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Sample records for air monitoring station

  1. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR SITING AIR MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews relevant research findings for the purpose of establishing a set of uniform national criteria for designating locations of air monitoring stations. Data first are presented showing the difficulty, in the absence of uniform criteria, of interpreting measurements...

  3. Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized. PMID:25764058

  4. New concept of enhanced monitoring station for urban air application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, Ivo; Febo, Antonio; Giliberti, Claudia

    1995-05-01

    An advanced monitoring station was set up in the center of Milan, Italy. It is made up of several instruments for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants, including a DOAS system which is able to provide information of the time evolution of several primary and secondary atmospheric pollutants. A radioactivity monitor provides information about the time evolution of Radon daughters, thereby providing information about the evolution of the boundary layer. It is shown that pollution by primary pollutants can be described through a very simple model based on Radon observation. Secondary pollutants, like ozone and nitrogen dioxide can also be described by the same model. Observation in strong advective condition and during stability periods show that the presence of large concentration of nitrogen dioxide is due to radicalic processes which are also responsible for the formation of formaldehyde. The role of nitrous acid in the formation of radicals is also discussed.

  5. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  6. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  7. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  8. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  9. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  10. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  11. GIS based assessment of the spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations using pollutant emissions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righini, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Ciucci, A.; Cremona, G.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Ciancarella, L.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a critical parameter when choosing location of sites and assessing effects on population to long term exposure to air pollution. According to literature, the spatial representativeness of a monitoring site is related to the variability of pollutants concentrations around the site. As the spatial distribution of primary pollutants concentration is strongly correlated to the allocation of corresponding emissions, in this work a methodology is presented to preliminarily assess spatial representativeness of a monitoring site by analysing the spatial variation of emissions around it. An analysis of horizontal variability of several pollutants emissions was carried out by means of Geographic Information System using a neighbourhood statistic function; the rationale is that if the variability of emissions around a site is low, the spatial representativeness of this site is high consequently. The methodology was applied to detect spatial representativeness of selected Italian monitoring stations, located in Northern and Central Italy and classified as urban background or rural background. Spatialized emission data produced by the national air quality model MINNI, covering entire Italian territory at spatial resolution of 4 × 4 km2, were processed and analysed. The methodology has shown significant capability for quick detection of areas with highest emission variability. This approach could be useful to plan new monitoring networks and to approximately estimate horizontal spatial representativeness of existing monitoring sites. Major constraints arise from the limited spatial resolution of the analysis, controlled by the resolution of the emission input data, cell size of 4 × 4 km2, and from the applicability to primary pollutants only.

  12. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  13. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  14. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  15. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  16. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P < 0.05) relationship to cardiovascular admissions. An increment of 1 ppm in CO predicted an increase of 4% to 20% in cardiovascular admissions. Respiratory admissions were associated with PM10, which had about 1% increase in risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  17. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. ...

  18. Open hardware air quality station for monitoring ozone in port area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Lima, Marco; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Pintus, Fabio; Bruzzone, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Improve the quality of the air is one of the most important challenges we are facing especially in urban area. The open hardware paradigm can promote the positive connection of institution and scientific community with citizen. The goal of this work is to describe how a well-known pollution sensing technology, such as the electrochemical one, may be adopted in an open hardware paradigm in order to realize a ground level ozone sensor station. Our approach is to use this type of sensors to complement and empower traditional measuring networks in order to provide a better support to the models and to the identification of the pollution sources. The calibration methodology is based on the online coupling of new sensor measurements and observations of official network. Several linear calibration and a linear error correction algorithm based on temperature are performed and evaluated. The new air quality station allows to increase the frequency of sampling up to minutes and, due to the low cost, can stimulate the utilization by no-professionals. We test the air quality station in portal area and compare the results with traditional observations.

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  20. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  1. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Validation of road traffic urban emission inventories by means of concentration data measured at air quality monitoring stations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellios, Giorgos; Van Aalst, Roel; Samaras, Zissis

    A method has been developed to validate inventories of urban emissions from road transport using air quality measurements. To this aim atmospheric concentration data for CO, NO x and PM 10 measured at urban traffic stations in five European countries, retrieved from the European Air Quality Information System AirBase, have been analysed. Traffic emission ratios as derived from this analysis were compared to estimates of emission ratios as provided by a suitable emissions model (TRENDS). The comparison shows a fair agreement for the CO over NO x ratio on a country level, suggesting that the measured concentrations indeed dominantly originate from traffic-related emissions. On the other hand, the NO x over PM 10 and PM 10 over CO emission ratios estimated by TRENDS are over- and underestimated, respectively, as compared to the respective average measured ratio. These discrepancies may be attributed to the fact that modelled PM 10 emissions do not account for particles originating from non-exhaust sources. Modelled ratios have confirmed the observed weekday and year dependence of the ratios. A sensitivity analysis on the CO over NO x ratio has shown that small changes in the share of mileage allocated to urban driving by different vehicle categories result in significant changes in the emission ratio. Appropriate re-allocations of the urban shares, especially for diesel vehicles, enabled the calibration of the TRENDS model against air quality data collected at various monitoring sites in different countries. In order to further improve the consistency of the method, more information on ambient air PM 2.5 mass concentrations needs to be collected from the monitoring stations and PM 10 emission factors from primary non-exhaust sources (including gasoline-fuelled vehicles) need to be incorporated into TRENDS.

  3. Monitoring Direct Effects of Delta, Atlas, and Titan Launches from Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Boyle, Shannon R.; Hall, Patrice; Oddy, Donna M.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Duncan, Brean W.

    1998-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects that could arise from direct impacts of the launch exhaust (e.g., blast, heat), deposition of exhaust products of the solid rocket motors (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide), or other effects such as noise. Here we: 1) review previous reports, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements for Delta, Atlas, and Titan vehicles and pad areas to clarity the magnitude of potential impacts; 2) summarize observed effects of 15 Delta, 22 Atlas, and 8 Titan launches; and 3) develop a spatial database of the distribution of effects from individual launches and cumulative effects of launches. The review of previous studies indicated that impacts from these launches can occur from the launch exhaust heat, deposition of exhaust products from the solid rocket motors, and noise. The principal effluents from solid rocket motors are hydrogen chloride (HCl), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), water (H2O), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The exhaust plume interacts with the launch complex structure and water deluge system to generate a launch cloud. Fall out or rain out of material from this cloud can produce localized effects from acid or particulate deposition. Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles differ in the number and size of solid rocket boosters and in the amount of deluge water used. All are smaller and use less water than the Space Shuttle. Acid deposition can cause damage to plants and animals exposed to it, acidify surface water and soil, and cause long-term changes to community composition and structure from repeated exposure. The magnitude of these effects depends on the intensity and frequency of acid deposition.

  4. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  5. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  6. Long-term monitoring of a marine geologic hydrocarbon source by a coastal air pollution station in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza; Leifer, Ira; Roberts, Dar

    2010-12-01

    Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990-2008 from a California air pollution station located near the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, were analyzed and clearly showed geologic CH 4 emissions as the dominant local source. Annual COP emissions are conservatively estimated as 0.015 Tg CH 4 year -1 and represent a natural and concentrated geologic methane source (24 m 3 m -2 day -1 gas flux at some active seeps, Clark et al., 2010). For a sense of the scale and potential importance to the regional Southern California methane budget, COP emits an amount equivalent to 8% of the estimated Los Angeles County anthropogenic emissions. Station THC measurements near COP showed a strong wind dependency with elevated levels closely correlated with a sonar-derived spatial distribution of seep field emissions. THC varied seasonally, with a maximum in January and minimum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.24 ppm. The seasonal signal was more readily apparent midday ( R2 = 0.69 harmonic fit), compared to nighttime and morning ( R2 < 0.45). The bimodal diel THC pattern consisted of seasonally-modulated peaks in the morning and evening. THC temporal and spatial trends were consistent with both transport and source emission variations. Long-term, annual seep field emissions consistently decreased on a field-wide basis until the late 1990s, before increasing consistently, most likely as a function of underlying geologic processes. This study demonstrates the value of municipal air quality monitoring stations for insight into local greenhouse gas sources and highlights the non-negligible and variable contribution from marine geologic seepage.

  7. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  8. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  9. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools. PMID:27290885

  10. Performance Evaluation of a Lower-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides describe the Village Green Project prototype and how the measurements compare wtih nearby FEMs, including the OAQPS data collected at the AIRS site on the EPA-RTP campus and the NCDENR FEMs in the Triangle area.

  11. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  12. Trends of NOx, NO2 and O3 concentrations at three different types of air quality monitoring stations in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavroidis, I.; Ilia, M.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a systematic analysis and evaluation of the historic and current levels of atmospheric pollution in the Athens metropolitan region, regarding nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), ozone (O3) and the NO2/NOx and NO/NO2 concentration ratios. Hourly, daily, monthly, seasonal and annual pollutant variations are examined and compared, using the results of concentration time series from three different stations of the national network for air pollution monitoring, one urban-traffic, one urban-background and one suburban-background. Concentration data are also related to meteorological parameters. The results show that the traffic affected station of Patission Street presents the higher NOx values and the lower concentrations of O3, while it is the station with the highest number of NO2 limit exceedances. The monitoring data suggest, inter alia, that there is a change in the behaviour of the suburban-background station of Liossia at about year 2000, indicating that the exact location of this station may need to be reconsidered. Comparison of NOx concentrations in Athens with concentrations in urban areas of other countries reveal that the Patission urban-traffic station records very high NOx concentrations, while remarkably high is the ratio of NO2 concentrations recorded at the urban-traffic vs. the urban-background station in Athens, indicating the overarching role of vehicles and traffic congestion on NO2 formation. The NO2/NOx ratio in the urban-traffic station appears to be almost constant with time, while it has been increasing in other urban areas, such as London and Seoul, suggesting an increased effect of primary NO2 in these areas. Diesel passenger cars were only recently allowed in Athens and, therefore, NO2 trends should be carefully monitored since a possible increase in primary NO2 may affect compliance with NO2 air quality standards.

  13. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  14. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  15. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  16. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  17. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Buoni, C; Coutant, R; Barnes, R; Slivon, L

    1988-05-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs. PMID:11542838

  18. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  19. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  20. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  1. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  2. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  3. A rationale for atmospheric monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.; Russo, Dane M.

    1989-01-01

    The atmosphere monitoring needs for the Space Station Freedom are identified by examining the monitoring requirements for supplied breathing air in confined spaces, as in the case of submarines and the Shuttle. Some other factors influencing the monitoring requirements for Space Station Freedom are also identified. These include: the experience of past missions and ground based tests; the proposed experimental and manufacturing processes and their hazards; and limitations of the life support systems.

  4. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  5. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  6. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  7. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  8. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Matthew C; Alberici, Rosana M; Keelor, Joel D; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C; Wallace, William T; Gazda, Daniel B; Limero, Thomas F; Symonds, Josh M; Orlando, Thomas M; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27080004

  9. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Alberici, Rosana M.; Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Limero, Thomas F.; Symonds, Josh M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-04-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices.

  10. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Alberici, Rosana M.; Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Limero, Thomas F.; Symonds, Josh M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices.

  11. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  12. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2015-04-01

    The current estimates for the internal radiation doses from inhalation by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011 have large uncertainty, because no observed data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in the Fukushima prefecture (FP) just after the accident, compared with the many observed datasets of deposition densities of radionuclides on the grounds in eastern Japan. To retrieve the atmospheric transport of radioactive materials released from the FD1NPS, we collected the used filter tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. Then, we measured hourly Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations in SPM at 40 monitoring sites in the FP and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS, after more than one year. The period for measurements was during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan by a large amount of radioactive materials released from the FD1NPS. In this paper, a comprehensive study will be reported for the first time on a spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric Cs-137 concentrations in the FP and the TMA. Major results are as follows; (1) Nine major plumes with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, of which 5 and 4 plumes were transported to the FP and TMA, respectively. The radioactive materials from the FD1NPS was transported four times in the period to the northern part of Hamadori located in the east coast of the FP, and which was little known up to this study. (2) Two plumes transported to the TMA were newly founded, in addition to the well-known two major plumes on March 15 and 21, 2011. (3) The radiation dose rate measured at some monitoring posts in Nakadori located in the central area of the FP, did not increase even when

  13. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  14. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  15. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  16. 6S Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) Based on Solid Sorbent Air Sampler (SSAS) and Formaldehyde Monitoring Kit (FMK) Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of SSAS and FMK analytical results are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the SSAS tubes were 66-76% for 13C-acetone, 85-96% for fluorobenzene, and 73-89% for chlorobenzene. Post-flight flows were far below pre-flight flows and an investigation of the problem revealed that the reduced flow was caused by a leak at the interface of the pump inlet tube and the pump head. This resulted in degradation of pump efficiency. Further investigation showed that the problem occurred before the SSAS was operated on orbit and that use of the post-flight flows yielded consistent and useful results. Recoveries from formaldehyde control badges were 86 to 104%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). The T values will not be reported for these data due to the flow anomaly. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols (including acetone) are also shown for each sample. Octafluoropropane (OFP) is not efficiently trapped by the sorbents used in the SSAS. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is also listed separately. These five indices of air quality are summarized.

  17. Mobile station for monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Arshinov, Yu.F.; Belan, B.D.; Bobrovnikov, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    At present different types of mobile stations for ecological monitoring of the environment has been created at various environmental protection agencies. Mostly, such stations differ from each other by the set of equipment employed though they use, as a rule, the same measurement and sampling techniques. Basically, such mobile stations use sampling of air, water, and soil. The collected samples are then analyzed with the laboratory instrumentation. The mobile station we are going to discuss in this paper presents a new type of such systems. The matter is that it enables, in addition to traditional sampling, remote determination of the composition and intensity of the emissions at the mouth of a stack. To do this the station is equipped with a Raman lidar. This station has been tested in a number of field experiments at the territories of different plants and now it is presented for meteorological certification at the Scientific and Production Association {open_quotes}Dal`standart{close_quotes} in Khabarovsk. Thus, the mobile station discussed is capable of monitoring air quality near the ground surface using standard techniques of analysis and of performing air quality police functions, that is to control the emissions from industrial enterprises.

  18. Air monitoring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tissandier, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An air monitoring device (100) includes an outer casing (101) configured to receive an airflow (102) comprising particulate; a bore (103) located inside the outer casing (101); and a collection probe (104) located inside the outer casing (101), the collection probe (104) being configured such that there is a gap (105) between an exit of the bore (103) and an entrance of the collection probe (104), such that particulate in the airflow (102) having a diameter larger than a threshold flows through an interior of the collection probe (104).

  19. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  20. QUALITY ASSURANCE PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT FOR THE SECRETARIA DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE CIUDAD DE MEXICO, DF, MEXICO RED AUTOMATICA DE MONITOREO ATMOSFERICO (RAMA) AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted this evaluation of the air monitoring network, known as RAM (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico) at the request of the Mexico City Secretariat of the Environment on October 16-27, 2000. This evaluation...

  1. Hydrogeologic, water-level, and water-quality data from monitoring wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C., Jr.; Keoughan, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Unlined hazardous-waste disposal sites at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, are located near drinking-water supply wells that tap the Castle Hayne aquifer. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected near 2 of these sites from 12 monitoring wells installed in May through June 1987. Near the northernmost landfill site, differences in hydraulic head between the surficial, intermediate Yorktown, and Castle Hayne aquifers indicate a potential for migration of contaminants downward into the intermediate Yorktown and Castle Hayne aquifers. Movement would be impeded, however, by two confining units of silty sand to sandy clay that separate these aquifers. Geophysical and lithologic data show the upper confining unit to be approximately 26 feet thick near this landfill. Near the southernmost landfill, these confining units are thin and discontinuous in an area that coincides with the location of a buried paleochannel. Static water-level data collected in this area indicate that both the Castle Hayne and Yorktown aquifers discharge into the surficial aquifer, minimizing the potential for downward contaminant movement. Ground water in the surficial aquifer at both landfills moves laterally away from nearby drinking-water supply wells and toward Slocum Creek, a tributary of the Neuse River. Concentrations of organic compounds and trace inorganic constituents included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s list of priority pollutants were determined for water samples from the surficial and Yorktown aquifers. High concentrations of two purgeable organic compounds, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene (4,600 and 4,800 micrograms per liter, respectively), were detected in water samples collected from the surficial aquifer near the southernmost landfill; much smaller concentrations of trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected in samples from wells in the Yorktown aquifer (up to 16 and 12 micrograms per liter

  2. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  3. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyzer, Jan; van den Hout, Dick; Zandveld, Peter; van Ratingen, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in four large cities. The concentrations calculated at the location of the monitoring stations, compared well with the concentrations measured at the stations indicating that the models worked well. Therefore the calculated concentration distributions were used as a proxy for the actual concentration distributions across the cities. The distributions of these proxy concentrations across the city populations was determined and cumulative population distribution curves were estimated. The calculated annual mean values at the monitoring network stations were located on the population distribution curves to estimate the fractions of the populations that the monitoring network stations represent. This macro scale procedure is used to evaluate which subgroups of the monitoring stations can be reliably used to decide on compliance or to estimate the concentration the population is exposed to. In addition, the CAR model and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are used to investigate the effect of micro scale siting of the monitoring stations within the streets. The following observations were made: - Berlin and London networks cover the distribution of concentrations to which the population is exposed rather well, while Stuttgart and Barcelona have stations at sites with mainly the higher concentrations and the exposure is covered less well. - The networks in London and Berlin, with a substantial number of urban background stations, seem fit to monitor the average population exposure, contrary to those in Stuttgart and Barcelona with only a limited number of these stations. - The concentrations measured at street stations hardly reflect the calculated differences in street

  4. LOCATING MONITORING STATIONS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water undergoes changes in quality between the time it leaves the treatment plant and the time it reaches the customer's tap, making it important to select monitoring stations that will adequately monitor these changers. But because there is no uniform schedule or framework for ...

  5. Environmental monitoring for Space Station WP01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    External contamination monitoring instrumentation for the Space Station work package one (WP01) elements, were imposed on the contractor as deliverable hardware. The monitoring instrumentation proposed by the WP01 contractor in response to the contract requirement includes both real time measurements and passive samples. Real time measurement instrumentation consists of quartz crystal microbalances for molecular deposition, ion gaseous species identification. Internal environmental contamination monitoring for particulates is included in both Lab and HAB modules. Passive samples consists of four sample mounting plates mounted external to the Space Station modules, two on the U.S. LAB, and two on the HAB module.

