be utilized by the project to support the technical evaluations.

  18. Comparison of regional air dispersion simulation and ambient air monitoring data for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene.

    PubMed

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; de Cirugeda Helle, O; Li, C; Driver, J H

    2016-11-01

    SOFEA v2.0 is an air dispersion modeling tool used to predict acute and chronic pesticide concentrations in air for large air sheds resulting from agronomic practices. A 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) air monitoring study in high use townships in Merced County, CA, logged 3-day average air concentrations at nine locations over a 14.5month period. SOFEA, using weather data measured at the site, and using a historical CDPR regulatory assumption of a constant 320m mixing height, predicted the general pattern and correct order of magnitude for 1,3-D air concentrations as a function of time, but failed to estimate the highest observed 1,3-D concentrations of the monitoring study. A time series and statistical comparison of the measured and modeled data indicated that the model underestimated 1,3-D concentrations during calm periods (wind speed <1m/s), such that the annual average concentration was under predicted by approximately 4.7-fold, and the variability was not representative of the measured data. Calm periods are associated with low mixing heights (MHs) and are more prevalent in the Central Valley of CA during the winter months, and thus the assumption of a constant 320m mixing height is not appropriate. An algorithm was developed to calculate the MH using the air temperature in the weather file when the wind speed was <1m/s. When the model was run using the revised MHs, the average of the modeled 1,3-D concentration Probability Distribution Function (PDF) was within 5% of the measured PDF, and the variability in modeled concentrations more closely matched the measured dataset. Use of the PCRAMMET processed weather data from the site (including PCRAMMET MH) resulted in the global annual average concentration within 2-fold of measured data. Receptor density was also found to have an effect on the modeled 1,3-D concentration PDF, and a 50×50 receptor grid in the nine township domain captured the measured 1,3-D concentration distribution much better than a 3×3

  19. Non intrusive sensors -- An answer to annulus pressure monitoring in subsea wellhead equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Adamek, F.C.; Jennings, C.; Aarskog, A.

    1995-12-01

    On offshore platform and jackup surface wellhead completions, there is the potential for leakage from the high pressure production tubing and casing strings into the low pressure outer casing string, or from poor cementing jobs. Historically, these completions maintain the capability of regularly monitoring wellhead annulus pressure so that appropriate action can be taken should a leak be detected. In the past, subsea completions have been oil producers, however, gas production, extreme reservoir pressures, and deeper waters are becoming common place. Although subsea wellhead technology and reliability have significantly improved with the introduction of the metal-to-metal sealing system, the potential for annulus pressure buildup still exists. Up to the present, the ability to monitor pressure beyond the first casing string has been virtually non-existent. This paper describes the design, development, testing, and application of non intrusive sensor technology for pressure measurement in subsea wellheads and production trees. The data and test results define and describe the phenomenon of ``inverse magnetostriction``. This phenomenon allows magnetic sensors to non intrusively penetrate three to four inches of steel in a subsea wellhead housing and measure annulus pressure from less than 30 psi to more than 15,000 psi. In addition, test data, charts, and graphs illustrate the sensor`s capability of differentiating between pressure, tension, compression, and bending stress imposed on the wellhead. The electronic interface description details how the data is obtained from the sensors, stored, and later transmitted to existing control systems or to the user interface at the surface via an ROV.

  20. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing a Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...