  6. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  7. IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON VEGETATION NEAR THE COLUMBIA GENERATING STATION - WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was u...

  8. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 132. STANDARD NAVAL AIR STATIONS CELESTIAL NAVIGATION, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. STANDARD NAVAL AIR STATIONS CELESTIAL NAVIGATION, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS, BUDOCKS, OCTOBER 14, 1943. QP ACC 9689. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  10. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  11. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... Clean Air Act. EPA approved the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Pennsylvania SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Pennsylvania...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... Clean Air Act. EPA approved the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Pennsylvania SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Pennsylvania...

  13. Recent Research applications at the Athens Neutron Monitor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Gerontidou, M.; Paschalis, P.; Papaioannou, A.; Paouris, E.; Papailiou, M.; Souvatzoglou, G.

    2015-08-01

    The ground based neutron monitor measurements play a key role in the field of space physics, solar-terrestrial relations, and space weather applications. The Athens cosmic ray group has developed several research applications such as an optimized automated Ground Level Enhancement Alert (GLE Alert Plus) and a web interface, providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations (Multi-Station tool). These services are actually available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (http://swe.ssa.esa.int). In addition, two simulation tools, based on Geant4, have also been implemented. The first one is for the simulation of the cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere (DYASTIMA) and the second one is for the simulation of the 6NM-64 neutron monitor. The contribution of the simulation tools to the calculations of the radiation dose received by air crews and passengers within the Earth's atmosphere and to the neutron monitor study is presented as well. Furthermore, the accurate calculation of the barometric coefficient and the primary data processing by filtering algorithms, such as the well known Median Editor and the developed by the Athens group ANN Algorithm and Edge Editor which contribute to the provision of high quality neutron monitor data are also discussed. Finally, a Space Weather Forecasting Center which provides a three day geomagnetic activity report on a daily basis has been set up and has been operating for the last two years at the Athens Neutron Monitor Station.

  14. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  15. FOUR CORNERS AIR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents data on mean seasonal total suspended particulates (TSP), sulfates, nitrates and elemental concentrations collected by a 28-station, high volume sampler network operated over a 3-year priod in the Four Corners area of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado. E...

  16. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings. PMID:22486664

  17. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  18. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Virginia SIP. As with all...

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator Tanks, view to the south. One of the two large station air compressor units used for depressing the draft tube water level is visible atop a concrete pedestal on the left side of photograph (the second identical compressor is located in an adjacent room). Two of the six station air accumulator tanks are visible in the background. The smaller station service air compressor is visible in right foreground of the photograph was installed in the early 1980s, and replaced the original station service air compressor. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  13. VALIDATION OF AIR MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data validation refers to those activities performed after the data have been obtained and thus serves as a final screening of the data before they are used in a decision making process. This report provides organizations that are monitoring ambient air levels and stationary sour...

  14. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  15. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-04-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. The SPM monitoring stations are mostly located in the urban and/or industrial area to measure the hourly mass concentration of SPM less than 10 μm in diameter for health effect due to atmospheric aerosols. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, about 10 plumes/polluted air masses with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly detected in this study. And the spatio-temporal distributions of atmospheric Cs-137 were clearly shown for all the plumes. The east coast area of the FP where the FD1NPS was located in the centre was attacked several times by the plumes, and suffered the highest time-integrated Cs-137 concentration during the period among the ST and TMA

  16. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program at Toolik Field Station, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Data Center at the Toolik Field Station, Alaska established a baseline environmental monitoring program in 2007 to provide a long-term record of key biotic and abiotic variables to the scientific community. We maintain a weather station for a long-term climate record at the field station and monitor the timing of key plant phenological events, bird migration and mammal sightings. With regards to plant phenology, we record event dates such as emergence of first leaves, open flowers and seed dispersal for twelve select species typical of the moist acidic tundra, following the ITEX plant phenology protocol. From 2007 to 2011, we observed earlier emergence of first leaves by approximately one week for species such as the dwarf birch Betula nana, sedge Carex bigelowii and evergreen lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea, while seed dispersal for some of these species was delayed by more than two weeks. We also monitor the arrival and departure dates of thirty bird species common to the Toolik area. Yearlong residents included species such as the common raven, rock and willow ptarmigan, and some migrants such as yellow-billed loons and American tree sparrows could be detected for about four months at Toolik, while long-distance traveling arctic terns stayed only two months during the summer. The timing of bird migration dates did not show any clear trends over the past five years for most species. For the past two decades, we recorded climate data such as air, soil and lake temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure. During this time period, monthly mean air temperatures varied from -31.7 to -12.8 °C in January and from 8.3 to 13.1 °C in July, with no trend over time. Our baseline data on plant phenological changes, timing of bird migration and climate variables are valuable in the light of long-term environmental monitoring efforts as they provide the context for other seasonality projects that are

  18. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air... been prescribed. (b) Real-time air monitoring shall be performed as necessary to detect and...

  19. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air... been prescribed. (b) Real-time air monitoring shall be performed as necessary to detect and...

  20. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air... been prescribed. (b) Real-time air monitoring shall be performed as necessary to detect and...

  1. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air... been prescribed. (b) Real-time air monitoring shall be performed as necessary to detect and...

  2. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air... been prescribed. (b) Real-time air monitoring shall be performed as necessary to detect and...

  3. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  4. Scanner Buildings Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Scanner Buildings - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  8. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. Engineering Features Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Engineering Features - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. 16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  11. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  13. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility Manufacturing Building, Southeast corner of Schwartz Road and Contractors Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. 34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, Michigan, Modification of Electrical Distribution, General Site Plan, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  15. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  16. Monitoring the global environment. An assessment of urban air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) operates worldwide networks to monitor both air and water quality under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). In most cities, there are three GEMS/air monitoring stations: one located in an industrial zone, one in a commercial zone, and one in a residential area. The data obtained in these stations permit a reasonable evaluation of minimum and maximum emission levels and of long-term trends in average concentrations of pollutants. The body of the recent report is based on GEMS/Air data for sulfur dioxide nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and suspended particulate matter. The effects of these five major pollutants that are emitted in relatively large quantities and are common to virtually all outdoor and indoor environments are summarized.

  17. Portable Multigas Monitors for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) on International Space Station (ISS) includes portable instruments to measure various cabin gases that acutely impact crew health. These hand-held devices measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide. The oxygen and carbon dioxide units also serve to back up key functions of the Major Constituent Analyzers. Wherever possible, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are employed by EHS to save development and sustaining costs. COTS hardware designed for general terrestrial applications however has limitations such as no pressure compensation, limited life of the active sensor, calibration drift, battery issues, unpredictable vendor support and obsolescence. The EHS fleet (inflight and ground inventory) of instruments is both aging and dwindling in number. With the retirement of the US Space Shuttle, maintenance of on-orbit equipment becomes all the more difficult. A project is underway to search for gas monitoring technology that is highly reliable and stable for years. Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLS) seems to be the front-runner technology, but generally is not yet commercially available in portable form. NASA has fostered the development of TDLS through the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. A number of gases of interest to the aerospace and submarine communities can be addressed by TDLS including the list mentioned above plus hydrogen fluoride, ammonia and water (humidity). There are several different forms of TDLS including photoacoustic and direct absorption spectroscopy using various multipass cell geometries. This paper describes the history of portable gas monitoring on NASA spacecraft and provides a status of the development of TDLS based instruments. Planned TDLS flight experiments on ISS could lead both to operational use on ISS and important roles in future Exploration spacecraft and habitats.

  18. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, H.; Oura, Y.; Ebihara, M.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, nine major plumes with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly found in this study. A local area of relatively high Cs-137 deposition density in the TMA by precipitation on the morning of March 21, was consistent with an area where the time-integrated atmospheric Cs-137 concentrations were also high due to the transport of a plume on the morning of March 21. In the FP, however, the correlation was not so clear. High radionuclides trapped in a cloud layer might be transported to the ST with relatively high Cs-137 deposition densities, because the atmospheric Cs-137 concentrations were under the detection limit.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methodology C Appendix C to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient Air... appendix must be submitted to: Director, National Exposure Research Laboratory (MD-D205-03),...

  20. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  1. Environmental monitoring around the power station in Altbach/Deizisau

    SciTech Connect

    Necker, P.; Lehmann, B.; Barton-Bieg, M.

    1998-07-01

    During the years 1984 to 1997, and in the context of the approval procedure for the two electricity/heat cogeneration power plants HKW1 (1986; 420 MW{sub el} or 375 MW{sub el} + 280 MW{sub th}) and HKW2 (1997; 380 MW{sub el} or 335 MW{sub el} + 280 MW{sub th}), a comprehensive environmental monitoring program was conducted in the area surrounding the Altbach/Deizisau Power Station of Neckarwerke Stuttgart AG (NWS). The program consisted of physical emission measurements of the following air pollutants: SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO, HF, HC, dustfall and floating dust; of a measurement program using biological indicators in order to detect reactions and accumulations; and of soil analyses. The present paper informs about implementation, results and experience gained with these different measurement methods.

  2. Certification of U.S. International Monitoring System Stations

    SciTech Connect

    HERRINGTON,PRESTON B.; REMBOLD,RANDY K.; HARRIS,JAMES M.; KROMER,RICHARD P.

    2000-07-31

    All stations planned for the International Monitoring System (IMS) must be certified by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) prior to acceptance to ensure that the monitoring stations initially meet the required specifications. Working Group B of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has established requirements for the quality, availability, and surety of data received at the International Data Centre (IDC). These requirements are verified by the PTS during a 3-component process that includes initial station assessment, testing and evaluation, and certification. Sandia National Laboratories has developed procedures, facilities, and tools that can be used to assist in evaluating IMS stations for compliance with certification requirements. System evaluation includes station design reviews, component testing, and operational testing of station equipment. Station design is evaluated for security and reliability considerations, and to ensure that operational procedures and documentation are adequate. Components of the station are tested for compliance with technical specifications, such as timing and noise levels of sampled data, and monitoring of tamper detection equipment. Data sent from the station in an IMS-standard format (CD-1 or IMS-1) are analyzed for compliance with the specified protocol and to ensure that the station data (sensor and state-of-health) are accurately transmitted. Data availability and authentication statistics are compiled and examined for problems.

  3. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted. PMID:24662202

  4. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  5. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  6. Modelling of air pollution impacts from power stations in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Abdal, Y. )

    1987-01-01

    Kuwait is undergoing rapid development with fast growth of both urban and industrial areas. The environmental impact of such activities is already noticeable. Conditions are therefore favorable for the use of air pollution models to supply adequate tools for effective air quality management in Kuwait. The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISCLT) dispersion model was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in response to the need for comprehensive analytical techniques that can be used to evaluate the air quality impact of emissions from industrial sources. This model was used to predict the air quality impact of SO{sub 2} emissions from the Doha East and West Power Stations in Kuwait. The meteorological and emissions data and the seasonal and annual SO{sub 2} concentrations emitted from the power stations are described.

  7. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  9. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Micropolitan Statistical Area site. If the candidate ARM for a network is already approved for purposes of this... Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient Air... ARM for purposes of section 2.1 of this appendix at a particular site or network of sites under...

  11. Climate Monitoring Network on Maunakea - Master Station at Summit and Lower Elevation Satellite Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, M. M.; Klasner, F.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Maunakea, a dormant shield volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, rises 13,796 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in the Pacific Basin. From sea floor to summit, it's the tallest mountain in the world. The high elevation, low air and light pollution, as well as dry weather year round make it the best location in the world for astronomy observations. The summit is home to 13 ground based telescope facilities. Like all alpine regions, it is an extremely fragile and unique ecosystem because of the harsh conditions and short growing seasons located at high altitudes. The summit is home to several federal and/or state protected species. It supports 11 species of arthropods found nowhere else on Earth. Most noted of these is the Wēkiu bug, whose habitat has been altered by the infrastructural development on the mountain. Arthropod habitat model development has highlighted gaps in climate information, for example, lack of climate precipitation data, snow data and reliable temperature data. Furthermore, in tropical regions, precipitation is the most variable climate component due to topography and local winds. The telescopes collect weather data for the purpose of knowing when it is dry and clear for astronomical observation. Although existing weather stations associated with the telescopes meet some weather and climate monitoring needs, it cannot address the full range of issues needed due to technological limitation and site design. Precipitation does not occur often and is likely to be in the form of snow or ice. Snow cover data has not been directly recorded despite astronomical recording of other meteorological data that began in the1960s. Therefore, the need to monitor the weather and climate in a long-term and well-calibrated way is critical for management of the ecosystems on the slopes of Maunakea. Long-term weather and climate monitoring stations are the primary building blocks for research partnerships, which encourage collaboration and ultimately

  12. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  13. EPA AIR MONITORING BANK PROPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specimen banking of air pollution samples has not been attempted because of the complexity of this type of environmental medium. ollutants may exist in air as gases or particles or distributed in between these two states. mpirically, air pollutants may be categorized as volatiles...

  14. AMBIENT AIR NON-METHANE HYDROCARBON MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor has been developed with adequate sensitivity and accuracy to measure continuously the concentration of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in ambient air. The monitor consists of pump and manifold system along with two basic instruments, a methane monitor and a flame-ioniza...

  15. Identifying atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    The atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom were identified by examining the following from an industrial hygiene perspective: the experiences of past missions; ground based tests of proposed life support systems; the unique experimental and manufacturing facilities; the contaminant load model; metabolic production; and a fire. A target list of compounds to be monitored is presented and information is provided relative to the frequency of analysis, concentration ranges, and locations for monitoring probes.

  16. Multi-Wave Station of Solar Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korokhin, V.; Akimov, L.; Beletsky, S.; Belkina, I.; Velikodsky, Y.; Marchenko, G.; Shaparenko, E.

    A technical description of the contemporary solar telescope of the Kharkov Astronomical Observatory (http://khassm.virtualave.net) is given, and the plan to future development is sketched. A wide range monitoring of solar activity including observations near UV range in Balmer continuum and the IR line of He 1083 nm is presented.

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  18. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  19. Operational test report for 241-AW tank inlet air control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Minteer, D.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    This document reports the results of operational testing on tank inlet air control stations in 241-AW tank farm. An air control station was installed on each of the six AW tanks. Operational testing consisted of a simple functional test of each station`s air flow controller, aerosol testing of each station`s HEPA filter, and final ventilation system balancing (i.e., tank airflows and vacuum level) using the air control stations. The test was successful and the units were subsequently placed into operation.

  20. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  1. 10. Station Air Compressors, view to the north. The compressors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Station Air Compressors, view to the north. The compressors, visible in the center of the photograph, are linked to the large accumulator tanks visible in the right background of the photograph. Note that part of the compressor in the center foreground of the photograph is disassembled for maintenance. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

  3. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  4. 78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air... in Boca Chica, Florida, during the 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular. The safety...

  5. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  6. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  7. Development of an atmospheric monitoring plan for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    An environmental health monitoring plan for Space Station will ensure crew health during prolonged habitation. The Space Station, Freedom, will operate for extended periods, 90+ days, without resupply. A regenerative, closed loop life support system will be utilized in order to minimize resupply logistics and costs. Overboard disposal of wastes and venting of gases to space will be minimal. All waste material will be treated and recycled. The concentrated wastes will be stabilized and stored for ground disposal. The expected useful life of the station (decades) and the diversity of materials brought aboard for experimental or manufacturing purposes, increases the likelihood of cabin contamination. Processes by which cabin contamination can occur include: biological waste production, material off-gassing, process leakage, accidental containment breach, and accumulation due to poor removal efficiencies of the purification units. An industrial hygiene approach was taken to rationalize monitoring needs and to identify the substances likely to be present, the amount, and their hazard.

  8. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  9. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  10. AIR MONITOR SITING BY OBJECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is developed whereby measured pollutant concentrations can be used in conjunction with a mathematical air quality model to estimate the full spatial and temporal concentration distributions of the pollutants over a given region. The method is based on the application of ...

  11. Sensor selection for outdoor air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, K. L.; Herr, John R.; Pisano, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    Gas chemical monitoring for next-generation robotics applications such as fire fighting, explosive gas detection, ubiquitous urban monitoring, and mine safety require high performance, reliable sensors. In this work, we discuss the performance requirements of fixed-location, mobile vehicle, and personal sensor nodes for outdoor air quality sensing. We characterize and compare the performance of a miniature commercial electrochemical and a metal oxide gas sensor and discuss their suitability for environmental monitoring applications. Metal oxide sensors are highly cross-sensitive to factors that affect chemical adsorption (e.g., air speed, pressure) and require careful enclosure design or compensation methods. In contrast, electrochemical sensors are less susceptible to environmental variations, have very low power consumption, and are well matched for mobile air quality monitoring.

  12. Biodiversity of air-borne microorganisms at Halley Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David A; Hughes, K A; Lachlan-Cope, T; Harangozo, S A; Jones, A E

    2010-03-01

    A study of air-borne microbial biodiversity over an isolated scientific research station on an ice-shelf in continental Antarctica was undertaken to establish the potential source of microbial colonists. The study aimed to assess: (1) whether microorganisms were likely to have a local (research station) or distant (marine or terrestrial) origin, (2) the effect of changes in sea ice extent on microbial biodiversity and (3) the potential human impact on the environment. Air samples were taken above Halley Research Station during the austral summer and austral winter over a 2-week period. Overall, a low microbial biodiversity was detected, which included many sequence replicates. No significant patterns were detected in the aerial biodiversity between the austral summer and the austral winter. In common with other environmental studies, particularly in the polar regions, many of the sequences obtained were from as yet uncultivated organisms. Very few marine sequences were detected irrespective of the distance to open water, and around one-third of sequences detected were similar to those identified in human studies, though both of these might reflect prevailing wind conditions. The detected aerial microorganisms were markedly different from those obtained in earlier studies over the Antarctic Peninsula in the maritime Antarctic. PMID:20091326

  13. A performance assessment and adjustment program for air quality monitoring networks in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Jiajia; Xu, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of Shanghai's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) using principal components analysis, an assignment method, and cluster analysis. Our goal was to improve the utilization of monitoring stations and evaluate Shanghai's air quality more comprehensively and accurately. Specifically, we (i) identified similar pollution sources or behaviors in the monitoring areas; (ii) identified redundant monitoring stations and re-evaluated the AQMN's performance without them; and (iii) proposed adjustments to the AQMN. We used data on particulates less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) in diameter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) at stations in and around Shanghai from 1 January to 22 August 2014. For each pollutant, we grouped the monitoring stations into clusters based on their different pollution behaviors, revealing redundancy and inefficiency in the current AQMN that resulted from the concentrated station distribution and similarity of the monitoring environments. The analysis results showed that there exist redundant stations in the current AQMN of Shanghai. Furthermore, we proposed adjustments to Shanghai's AQMN: transfer four redundant stations and build a new station in the directions of the Taicang Experimental Primary School, Kunshan Zhenchuan Middle School, Suzhou Industrial Park, Wujiang Industrial Zone, and Jiaxing Monitoring Station. Our analysis suggests that, in addition to industrial, transportation, construction, and population influences inside Shanghai, external pollutants significantly affect Shanghai's air quality. Therefore, it is necessary to jointly prevent and control regional air pollution both in Shanghai and in neighboring cities.

  14. Integrated environmental quality monitoring around an underground methane storage station.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Linda; Vignudelli, Marco; Bartolucci, Fabrizio; Salvatorelli, Fiorenzo; Di Michele, Cesare; Tavano, Nicola; Rossi, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The study reports an integrated environmental quality monitoring of a 100 km2 area in central Italy mostly occupied by an underground station of methane storage, working since 1982. The nitrogen oxides, ozone and isoprene concentration detached with a network monitoring of passive filters were compared with the results of lichens biomonitoring. Data from the two monitorings were in accordance: there was an inversely correlation between lichen biodiversity index (IBL) and NOx (-0.96) and ozone (-0.80), and a positive correlation between IBL and isoprene (0.67). IBL indicated that the area ranged between medium naturalness and medium alteration status, values fully compatible with the medium-high level of eutrophication, caused by intensive agriculture. Only two areas were in high alteration status, due to their proximity to glass factories and to a quarries area. Despite almost thirty years of activity, the environment quality of the area around the station did not show signs of declining. PMID:25828802

  15. Subway platform air quality: Assessing the influences of tunnel ventilation, train piston effect and station design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Martins, V.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Minguillón, M. C.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2014-08-01

    A high resolution air quality monitoring campaign (PM, CO2 and CO) was conducted on differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona subway system under: (a) normal forced tunnel ventilation, and (b) with daytime tunnel ventilation systems shut down. PM concentrations are highly variable (6-128 μgPM1 m-3, 16-314 μgPM3 m-3, and 33-332 μgPM10 m-3, 15-min averages) depending on ventilation conditions and station design. Narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels are heavily dependent on forced tunnel ventilation and cannot rely on the train piston effect alone to reduce platform PM concentrations. In contrast PM levels in stations with spacious double-track tunnels are not greatly affected when tunnel ventilation is switched off, offering the possibility of significant energy savings without damaging air quality. Sampling at different positions along the platform reveals considerable lateral variation, with the greatest accumulation of particulates occurring at one end of the platform. Passenger accesses can dilute PM concentrations by introducing cleaner outside air, although lateral down-platform accesses are less effective than those positioned at the train entry point. CO concentrations on the platform are very low (≤1 ppm) and probably controlled by ingress of traffic-contaminated street-level air. CO2 averages range from 371 to 569 ppm, changing during the build-up and exchange of passengers with each passing train.

  16. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  17. METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS: 2. APPLICATION TO LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, FOR CARBON MONOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective methodology presented in a companion paper (Liu et al., 1986) for determining the optimum number and disposition of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network for carbon monoxide is applied to the Las Vegas, Nevada, area. The methodology utilizes an air qua...

  18. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  19. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  20. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  3. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  4. Identifying atmospheric monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casserly, Dennis M.; Russo, Dane M.

    1990-01-01

    The monitoring needs for Space Station Freedom were identified by examining: the experiences of past missions; ground based tests of proposed life support systems; a contaminant load model; metabolic production from an 8-person crew; and a fire scenario. Continuous monitoring is recommended for components critical for life support, and that intermittent analysis be provided for all agents that may exceed one-half the spacecraft maximum allowable concentration. The minimum monitoring effort recommended includes continuous monitoring for: N2, O2, CO2, CO, H2O, H2, CH4, nonmethane hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, refrigerants, and halons. Information on over 70 compounds is presented on the rationale for monitoring the frequency of analysis, and concentration ranges.

  5. Summary of monitoring station component evaluation project 2009-2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as a center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring (GNEM) systems. This project will sustain and enhance our component evaluation capabilities. In addition, new sensor technologies that could greatly improve national monitoring system performance will be sought and characterized. This work directly impacts the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring mission by verifying that the performance of monitoring station sensors and instrumentation is characterized and suitable to the mission. It enables the operational monitoring agency to deploy instruments of known capability and to have confidence in operational success. This effort will ensure that our evaluation capabilities are maintained for future use.

  6. Design of a complex terrain meteorological monitoring program for real-time air quality modeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Militana, L.M.; Karpovich, R.; Cimorelli, A.; Scire, J.S.

    1998-12-31

    A multi-station meteorological monitoring program has been designed and developed for a complex terrain air quality modeling study. The purpose of the program is to collect representative on site data as input to complex terrain air quality models and to predict in real-time the potential air quality impact of a rotary kiln incinerator The program is a state-of the science design using the best science air quality dispersion models (CALMET/CALPUFF) and meteorological monitoring equipment (RASS/SODAR Systems monostatic and phased array and multiple towers). The real-time meteorological monitoring program consisted of two monitoring stations using meteorological towers and Doppler SODAR and phased array RASS systems to determine the temperature and wind profile of the atmospheric boundary layer. The primary station were located adjacent to the site and consisted of a 150 ft meteorological tower and RASS/SODAR system. The secondary station was located approximately 1,600 meters northeast of the site and consisted of a 10 meter tower and a SODAR system. These monitoring stations provided 15-minute values of wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature, and thermal and mechanical turbulence measurements for use in a complex terrain air quality modeling study and a real-time modeling system.

  7. An Environment Monitoring Package for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph; Clifton, Kenneth S.

    1998-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be launched into space and over the next few years ISS will be assembled on orbit into its final configuration. Experiments will be performed on a continuous basis both inside and outside the station. External experiments will be mounted on attached payload locations specifically designed to accommodate experiments, provide data and supply power from ISS. From the beginning of the space station program it has been recognized that experiments will require knowledge of the external local environment which can affect the science being performed and may impact lifetime and operations of the experiment hardware. Recently an effort was initiated to design and develop an Environment Monitoring Package (EMP). This paper describes the derivation of the requirements for the EMP package, the type of measurements that the EMP will make and types of instruments which will be employed to make these measurements.

  8. Three years of operational experience from Schauinsland CTBT monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C

    2008-04-01

    Data from three years of operation of a low-level aerosol sampler and analyzer (RASA) at Schauinsland monitoring station are reported. The system is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The fully automatic system is capable to measure aerosol borne gamma emitters with high sensitivity and routinely quantifies 7Be and 212Pb. The system had a high level of data availability of 90% within the reporting period. A daily screening process rendered 66 tentative identifications of verification relevant radionuclides since the system entered IMS operation in February 2004. Two of these were real events and associated to a plausible source. The remaining 64 cases can consistently be explained by detector background and statistical phenomena. Inter-comparison with data from a weekly sampler operated at the same station shows instabilities of the calibration during the test phase and a good agreement since certification of the system. PMID:18053622

  9. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hardeveld, T. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  10. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  11. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  12. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  13. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  14. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data certification. 58.15 Section 58.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring...

  16. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data certification. 58.15 Section 58.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring...

  17. Hazardous-waste reduction: Naval Air Station Oceana

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, E.A.

    1991-06-01

    This is a project to research Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana's present operations in the area of hazardous waste controls from processing to disposal. The research project was generated in response to NAS Oceana's requirement to meet and implement OPNAVINST 4110.2 (dated 20 June 89). Areas of concern include waste management, regulatory compliance, and waste reduction. Waste reduction is seen as one key way to help NAS Oceana (and other naval bases) improve waste management by reducing liability, operational cost, disposal costs and environmental, health, and safety issues. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act places strict controls on the storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. Presently, NAS Oceana has a disposal plan that is operational and complies with all associated regulations. This study addresses hazardous waste minimization through hazardous material reduction.

  18. Mini Neutron Monitors at Concordia Research Station, Central Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluianov, Stepan; Usoskin, Ilya; Mishev, Alexander; Moraal, Harm; Kruger, Helena; Casasanta, Giampietro; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Two mini neutron monitors are installed at Concordia research station (Dome C, Central Antarctica, 75° 06' S, 123° 23' E, 3,233 m.a.s.l.). The site has unique properties ideal for cosmic ray measurements, especially for the detection of solar energetic particles: very low cutoff rigidity < 0.01 GV, high elevation and poleward asymptotic acceptance cones pointing to geographical latitudes > 75° S. The instruments consist of a standard neutron monitor and a "bare" (lead-free) neutron monitor. The instrument operation started in mid-January 2015. The barometric correction coefficients were computed for the period from 1 February to 31 July 2015. Several interesting events, including two notable Forbush decreases on 17 March 2015 and 22 June 2015, and a solar particle event of 29 October 2015 were registered. The data sets are available at cosmicrays.oulu.fi and nmdb.eu.

  19. URBAN AIR POLLUTION WORLDWIDE: RESULTS OF THE GEMS (GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM) AIR MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter in urban areas have been compiled in an international air quality monitoring project. Interpretative analyses of the 1973 to 1980 data have been completed, showing the general range of concentrations, intercity compa...

  20. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  1. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results. PMID:27376986

  2. Energy Management for Automatic Monitoring Stations in Arctic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Demian

    Automatic weather monitoring stations deployed in arctic regions are usually installed in hard to reach locations. Most of the time they run unsupervised and they face severe environmental conditions: very low temperatures, ice riming, etc. It is usual practice to use a local energy source to power the equipment. There are three main ways to achieve this: (1) a generator whose fuel has to be transported to the location at regular intervals (2) a battery and (3) an energy harvesting generator that exploits a local energy source. Hybrid systems are very common. Polar nights and long winters are typical of arctic regions. Solar radiation reaching the ground during this season is very low or non-existent, depending on the geographical location. Therefore, solar power generation is not very effective. One straightforward, but expensive and inefficient solution is the use of a large bank of batteries that is recharged during sunny months and discharged during the winter. The main purpose of the monitoring stations is to collect meteorological data at regular intervals; interruptions due to a lack of electrical energy can be prevented with the use of an energy management subsystem. Keeping a balance between incoming and outgoing energy flows, while assuring the continuous operation of the station, is the delicate task of energy management strategies. This doctoral thesis explores alternate power generation solutions and intelligent energy management techniques for equipment deployed in the arctic. For instance, harvesting energy from the wind to complement solar generation is studied. Nevertheless, harvested energy is a scarce resource and needs to be used efficiently. Genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and common sense are used to efficiently manage energy flows within a simulated arctic weather station.

  3. Demonstration of autonomous air monitoring through robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Rancatore, R.

    1989-11-01

    The project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. The robot was also modified to carry a HNU PI-101 Photoionization Detector air monitoring device. A sonar range finder, which already was an integral part of the Surveyor, was repositioned to the front of the robot chassis to detect large obstacles in the path of the robot. In addition, the software of the onboard computer was also extensively modified to provide: navigation control, dynamic steering to smoothly follow the wire-course without hesitation, obstacle avoidance, autonomous shut down and remote reporting of toxic substance detection.

  4. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  5. Operational Use of the Air Quality Monitor on ISS and Potential for Air Quality Monitoring Onboard Submarines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Jones, Jared; Wallace, William; Mudgett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The air quality monitor (AQM) began operations on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2013 and was validated for operational use in January 2014. The AQM is a gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer that currently monitors 22 target compounds in the ISS atmosphere. Data are collected twice per week, although data collection can be more frequent in contingency situations. In its second year, the AQM has provided data to decision-makers on several ISS contaminant related issues in both air and water. AQM has been used in strictly air incidents, such as a potential ammonia leak, and to investigate air contaminants affecting the water processing (excess ethanol). In the latter case data from water monitors and AQM were compared to understand the issue with the water processor. Additionally, the AQM has been moved to different ISS modules to determine whether air is sufficiently mixed between modules so that a central LAB module location is representative of the entire ISS atmosphere. Historic data on the ISS atmosphere in different modules from archival samples (ground lab analysis) suggest that the atmosphere is usually homogenous. This presentation will briefly describe the technical aspects of the AQM operations and summarize the validation results. The main focus of the presentation will be to discuss the results from the AQM survey of the ISS modules and to show how the AQM data has contributed to an understanding of environmental issues that have arisen on ISS. Presentation of a potential ammonia leak (indicated by an alarm) in 2015 will illustrate the use and value of the AQM in such situations.

  6. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  7. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  8. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  9. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  10. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  13. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  16. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  17. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring... teleconference of the Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) of the Clean Air Scientific...

  18. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  19. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  20. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  1. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  2. 78 FR 12041 - Information on Surplus Land at Former Naval Air Station, Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... 16, 2007 (72 FR 7624, FR Doc. E7-2762)). DATES: Effective February 7, 2013, by updating the acreage... Department of the Navy Information on Surplus Land at Former Naval Air Station, Brunswick, ME AGENCY... additional surplus property at the former Naval Air Station (NAS), Brunswick, ME, in accordance with...

  3. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... designee. (6) When security conditions dictate, Naval security forces may impose strict enforcement...

  4. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... designee. (6) When security conditions dictate, Naval security forces may impose strict enforcement...

  5. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  6. Using IGS Clock Products to Monitor GPS Station Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senior, K.; Ray, J.

    2005-12-01

    Since 22 Feb. 2004 the IGS official satellite and station clock products have been aligned to a new, highly stable timescale realized by an internal ensemble of the available frequency standards dynamically weighted based on their individual instabilities. (Comparable, unofficial clock products are archived starting 29 Oct. 2000.) All results and a variety of associated plots can be accessed at https://goby.nrl.navy.mil/IGStime/index.php. In addition to their value for clock diagnostics, these products can be used to monitor the general health of GPS tracking stations. This is only minimally true for stations not using H-maser external frequency standards since the large epoch-to-epoch clock variations limit the sensitivity to detect all but the most severe types of problems affecting data quality. With H-masers, though, many subtle effects on the pseudorange observables can be observed. This is because the overall clock bias for a given processing arc (normally 24 hours) is set by the average code data, while the higher frequency variations are determined by the carrier phase data. Assuming an average uncertainty of 1 m for code data and 5-min sampling, the formal accuracy of each clock estimate should be near 120 ps. A quantitative test of the actual clock accuracy can be made by comparing clock estimates at the boundaries between independent analysis arcs (i.e., at midnights between consecutive days). This is analogous to the classic geodetic repeatability test for a time series of positioning results. The test is only feasible when H-masers are used since the instabilities of lesser frequency standards dominate over the day-boundary jumps caused by code data quality. Applied to IGS clocks, we have found a very wide dispersion in station performances, from RMS clock jumps near the expected level of 120 ps to values >1 ns. Results are posted in plots available at https://goby.nrl.navy.mil/IGStime/daybdy/. In a number of cases, there are discrete changes in the

  7. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2008-09-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average “all modes” failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment.

  8. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  9. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  10. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  11. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  12. Concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Rottmann, H.; Mühlbauer, M.; Plötz, C.; Himwich, E.; Beaudoin, C.; Szomoru, A.

    2011-07-01

    In the newly funded "Novel EXploration Pushing Robuste-VLBI Services", - project (NEXPReS) the Technische Universitaet Muenchen realize concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn. NEXPReS is a three-year project aimed at further developing e-VLBI services of the European VLBI Network (EVN), with the goal of incorporating e-VLBI into every astronomical observation conducted by the EVN. This project focus on developments of an operational e-control system with authentication and authorization. It includes an appropriate role management with different remote access states for future observation strategies. To allow a flexible control of different systems in parallel sophisticated graphical user interfaces are designed and realized. It requires also a session oriented data management. Because of the higher degree of automation additional system parameters and information is collected with a new system monitoring. The whole system for monitoring and control is fully compatible to the NASA field system as extension. The concept will be proofed with regular tests between Wettzell and Effelsberg.

  13. Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Jin Young

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O3, NO2, and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400 MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems. PMID:22928151

  14. New classification scheme for ozone monitoring stations based on frequency distribution of hourly data.

    PubMed

    Tapia, O; Escudero, M; Lozano, Á; Anzano, J; Mantilla, E

    2016-02-15

    According to European Union (EU) legislation, ozone (O3) monitoring sites can be classified regarding their location (rural background, rural, suburban, urban) or based on the presence of emission sources (background, traffic, industrial). There have been attempts to improve these classifications aiming to reduce their ambiguity and subjectivity, but although scientifically sound, they lack the simplicity needed for operational purposes. We present a simple methodology for classifying O3 stations based on the characteristics of frequency distribution curves which are indicative of the actual impact of combustion sources emitting NO that consumes O3 via titration. Four classes are identified using 1998-2012 hourly data from 72 stations widely distributed in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. Types 1 and 2 present unimodal bell-shaped distribution with very low amount of data near zero reflecting a limited influence of combustion sources while Type 4 has a primary mode close to zero, showing the impact of combustion sources, and a minor mode for higher concentrations. Type 3 stations present bimodal distributions with the main mode in the higher levels. We propose a quantitative metric based on the Gini index with the objective of reproducing this classification and finding empirical ranges potentially useful for future classifications. The analysis of the correspondence with the EUROAIRNET classes for the 72 stations reveals that the proposed scheme is only dependent on the impact of combustion sources and not on climatic or orographic aspects. It is demonstrated that this classification is robust since in 87% of the occasions the classification obtained for individual years coincide with the global classification obtained for the 1998-2012 period. Finally, case studies showing the applicability of the new classification scheme for assessing the impact on O3 of a station relocation and performing a critical evaluation of an air quality monitoring network are

  15. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  16. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  17. Results of TSP metals monitoring at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring of metals in total suspended particulate (TSP) matter performed during the 1992--1993 austral summer at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Seven samples of TSP were collected from three different locations and analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and mercury. Critical-flow high-volume air samplers with a sample flow rate of approximately 1.1 m{sup 3}/minute were used to collect the particulate matter on quartz fiber filters for subsequent laboratory analysis. Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks. The data indicate that McMurdo operations have a measurable impact on the qualitative toxic metals composition of suspended particulate matter in the ambient air; however a definitive quantitative impact could not be concluded. The levels measured are well below the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists worker exposure levels. Lead was the most prevalent of the seven toxic metals and was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 1.4 ng/m{sup 3} to 38 ng/m{sup 3}. Data on the concentration of eleven other metal species are presented. Most notable was the relatively high abundance of titanium and copper, which were detectable at levels up to 2,100 ng/m{sup 3} and 230 ng/m{sup 3}, respectively.

  18. Illumination of the Air Environment Using Radiation of HF Broadcast Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, V. I.; Lutsenko, I. V.; Popov, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the possibility of using illumination of the HF broadcast stations for location of air objects. The relationships for estimation of the detection range are obtained and requirements for the degree of suppression of a direct signal from the broadcast station are determined. Spectral characteristics of the signals from HF broadcast stations are studied experimentally for different polarizations of the received radiation. The possibility of air object detection using the Doppler effect is shown. Theoretical estimates of the radar cross section of air objects for different polarizations of the incident radiation are given. It is found experimentally that the radar cross section is about the same for the vertical and horizontal polarizations.

  19. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  20. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha‑1 year‑1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did

  1. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  2. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze... from the position latitude 30°20′44″ N., longitude 87°17′18″ W. (near the Naval Air Station, due...

  3. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze... from the position latitude 30°20′44″ N., longitude 87°17′18″ W. (near the Naval Air Station, due...

  4. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze... from the position latitude 30°20′44″ N., longitude 87°17′18″ W. (near the Naval Air Station, due...

  5. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  6. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  7. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  8. Feasibility study for the modernization of the air quality monitoring network in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The project is part of the Ministry of Environment and Recoverable Resources`s (MARNR) goal of establishing a consolidated and effective monitoring program nationwide, which would allow for evaluations of air quality, identification of pollution sources and provide a basis for future air quality management decisions. The bilingual Spanish/English report consists of: (1) work plan; (2) evaluation of current monitoring stations and recommendations for improvement; (3) field evaluation report for existing MARNR network; (4) institutional analysis, revenue requirements, selection of funding mechanism, and three sets of attachments.

  9. Evaluation of a Gas Chromatograph-Differential Mobility Spectrometer for Potential Water Monitoring on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental monitoring for manned spaceflight has long depended on archival sampling, which was sufficient for short missions. However, the longer mission durations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have shown that enhanced, real-time monitoring capabilities are necessary in order to protect both the crewmembers and the spacecraft systems. Over the past several years, a number of real-time environmental monitors have been deployed on the ISS. Currently, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the station air are monitored by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), a small, lightweight gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer. For water monitoring, real-time monitors are used for total organic carbon (TOC) and biocide analysis. No information on the actual makeup of the TOC is provided presently, however. An improvement to the current state of environmental monitoring could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for VOCs in air samples, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. The major hurdle for this effort lies in the liberation of the target analytes from the water matrix. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target VOCs at the concentrations at which they are routinely detected in archival water samples from the ISS. We will compare the results of these studies with those obtained from the instrumentation routinely used to analyze archival water samples.

  10. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-07-21

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.

  11. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  13. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  14. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  15. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40... Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor valve there shall be marked in not less than 2-inch red letters and figures: “FOAM STATION 1,” 2, 3, etc. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor valve there shall be marked in not less than 2-inch red letters and figures: “FOAM STATION 1,” 2, 3, etc. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40... Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor valve there shall be marked in not less than 2-inch red letters and figures: “FOAM STATION 1,” 2, 3, etc. (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor valve there shall be marked in not less than 2-inch red letters and figures: “FOAM STATION 1,” 2, 3, etc. (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 35.40-17 - Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foam hose/monitor stations-T/ALL. 35.40-17 Section 35.40... Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-17 Foam hose/monitor stations—T/ALL. (a) At each required foam hose/monitor valve there shall be marked in not less than 2-inch red letters and figures: “FOAM STATION 1,” 2, 3, etc. (b)...

  20. 30 CFR 7.507 - Air-monitoring components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air-monitoring components. 7.507 Section 7.507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Refuge Alternatives § 7.507 Air-monitoring components. (a) Each refuge...

  1. 30 CFR 7.507 - Air-monitoring components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air-monitoring components. 7.507 Section 7.507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Refuge Alternatives § 7.507 Air-monitoring components. (a) Each refuge...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  8. Clean air land mine: Continuous monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.P. ); Mitnick, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    When the Clean Air Act Amendments were enacted, many observers expected the new law to usher in a futuristic system of environmental control cum economic incentives. This has yet to materialize. However, the legislation has brought in an entirely different new environmental order-rigid emissions accounting, down to each operating hour. In many respects, EPA regulation of fossil plant operations is coming more to resemble the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory model for nuclear plant operations, where regulation of process and procedure is at least as important as substance. The final continuous emission monitoring (CEM) rules, which were enacted as part of the Acid Rain Program, are perhaps the best evidence of this evolution. There can be no denying that the CEM rules are a prosecutor's dream. Not only must the industry comply with the law, but it must go to heroic efforts to make affirmative proof of compliance. The final CEM rules are a serious matter requiring the immediate attention of the electric utility industry.

  9. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    measured at 2 m above the ground by the monitoring station. Air is pumped through a 9.5-mm-diameter plastic tube (PFA, Swagelok) to a CO2 analyser located in a container box. Container box (Containex) is 1.5 m wide, 1.2 m deep and 2.2 m high, designed as a mobile measuring room which is field deployable, only electric power is required. A 15 micron pore size stainless steel Tee-Type (Swagelok) particle filter is located at the inlet of the sampler tube. Diaphragm pump (KNF) is used to draw air continuously through the sampling tube from monitoring level at flow rate of ~ 2 L/min. After leaving the pump, the air at 5 psig overpressure enters a glass trap for liquid water that is cooled in a regular household refrigerator, to dry the air to a dew point of 3°-4°C. Liquid water is forced out through an orifice at the bottom of the trap. The air sample inlet tube and the standard gases (Linde Hungary) are connected to miniature solenoid valves (S Series, ASCO Numatics) in a manifold which are normally closed and controlled by the CO2 analyser, which selects which gas is sampled. The air leaving the manifold through its common outlet is further dried to a dew point of about -25°C by passage through a 360-cm-long Nafion drier (Permapure), so that the water vapour interference and dilution effect are <0.1 ppm equivalent CO2. The Nafion drier is purged in a counter flow (300 cm3/min) arrangement using waste sample air that has been further dried by passage through anhydrous CaSO4 (Drierite). Analysis is carried out using an infrared gas analyser Ultramat 6F which is a specialised model for field applications by Siemens. A constant sample flow rate of 300 cm3/min is maintained by a mass flow controller (Aalborg). The reference cell of the CO2 analyzer is continuously flushed with a compressed reference gas of 350 ppm CO2 in synthetic air (Messer Hungarogáz). The basic calibration cycle is 2 hours, consisting of a zero-point calibration and a span calibration. Each calibration is

  10. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  11. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  12. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  13. Nonpoint-pollution discharge permit testing and control strategies at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsang, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze systematically a nonpoint storm water monitoring program at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, to determine if more relevant data can be obtained at lower cost by revising the sampling location, frequency, or pollutants of interest. Current remedial investigations of contaminants in sediments, station hazardous material use information and station management plans provided the bulk of the data. Review of watersheds indicated that potential contamination by 26 compounds may be present in the storm runoff. Testing to identify the presence of these compounds is required to renew an existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the air station. It was also found that the frequency of sampling could be reduced from 52 events per year to about 30 with no significant loss of statistical accuracy, thereby reducing the recurring cost of the sampling program. Also discussed are management practices and structural improvements that are technically feasible for controlling the two most significant pollutants, oil and grease and suspended solids. Best Management Practices are recommended to prevent or clean the spill of aviation fuel at the spill location. Use of synthetic oil-sorbent booms is recommended in lieu of the existing baffle treatment system.

  14. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  15. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  16. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  17. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  18. Magnetic evaluation of TSP-filters for air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Miranda, Ana Gabriela; Böhnel, Harald N.; Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present the magnetic properties of the powders collected by high volume total suspended particle air samplers used to monitor atmospheric pollution in Santiago de Querétaro, a city of one million people in central Mexico. The magnetic measurements have been combined with scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis, in order to characterize the particles captured in the filters as natural and anthropogenic. The main goal of the study is to test if magnetic measurements on the sampled atmospheric dust can be effective, low-cost, proxy to qualitatively estimate the air quality, complementing the traditional analytical methods. The magnetic properties of the powder collected in the filters have been investigated measuring the low field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, thermomagnetic curves, and isothermal remanent magnetization. The rock magnetism data have been supplemented by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the main magnetic carrier is low-Ti magnetite in the PSD range with a contribution from SP particles, and small but significant contributions from hematite, maghemite and goethite particles. Total suspended particles in the atmosphere during the monitored days ranged between about 30 and 280 μg/m3. Magnetic susceptibility values are well correlated with the independently determined total suspended particles concentration (R = 0.93), but particle concentration does not correlate as well with IRM1T. This may be attributed to contributions from SP and paramagnetic particles to the susceptibility signal, but not to the remanence. The effects of climate in particle size, composition and concentration were considered in terms of precipitation and wind intensity, but they are actually minor. The main effect of climate appears to be the removal of SP particles during rainy days. There is a contribution to air pollution from natural mineral sources, which we attribute to low vegetation cover

  19. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  20. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongkyun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Park, Hanearl; Lee, Sanguk; Kim, Jaehoon

    2008-06-01

    GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute) is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language) method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  1. Elimination of redundant thermoluminescent dosemeter monitoring at Oyster Creek nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Oyster Creek direct radiation monitoring network has long been operating using several time-scale measurements. This network is used to assess the radiation levels during normal plant operations as well as to set the background radiation levels used to determine the radiological impact of a nonroutine release of radioactivity from the plant. Through analysis of the behavior of the monthly and quarterly activity of several types of direct radiation monitoring, the successful elimination of redundant and artificially high measurement techniques has been done in concert with providing the community with most efficient direct radiation monitoring methods. Dose rates from external radiation sources are measured around licensed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) facilities using passive detectors known as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These detectors provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the are in which they are placed. The detected radiation could be the result of cosmic or naturally occurring origin in the air and on the ground, prior nuclear weapons testing, and activity from a nuclear facility. This paper describes the TLD network placed around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) and the comparisons between TLDs of different manufacturers and of different resident times and the successful elimination of the less accurate monthly TLD for the purpose of cost containment.

  2. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  3. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  4. CONTINUOUS AIR POLLUTION SOURCE MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook provides the eetailed information necessary to develop a continuous emissions monitoring program at a stationary source facility. Federal and State EPA requirements are given, including design and performance specifications and monitoring and date reporting requirem...

  5. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  6. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  7. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  8. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  9. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  10. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  11. A holistic approach for optimal design of air quality monitoring network expansion in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofarrah, Abdullah; Husain, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an objective methodology for determining the optimum number of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network. The methodology integrates the multiple-criteria method with the spatial correlation technique. The pollutant concentration and population exposure data are used in this methodology in different ways. In the first stage, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs) is used to identify the most desirable monitoring locations. The network configuration is then determined on the basis of the concept of sphere of influences (SOIs). The SOIs are dictated by a predetermined cutoff value ( rc) in the spatial correlation coefficients ( r) between the pollutant concentrations at the monitoring stations identified from first step and the corresponding concentrations at neighboring locations in the region. Finally, the optimal station locations are ranked by using combined utility scores gained from the first and second steps. The expansion of air quality monitoring network of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  12. Monitoring of space station life support systems with miniature mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Wong, Carla M.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy with artificial intelligence is a promising approach for monitoring the performance of the life support systems in the space station. Such an analytical system can provide the selectivity, sensitivity, speed, small size, and decision making intelligence to detect, identify, and quantify trace toxic compounds which may accumulate in the space station habitat.

  13. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as... Stations (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of the Delaware SIP. As with all components of the SIP, Delaware must implement the program as submitted and approved by EPA....

  14. On the design of distributed air quality monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Alejandro; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, the air quality is considered a key point, and its monitoring is not only suggested but it is even required in many countries. Since traditional standard monitors for air quality are very expensive, the use of a low-cost distributed network of sensors represents a valid complementary approach. This paper discusses the benefits of a distributed approach and analyzes the main elements that should be taken into account during the design of a distributed system for the air quality monitoring. This paper aims at representing a valuable aid for researchers and practitioners interested in the topic.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the...

  16. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  17. Towards the Extrapolation of Total and Tropospheric Ozone IASI Estimations for Surface Air-Quality Stations Measurements Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado-Galan, Niobe; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Miro, Jose V.

    Ozone plays a central role in the photochemical equilibrium of the atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone is essential to protect the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet solar radiation and tropospheric ozone is a major atmospheric pollutant that harms both human health and the environment due to its strong oxidative capacity. Monitoring ozone at different scales and in the different atmospheric layers is essential and for that, satellite-based instruments are the only system to provide ozone observations for those conditions. However, tropospheric ozone measurements are difficult because the contribution to the measured signal from the stratosphere is typically large. Significant efforts and resources are usually dedicated to analyse and study the atmosphere and its components. Ozonesondes, air quality stations, and sensors onboard Earth Observation satellites allow to carry out these studies at different scales (global, regional or local) and with different viewpoints. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is a singular and robust instrument and a key payload element of the MetOp series of the European Meteorological Polar-Orbit Satellites. It is developed by CNES in the framework of a co-operation agreement with EUMETSAT. In this work, total and tropospheric ozone estimations from IASI have been firstly compared to measurements obtained from ozonesondes, UV Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers and from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), from the stations Madrid-Barajas (Spain), Uccle (Brussels, Belgium), Hohenpeissenberg (Germany), and Summit (Greenland), for the years 2011 - 2013. But the final objective is to obtain ozone estimations at surface level to be compared to the air quality stations network observations. The comparisons between the different instruments have resulted quite reasonable -depending on the station and on the atmospheric layer- and we have been able to estimate surface ozone (0-10 m height) for the Madrid-Barajas station by using

  18. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  19. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  20. Lightning Nitrogen Oxides (LNOx) Vertical Profile Quantification and 10 Year Trend Analysis using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Measurements, Air Quality Station (AQS) Surface Measurements, The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and Simulated by Cloud Resolving Chemical Transport Model (REAM Cloud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeltzer, C. D.; Wang, Y.; Koshak, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical profiles and emission lifetimes of lightning nitrogen oxides (LNOx) are derived using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Approximately 200 million flashes, over a 10 year climate period, from the United States National Lighting Detection Network (NLDN), are aggregated with OMI cloud top height to determine the vertical LNOx structure. LNOx lifetime is determined as function of LNOx signal in a 36 kilometer vertical column from the time of the last known flash to depletion of the LNOx signal. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality Station (AQS) surface data further support these results by demonstrating as much as a 200% increase in surface level NO2 during strong thunderstorm events and a lag as long as 5 to 8 hours from the lightning event to the peak surface event, indicating a evolutional process. Analysis of cloud resolving chemical transport model (REAM Cloud) demonstrates that C-shaped LNOx profiles, which agree with OMI vertical profile observations, evolve due to micro-scale convective meteorology given inverted C-shaped LNOx emission profiles as determined from lightning radio telemetry. It is shown, both in simulations and in observations, that the extent to which the LNOx vertical distribution is C-shaped and the lifetime of LNOx is proportional to the shear-strength of the thunderstorm. Micro-scale convective meteorology is not adequately parameterized in global scale and regional scale chemical transport models (CTM). Therefore, these larger scale CTMs ought to use a C-shape emissions profile to best reproduce observations until convective parameterizations are updated. These findings are used to simulate decadal LNOx and lightning ozone climatology over the Continental United States (CONUS) from 2004-2014.

  1. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  2. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  3. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administrator (through the appropriate Regional Office) an annual summary report of all the ambient air quality data collected at all SLAMS and at SPM stations using FRM, FEM, or ARMs. The annual report(s) shall be submitted for data collected from January 1 to December 31 of the previous year. The annual summary...

  4. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator (through the appropriate Regional Office) an annual summary report of all the ambient air quality data collected at all SLAMS and at SPM stations using FRM, FEM, or ARMs. The annual report(s) shall be submitted for data collected from January 1 to December 31 of the previous year. The annual summary...

  5. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  6. FAST-RESPONSE ISOTOPIC ALPHA CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Keith D. Patch

    2000-04-28

    The objective of this effort is to develop and test a novel Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) instrument for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides, using a technology that can be applied to Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of thermal treatment system off gas streams. The CAM instrument will have very high alpha spectral resolution and provide real-time, on-line monitoring suitable for alerting workers of high concentrations of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ambient air and for improved control of decontamination, dismantlement, and air emission control equipment. Base Phase I involves the design, development, and preliminary testing of a laboratory-scale instrument. Testing will initially be conducted using naturally-occurring radon progeny in ambient air. In the Optional Phase II, the Base Phase I instrument will be critically evaluated at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with characterized plutonium aerosols; then an improved instrument will be built and field-tested at a suitable DOE site.

  7. The statistical evaluation and comparison of ADMS-Urban model for the prediction of nitrogen dioxide with air quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Dėdelė, Audrius; Miškinytė, Auksė

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered to be a measure of traffic-related air pollution, with concentrations tending to be higher near highways, along busy roads, and in the city centers, and the exceedances are mainly observed at measurement stations located close to traffic. In order to assess the air quality in the city and the air pollution impact on public health, air quality models are used. However, firstly, before the model can be used for these purposes, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the dispersion modelling as one of the most widely used method. The monitoring and dispersion modelling are two components of air quality monitoring system (AQMS), in which statistical comparison was made in this research. The evaluation of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) was made by comparing monthly modelled NO2 concentrations with the data of continuous air quality monitoring stations in Kaunas city. The statistical measures of model performance were calculated for annual and monthly concentrations of NO2 for each monitoring station site. The spatial analysis was made using geographic information systems (GIS). The calculation of statistical parameters indicated a good ADMS-Urban model performance for the prediction of NO2. The results of this study showed that the agreement of modelled values and observations was better for traffic monitoring stations compared to the background and residential stations. PMID:26293894

  8. CURRENT FLOW DATA FOR SELECTED USGS STREAM MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains recent and historical stream flow data for USGS stations. Flow data (cubic feet per second) are available for the most recent 5-6 day period and are compared with long-term average values. Flow data were collected approximately hourly. Flood stage and the m...

  9. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  10. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76). PMID:25905923

  11. DESIGN OF LARGE-SCALE AIR MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of air pollution on human health have received much attention in recent years. In the U.S. and other countries, there are extensive large-scale monitoring networks designed to collect data to inform the public of exposure risks to air pollution. A major crit...

  12. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FOUR CORNERS AMBIENT AIR MONITORING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ambient air monitoring program was initiated with the overall objective of establishing an air quality base line for the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The base line will be used in assessing the impact of the development of coal deposits and t...

  13. Predictions of U.K. regulated power station contributions to regional air pollution and deposition: a model comparison exercise.

    PubMed

    Chemel, Charles; Sokhi, Ranjeet S; Dore, Anthony J; Sutton, Paul; Vincent, Keith J; Griffiths, Stephen J; Hayman, Garry D; Wright, Raymond D; Baggaley, Matthew; Hallsworth, Stephen; Prain, H Douglas; Fisher, Bernard E A

    2011-11-01

    Contributions of the emissions from a U.K. regulated fossil-fuel power station to regional air pollution and deposition are estimated using four air quality modeling systems for the year 2003. The modeling systems vary in complexity and emphasis in the way they treat atmospheric and chemical processes, and include the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in its versions 4.6 and 4.7, a nested modeling system that combines long- and short-range impacts (referred to as TRACK-ADMS [Trajectory Model with Atmospheric Chemical Kinetics-Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System]), and the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model. An evaluation of the baseline calculations against U.K. monitoring network data is performed. The CMAQ modeling system version 4.6 data set is selected as the reference data set for the model footprint comparison. The annual mean air concentration and total deposition footprints are summarized for each modeling system. The footprints of the power station emissions can account for a significant fraction of the local impacts for some species (e.g., more than 50% for SO2 air concentration and non-sea-salt sulfur deposition close to the source) for 2003. The spatial correlation and the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CVRMSE) are calculated between each model footprint and that calculated by the CMAQ modeling system version 4.6. The correlation coefficient quantifies model agreement in terms of spatial patterns, and the CVRMSE measures the magnitude of the difference between model footprints. Possible reasons for the differences between model results are discussed. Finally, implications and recommendations for the regulatory assessment of the impact of major industrial sources using regional air quality modeling systems are discussed in the light of results from this case study. PMID:22168107

  14. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  15. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type. PMID:26483085

  16. Long Term Analysis of Ozone Night Peaks in the Portuguese Air Quality Station Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, J. M.; Parracho, A. C.; Barros, N.; Fontes, T.; Silva, M. P.; Ramos, A. M. M.; Carvalho, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The gross pattern of the ozone daily cycle in urban areas is similar to that of rural areas, which shows a unimodal variation. However, urban areas can evidence a secondary peak in ozone concentrations during the nighttime, thus presenting a bimodal variation in the daily cycle. Although the occurrence of nocturnal maxima (peaks) has been identified in previous studies, statistics based on long data series have not yet been fully analyzed. The main goal of this communication is to present a study of the daily variation of surface ozone, the frequency of occurrence of nocturnal maxima, their seasonality and their dependence on the type of air quality station. Hourly ozone concentrations collected in 39 background air quality stations during 24 years in Portugal were analyzed. Relationships between the frequency of occurrence of nighttime peaks and the season and the type of air quality station are demonstrated. Using road traffic data, it is suggested that the dependence on the type of air quality station is due to the impact of road traffic emissions in the late afternoon and early morning ozone titration. Moreover, using an automatic weather type classification, relationships between weather types and surface ozone concentrations are also suggested.

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  18. PILOT STUDY FOR REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER AT THE FALLON, NEVADA NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of pilot plant testing of two treatment methods capable of removing arsenic from drinking water; activated alumina and ion exchange. Using the Naval Air Station (NAS) drinking water (raw water arsenic concentration = 0.080 - 0.116 mg/l) for evaluat...

  19. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... of the State and local monitoring network. If after a review of the data from the monitoring study we... Worldwide Web through the Technology Transfer Network (TTN). Following the Administrator's signature, a copy... various areas of air pollution control. III. Background The EPA issued a final rule on November 12,...

  20. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  1. Air-dropped sensor network for real-time high-fidelity volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Ma, A.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and deployment experience of an air-dropped wireless sensor network for volcano hazard monitoring. The deployment of five stations into the rugged crater of Mount St. Helens only took one hour with a helicopter. The stations communicate with each other through an amplified 802.15.4 radio and establish a self-forming and self-healing multi-hop wireless network. The distance between stations is up to 2 km. Each sensor station collects and delivers real-time continuous seismic, infrasonic, lightning, GPS raw data to a gateway. The main contribution of this paper is the design and evaluation of a robust sensor network to replace data loggers and provide real-time long-term volcano monitoring. The system supports UTC-time synchronized data acquisition with 1ms accuracy, and is online configurable. It has been tested in the lab environment, the outdoor campus and the volcano crater. Despite the heavy rain, snow, and ice as well as gusts exceeding 120 miles per hour, the sensor network has achieved a remarkable packet delivery ratio above 99% with an overall system uptime of about 93.8% over the 1.5 months evaluation period after deployment. Our initial deployment experiences with the system have alleviated the doubts of domain scientists and prove to them that a low-cost sensor network system can support real-time monitoring in extremely harsh environments. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  2. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  3. Compact spectroscopic sensor for air quality monitoring in spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Benjamin; Hamid, Hakim; Rosskopf, Jürgen; Forouhar, Siamak

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Any fire event, accidental release of harmful gaseous contaminants or a malfunction in the air revitalization system has to be detected as fast as possible to provide enough time for the crew to react. In this paper, a fast sensor system based on laser spectroscopy is presented, which is able to detect three important gases: carbon monoxide for fire detection, hydrogen chloride for fire characterization and oxygen to monitor the air vitalization system. To provide a long maintenance-free operation time without the need for any consumables except power, a calibration-free measurement method was developed, which is only based on molecule specific constants which are available from the molecular data base HITRAN. The presented sensor offers the possibility for reliable and crosssensitivity-free air quality monitoring over a large pressure and temperature range.

  4. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  5. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  6. 78 FR 66904 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield... proposed action, announces its decision to support and conduct airfield operations at Naval Air Station... are available upon request by contacting: Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, Attn:...

  7. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.775 Section 334.775 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf...

  8. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.775 Section 334.775 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf...

  9. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area. 334.778 Section 334.778 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.778 Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola... Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency are restricted from transiting, anchoring, or...

  10. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyulu, Y.; Jayakumar, I.; Bindu, V. Hima; Sagareswar, G.; Rao, P.V. Mukunda; Rambabu, N.; Ramani, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  11. Continuous emission monitoring of metal aerosol concentrations in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Anne-Marie; Sarrette, Jean-Philippe; Madon, Lydie; Almi, Abdenbi

    1996-11-01

    Improvements of an apparatus for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) of metal aerosols in air are described. The method simultaneously offers low operating costs, large volume of tested air for valuable sampling and avoids supplementary contamination or keeping of the air pollutant concentrations. Questions related to detection and calibration are discussed. The detection limits (DL) obtained for the eight pollutants studied are lower than the recommended threshold limit values (TLV) and as satisfactory as the results obtained with other CEM methods involving air-argon plasmas.

  12. Air tightness monitoring by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Marinetti, Sergio; Bison, Paolo G.

    2004-04-01

    The standard air tightness test of containers is based on measurement of global parameters as the outlet of a specific gas, detected by specialised mass spectrometers. The identification and location of air leakages is extremely important especially for the container manufacturer. At the same time, the measure of the mass flux is of importance. IR Thermography has been successfully applied for leakages detection on buildings, but unfortunately, the noise due to The standard air tightness test of containers is based on measurement of global parameters as the outlet of a specific gas, detected by specialised mass spectrometers. The identification and location of air leakages is extremely important especially for the container manufacturer. At the same time, the measure of the mass flux is of importance. IR Thermography has been successfully applied for leakage detection on buildings, but unfortunately, the noise due to environment limits its applicability, particularly in case of a small flux. A new thermal procedure has been developed for the leakage detection. The technique is based on the stimulation of the envelope with a low oscillating heat flux and lock-in analysis. An airflow is injected, with a harmonically varying flowrate and a slightly higher temperature than the ambient. Then, the thermograms sequence is analyzed in the frequency domain. A review of quantitative techniques for the convective heat exchange measurement is reported. The procedure has been utilized for special containers used for both transport and exhibition of pictures inside museums. Tests performed before and after gaskets improvements show the capability of the technique to estimate qualitatively the airflow.

  13. [Monitoring of microbial degraders in manned space stations].

    PubMed

    Alekhova, T A; Aleksandrova, A A; Novozhilova, T Iu; Lysak, L V; Zagustina, N A; Bezborodov, A M

    2005-01-01

    Samples of microorganisms from the surface of constructions of Mir Space Station (Mir SS) were taken and examined after 13 years of operation. The following microorganisms were isolated and identified: 12 fungal species belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Aureobasidium; 3 yeast species belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida, and Rhodotorula; and 4 bacterial species belonging to the genera Bacillus, Myxococcus, and Rhodococcus. The predominant species in all samples was Penicillium chrisogenum. It was shown that the fungi isolated could damage polymers and induce corrosion of aluminum-magnesium alloys. We commenced a study of microbial degraders on constructions of the Russian section of the International Space Station (RS ISS). Twenty-six species of fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes, known as active biodegraders, were identified in three sample sets taken at intervals. We founded a collection of microorganisms surviving throughout space flights. This collection can be used to test spacecraft production materials, in order to determine their resistance to biodegradation. PMID:16212041

  14. Utilizing multiobjective analysis to determine an air quality monitoring network in an industrial district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Jehng-Jung; Hsieh, Ming-Ru

    An industrial district with polluting factories operating inside poses a potential threat to the air quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, establishing a proper air quality monitoring network (AQMN) is essential for assessing the effectiveness of imposed pollution controls, strategies, and facilities in reducing pollutants. The geographic layout of such an AQMN should assure the quality of the monitored data. Monitoring stations located at inappropriate sites will likely affect data validity. In this study, a multiobjective approach was explored for configuring an AQMN for an industrial district. A dispersion model was employed to simulate hourly distribution of pollutant concentrations in the study area. Models optimizing pollution detection, dosage, coverage, and population protection were established. Alternative AQMNs with varied station numbers and spatial distributions were obtained using the models. The resulting AQMNs were compared and evaluated for effectiveness in monitoring the temporal and spatial variation of pollutants. Discussion of the differences among the AQMNs is provided. This multiobjective analysis is expected to facilitate a decision-making process for determining an appropriate AQMN.

  15. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  16. Optimization of air monitoring networks using chemical transport model and search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shin; Iwahashi, Koki; Shimadera, Hikari; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Kondo, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Air monitoring network design is a critical issue because monitoring stations should be allocated properly so that they adequately represent the concentrations in the domain of interest. Although the optimization methods using observations from existing monitoring networks are often applied to a network with a considerable number of stations, they are difficult to be applied to a sparse network or a network under development: there are too few observations to define an optimization criterion and the high number of potential monitor location combinations cannot be tested exhaustively. This paper develops a hybrid of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to combine their power to search a big space and to find local optima. The hybrid algorithm as well as the two single algorithms are applied to optimize an air monitoring network of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 respectively, by minimization of the mean kriging variance derived from simulated values of a chemical transport model instead of observations. The hybrid algorithm performs best among the algorithms: kriging variance is on average about 4% better than for GA and variability between trials is less than 30% compared to SA. The optimized networks for the three pollutants are similar and maps interpolated from the simulated values at these locations are close to the original simulations (RMSE below 9% relative to the range of the field). This also holds for hourly and daily values although the networks are optimized for annual values. It is demonstrated that the method using the hybrid algorithm and the model simulated values for the calculation of the mean kriging variance is of benefit to the optimization of air monitoring networks.

  17. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  18. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  19. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  20. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station) and Campion Air Station (AS), Alaska. The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities and findings of the investigation and, on the basis of this information, make recommendations on future activities at the Galena Airport and Campion AS sites. Information from the RI at these sites was also used to support a baseline risk assessment.

  1. Relationship between total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Speciated NMHCs by Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Ou Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Total NMHC observations were made in some of the EPA air quality stations (AQS) across Taiwan, along with measurements of ozone, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10. This network is also complimented by another eight-station network, called photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), to provide hourly observations of 56 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the relationship of the total NMHC and PAMS NMHC observations for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites were cross-examined. It was found that both the hourly mixing ratios and variations of the summed PAMS NMHC values were in excellent agreement with the total NMHC data, with the summed PAMS NMHC observations accounted for at least 80% of the total NMHC observations. However, when looking into the VOC emission database, the PAMS NMHC emissions only contributed 58% of the total NMHC emissions. This then leads to about 30% difference in the traditionally observed NMHCs and estimated emissions. The three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model (PAMS-AQM) was used to simulate both the total NMHC and individual PAMS NMHCs, which showed that the sum of the simulated PAMS NMHCs agreed well with the observed PAMS values. However, the modeled total VOC values were significantly higher than the observed total NMHC values, and such findings were consistent among all four stations. This and the above findings combine to suggest that the customarily labeled "total NMHC" reported by almost all air quality stations are underestimates by about 30%. This underestimate is rather uncertain for two reasons: One, both total NMHC and PAMS speciated NMHC measurements underestimate VOC levels in ambient air. Since both types of measurements use the same method of flame ionization detection, it is less sensitive to oxygen containing VOCs (OVOCs), e.g., aldehydes, esters, ketones, ether, acids, etc. than other VOCs. In contrast, the PAMS measurements only target 56 PAMS NMHCs although more directly, and OVOCs also are

  2. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing. PMID:26398125

  3. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  4. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick W.; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Follistein, Duke W.

    2004-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response times and detection limits. A Table lists common gases monitored for aerospace applications. The first five gases, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are historically the focus of the HGDL.

  5. Meteorological Circulations at Gale Environment Through Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Observations and Mesoscale Modeling (MRAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    Gale Crater, in which the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed in August 2012, is the most topographically complex area visited to date on Mars. The meteorology within the crater may also be one of the most dynamically complex meteorological environments, because topography is thought to strongly drive the near-surface atmospheric circulations. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) [5] has provided some clues on the nature of the local meteorology strongly influenced by the complex topography, as predicted by numerous previous studies. The types of perturbations of pressure, air and ground temperature and wind measured by REMS have never been observed at other locations and these data provide a great opportunity to test the models at the most meteorological interesting area measured to date. In an effort to better understand the atmospheric circulations of the Gale Crater, the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)[6]was applied to the landing site region using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over the landing site. We provide a comparison of MRAMS predictions for pressure, air temperature, winds and ground temperature,to the REMS data available at the location of the Rover for sols 51-55 (Ls=180), sols 195-199 (Ls=270), sols 348-352 (Ls=0) and sols 541-545 (Ls=90), in order to provide a baseline of model performance.Pressure and ground temperature provide the most robust parameters with which to test the model predictions(Figures 2 and 3).

  6. The Research and Implementation of Three Stages Traffic Stations Intelligent Monitor Systems Based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-ying, Chen; Ting, Xiao; WangTao; Jin-yi, He

    This system used three stage intelligent traffic station subsystems to forecast the path on which vehicle will go. First stage subsystem can forecast road node which adjacented to traffic station. Second stage subsystem was designed for bigger area, for example city, the third stage subsystem was for the larger area between city. Second stage subsystem system used A* based on orientation to calculate shortest path, third stage subsystem calculated critical node of a large area. The system can compose dispersed monitor information, forecast vehicle path, dynamic analysis, hierarchical monitor .It played an important role in ITS.

  7. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  8. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  9. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance. PMID:25796098

  10. Monitoring tritium in air containing other radioactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    A brief survey is presented of methods that have been developed for active tritium monitoring that may be applied to measure tritium concentrations in air containing /sup 13/N, /sup 16/N, and /sup 41/Ar produced by D-T neutrons. Included are instruments that employ current subtraction to achieve discriminations and others that selectively remove atmospheric water vapor from stream of activated air.

  11. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  12. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  13. New Chains of Space Weather Monitoring Stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengkuan

    2016-07-01

    Chinese Meridian Project is a ground based space environment monitoring instrument network along 120 degree east meridian line, 30 degree latitude. The observation instruments include active and passive optical instruments: MST radars, Ionosphere digital sounders DSP-4, VHF Coherent Ionosphere Radar, Incoherent ionosphere radar, magnetometers, GPS receivers, and sounding rockets. The instrument network is now being extended to the north in Russian, to the south in Australia, and to the other side of the globe along 60 degree west. The new instrument chain is called the International Space Weather Meridian Circle Program (ISWMCP). NSSC is the leading institute of the program and has already reached agreements with many countries along this circle.

  14. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  15. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and results in the development of an integrated air quality modeling, monitoring, fault detection, and isolation system are presented. The focus was on development of distributed models of the air contaminants transport, the study of air quality monitoring techniques based on the model of transport process and on-line contaminant concentration measurements, and sensor placement. Different approaches to the modeling of spacecraft air contamination are discussed, and a three-dimensional distributed parameter air contaminant dispersion model applicable to both laminar and turbulent transport is proposed. A two-dimensional approximation of a full scale transport model is also proposed based on the spatial averaging of the three dimensional model over the least important space coordinate. A computer implementation of the transport model is considered and a detailed development of two- and three-dimensional models illustrated by contaminant transport simulation results is presented. The use of a well established Kalman filtering approach is suggested as a method for generating on-line contaminant concentration estimates based on both real time measurements and the model of contaminant transport process. It is shown that high computational requirements of the traditional Kalman filter can render difficult its real-time implementation for high-dimensional transport model and a novel implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is proposed which is shown to lead to an order of magnitude faster computer implementation in the case of air quality monitoring.

  16. [Characteristic of toxic risks of air pollution by chemical admixtures aboard the piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedieva, L N; Bogomolov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the chemical composition of air revealed by the sanitary-chemical and toxicological investigations in multifactorial ground-based tests and long-term space flights aboard the Salyut- 6, 7, Mir and the International space station have been used to deduce the chemical characteristic and to substantiate methods to and criteria for evaluation of toxic risks to space crews from air chemical pollution. Of particular concern were the toxic risks and crew protection during the first ingress to modules on the stage of station assembly in orbit, in the course of long-term missions, and in the event of acute exposure in off-nominal and emergency conditions. PMID:19711857

  17. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  18. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas. PMID:20578558

  19. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  20. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-03-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian Research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, a- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar as observed for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART). The POP levels determined in Troll air were compared with 1 concentrations found in earlier measurement campaigns at other Antarctic research stations from the past 18 yr. Except for HCB for which similar concentration distributions were observed in all sampling campaigns, concentrations in the recent Troll samples were lower than in samples collected during the early 1990s. These concentration reductions are obviously a direct consequence of international regulations restricting the usage of POP-like chemicals on a worldwide scale.

  1. Mutual Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities responsible for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the mutual information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the mutual

  2. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    PubMed

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period. PMID:22312797

  3. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  4. Detecting RFI Through Integrity Monitoring at a DGPS Reference Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Youngsun; Kee, Changdon; Rife, Jason; Luo, Ming; Pullen, Sam; Enge, Per

    Because GPS is a radio navigation system which has a very low power level, it is vulnerable to RFI. Excessive RFI could cause receiver performance degradation, such as degradation of position accuracy, loss of lock and increased acquisition time. After GPS modernization plans introduce dual-frequency civil signals to mitigate ionospheric errors, RFI will remain as one of the dominant threats for differential GPS navigation systems. Examples of safety-critical civil aviation and military missions threatened by RFI include the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) and the Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS). This paper focuses on RFI mitigation through integrity monitoring for a DGPS system like LAAS or JPALS. The mitigation strategy consists of two parts. First, the paper develops a new RFI detection method, using a raw divergence statistic. Second, the paper investigates strategies for maintaining integrity in the case that RFI is detected.

  5. Monitoring of (7)Be in surface air of varying PM(10) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chao, J H; Liu, C C; Cho, I C; Niu, H

    2014-07-01

    In this study, beryllium-7 ((7)Be) concentrations of surface air were monitored throughout a span of 23 years (1992-2012) in the Taiwanese cities Yilan, Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung. During this period, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, in terms of PM10, were collected monthly from the nearest air-quality pollutant monitoring stations and compared against (7)Be concentrations. Seasonal monsoons influenced (7)Be concentrations in all cities, resulting in high winter and low summer concentrations. In addition, the meteorological conditions caused seasonal PM10 variations, yielding distinct patterns among the cities. There was no correlation between (7)Be and PM10 in the case cities. The average annual (7)Be concentrations varied little among the cities, ranging from 2.9 to 3.5 mBq/m(3), while the PM10 concentrations varied significantly from 38 μg/m(3) in Yilan to 92 μg/m(3) in Kaohsiung depending on the degree of air pollution and meteorological conditions. The correlation between the (7)Be concentration and gross-beta activities (Aβ) in air implied that the (7)Be was mainly attached to crustal PM and its concentration varied little among the cities, regardless of the increase in anthropogenic PM in air-polluted areas. PMID:24607534

  6. An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

  7. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  8. 30 CFR 7.507 - Air-monitoring components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air-monitoring components. 7.507 Section 7.507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... with the ability to determine the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen,...

  9. 30 CFR 7.507 - Air-monitoring components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air-monitoring components. 7.507 Section 7.507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... with the ability to determine the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen,...

  10. 30 CFR 7.507 - Air-monitoring components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air-monitoring components. 7.507 Section 7.507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... with the ability to determine the concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen,...

  11. Monitoring of air pollution by plants methods and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Steubing, L.; Jager, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution is often discovered too late for preventive measure to be implemented. Papers include the topics of methods and problems of bioindication of air pollution. The participants discussed passive and active biological monitoring, including mapping of natural vegetation (lichens and mosses, for example) and plant exposure. Morphological and microscopical studies, chemical, physiological and biochemical investigations are presented.

  12. Raman gas analyzer applicability to monitoring of gaseous air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, D. V.; Matrosov, I. I.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    It is shown that the main problem, arising when designing a stationary Raman gas analyzer intended to monitor gaseous air pollutions, is to get SRS signals of sufficient intensity. The engineering solutions are presented that provide the required sensitivity (~ 50-100 ppb). It is achieved by compressing a gas medium under analysis and gaining intensity of the exciting laser radiation.

  13. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicola; Davies, Stephen; Wevill, David

    2011-01-01

    As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt) level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples. PMID:22241966

  14. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  15. JMF-based video monitoring system for power station equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinlei; Li, Zheng; Niu, Yuguang

    2011-12-01

    A remote video monitoring system based on Java Media Framework (JMF) is put forward in this paper. It is of cross-platform, lower time-delay and lower bandwidth. The system is consisted of three layers that are data acquisition layer, service layer and client layer. The hardware of system is connected with local area network and various video devices can be identified in the system. The software based on Java and JMF is programmed to capture, compress, send, receive and play video data and can be run on different operating system without modification. H.263 compression algorithm is adopted and RTP protocol is used to transport video data with RTCP protocol in the system. The client layer can access to the system by Internet or 3G and has convenient and flexible features. Maintenance personnel can easily supervise the device status at any time so that the equipments are always in good condition. It is helpful to enhance the competitive power of power plants.

  16. JMF-based video monitoring system for power station equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinlei; Li, Zheng; Niu, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    A remote video monitoring system based on Java Media Framework (JMF) is put forward in this paper. It is of cross-platform, lower time-delay and lower bandwidth. The system is consisted of three layers that are data acquisition layer, service layer and client layer. The hardware of system is connected with local area network and various video devices can be identified in the system. The software based on Java and JMF is programmed to capture, compress, send, receive and play video data and can be run on different operating system without modification. H.263 compression algorithm is adopted and RTP protocol is used to transport video data with RTCP protocol in the system. The client layer can access to the system by Internet or 3G and has convenient and flexible features. Maintenance personnel can easily supervise the device status at any time so that the equipments are always in good condition. It is helpful to enhance the competitive power of power plants.

  17. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  18. Time-resolved air monitoring using Fourier absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    Two categories where spectroscopic techniques excel are the capabilities to perform air analyses in situ and to obtain data at very high time resolutions. Because of these features, the Department of Pesticide Regulation augmented its extensive air monitoring capabilities with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer using open-path optical systems for time resolved ambient air monitoring. A description of the instrumentation and the data analysis procedures will be presented based on two data sets obtained with this FTIR system. In one case, a 100 m folded optical path was used to measure methyl bromide concentrations after fumigation in a warehouse with a time resolution of 15 min and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm. And trying to assess the capability of this FTIR spectrometer to determine flux, water vapor concentrations were measured with a four-meter path length at a time resolution of 0.6 seconds.

  19. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  20. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Hsein-ChiNiu, William; Lewis, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  1. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. PMID:22579357

  2. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: Ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Mercedes A.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM2.5 and O3, respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O3 (annual normalized mean bias = 4.30%), while modeled PM2.5 had an annual normalized mean bias of −2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to −27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. PMID:22579357

  3. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  4. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; de Sherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the “next generation” of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered - particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policy-relevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  5. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  6. A prototype gas exchange monitor for exercise stress testing aboard NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Joseph A.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Bauer, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-use monitor developed to track the weightlessness deconditioning aboard the NASA Space Station, together with the results of testing of a prototype instrument. The monitor measures the O2 uptake and CO2 production, and calculates the maximum O2 uptake and anaerobic threshold during an exercise stress test. The system uses two flowmeters in series to achieve a completely automatic calibration, and uses breath-by-breath compensation for sample line-transport delay. The monitor was evaluated using two laboratory methods and was shown to be accurate. The system's block diagram and the bench test setup diagram are included.

  7. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  8. Common View Time Transfer Using Worldwide GPS and DMA Monitor Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Wilson G.; McCaskill, Thomas B.; Oaks, Orville J.; Buisson, James A.; Warren, Hugh E.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the on-orbit Navstar clocks and the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor station reference clocks is performed by the Naval Research Laboratory using both broadcast and postprocessed precise ephemerides. The precise ephemerides are produced by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) for each of the GPS space vehicles from pseudo-range measurements collected at five GPS and at five DMA monitor stations spaced around the world. Recently, DMA established an additional site co-located with the US Naval Observatory precise time site. The time reference for the new DMA site is the DoD Master Clock. Now, for the first time, it is possible to transfer time every 15 minutes via common view from the DoD Master Clock to the 11 GPS and DMA monitor stations. The estimated precision of a single common-view time transfer measurement taken over a 15-minute interval was between 1.4 and 2.7 nanoseconds. Using the measurements from all Navstar space vehicles in common view during the 15-minute interval, typically 3-7 space vehicles, improved the estimate of the precision to between 0.65 and 1.13 nanoseconds. The mean phase error obtained from closure of the time transfer around the world using the 11 monitor stations and the 25 space vehicle clocks over a period of 4 months had a magnitude of 31 picoseconds. Analysis of the low noise time transfer from the DoD Master Clock to each of the monitor stations yields not only the bias in the time of the reference clock, but also focuses attention on structure in the behaviour of the reference clock not previously seen. Furthermore, the time transfer provides a a uniformly sampled database of 15-minute measurements that make possible, for the first time, the direct and exhaustive computation of the frequency stability of the monitor station reference clocks. To lend perspective to the analysis, a summary is given of the discontinuities in phase and frequency that occurred in the reference clock at the Master Control Station during

  9. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  10. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  11. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  12. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  13. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  14. Spatial Analysis of Air Quality Monitor Data in China, Japan, and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, Berkeley Earth published a widely-reported study concluding that air pollution contributes to 1.6 million deaths per year in China. This presentation will provide an update on that work with additional data for China and new analysis for South Korea and Japan. In China, two years of data from more than 1500 monitoring stations allows local trends to be estimated. Preliminary review indicates a trend towards improving air quality across most of China with decreasing emissions at most major population centers. Such improvements are consistent with tightening emissions standards and the decreasing usage of coal. In addition, new spatial analysis has been applied to ~900 monitoring sites in Japan and ~120 sites in South Korea. This new analysis provides information on air quality, pollutant source distributions, and implied mortality in these countries. Finally, boundary crossing fluxes in South Korea and Japan have been used to estimate the fraction of air pollution in Japan and South Korea that has being imported from sources in China.

  15. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  16. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  17. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  18. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  19. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  20. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans: a model to monitor bacterial air quality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination of chemicals, fine particles, and micro-organisms quantitatively or qualitatively dangerous for health or for the environment. Increasing regulations and limitations for outdoor air quality have been decreed in regards to chemicals and particles contrary to micro-organisms. Indeed, pertinent and reliable tests to evaluate this biohazard are scarce. In this work, our purpose was to evaluate the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test, a model considered as an equivalent to the mouse acute toxicity test in pharmaceutical industry, in order to monitor air bacterial quality. Findings The present study investigates the bacterial population in dust clouds generated during crop ship loading in harbor installations (Rouen harbor, Normandy, France). With a biocollector, airborne bacteria were impacted onto the surface of agar medium. After incubation, a replicate of the colonies on a fresh agar medium was done using a velvet. All the replicated colonies were pooled creating the "Total Air Sample". Meanwhile, all the colonies on the original plate were isolated. Among which, five representative bacterial strains were chosen. The virulence of these representatives was compared to that of the "Total Air Sample" using the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test. The survival kinetic of nematodes fed with the "Total Air Sample" is consistent with the kinetics obtained using the five different representatives strains. Conclusions Bacterial air quality can now be monitored in a one shot test using the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test. PMID:22099854

  2. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  3. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  4. Preliminary draft: comprehensive air-monitoring plan report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-15

    The topography of the CAMP Study Area, climate, and air pollution meteorology are described. The population analysis indicated limited growth during the next 10 years in the CAMP Study Area. Analysis of emission sources (current and projected) included a presentation of the types of emissions and their impact on the Study Area population (receptors). The general conclusion was drawn that of the non-condensible gases emitted, and considered pollutants, hydrogen sulfide was the only one for which monitoring would be recommended. Recommendations for type, placement, performance criteria, and the timing of establishment and terminating monitoring equipment were determined.

  5. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Status of Workers

    PubMed Central

    ZoroufchiBenis, Khaled; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Ahmadi, Javad; Rouhi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availability of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN) for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. Methods: A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program) was explored for configur­ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids) according to their ability to represent the ambient concentration. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta­tion’s dosage to the total dosage in the network. Results: Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network efficiency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. Conclusion: The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health. PMID:26933646

  6. Results of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO monitoring at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and total oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) performed during the final weeks of the 1992-1993 austral summer in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Commercially available, high sensitivity ambient air gas analyzers were used to continuously measure gas concentrations at two locations over a two and a three week time period respectively. Sampling site selection, sampling procedures and quality assurance procedures used for this effort were consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for local ambient air quality networks. CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub 2} concentrations measured were below the associated U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Carbon monoxide levels measured at both locations were near or below the instrument detection limit of 0.1 part per million (ppm). Hourly average SO{sub 2} concentrations ranged from below the detection limit of 1 part per billion (ppb) to a single maximum hourly average value of 60 ppb. Hourly average NO{sub 2} concentrations ranged from below the detection limit of 1 ppb to a single maximum hourly average value of 26 ppb. The impact on local air quality of ships docked at an ice pier was observed and quantified. The initial baseline effort demonstrated that site selection and sampling equipment performance were satisfactory, and provided useful data for assessing the impact of McMurdo operations on the local ambient air quality.

  7. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  8. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  9. Development of an Environmental Monitoring Package for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, Ralph M., Jr.; Clifton, Kenneth S.; Vanhooser, Michael T.

    1999-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be launched into space and over the next few years ISS will be assembled on orbit into its final configuration. Experiments will be performed on a continuous basis both inside and outside the station. External experiments will be mounted on attached payload locations specifically designed to accommodate experiments and provide data and power from ISS. From the beginning of the space station program it has been recognized that external experiments will require knowledge of the external environment because it can affect the science being performed and may impact lifetime and operations of the experiments. Recently an effort was initiated to design and develop an Environment Monitoring Package (EMP) was started. This paper describes the derivation of the requirements for the EMP package, the type of measurements that the EMP will make and types of instruments which will be employed to make these measurements.

  10. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  11. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  12. Development of a field-portable air monitor for Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Aldstadt, J.H.; Martin, A.F.; Olson, D.C. |

    1996-03-01

    The focus of this research is the development of a prototype field-portable ambient-air monitor for measuring trace levels of volatile organoarsenicals. Lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine) is a chemical warfare agent developed during World War I and stockpiled on a large scale by the former Soviet Union. A continuous air monitor for Lewisite at the eight-hour time-weighted-average concentration (3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) is necessary to protect the safety and health of arms control treaty inspectors. Flow injection is used to integrate an air sampling device based on liquid-phase extraction with a flow-through detector based on potentiometric stripping analysis. We describe a method for the sampling and preconcentration of organoarsenicals from ambient air by using a gas permeation membrane sampler. The sampler is designed to selectively preconcentrate analyte that permeates a silicone rubber membrane into a caustic carrier stream. Instrument design is described for the sampling and detection methodologies.

  13. Detection of anthropogenic radionuclides by the CA002 monitoring station for the comprehensive test ban treaty.

    PubMed

    Measday, D F; Stocki, T J; Mason, L R; Williams, D L

    2001-02-01

    A worldwide monitoring system for radioactive aerosols is being implemented for verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. These 80 stations will detect airborne radioactivity not only from nuclear explosions but also from other anthropogenic and natural sources. A prototype unit has been in operation since April 1996 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is a very sensitive system and reports clear signals for natural radioactivity, including cosmogenic 7Be, and the decay products from soil exhalation of 220Rn (thoron). In addition, there have been frequent detections of anthropogenic nuclides, probably coming from three distinct facilities-a medical isotope production center, a major university hospital, and a particle accelerator laboratory--all between 1 and 2 km away from the monitoring station. This experience is discussed to sensitize health physicists to the potential uses of this publicly available information. PMID:11197459

  14. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The... CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates: Commencing...

  15. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The... CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates: Commencing...

  16. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  17. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, U.; Aalto, P. P.; Salm, J.; Komsaare, K.; Tammet, H.; Mäkelä, J. M.; Laakso, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster) air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions) has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5-8 nm and 8-ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink) due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient -87%) when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%), as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s-1) had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm-3 s-1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5-8 nm) revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88%) between the concentrations of particles and positively

  18. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simplified conversion to salinity units for use with specific conductance data from monitoring stations that have been normalized to a standard temperature of 25 °C and an equation for the reverse calculation. Although these previously undocumented methods have been shared with many IEP agencies over the last two decades, the sources of the equations and data are identified here so that the original literature can be accessed.

  19. Applications of formal simulation languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric simulation are introduced. Two formal simulation languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of simulation in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The application of the formal simulation language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.

  20. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  1. Design of a monitor and simulation terminal (master) for space station telerobotics and telescience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, L.; Konkel, C.; Harmon, P.; King, S.

    1989-01-01

    Based on Space Station and planetary spacecraft communication time delays and bandwidth limitations, it will be necessary to develop an intelligent, general purpose ground monitor terminal capable of sophisticated data display and control of on-orbit facilities and remote spacecraft. The basic elements that make up a Monitor and Simulation Terminal (MASTER) include computer overlay video, data compression, forward simulation, mission resource optimization and high level robotic control. Hardware and software elements of a MASTER are being assembled for testbed use. Applications of Neural Networks (NNs) to some key functions of a MASTER are also discussed. These functions are overlay graphics adjustment, object correlation and kinematic-dynamic characterization of the manipulator.

  2. The performance of the stations of the Romanian seismic network in monitoring the local seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeleanu, Luminita Angela; Neagoe, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The seismic survey of the territory of Romania is mainly performed by the national seismic network operated by the National Institute for Earth Physics of Bucharest. After successive developments and upgrades, the network consists at present of 123 permanent stations equipped with high quality digital instruments (Kinemetrics K2, Quantera Q330, Quantera Q330HR, PS6-24 and Basalt digitizers) - 102 real time and 20 off-line stations - which cover the whole territory of the country. All permanent stations are supplied with 3 component accelerometers (episenzor type), while the real time stations are in addition provided with broadband (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T, STS2) or short period (SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, GS21, L22_VEL) velocity sensors. Several communication systems are currently used for the real time data transmission: an analog line in UHF band, a line through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), a dedicated line through satellite, and a dedicated line provided by the Romanian Special Telecommunication Service. During the period January 1, 2006 - June 30, 2013, 5936 shallow depth seismic events - earthquakes and quarry blasts - with local magnitude ML ≥ 1.2 were localized on the Romanian territory, or in its immediate vicinity, using the records of the national seismic network; 1467 subcrustal earthquakes (depth ≥ 60 km) with magnitude ML ≥ 1.9 were also localized in the Vrancea region, at the bend of the Eastern Carpathians. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the individual contribution of the real time seismic stations to the monitoring of the local seismicity. The performance of each station is estimated by taking into consideration the fraction of events that are localised using the station records, compared to the total number of events of the catalogue, occurred during the time of station operation. Taking into account the nonuniform space distribution of earthquakes, the location of the site and the recovery

  3. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase II, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    Between March and April 1998, the U.S. Navy contracted Tetra Tech NUS Inc., to drill two monitor wells in the Stockton Formation at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were installed to monitor water levels and sample contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock. Chemical analyses of the samples will help determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5). Depths of all boreholes range from 69 to 149 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and video surveys to identify water-producing zones in newly drilled monitor wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 and in wells MG-1675 and MG-1676. The logging was conducted from March 5, 1998, to April 16, 1998. This work is a continuation of the Phase I work. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-producing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's notes, wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were screened such that water-levels fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION MONITORING -- CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK (CASTNET) OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAMD operates a national monitoring network mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) to determine the effectiveness of promulgated emission reductions. The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) provides data for determining relationships between emissions, air...

  6. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  8. 40 CFR 50.14 - Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of air quality monitoring... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.14 Treatment of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events. (a) Requirements. (1)...

  9. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  10. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  11. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  12. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  13. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  14. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  15. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. COLD MAGICS - Continuous Local Deformation Monitoring of an Arctic Geodetic Fundamental Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Ruediger; Bergstrand, Sten

    2010-01-01

    We describe the experience gained in a project to continuously monitor the local tie at the Geodetic Observatory Ny-Alesund. A PC-controlled robotic total station was used to monitor survey prisms that were attached to survey pillars of the local network and the monuments used for geodetic VLBI and GNSS measurements. The monitoring lasted for seven days and had a temporal resolution of six minutes. The raw angle and distance measurements show clear sinusoidal signatures with a daily period, most strongly for a four-day period with 24 hours of sunshine. The derived topocentric coordinates of the survey prisms attached to the GNSS monument and the VLBI radio telescope act as approximation for the local tie. We detect clear signatures at the mm-level. With the current approach we cannot distinguish between real motion of the prisms and potential thermal influences on the instrument used for the observations. However, the project shows that continuous local tie monitoring is feasible today and in the future can and should be used for all geodetic co-location stations.

  17. Monitoring Trace Contaminants in Air Via Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Karr, Dane; Pearson, Richard; Valero, Gustavo; Wong, Carla

    1995-01-01

    Recent passage of the Clean Air Act with its stricter regulation of toxic gas emissions, and the ever-growing number of applications which require faster turnaround times between sampling and analysis are two major factors which are helping to drive the development of new instrument technologies for in-situ, on-line, real-time monitoring. The ion trap, with its small size, excellent sensitivity, and tandem mass spectrometry capability is a rapidly evolving technology which is well-suited for these applications. In this paper, we describe the use of a commercial ion trap instrument for monitoring trace levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. A number of sample introduction devices including a direct transfer line interface, short column GC, and a cryotrapping interface are employed to achieve increasing levels of sensitivity. MS, MS/MS, and MS/MS/MS methods are compared to illustrate trade-offs between sensitivity and selectivity. Filtered Noise Field (FNF) technology is found to be an excellent means for achieving lower detection limits through selective storage of the ion(s) of interest during ionization. Figures of merit including typical sample sizes, detection limits, and response times are provided. The results indicate the potential of these techniques for atmospheric assessments, the High Speed Research Program, and advanced life support monitoring applications for NASA.

  18. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  19. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  20. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Schairer, L A; Sautkulis, R C; Tempel, N R

    1981-01-01

    Final assessment of human health effects resulting from exposure to harmful environmental agents may rest with mammalian test system results. In vitro systems are short-term assays used most frequently for extrapolation to humans. However, no single assay system is adequate and the more expensive long-term tests must be augmented by multiple assays designed for redundancy or to fill gaps in present state of the art of environmental monitoring. The Tradescantia stamen hair test system is one such assay offering redundancy as well as filling the gap of monitoring ambient air for mutagenic agents. The flower color locus in heterozygous clones of Tradescantia mutates when exposed to such agents as fumigants, solvents, chemical additives or catalysts, and compounds requiring activation such as benzo (a) pyrene. The stamen hair system responds to low levels of airborne compounds. The Tradescantia stamen hair system was used as an in situ monitor for mutagens in ambient air in polluted industrial sites. Preliminary results from many sites showed a significant increase in mutation rate. The environment most consistently mutagenic was that downwind from petroleum refineries. No specific compounds or groups of compounds have as yet been correlated with the positive sites. (ERB)

  1. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  2. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  3. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  4. Recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, John W.; Verostko, Charles E.; Linton, Arthur T.; Burchett, Ray

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters. A preprototype unit that contains an ultraviolet absorbance organic carbon monitor integrated with pH and conductivity sensors is presented. The preprototype has provisions for automated operation and is a reagentless flow-through system without any gas/liquid interfaces. The organic carbon monitor detects by utraviolet absorbance the organic impurities in reclaimed wastewater which may be correlated to the organic carbon content of the water. A comparison of the preprototype organic carbon detection values with actual total organic carbon measurements is presented. The electrolyte double junction concept for the pH sensor and fixed electrodes for both the pH and conductivity sensors are discussed. In addition, the development of a reagentless organic carbon analyzer that incorporates ultraviolet oxidation and infrared detection is presented. Detection sensitivities, hardware development, and operation are included.

  5. Dark-cycle monitoring of biological subjects on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Sherry; Mian, Arshad

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  6. Orbital debris detection program highlights from the Air Force Maui Optical Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchard, Jeff E.; Kervin, Paul W.; Africano, John L.; Kuo, Shiao D.; Medrano, Robert S.; Lambert, John V.

    1994-06-01

    The Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) conducted searches, measurements, and analyses of the orbital debris environment for the Air Force Space Command and the Phillips Laboratory since May 1991 in support of the Air Force Orbital Debris Measurements Program. The objective of this program was to detect orbiting low earth objects not currently in the United States Space Command Space Surveillance Center catalog. Once objects were detected, further objectives were to track, catalog, and maintain those objects locally, to determine statistics on detected objects, and perform relevant analyses. AMOS has developed a prototype surveillance system for the detection and tracking of orbital debris. In addition to this surveillance activity, AMOS has also automated the post-processing videotape streak detection process and is automating the analysis process. Both the optical tracking of orbital debris and the automatic streak detection process were thought to be virtually impossible only a few years ago. The AMOS program employed wide field of view optical telescopes using the Maui Groundbased Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance site and AMOS narrow field of view tracking telescopes, both located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site.

  7. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  8. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  9. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  10. Monitoring of fine particle air pollutants at FWS Class 1 air quality areas

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, E.

    1995-12-31

    Fine particle samplers have been installed at five FWS wilderness areas, all Class 1 air quality areas. The samplers are designed primarily to measure the fine particles in ambient air responsible for visibility impairment and are part of the national IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network. Filters in the samplers are analyzed for trace elements, soil elements, sulfur, hydrogen, nitrate, chloride, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon. Several composite parameters are derived from the measured parameters and include sulfate, nitrate, organic mass, light-absorbing carbon, and soil. Data indicate that fine particle concentrations at FWS sites are consistent with geographical trends observed in the national IMPROVE network. For instance, concentrations of most parameters are higher in the eastern US than in the western US, reflecting the pattern or greater air pollution and lower visibility in the east. Of the five FWS sites, Brigantine Wilderness Area experiences the greatest air pollution, receiving polluted air masses from the Ohio Valley and eastern metropolitan areas, including Philadelphia and Washington, DC. As the data record lengthens, attributing air pollution and visibility impairment at the wilderness areas to specific source types and regions will be more accurate.

  11. Application of index of biotic integrity (IBI) to fixed station water quality monitoring sites

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Biological monitoring aspects of Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (SWMS) Fixed Station Ambient Monitoring Network include sampling and analysis of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The principal objective of the biological monitoring portions of SWMS is to assess the health'' or quality of the aquatic environment in given stream reaches. This report deals with two aspects of biological monitoring, structural and physical characteristics of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. These are considered relative to physical and chemical aquatic environmental conditions in an attempt to identify likely causes of any recognizable perturbations of the aquatic biological communities. Specifically, fish are sampled to measure species richness, species composition, trophic structure, fish abundance, and condition. Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled to allow an assessment of species richness, taxonomic composition, and community structure. Biological monitoring, incorporated into SWMS in 1986, was continued for the third year in 1988 with a repeat of 1986 sampling. This report presents 1988 findings and discusses differences between 1988 and 1987 findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  12. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  13. Rapid Analysis, Self-Calibrating Array for Air Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Lara, Liana; Huerta, Ramon; Vergara, Alexander; Muezzinoglua, Mehmet K.

    2012-01-01

    Human space missions have critical needs for monitoring and control for life support systems. These systems have monitoring needs that include feedback for closed loop processes and quality control for environmental factors. Sensors and monitoring technologies assure that the air environment and water supply for the astronaut crew habitat fall within acceptable limits, and that the life support system is functioning properly and efficiently. The longer the flight duration and the more distant the destination, the more critical it becomes to have carefully monitored and automated control systems for life support. Past experiments with the JPL ENose have demonstrated a lifetime of the sensor array, with the software, of around 18 months. The lifetime of the calibration, for some analytes, was as long as 24 months. We are working on a sensor array and new algorithms that will include sensor response time in the analysis. The preliminary array analysis for two analytes shows that the analysis time, of an event, can be dropped from 45 minutes to less than10 minutes and array training time can be cut substantially. We will describe the lifetime testing of an array and show lifetime data on individual sensors. This progress will lead to more rapid identification of analytes, and faster training time of the array.

  14. Global monitoring at the United States baseline stations with emphasis on precipitation chemistry measurements.

    PubMed

    Artz, R S

    1989-07-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change program has operated four remote precipitation chemistry stations at two polar and two tropical Pacific locations for over a decade. Station geography and meteorology is discussed and a summary of the hydrogen, sulfate, and nitrate ion data collected since 1980 is presented. Results show that at all four locations, the ions which have major anthropogenic sources were far less concentrated than in samples collected in heavily industrialized areas in the northeastern United States and Europe. Concentrations at American Samoa and the South Pole showed little variability over the year whereas concentrations at Point Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii were highly variable. PMID:24249191

  15. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control. PMID:26843028

  16. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  17. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, begin removing the plastic covering from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  18. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is unveiled before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  19. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, get ready to remove the protective shipping cover from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  20. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite stands alone after workstands have been removed. As part of prelaunch processing, FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  1. Determination of On-Orbit Cabin Air Loss from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) loses cabin atmosphere mass at some rate. Due to oxygen partial pressures fluctuations from metabolic usage, the total pressure is not a good data source for tracking total pressure loss. Using the nitrogen partial pressure is a good data source to determine the total on-orbit cabin atmosphere loss from the ISS, due to no nitrogen addition or losses. There are several important reasons to know the daily average cabin air loss of the ISS including logistics planning for nitrogen and oxygen. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss was estimated from January 14 to April 9 of 2003. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss includes structural leakages, Vozdukh losses, Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) losses, and other component losses. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss does not include mass lost during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs), Progress dockings, Space Shuttle dockings, calibrations, or other specific one-time events.

  2. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, http://www.mistrals-home.org). It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also

  3. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  4. Statistical Variability and Persistence Change in Daily Air Temperature Time Series from High Latitude Arctic Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades, Arctic communities have been reporting that weather conditions are becoming less predictable. Most scientific studies have not been able to consistently confirm such a trend. The question regarding the possible increase in weather variability was addressed here based on daily minimum and maximum surface air temperature time series from 15 high latitude Arctic stations from Canada, Norway, and the Russian Federation. A range of analysis methods were applied, distinguished mainly by the way in which they treat time scale. Statistical L-moments were determined for temporal windows of different lengths. While the picture provided by L-scale and L-kurtosis is not consistent with an increasing variability, L-skewness was found to change towards more positive values, reflecting an enhancement of warm spells. Haar wavelet analysis was applied both to the entire time series and to running windows. Persistence diagrams were generated based on running windows advancing through time and on local slopes of Haar analysis graphs; they offer a more nuanced view on variability by reflecting its change over time on a range of temporal scales. Local increases in variability could be identified in some cases, but no consistent change was detected in any of the stations over the studied temporal scales. The possibility for other intervals of temporal scale (e.g., days, hours, minutes) to potentially reveal a different situation cannot be ruled out. However, in the light of the results presented here, explanations for the discrepancy between variability perception and results of pattern analysis might have to be explored using an integrative approach to weather variables such as air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, wind, etc.

  5. Wastewater characterization survey, O'Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois. Final report, 13-24 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.; Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 13-24 April 1992 at O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled. The base should be commended for good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial waste through the sanitary sewerage system.... O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois, Wastewater characterization.

  6. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  7. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  8. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  9. Monitoring of Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of the Athens Metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsairidi, Evangelia; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Barbaresos, Nicolaos; Karagiannis, Athanassios

    2013-04-01

    The air pollution induced by various transportation means combines the emission of pollutants with the simultaneous presence of people. In this respect, the scientific community has focused its efforts in studying both the air quality within busy streets and inside cars, buses and the underground railway network in order to identify the pollutants' sources and levels as well as the human exposure. The impact of the air pollution on commuters of the underground may be more severe because it is a confined space, extended mostly under heavily trafficked urban streets, relies on mechanical ventilation for air renewal and gathers big numbers of passengers. The purpose of the present work is to monitor the air quality of the city of Athens Metro Network cabins and platforms during the unusually hot summer of 2012. For that cause particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), carbon dioxide (CO2), the number of commuters along with temperature (T) and humidity (RH) were recorded inside the Athens Metro Blue Line trains (covering a route from the centre of Athens (Aigaleo) to the Athens International Airport) and on the platforms of a central (Syntagma) and a suburban-traffic (Doukissis Plakentias) station between June and August. The data collection included six different experiments that took place for 2 consecutive working days each, for a time period of 6 weeks from 6:30 am too 7:00 pm in order to account for different outdoor climatic conditions and for morning and evening rush hours respectively. Measurements were taken in the middle car of the moving trains and the platform end of the selected stations. The results show PM concentrations to be higher (approximately 2 to 5 times) inside the cabins and o the platforms of the underground network as compared to the outdoor levels monitored routinely by the Ministry of Environment. Moreover, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations recorded at the Syntagma Station Platform were almost constantly higher reaching 11 μg m-3 47

  10. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity. PMID:21651597

  11. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  12. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  13. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  14. Continuous monitoring of a large active earth flow using an integrated GPS - automatic total station approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Landslide monitoring has evolved as a crucial tool in civil protection to mitigate and prevent disasters. The research presents an approach to continuous monitoring of a large-scale active earth flow using a system that integrates surface measurements obtained by a GPS and an automatic total station. With the data obtained from the system the landslide can be monitored in near-real-time and surface displacements can be directly utilized to provide early warning of slope movements and to study the behavior of the landslide, e.g. to predict timing and mechanisms of future failure. The Valoria landslide located in the northern Apennines of Italy was reactivated in 2001, 2005 and 2007 damaging roads and endangering houses. A monitoring system was installed in 2007-2008 in the frame of a civil protection plan aimed at risk mitigation. The system consists of an automatic total station measuring about 40 prisms located in the landslide to a maximum distance of 1.800 km; one double-frequency GPS receiver connects in streaming by wireless communication with 4 single-frequency GPS in side the flow. Until December 2007 the monitoring network was operated with periodic static surveying followed by the data post-processing. From September 2007 until March 2008 the landslide deformation was evaluated by periodic surveys with the total station and the GPS system. This first measure showed that the displacements were influenced by the rainfall events and by the snow melting. The total displacements measured vary from centimeter scale in the crown zone, where retrogressive movements were in progress, to over 50 m in the flow track zone. Starting in March 2008 data acquisition by the total station system and GPS were automated in order to allow continuous and near-real-time data processing. The displacement data collected in one and a half year of continuous operation show different acceleration and deceleration phases as a result of the pore water pressure distribution inside the

  15. Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Tracee M.

    2004-01-01

    I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

  16. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  17. Intercomparison of tropospheric NO2 concentration by GOME and the air-quality monitoring network in the Tokyo region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Itoh, H.; Shibasaki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Uno, I.; Ohara, T.; Morino, Y.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) abundance forms a key part of air-quality control as NO2 plays an important role of producing tropospheric ozone, which is a main component of photochemical smog and an active greenhouse gas. Currently, a huge network of air-quality monitoring stations measuring NO2 throughout Japan is maintained by both the Ministry of the Environment and local governments. Satellite observations are also useful for obtaining the global distribution of compounds. However, the observation of tropospheric species from space remains a challenging problem, and the field is still developing. In order to confirm whether satellite observations could successfully detect the behavior of tropospheric NO2, we compared satellite and ground-based observations of tropospheric NO2. The satellite data were tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) derived from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer measurements (hereafter GOME-NO2), and the ground-based data were surface NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) observed by the network of air-quality monitoring stations in Japan. The analysis was performed over the Tokyo region during 1996-2003. For the comparison, we scaled the surface NO2 VMR to the tropospheric VCD by using vertical NO2 VMR profiles, which were calculated by the chemical transport model CMAQ/REAS. The comparison indicated that the GOME observations represent the behavior of NO2 more closely at the relatively unpolluted stations than at the highly polluted stations in the network of air-quality monitoring. This tendency was thought to result from the horizontal heterogeneity within a GOME footprint. Comparison with a previous study in the northern Italy showed that the GOME-NO2 measurements over Tokyo tended to be smaller than those over northern Italy. Because Tokyo is located in a coastal land region with a gulf, areas of ocean intruding into the GOME pixels could lower the observed GOME-NO2. The pollution in Tokyo is so

  18. 75 FR 18757 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...Indiana requested on December 31, 2008, that EPA approve as a revision to its State Implementation Plan (SIP) alternative monitoring requirements for the Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) at its Harding Street Generating Station. The alternative monitoring requirements allow the use of a particulate matter (PM) continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) in place of a continuous......

  19. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  20. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Operable Unit 6, Jacksonville, FL, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site name is the Golf Course Pesticide Disposal Area, Site 11, Operable Unit (OU) 6. The site is located in a wooded area between the 11th fairway and the 17th green at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field golf course, Jacksonville, Florida. The purpose of the interim remedial action is to remove buried containers of pesticides and associated contaminated soil.

  2. Mobile air monitoring data processing strategies and effects on spatial air pollution trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, H. L.; Hagler, G. S. W.; Kimbrough, S.; Williams, R. W.; Mukerjee, S.; Neas, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data analysis with complex second-by-second multipollutant data varying as a function of time and location. Data reduction and filtering techniques are often applied to deduce trends, such as pollutant spatial gradients downwind of a highway. However, rarely do mobile monitoring studies report the sensitivity of their results to the chosen data processing approaches. The study being reported here utilized a large mobile monitoring dataset collected on a roadway network in central North Carolina to explore common data processing strategies including time-alignment, short-term emissions event detection, background estimation, and averaging techniques. One-second time resolution measurements of ultrafine particles ≤ 100 nm in diameter (UFPs), black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected on twelve unique driving routes that were repeatedly sampled. Analyses demonstrate that the multiple emissions event detection strategies reported produce generally similar results and that utilizing a median (as opposed to a mean) as a summary statistic may be sufficient to avoid bias in near-source spatial trends. Background levels of the pollutants are shown to vary with time, and the estimated contributions of the background to the mean pollutant concentrations were: BC (6%), PM2.5-10 (12%), UFPs (19%), CO (38%), PM10 (45%), NO2 (51%), PM2.5 (56%), and CO2 (86%). Lastly, while temporal smoothing (e.g., 5 s averages) results in weak pair-wise correlation and the blurring of spatial trends, spatial averaging (e.g., 10 m) is demonstrated to increase correlation and refine spatial trends.

  3. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independentmore » method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.« less

  4. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  5. Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Wireless sensor networks for indoor air quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsang-Chu; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chang; Lee, Wei-Lun; Lee, Ren-Guey; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Liu, Shi-Ping

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to build an indoor air quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology. The main functions of the system include (1) remote parameter adjustment and firmware update mechanism for the sensors to enhance the flexibility and convenience of the system, (2) sensor nodes are designed by referring to the IEEE 1451.4 standard. This way, sensor nodes can automatically adjust and be plug and play, and (3) calibration method to strength the measurement value's sensitivity and accuracy. The experimental results show that transmission speed improves 30% than Trickle, transmission volume reduced to 42% of the original volume, updating task in 5*5 network topology can be executed 1.79 times and power consumption reduced to 30%. When baseline drifts, we can use the firmware update mechanism to adjust the reference value. The way can reduce error percentage from 15% to 7%. PMID:22133488

  7. Plug-and-play web-based visualization of mobile air monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of air measurements in real-time on moving platforms, such as wearable, bicycle-mounted, or vehicle-mounted air sensors, is becoming an increasingly common method to investigate local air quality. However, visualizing and analyzing geospatial air monitoring data r...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air... temporary modification is approved, air quality data obtained with the method as temporarily modified...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air... temporary modification is approved, air quality data obtained with the method as temporarily modified...

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ¹³C of air CO₂ observed at an urban station Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Guha, Tania; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-02-01

    We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted δ(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in δ(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04 ± 0.02‰) was seen in October, then δ(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31 ± 0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in δ(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average δ(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The δ(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9 ± 3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6 ± 0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based

  11. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has sensors recording air and ground temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided, daily, during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. The capability of multiple, consistent, and simultaneous data is essential for meaningful interpretation of near-surface processes including the characterization of soil thermal properties. The Martian atmosphere is generally transparent to solar radiation, but atmospheric dust absorbs solar radiation and heats the atmosphere, while UV radiation ionizes atmospheric gases and is harmful to any potential Martian organisms (past or present). For this reason, knowledge of the UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars is important for the understanding habitability conditions, one of the main goals of the MSL mission. Moreover UV radiation is a significant driver in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and surface. In this paper we present a first analysis of REMS measurements, the status of the different sensors and the potential of REMS for Mars environmental studies. REMS Team: C. Armiens, I. Carrasco, F. Gómez, A. Lepinette, J. Martín, J. Martínez-Frías, L. Mora, S. Navarro, V. Peinado, J. Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. Romeral, E. Sebastián, J. Torres, J. Verdasca (Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km. 4, 28850 Torrej

  12. PREV'AIR, A Platform for Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honore, C.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Meleux, F.; R, L.; Vautard, R.; Beekmann, M.; Poisson, N.; Peuch, V.

    2006-12-01

    The PREV'AIR system is one among the few systems for air pollution forecasting currently running in Europe. Since 2003, observation data and model outputs are displayed daily on a web site (http://www.prevair.org/en/) in order to monitor and forecast surface chemical concentrations fields. Results are ozone, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 maps. Statistical scores are also computed (maxima and daily average) and comparisons to the whole set of available near-real time surface measurements are performed. In summertime, alert criteria based on ozone concentration thresholds are evaluated ; in case of a major pollution risk, informations are sent to national authorities and televisions. In addition, the available ozone and PM10 observations data are used based on an optimal interpolation method to build 'analysis' maps integrating all sources of information. We first present the forecast system and the statistical scores computed for previous years: for example, for surface ozone concentrations forecasts during the whole summer of 2004, the bias is less than 5 ug/m-3, with a RMSE less than 19 ug/m-3 and a correlation factor of 0.82. This shows that the PREV'AIR system is able to forecast a large majority of the pollution events observed over Europe. An analysis of the causes of these errors is given. This gives further insights into which efforts have to be done in air quality modeling. In the framework of the GMES PROMOTE and GEMS European projects, PREV'AIR will quickly evolve in the next few years: we present, in the second part, the current projects concerning the models used. This includes developments both for meteorology and chemistry-transport modeling (CTM), particularly for aerosols (including dust). We also discuss the implementation of variational methods to assimilate satellite data. Finally, the feasability of using several models to deliver a single forecast (multi model approach) will be investigated.

  13. Micro sensor node for air pollutant monitoring: hardware and software issues.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sukwon; Kim, Nakyoung; Cha, Hojung; Ha, Rhan

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks equipped with various gas sensors have been actively used for air quality monitoring. Previous studies have typically explored system issues that include middleware or networking performance, but most research has barely considered the details of the hardware and software of the sensor node itself. In this paper, we focus on the design and implementation of a sensor board for air pollutant monitoring applications. Several hardware and software issues are discussed to explore the possibilities of a practical WSN-based air pollution monitoring system. Through extensive experiments and evaluation, we have determined the various characteristics of the gas sensors and their practical implications for air pollutant monitoring systems. PMID:22408489

  14. Micro Sensor Node for Air Pollutant Monitoring: Hardware and Software Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sukwon; Kim, Nakyoung; Cha, Hojung; Ha, Rhan

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks equipped with various gas sensors have been actively used for air quality monitoring. Previous studies have typically explored system issues that include middleware or networking performance, but most research has barely considered the details of the hardware and software of the sensor node itself. In this paper, we focus on the design and implementation of a sensor board for air pollutant monitoring applications. Several hardware and software issues are discussed to explore the possibilities of a practical WSN-based air pollution monitoring system. Through extensive experiments and evaluation, we have determined the various characteristics of the gas sensors and their practical implications for air pollutant monitoring systems. PMID:22408489

  15. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  16. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples

  17. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples.

  18. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  19. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  20. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    Some of the most difficult problems encountered at federal sites in reducing energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where the energy is being used and what technologies can be employed to decrease energy use. The US Air Force (USAF) Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop a model program that provides a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities. The program (1) identifies the building groups and end uses using the most energy (not just having the greatest energy-use intensity) and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. In essence, this model program provides the federal energy managers with a road map to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a 5- to 10-year energy management plan that identifies where to start and how to proceed to reach the mandated energy consumption targets. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Florida Power and Light`s (FPL`s) primary federal facilities--the USAF SPACECOM facility, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS)--located near Cocoa Beach, Florida. This is a companion report to Volume 2: Baseline Detail and Volume 3: Resource Assessment.

  1. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically and thermally

  2. The climate hazards infrared precipitation with stations--a new environmental record for monitoring extremes.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Peterson, Pete; Landsfeld, Martin; Pedreros, Diego; Verdin, James; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Husak, Gregory; Rowland, James; Harrison, Laura; Hoell, Andrew; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Hazards group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset builds on previous approaches to 'smart' interpolation techniques and high resolution, long period of record precipitation estimates based on infrared Cold Cloud Duration (CCD) observations. The algorithm i) is built around a 0.05° climatology that incorporates satellite information to represent sparsely gauged locations, ii) incorporates daily, pentadal, and monthly 1981-present 0.05° CCD-based precipitation estimates, iii) blends station data to produce a preliminary information product with a latency of about 2 days and a final product with an average latency of about 3 weeks, and iv) uses a novel blending procedure incorporating the spatial correlation structure of CCD-estimates to assign interpolation weights. We present the CHIRPS algorithm, global and regional validation results, and show how CHIRPS can be used to quantify the hydrologic impacts of decreasing precipitation and rising air temperatures in the Greater Horn of Africa. Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, we show that CHIRPS can support effective hydrologic forecasts and trend analyses in southeastern Ethiopia. PMID:26646728

  3. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  4. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  5. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  6. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  7. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  8. Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2013-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  9. Biofouling monitoring and control program at the Boston Edison Pilgrim Nuclear Station: A twelve year history

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.J.; Armstrong, W.J.; Carucci, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews the history of the Biofouling Monitoring and Control Program at the Boston Edison Company Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The program was initially developed in 1982 in response to serious operations, maintenance and performance related problems due to biofouling in both the circulating and service water systems. Although implemented seven years prior to federal mandates under GL 89-13, this program also satisfies regulatory criteria for biofouling monitoring and control of nuclear service water systems. Since its inception, the impact of macrofouling on plant operation and availability has been significantly reduced. Stringent monitoring for blue mussels, installation of mechanical barriers to horseshoe crabs, improvements in screens, screenwash and debris removal systems, and an on-going commitment to biofouling control have reduced the number of condenser backwashes per year from > 40 (1989) to < 10. Depending on conditions and timing of a backwash, the resulting economic gain from this improvement alone can be 1.5 to more than 4 million dollars a year. Other improvements in related components and the service water system have also resulted in reduced maintenance related problems and an additional cost benefit to the plant. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Adjustable control station with movable monitors and cameras for viewing systems in robotics and teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Real-time video presentations are provided in the field of operator-supervised automation and teleoperation, particularly in control stations having movable cameras for optimal viewing of a region of interest in robotics and teleoperations for performing different types of tasks. Movable monitors to match the corresponding camera orientations (pan, tilt, and roll) are provided in order to match the coordinate systems of all the monitors to the operator internal coordinate system. Automated control of the arrangement of cameras and monitors, and of the configuration of system parameters, is provided for optimal viewing and performance of each type of task for each operator since operators have different individual characteristics. The optimal viewing arrangement and system parameter configuration is determined and stored for each operator in performing each of many types of tasks in order to aid the automation of setting up optimal arrangements and configurations for successive tasks in real time. Factors in determining what is optimal include the operator's ability to use hand-controllers for each type of task. Robot joint locations, forces and torques are used, as well as the operator's identity, to identify the current type of task being performed in order to call up a stored optimal viewing arrangement and system parameter configuration.

  11. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  12. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs a suite of portable and permanently located gas monitors to insure crew health and safety. These sensors are tasked with functions ranging from fixed mass spectrometer based major constituents analysis to portable electrochemical sensor based combustion product monitoring. An all optical multigas sensor is being developed that can provide the specificity of a mass spectrometer with the portability of an electrochemical cell. The technology, developed under the Small Business Innovation Research program, allows for an architecture that is rugged, compact and low power. A four gas version called the Multi-Gas Monitor was launched to ISS in November 2013 aboard Soyuz and activated in February 2014. The portable instrument is comprised of a major constituents analyzer (water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen) and high dynamic range real-time ammonia sensor. All species are sensed inside the same enhanced path length optical cell with a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) targeted at each species. The prototype is controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The optical and electronic approaches are designed for scalability and future versions could add three important acid gases and carbon monoxide combustion product gases to the four species already sensed. Results obtained to date from the technology demonstration on ISS are presented and discussed.

  13. Pilot study of real-time groundwater monitoring coupled to USGS streamgaging stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeler, J.; Barlow, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many USGS streamgages transmit real-time, 15-minute frequency, stage-derived streamflow, as well as stream temperature (plus other natural tracers/water-quality parameters as needed) via bi-hourly upload to the Web. Existing hardware/software have capacity to upload numerous additional parameters, affording opportunities to simultaneously report real-time near-stream groundwater (GW) levels and temperature (plus natural GW tracers/water-quality parameters as desired). A pilot study at 6 river reaches in Montana, Wyoming, and Mississippi is based on locating shallow piezometers (aka observations wells) near established USGS streamgaging stations to create real-time GW/streamgaging stations. All provisional data are immediately available as stream-stage elevation, streamflow, stream temperature, GW depth, GW elevation, and GW-temperature for all 6 study sites (URL below). The data are being used to evaluate the scientific value and cost impacts of maintaining coupled groundwater elevation and temperature data along with surface-water stage and temperature data continuously generated at the gaging station. Initial results are highly promising with respect to GW-infrastructure installation, continuous operating cost, and scientific value from insight of hydrologic processes at sites. Initial scientific insight ranges from: 1) contribution of decreased GW-discharge to winter ice jams at road crossings (WY), 2) variations in near-stream hydraulic gradients caused by local flood irrigation (MT), and 3) potential impacts of stream/GW exchanges on the fate and transport of nitrate (MS). Additional data collected as add-on to the pilot study include vertical GW temperature gradients, providing opportunities for future continuous streambed heat-tracer estimated water fluxes to monitor seasonal GW discharge/recharge trends.

  14. Estimation of parameters to monitor state of the ionosphere in a single station mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokrlic, M.; Galas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ionosphere is the dispersive medium and propagation of the electromagnetic waves depend on its frequency. In the Global Positioning System (GPS), after the Selected Availability (SA) has been turned off, ionospheric delay become one of the largest source of error. Relatively low cost of the GPS receivers makes it one of the cheapest tool for studying and monitoring of the ionosphere in a global scale. Especially because the GPS signals are carrying ionospheric characteristics that can be isolated and then studied. For real time applications, demanding high accuracy and availability, it is important to know variable, in time and space, state of the ionosphere in real-time. Ionospheric perturbations can degrade accuracy of the positioning for more than hundred meters and even make positioning impossible or false. Thus, information about state of the ionosphere must be available in real time to enhance availability and to improve navigation accuracy. The state of the ionosphere can be characterized by a couple of basic parameters such as: Total Electron Content (TEC), Rate of TEC (ROT), Rate of change of TEC (ROTI), amplitude scintillation (S4) and phase scintillation (σ_φ). This parameters can be estimated form GPS networks or from a single GPS station. We are developing software tools to measure those parameters in a very challenging single station mode. Some of the modules, like e.g. calculation of S4 and ROT, are validated and some others are still in the testing phase. The tools are needed in order to analyze ionospheric perturbation parameters in real- or near- real time and investigate if some new approaches for generation of corrections can be developed. Our main goal is provision of such corrections, or at least warnings about ionospheric perturbations, to single station PPP (Precise Point Positioning) users. In the poster the algorithms are described and preliminary results are presented.

  15. New Brunswick air quality monitoring results for the years 1996 and 1997. Technical report number T-9901

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes air quality monitoring data from New Brunswick during 1996 and 1997, with an emphasis on air quality assessment in relation to existing air quality standards and objectives. Introductory sections review provincial air quality legislation, national and provincial standards, other air quality criteria, sources and effects of regulated air pollutants, and air quality monitoring networks in the province. Results are presented by area, corporation, or network monitored, and are discussed and compared with data from centres in other parts of the world. Air pollutants monitored include nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulphide, particulates, ozone, acid precipitation, carbon monoxide, and sulphur dioxide. Appendices include a glossary and detailed monthly monitoring results.

  16. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  17. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  18. Timepix-based radiation environment monitor measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Kroupa, Martin; Hoang, Son; Idarraga, John; Amberboy, Clif; Rios, Ryan; Hauss, Jessica; Keller, John; Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Turecek, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A number of small, single element radiation detectors, employing the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) coupled to a specially modified version of the USB-Lite interface for that ASIC provided by the Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP) at the Czech Technical University in Prague, have been developed at the University of Houston and NASA Johnson Space Center. These detectors, officially designated by NASA as Radiation Environment Monitors (REMs), were deployed aboard the International Space Station in late 2012. Six REM units are currently operating on Station Support Computers (SSCs) and returning data on a daily basis. The associated data acquisition software on the SSCs provides both automated data collection and transfer, as well as algorithms to handle adjustment of acquisition rates and recovery and restart of the acquisition software. A suite of ground software analysis tools has been developed to allow rapid analysis of the data and provides a ROOT-based framework for extending data analysis capabilities.

  19. Impact assessment report: R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station aquatic monitoring program. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.J.; Johnson, G.F.; Summers, J.K.; Smith, R.P.; Ross, R.N.

    1981-06-01

    This document is a summary and interpretation of findings from aquatic monitoring studies that have been conducted since 1976 at the site of the R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station on the upper Potomac River. The report gives an overview of all the studies, summarizes major findings, and presents conclusions about the impact of plant operations on the lotic ecosystem. More detailed descriptions of individual studies (e.g., methods, analyses, results) are presented in Appendices A through D (Volume II), wherein studies are grouped by similar topics: A -- physical and chemical variables, B -- periphyton, C -- benthic macroinvertebrates, and D -- finfish. These appendices include all study findings deemed relevant to the assessment of plant impact.

  20. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405